Further Applications of Newton s Laws - Friction Static and Kinetic Friction

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Further Applications of Newton s Laws - Friction Static and Kinetic Friction"

Transcription

1 urther pplications of Newton s Laws - riction Static and Kinetic riction The normal force is related to friction. When two surfaces slid over one another, they experience a force do to microscopic contact points connecting and breaking. There are two situations: Static friction where the two surfaces are not moving relative to one another Kinetic friction where the two surfaces are in motion with respect to each other. The static frictional force on an object is given by: f max s = µ s N where µ s is called the coefficient of static friction, fs max is the maximum static friction and N is the normal force. The frictional force can be smaller than this if the object is in equilibrium (not moving) up to this maximum value. The kinetic frictional force on an object is given by: f k = µ k N The kinetic friction is assumed to be constant regardless of the motion. The coefficients of friction for the static and kinetic situation are different. In general, the static coefficient is larger than the kinetic coefficient. See page 167 for a table of µ s and µ k for common surfaces. Note that friction always opposes the motion. riction is just another force that can be considered when we do Newton 2 nd problems. However, we have to be careful and make sure the sign is correct direction. Let s do problems 5-4, 5-6, 5-12, 5-17 and 5-18 as examples

2 Drag orces more complex form of something that always opposes the motion of an object is drag. Drag is when an object mores through a fluid (gas or liquid). In general this can be very complex in certain situations like a supersonic aircraft at mach 5 (5 time the speed of sound). However, we can deduce some basic ideas about drag. It is proportional to the area () of the object in the direction of motion. It is proportional to the density (mass per unit volume) of the fluid (ρ) and is proportional to the speed squared (v 2 ) of the object through the fluid. We can write this as an equation as: D = 1 2 Cρv2 where C is the empirically determined drag coefficient. Drag is what determines the terminal speed of a skydiver. If the skydiver is spread-eagle flat on to the wind this is normally about 200 km/hr. The much larger area of the open parachute reduces this to s safe speed for the person to land. let s do problem 5-20 Stoke s Law If an object is going slow, is very small or is in a medium much denser than air such as a liquid, the quadratic dependence on velocity does not hold. The object reaches terminal velocity very quickly. If the object is a sphere and the flow is laminar (non-turbulent), the drag force is given by Stoke s Law: S = 6πηrv where r is the radius of the sphere, η is the viscosity of the fluid and v is the velocity. Deformations Conceptually, the forces between atoms in an extended object can be considered to be tiny springs. When we deform an object by squeezing or stretching i.e., applying a force, the object will slightly change shape. When we release the force, the object returns to it s original shape. The more force you apply, the more the object will deform.

3 Hooke s Law Hooke s law describes deformation in one dimension when the object will return to its original state when the force is released. It is often associated with springs but many objects will behave in this way. Hooke s law is stated as = -k L where is the force applied, L is the amount of deformation and k is the constant of proportionality knows as Hooke s constant. Hooke s constant depends on the material, the direction of the force and the material s geometry. K is normally determined empirically. Compression and Tension - Young s Modulus Conceptually, the forces between atoms in an extended object can be considered to be tiny springs. When we deform an object by squeezing or stretching i.e., applying a force, the object will slightly change shape. When we release the force, the object returns to it s original shape. The more force you apply, the more the object will deform. L o Lo + L If the amount of change is small, the relation between the dimensional changes and the force is given by: = Y L L where is the force, L is the change in length of the object, L the the original length of the object, is the object s cross sectional area and Y is the Young s modulus. Y depends on the material. table for some common material is given on page 177. The units of the Young s modulus is N/m 2. Let s work problems 5-29

