Thermodynamic of computing. Fisica dell Energia  a.a. 2017/2018


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1 Thermodynamic of computing Fisica dell Energia  a.a. 2017/2018
2 Landauer principle Minimum amount of energy required greater than zero Let assume the operation of bit reset # of initial states: 2 # of final states: 1
3 Landauer principle S = k B log W Q T S Initial condition: two possible states Final condition: one possible state Heat produced S i = k B log 2 S f = k B log 1 S = S f S i = k B log 2 Q T S = k B T log 2
4 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer  Eric Lutz  University of ErlangenNürnberg
5 Landauer principle experimental verification Even if you're not burning books, destroying information generates heat.  Sergio Ciliberto
6 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer  Eric Lutz  University of ErlangenNürnberg
7 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer  Eric Lutz  University of ErlangenNürnberg
8 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer  Eric Lutz  University of ErlangenNürnberg
9 Landauer principle experimental verification Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). HighPrecision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),
10 Landauer principle experimental verification Feedback Trap Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). HighPrecision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),
11 Landauer principle experimental verification Erasure protocol Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). HighPrecision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),
12 Landauer principle experimental verification Work series for individual cycles Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). HighPrecision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),
13 Timedependent study of bit reset
14 Reset on colloidal particles Chiuchiú, D. "Timedependent study of bit reset." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
15 Timedependent study For a fixed τpr with Q(τpr) T S(τpr), study T S(t), Q(t), W (t), E(t). Chiuchiú, D. "Timedependent study of bit reset." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
16 MEMS/NEMS Memory Device
17 NEMS Memory Devices Ionescu, Adrian M. "Nano Electro Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices." Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (2014):
18 NEMS Memory Devices Ionescu, Adrian M. "Nano Electro Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices." Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (2014):
19 NEMS Memory Devices Ionescu, Adrian M. "Nano Electro Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices." Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (2014):
20 NEMS Memory Devices
21 NEMS system
22 NEMS system armchair direction 6x1 nm atoms a = 2.42 Å Y = 0.85 TPa T = 10 K Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
23 2DOF potential landscape Energy (J) A2 A A1 (Å) A2 (Å) 5 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
24 Reset protocol Objective: move the system from an unknown state to known state ΔS = kb log(2) Qmin = kb T log(2) A1 A1 A2 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015): A2
25 Reset protocol Quick and dirty: apply a positive force along Z on all atoms WRONG: it is not possible to control the velocity!
26 Reset protocol Quick and dirty: apply a positive force along Z on all atoms
27 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
28 t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw
29 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
30 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration 0.4 τ p =110 ns counts 0.2 Q/kBT Q/kBT QL=kBTln2 τp (ns) Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
31 Switch protocol Objective: move the system from a known state to another known state ΔS = 0 Qmin = 0 A1 A1 A2 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015): A2
32 Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 t 6 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
33 t t t t t t t Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw
34 Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
35 Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration 0.4 τ p =210 ns counts 0.2 Q/kBT Q/kBT τp (ns) Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):
36 t t t t t t t Switch protocol Wrong way: apply the switch protocol from the wrong initial state f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw
37 Switch protocol Wrong way: apply the switch protocol from the wrong initial state Qmin > 2QL
38 Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion
39 Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion, LópezSuárez, Miquel and Neri, Igor, Applied Physics Letters, 109, (2016)
40 Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion, LópezSuárez, Miquel and Neri, Igor, Applied Physics Letters, 109, (2016)
41 Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion, LópezSuárez, Miquel and Neri, Igor, Applied Physics Letters, 109, (2016)
42 Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion Orders of magnitude above Landauer limit! Microelectromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion, LópezSuárez, Miquel and Neri, Igor, Applied Physics Letters, 109, (2016)
43 Solution: increase the temperature
44 Solution: increase the temperature Neri, Igor, and Miquel LópezSuárez. "Heat production and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature." Scientific Reports 6 (2016).
45 Reset protocol Q=WΔU Neri, Igor, and Miquel LópezSuárez. "Heat production and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature." Scientific Reports 6 (2016).
46 Landauer reset with error Neri, Igor, and Miquel LópezSuárez. "Heat production and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature." Scientific Reports 6 (2016).
47 Unconventional computing
48 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate YukioPegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky
49 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate OR gate Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate  YukioPegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky
50 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate AND gate Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate  YukioPegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky
51 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate  YukioPegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky
52 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate How much energy? Crabs usually eat algae. Crabs are omnivorous, meaning that they will eat both plants and other animals for sustenance. Energy Content of Algae: 5kcal for 3g Average weight of the crabs was 42g Suppose daily need is 50% of its weight: 21g of algae and thus 35kcal J of energy for daily operating a crab logic gate or 1.7W of power
53 Mechanical logic gate
54 Mechanical logic gate AND gate
55 Mechanical logic gate LópezSuárez, M. et al. SubkBT microelectromechanical irreversible logic gate. Nat. Commun. 7:12068 (2016)
56 Mechanical logic gate Ω0 Ω1 LópezSuárez, M. et al. SubkBT microelectromechanical irreversible logic gate. Nat. Commun. 7:12068 (2016)
57 Mechanical logic gate LópezSuárez, M. et al. SubkBT microelectromechanical irreversible logic gate. Nat. Commun. 7:12068 (2016)
58 Mechanical logic gate ΔU = W Q = 0 LópezSuárez, M. et al. SubkBT microelectromechanical irreversible logic gate. Nat. Commun. 7:12068 (2016)
59 Mechanical logic gate LópezSuárez, M. et al. SubkBT microelectromechanical irreversible logic gate. Nat. Commun. 7:12068 (2016)
60 Full adder LópezSuárez, M. et al. SubkBT microelectromechanical irreversible logic gate. Nat. Commun. 7:12068 (2016)
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