Thermodynamic of computing. Fisica dell Energia - a.a. 2015/2016

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1 Thermodynamic of computing Fisica dell Energia - a.a. 2015/2016

2 Landauer principle Minimum amount of energy required greater than zero Let assume the operation of bit reset # of initial states: 2 # of final states: 1

3 Landauer principle S = k B log W Q apple T S Initial condition: two possible states Final condition: one possible state Heat produced S i = k B log 2 S f = k B log 1 S = S f S i = k B log 2 Q apple T S = k B T log 2

4 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer - Eric Lutz - University of Erlangen-Nürnberg

5 Landauer principle experimental verification Even if you're not burning books, destroying information generates heat. - Sergio Cicliberto

6 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer - Eric Lutz - University of Erlangen-Nürnberg

7 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer - Eric Lutz - University of Erlangen-Nürnberg

8 Landauer principle experimental verification The physics of information: from Maxwell s demon to Landauer - Eric Lutz - University of Erlangen-Nürnberg

9 Landauer principle experimental verification Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). High-Precision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),

10 Landauer principle experimental verification Feedback Trap Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). High-Precision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),

11 Landauer principle experimental verification Erasure protocol Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). High-Precision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),

12 Landauer principle experimental verification Work series for individual cycles Jun, Y., Gavrilov, M., & Bechhoefer, J. (2014). High-Precision Test of Landauer s Principle in a Feedback Trap. Physical Review Letters, 113(19),

13 Time-dependent study of bit reset

14 Reset on colloidal particles Chiuchiú, D. "Time-dependent study of bit reset." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

15 Time-dependent study For a fixed τpr with Q(τpr) T S(τpr), study T S(t), Q(t), W (t), E(t). Chiuchiú, D. "Time-dependent study of bit reset." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

16 Unconventional computing

17 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky

18 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate OR gate Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate - Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky

19 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate AND gate Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate - Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky

20 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate - Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Yuta Nishiyama, Andrew Adamatzky

21 Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate How much energy? Crabs usually eat algae. Crabs are omnivorous, meaning that they will eat both plants and other animals for sustenance. Energy Content of Algae: 5kcal for 3g Average weight of the crabs was 42g Suppose daily need is 50% of its weight: 21g of algae and thus 35kcal J of energy for daily operating a crab logic gate or 1.7W of power

22 NEMS Memory Device

23 NEMS Memory Devices Ionescu, Adrian M. "Nano Electro Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices." Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (2014):

24 NEMS Memory Devices Ionescu, Adrian M. "Nano Electro Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices." Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (2014):

25 NEMS Memory Devices Ionescu, Adrian M. "Nano Electro Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices." Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (2014):

26 NEMS Memory Devices

27 NEMS system

28 NEMS system Rebo Rebo

29 NEMS system armchair direction 6x1 nm atoms a = 2.42 Å Y = 0.85 TPa T = 10 K Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

30 Heat production evaluation Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

31 2-DOF potential landscape Energy (J) A2 A A1 (Å) A2 (Å) 5 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

32 Reset protocol Objective: move the system from an unknown state to known state ΔS = kb log(2) Qmin = kb T log(2) A1 A1 A2 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015): A2

33 Reset protocol Quick and dirty: apply a positive force along Z on all atoms WRONG: it is not possible to control the velocity!

34 Reset protocol Quick and dirty: apply a positive force along Z on all atoms

35 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

36 t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw

37 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

38 Reset protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration 0.4 τ p =110 ns counts 0.2 Q/kBT Q/kBT QL=kBTln2 τp (ns) Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

39 Switch protocol Objective: move the system from a known state to another known state ΔS = 0 Qmin = 0 A1 A1 A2 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015): A2

40 Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 t 6 Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

41 t t t t t t t Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw

42 Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

43 Switch protocol Controlled way: apply a set of forces in to gently put the system in the desired configuration 0.4 τ p =210 ns counts 0.2 Q/kBT Q/kBT τp (ns) Neri, I., et al. "Reset and switch protocols at Landauer limit in a graphene buckled ribbon." EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2015):

44 t t t t t t t Switch protocol Wrong way: apply the switch protocol from the wrong initial state f MaxUp f 0Up f MaxDw f 0Dw

45 Switch protocol Wrong way: apply the switch protocol from the wrong initial state Qmin > 2QL

46 Mechanical logic gate

47 Mechanical logic gate AND gate

48 Mechanical logic gate Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

49 Mechanical logic gate Transfer function Thermo-mechanical noise limit

50 Mechanical logic gate x 2 = 1R 1 0 S(!) d! 2 k BT = 1 2 k x 2

51 Mechanical logic gate Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

52 Mechanical logic gate Ω0 Ω1 Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

53 Mechanical logic gate Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

54 Mechanical logic gate ΔU = W Q = 0 Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

55 Mechanical logic gate Structural damping -> constant term Viscous + thermo-elastic damping -> t -1 Clamp recoil losses -> t -3 Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

56 Mechanical logic gate Lopez-Suarez, M. et al.. "Sub kbt micro electromechanical irreversible logic gate." arxiv preprint arxiv: (2015).

57

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