4 Shear Deformation - Shear Modulus nother type of deformation is shear where the force twist the object. x L o The force necessary to make a deformation of x is given by: = S x L where S is called the shear modulus (page 177), x is the deformation, is the cross sectional area and L is the thickness of the object. The units of the shear modulus is N/m 2. Let s work problems 5-34 Bulk Deformation - Bulk Modulus It is also possible to change the volume of something by pressing on all sides with a uniform pressure. If we compress an object the relationship between pressure change, P, volume change V, and the original volume, V, is: P = -B V V where B is the bulk modulus (see table on page 177). The units are N/m 2. Notice the area is now in the pressure so dimensionally this equation is the same as the shear and Young s modulus equations. Let s work problems 5-41 ll of this is rather empirical. It is not related to some fundamental principle, it is just an equation which describes the effect. We can deform an object past the point where it will return it its original shape. In this situation, the elastic limit has been exceeded for the material. ductile material(like many metals) will not suddenly break when too much force is applied but stretch out into a thinner cross section. The point where the stress on a material (/) will cause the material to deform is the elastic

5 limit. brittle material (like glass) will suddenly break. Some material will behave in different ways when a compression force is applied and another when a stretching force is applied. Concrete and stone can support huge forces when compressed but can be broken if too much tensile strength.

Physics. Assignment-1(UNITS AND MEASUREMENT)

Physics. Assignment-1(UNITS AND MEASUREMENT) Assignment-1(UNITS AND MEASUREMENT) 1. Define physical quantity and write steps for measurement. 2. What are fundamental units and derived units? 3. List the seven basic and two supplementary physical

More information

BME 419/519 Hernandez 2002

BME 419/519 Hernandez 2002 Vascular Biology 2 - Hemodynamics A. Flow relationships : some basic definitions Q v = A v = velocity, Q = flow rate A = cross sectional area Ohm s Law for fluids: Flow is driven by a pressure gradient

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 6. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 6. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 6 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 6 Applications of Newton s Laws Units of Chapter 6 Frictional Forces Strings and Springs Translational Equilibrium Connected Objects

More information

FORCES AND MOTION MODULE By Suhayl Patel SP RESOURCES

FORCES AND MOTION MODULE By Suhayl Patel SP RESOURCES FORCES AND MOTION MODULE 3.1-3.5 By Module 3.1 Motion: 1. Distance travelled by an object is the length of path taken. a. SI unit is metre (m) b. Scalar quantity c. Can never be negative. 2. Displacement

More information

PHYSICS. Course Structure. Unit Topics Marks. Physical World and Measurement. 1 Physical World. 2 Units and Measurements.

PHYSICS. Course Structure. Unit Topics Marks. Physical World and Measurement. 1 Physical World. 2 Units and Measurements. PHYSICS Course Structure Unit Topics Marks I Physical World and Measurement 1 Physical World 2 Units and Measurements II Kinematics 3 Motion in a Straight Line 23 4 Motion in a Plane III Laws of Motion

More information

Chapter 13 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Chapter 13 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Physics Including Human Applications 280 Chapter 13 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions

More information

cos(θ)sin(θ) Alternative Exercise Correct Correct θ = 0 skiladæmi 10 Part A Part B Part C Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, November 11, 2015

cos(θ)sin(θ) Alternative Exercise Correct Correct θ = 0 skiladæmi 10 Part A Part B Part C Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, November 11, 2015 skiladæmi 10 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, November 11, 015 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due Grading Policy Alternative Exercise 1115 A bar with cross sectional

More information

Tutorial 10. Boundary layer theory

Tutorial 10. Boundary layer theory Tutorial 10 Boundary layer theory 1. If the velocity distribution law in a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate is assumes to be of the form, determine the velocity distribution law. At y = 0, u= 0

More information

Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals. Dr. Feras Fraige

Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals. Dr. Feras Fraige Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals Dr. Feras Fraige Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility Toughness

More information

Theme 2 - PHYSICS UNIT 2 Forces and Moments. A force is a push or a pull. This means that whenever we push or pull something, we are doing a force.

Theme 2 - PHYSICS UNIT 2 Forces and Moments. A force is a push or a pull. This means that whenever we push or pull something, we are doing a force. Forces A force is a push or a pull. This means that whenever we push or pull something, we are doing a force. Forces are measured in Newtons (N) after the great physicist Sir Isaac Newton. The instrument

More information

1 Lecture 5. Linear Momentum and Collisions Elastic Properties of Solids

1 Lecture 5. Linear Momentum and Collisions Elastic Properties of Solids 1 Lecture 5 Linear Momentum and Collisions Elastic Properties of Solids 2 Linear Momentum and Collisions 3 Linear Momentum Is defined to be equal to the mass of an object times its velocity. P = m θ Momentum

More information

Physics *P43118A0128* Pearson Edexcel GCE P43118A. Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Physics on the Go. Tuesday 20 May 2014 Morning Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Physics *P43118A0128* Pearson Edexcel GCE P43118A. Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Physics on the Go. Tuesday 20 May 2014 Morning Time: 1 hour 30 minutes Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel GCE Physics Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Physics on the Go Centre Number Candidate Number Tuesday 20 May 2014 Morning Time: 1 hour 30 minutes You

More information

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts)

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) 1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Fluid mechanics Fluid

More information

Chapter 13 Elastic Properties of Materials

Chapter 13 Elastic Properties of Materials Chapter 13 Elastic Properties of Materials GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and

More information

Mechanics of Solids. Mechanics Of Solids. Suraj kr. Ray Department of Civil Engineering

Mechanics of Solids. Mechanics Of Solids. Suraj kr. Ray Department of Civil Engineering Mechanics Of Solids Suraj kr. Ray (surajjj2445@gmail.com) Department of Civil Engineering 1 Mechanics of Solids is a branch of applied mechanics that deals with the behaviour of solid bodies subjected

More information

150A Review Session 2/13/2014 Fluid Statics. Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces

150A Review Session 2/13/2014 Fluid Statics. Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces Fluid Statics Pressure acts in all directions, normal to the surrounding surfaces or Whenever a pressure difference is the driving force, use gauge pressure o Bernoulli equation o Momentum balance with

More information

PART 1B EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) BOUNDARY LAYERS AND DRAG

PART 1B EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) BOUNDARY LAYERS AND DRAG 1 PART 1B EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) EXPERIMENT T3 (LONG) BOUNDARY LAYERS AND DRAG OBJECTIVES a) To measure the velocity

More information

Mechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials

Mechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials MME131: Lecture 13 Mechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUET, Dhaka Today s Topics Deformation of material under the action of a mechanical

More information

SIR MICHELANGELO REFALO CENTRE FOR FURTHER STUDIES VICTORIA GOZO

SIR MICHELANGELO REFALO CENTRE FOR FURTHER STUDIES VICTORIA GOZO SIR MICHELANGELO REFALO CENTRE FOR FURTHER STUDIES VICTORIA GOZO Half-Yearly Exam 2013 Subject: Physics Level: Advanced Time: 3hrs Name: Course: Year: 1st This paper carries 200 marks which are 80% of

More information

2007 Problem Topic Comment 1 Kinematics Position-time equation Kinematics 7 2 Kinematics Velocity-time graph Dynamics 6 3 Kinematics Average velocity

2007 Problem Topic Comment 1 Kinematics Position-time equation Kinematics 7 2 Kinematics Velocity-time graph Dynamics 6 3 Kinematics Average velocity 2007 Problem Topic Comment 1 Kinematics Position-time equation Kinematics 7 2 Kinematics Velocity-time graph Dynamics 6 3 Kinematics Average velocity Energy 7 4 Kinematics Free fall Collisions 3 5 Dynamics

More information

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS Chapter Nine MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS MCQ I 9.1 Modulus of rigidity of ideal liquids is (a) infinity. (b) zero. (c) unity. (d) some finite small non-zero constant value. 9. The maximum load a wire

More information

Chapter 6. Dynamics I: Motion Along a Line

Chapter 6. Dynamics I: Motion Along a Line Chapter 6. Dynamics I: Motion Along a Line This chapter focuses on objects that move in a straight line, such as runners, bicycles, cars, planes, and rockets. Gravitational, tension, thrust, friction,

More information

Section 2: Friction, Gravity, and Elastic Forces

Section 2: Friction, Gravity, and Elastic Forces Chapter 10, Section 2 Friction, Gravity, & Elastic Forces Section 2: Friction, Gravity, and Elastic Forces What factors determine the strength of the friction force between two surfaces? What factors affect

More information

1 2 Models, Theories, and Laws 1.5 Distinguish between models, theories, and laws 2.1 State the origin of significant figures in measurement

1 2 Models, Theories, and Laws 1.5 Distinguish between models, theories, and laws 2.1 State the origin of significant figures in measurement Textbook Correlation Textbook Correlation Physics 1115/2015 Chapter 1 Introduction, Measurement, Estimating 1.1 Describe thoughts of Aristotle vs. Galileo in describing motion 1 1 Nature of Science 1.2

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE EFFECTS OF FORCES ON MATERIALS

CHAPTER 3 THE EFFECTS OF FORCES ON MATERIALS CHAPTER THE EFFECTS OF FORCES ON MATERIALS EXERCISE 1, Page 50 1. A rectangular bar having a cross-sectional area of 80 mm has a tensile force of 0 kn applied to it. Determine the stress in the bar. Stress

More information

FORCE & MOTION Instructional Module 6

FORCE & MOTION Instructional Module 6 FORCE & MOTION Instructional Module 6 Dr. Alok K. Verma Lean Institute - ODU 1 Description of Module Study of different types of forces like Friction force, Weight force, Tension force and Gravity. This

More information

Game Physics. Game and Media Technology Master Program - Utrecht University. Dr. Nicolas Pronost

Game Physics. Game and Media Technology Master Program - Utrecht University. Dr. Nicolas Pronost Game and Media Technology Master Program - Utrecht University Dr. Nicolas Pronost Soft body physics Soft bodies In reality, objects are not purely rigid for some it is a good approximation but if you hit

More information

PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF CONVECTION

PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF CONVECTION Tue 8:54:24 AM Slide Nr. 0 of 33 Slides PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF CONVECTION Heat transfer through a fluid is by convection in the presence of bulk fluid motion and by conduction in the absence of it. Chapter

More information

Chapter II: Reversible process and work

Chapter II: Reversible process and work Chapter II: Reversible process and work 1- Process Defined by change in a system, a thermodynamic process is a passage of a thermodynamic system from an initial to a final state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

More information

Chapter 7. Highlights:

Chapter 7. Highlights: Chapter 7 Highlights: 1. Understand the basic concepts of engineering stress and strain, yield strength, tensile strength, Young's(elastic) modulus, ductility, toughness, resilience, true stress and true

More information

MATERIALS. Why do things break? Why are some materials stronger than others? Why is steel tough? Why is glass brittle?

MATERIALS. Why do things break? Why are some materials stronger than others? Why is steel tough? Why is glass brittle? MATERIALS Why do things break? Why are some materials stronger than others? Why is steel tough? Why is glass brittle? What is toughness? strength? brittleness? Elemental material atoms: A. Composition

More information

Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Chapter 6 Dynamics I: Motion Along a Line

Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Chapter 6 Dynamics I: Motion Along a Line Physics for Scientists and Engineers Chapter 6 Dynamics I: Motion Along a Line Spring, 008 Ho Jung Paik Applications of Newton s Law Objects can be modeled as particles Masses of strings or ropes are negligible

More information

Rheology. What is rheology? From the root work rheo- Current: flow. Greek: rhein, to flow (river) Like rheostat flow of current

Rheology. What is rheology? From the root work rheo- Current: flow. Greek: rhein, to flow (river) Like rheostat flow of current Rheology What is rheology? From the root work rheo- Current: flow Greek: rhein, to flow (river) Like rheostat flow of current Rheology What physical properties control deformation? - Rock type - Temperature

More information

Stress, Strain, and Viscosity. San Andreas Fault Palmdale

Stress, Strain, and Viscosity. San Andreas Fault Palmdale Stress, Strain, and Viscosity San Andreas Fault Palmdale Solids and Liquids Solid Behavior: Liquid Behavior: - elastic - fluid - rebound - no rebound - retain original shape - shape changes - small deformations

More information

Newton s Laws. A force is simply a push or a pull. Forces are vectors; they have both size and direction.

Newton s Laws. A force is simply a push or a pull. Forces are vectors; they have both size and direction. Newton s Laws Newton s first law: An object will stay at rest or in a state of uniform motion with constant velocity, in a straight line, unless acted upon by an external force. In other words, the bodies

More information

A force is could described by its magnitude and by the direction in which it acts.

A force is could described by its magnitude and by the direction in which it acts. 8.2.a Forces Students know a force has both direction and magnitude. P13 A force is could described by its magnitude and by the direction in which it acts. 1. Which of the following could describe the

More information

_CH01_p qxd 1/20/10 8:35 PM Page 1 PURPOSE

_CH01_p qxd 1/20/10 8:35 PM Page 1 PURPOSE 9460218_CH01_p001-010.qxd 1/20/10 8:35 PM Page 1 1 GRAPHING AND ANALYSIS PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to investigate the relationship between displacement and force in springs and to practice acquiring

More information

Physics 121, April 3, Equilibrium and Simple Harmonic Motion. Physics 121. April 3, Physics 121. April 3, Course Information

Physics 121, April 3, Equilibrium and Simple Harmonic Motion. Physics 121. April 3, Physics 121. April 3, Course Information Physics 121, April 3, 2008. Equilibrium and Simple Harmonic Motion. Physics 121. April 3, 2008. Course Information Topics to be discussed today: Requirements for Equilibrium (a brief review) Stress and

More information

Introduction to Engineering Materials ENGR2000. Dr. Coates

Introduction to Engineering Materials ENGR2000. Dr. Coates Introduction to Engineering Materials ENGR2 Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals Dr. Coates 6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain tension compression shear torsion Tension Tests The specimen is deformed

More information

Lecture I: Basic Physics

Lecture I: Basic Physics 1 Velocity: Instantaneous change in position! = $% ' $& Suppose object position ( ) and constant velocity!. After time step +: ( ) + + + = ( ) + +! + ( ) = ( ) + + + ( ) + =! +.! is never constant in practice

More information

Unit I - Properties of Matter

Unit I - Properties of Matter Unit I - Properties of Matter Elasticity: Elastic and plastic materials Hooke s law elastic behavior of a material stress - strain diagram factors affecting elasticity. Three moduli of elasticity Poisson

More information

6.1 Force Causes Acceleration. Unbalanced forces acting on an object cause the object to accelerate. Recall the definition of acceleration:

6.1 Force Causes Acceleration. Unbalanced forces acting on an object cause the object to accelerate. Recall the definition of acceleration: Recall the definition of acceleration: An object accelerates when a net force acts on it. The cause of acceleration is force. 6.1 Force Causes Acceleration Unbalanced forces acting on an object cause the

More information

Chapter 5: Forces in Equilibrium

Chapter 5: Forces in Equilibrium Chapter 5: Forces in Equilibrium I don't know what I may seem to the world, but, as to myself, I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding

More information

EQUILIBRIUM and ELASTICITY

EQUILIBRIUM and ELASTICITY PH 221-1D Spring 2013 EQUILIBRIUM and ELASTICITY Lectures 30-32 Chapter 12 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition) 1 Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity In this chapter we will

More information

Quiz 1. Introduction to Polymers

Quiz 1. Introduction to Polymers 100406 Quiz 1. Introduction to Polymers 1) Polymers are different than low-molecular weight oligomers. For example an oligomeric polyethylene is wax, oligomeric polystyrene is similar to naphthalene (moth

More information

The dimensions of an object tend to change when forces are

The dimensions of an object tend to change when forces are L A B 8 STRETCHING A SPRING Hooke s Law The dimensions of an object tend to change when forces are applied to the object. For example, when opposite forces are applied to both ends of a spring, the spring

More information

58:160 Intermediate Fluid Mechanics Bluff Body Professor Fred Stern Fall 2014

58:160 Intermediate Fluid Mechanics Bluff Body Professor Fred Stern Fall 2014 Professor Fred Stern Fall 04 Chapter 7 Bluff Body Fluid flows are broadly categorized:. Internal flows such as ducts/pipes, turbomachinery, open channel/river, which are bounded by walls or fluid interfaces:

More information

Free-Body Diagrams: Introduction

Free-Body Diagrams: Introduction Free-Body Diagrams: Introduction Learning Goal: To learn to draw free-body diagrams for various real-life situations. Imagine that you are given a description of a real-life situation and are asked to

More information

FRICTIONAL FORCES. Direction of frictional forces... (not always obvious)... CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON S LAWS

FRICTIONAL FORCES. Direction of frictional forces... (not always obvious)... CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON S LAWS RICTIONAL ORCES CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS O NEWTON S LAWS rictional forces Static friction Kinetic friction Centripetal force Centripetal acceleration Loop-the-loop Drag force Terminal velocity Direction

More information

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass

More information

UNIVERSITY PHYSICS I. Professor Meade Brooks, Collin College. Chapter 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY

UNIVERSITY PHYSICS I. Professor Meade Brooks, Collin College. Chapter 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY UNIVERSITY PHYSICS I Professor Meade Brooks, Collin College Chapter 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY Two stilt walkers in standing position. All forces acting on each stilt walker balance out; neither

More information

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DIVISION OF PHYSICS 13. STOKES METHOD

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DIVISION OF PHYSICS 13. STOKES METHOD 13. STOKES METHOD 1. Objective To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a known fluid using Stokes method.. Equipment needed A glass vessel with glycerine, micrometer calliper, stopwatch, ruler. 3.

More information

Physics 231 Lecture 23

Physics 231 Lecture 23 Physics 31 Lecture 3 Main points of today s lecture: Gravitation potential energy GM1M PEgrav r 1 Tensile stress and strain Δ Y ΔL L 0 Bulk stress and strain: Δ V Δ P B Δ V Pressure in fluids: P ; Pbot

More information

UNIT I SIMPLE STRESSES AND STRAINS

UNIT I SIMPLE STRESSES AND STRAINS Subject with Code : SM-1(15A01303) Year & Sem: II-B.Tech & I-Sem SIDDHARTH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS :: PUTTUR Siddharth Nagar, Narayanavanam Road 517583 QUESTION BANK (DESCRIPTIVE) UNIT I SIMPLE STRESSES

More information

Isaac Newton. What is a force? Newton s Three Laws of Motion. What is the acceleration of the car?

Isaac Newton. What is a force? Newton s Three Laws of Motion. What is the acceleration of the car? Aim: What did Isaac Newton teach us about motion? Do Now: 1. A 2009 Ford Mustang convertible is travelling at constant velocity on Interstate 95 south from Philadelphia to Wilmington Delaware. It passes

More information

Future coaching Institute Tirupur

Future coaching Institute Tirupur 1 Higher secondary first year Physics volume I Laws and definitions Force: Force is the external agency applied on a body to change its state of rest and motion. Fundamental quantities Fundamental quantities

More information

Entire ideal spring moves rapidly to the right! Figure 2.1 An attempt to apply different forces to the ends of an ideal spring, will fail.

Entire ideal spring moves rapidly to the right! Figure 2.1 An attempt to apply different forces to the ends of an ideal spring, will fail. o eel a orce hapter 2 hapter 2: A. he properties of an ideal spring In this chapter, a language and a notation to describe all forces is developed from the behavior of elastic forces. he relationship governing

More information

Brittle Deformation. Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm

Brittle Deformation. Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm Lecture 6 Brittle Deformation Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm WW Norton, unless noted otherwise Brittle deformation EarthStructure (2 nd

More information

Physics Final Practice Exam Part 1

Physics Final Practice Exam Part 1 Physics Final Practice Exam Part 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which one of the following problems would NOT be a part of physics?

More information

Chapter 9 Fluids. Pressure

Chapter 9 Fluids. Pressure Chapter 9 Fluids States of Matter - Solid, liquid, gas. Fluids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids as being incompressible. Liquids do not change their volume

More information

THEME IS FIRST OCCURANCE OF YIELDING THE LIMIT?

THEME IS FIRST OCCURANCE OF YIELDING THE LIMIT? CIE309 : PLASTICITY THEME IS FIRST OCCURANCE OF YIELDING THE LIMIT? M M - N N + + σ = σ = + f f BENDING EXTENSION Ir J.W. Welleman page nr 0 kn Normal conditions during the life time WHAT HAPPENS DUE TO

More information

Density Functional Modeling of Nanocrystalline Materials

Density Functional Modeling of Nanocrystalline Materials Density Functional Modeling of Nanocrystalline Materials A new approach for modeling atomic scale properties in materials Peter Stefanovic Supervisor: Nikolas Provatas 70 / Part 1-7 February 007 Density

More information

Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion 3 What You Will Learn The magnitude of the force of can vary. Kinetic is a force that, when unbalanced, can change the velocity of a moving object. Static balances an applied force and can prevent motion.

More information

Motion. Argument: (i) Forces are needed to keep things moving, because they stop when the forces are taken away (evidence horse pulling a carriage).

Motion. Argument: (i) Forces are needed to keep things moving, because they stop when the forces are taken away (evidence horse pulling a carriage). 1 Motion Aristotle s Study Aristotle s Law of Motion This law of motion was based on false assumptions. He believed that an object moved only if something was pushing it. His arguments were based on everyday

More information

The Frictional Regime

The Frictional Regime The Frictional Regime Processes in Structural Geology & Tectonics Ben van der Pluijm WW Norton+Authors, unless noted otherwise 1/25/2016 10:08 AM We Discuss The Frictional Regime Processes of Brittle Deformation

More information

2. Friction is the that. 3. PREDICT what is going to happen to the motion of the book when the person stops pushing it. (CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE)

2. Friction is the that. 3. PREDICT what is going to happen to the motion of the book when the person stops pushing it. (CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE) Name: Block: Date: IP 670 All About Friction Introduction: The force of friction is one of the hidden forces that affects the motion of objects. Forces like these are hidden in the sense that they are

More information

two structural analysis (statics & mechanics) APPLIED ACHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: DR. ANNE NICHOLS SPRING 2017 lecture STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMS

two structural analysis (statics & mechanics) APPLIED ACHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: DR. ANNE NICHOLS SPRING 2017 lecture STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMS APPLIED ACHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMS DR. ANNE NICHOLS SPRING 2017 lecture two structural analysis (statics & mechanics) Analysis 1 Structural Requirements strength serviceability

More information

Modeling Mechanical Systems

Modeling Mechanical Systems Modeling Mechanical Systems Mechanical systems can be either translational or rotational. Although the fundamental relationships for both types are derived from Newton s law, they are different enough

More information

Physics 207 Lecture 20. Chapter 15, Fluids

Physics 207 Lecture 20. Chapter 15, Fluids Chapter 15, Fluids This is an actual photo of an iceberg, taken by a rig manager for Global Marine Drilling in St. Johns, Newfoundland. The water was calm and the sun was almost directly overhead so that

More information

Chapter 5: Applications of Newton's laws Tuesday, September 17, :00 PM. General strategy for using Newton's second law to solve problems:

Chapter 5: Applications of Newton's laws Tuesday, September 17, :00 PM. General strategy for using Newton's second law to solve problems: Ch5 Page 1 Chapter 5: Applications of Newton's laws Tuesday, September 17, 2013 10:00 PM General strategy for using Newton's second law to solve problems: 1. Draw a diagram; select a coördinate system

More information

Friction. Objectives. Assessment. Assessment. Physics terms. Equations 5/20/14. Models for friction

Friction. Objectives. Assessment. Assessment. Physics terms. Equations 5/20/14. Models for friction Objectives Friction Calculate friction forces from equation models for static, kinetic, and rolling friction. Solve one-dimensional force problems that include friction. 1. A box with a mass of 10 kg is

More information

Transport Properties: Momentum Transport, Viscosity

Transport Properties: Momentum Transport, Viscosity Transport Properties: Momentum Transport, Viscosity 13th February 2011 1 Introduction Much as mass(material) is transported within luids (gases and liquids), linear momentum is also associated with transport,

More information

**********************************************************************

********************************************************************** Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering 3-33 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility www.engineering.ualberta.ca/civil Tel: 780.492.4235

More information

Outline. Tensile-Test Specimen and Machine. Stress-Strain Curve. Review of Mechanical Properties. Mechanical Behaviour

Outline. Tensile-Test Specimen and Machine. Stress-Strain Curve. Review of Mechanical Properties. Mechanical Behaviour Tensile-Test Specimen and Machine Review of Mechanical Properties Outline Tensile test True stress - true strain (flow curve) mechanical properties: - Resilience - Ductility - Toughness - Hardness A standard

More information

Chapter Four Holt Physics. Forces and the Laws of Motion

Chapter Four Holt Physics. Forces and the Laws of Motion Chapter Four Holt Physics Forces and the Laws of Motion Physics Force and the study of dynamics 1.Forces - a. Force - a push or a pull. It can change the motion of an object; start or stop movement; and,

More information

FORMULA SHEET. General formulas:

FORMULA SHEET. General formulas: FORMULA SHEET You may use this formula sheet during the Advanced Transport Phenomena course and it should contain all formulas you need during this course. Note that the weeks are numbered from 1.1 to

More information

Homework of chapter (1) (Solution)

Homework of chapter (1) (Solution) بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم The Islamic University of Gaza, Civil Engineering Department, Fluid mechanics-discussion, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal T.A: Eng. Mohammed H El Nazli Eng. Sarah R Rostom First

More information

PHY 221 Lab 5 Diverse Forces, Springs and Friction

PHY 221 Lab 5 Diverse Forces, Springs and Friction Name: Partner: Partner: PHY 221 Lab 5 Diverse Forces, Springs and Friction Goals: To explore the nature of forces and the variety of ways in which they can be produced. Characterize the nature of springs

More information

Dynamics Review Checklist

Dynamics Review Checklist Dynamics Review Checklist Newton s Laws 2.1.1 Explain Newton s 1 st Law (the Law of Inertia) and the relationship between mass and inertia. Which of the following has the greatest amount of inertia? (a)

More information

Flow and Transport. c(s, t)s ds,

Flow and Transport. c(s, t)s ds, Flow and Transport 1. The Transport Equation We shall describe the transport of a dissolved chemical by water that is traveling with uniform velocity ν through a long thin tube G with uniform cross section

More information

Lecture 7, Foams, 3.054

Lecture 7, Foams, 3.054 Lecture 7, Foams, 3.054 Open-cell foams Stress-Strain curve: deformation and failure mechanisms Compression - 3 regimes - linear elastic - bending - stress plateau - cell collapse by buckling yielding

More information

CLASS SCHEDULE 2013 FALL

CLASS SCHEDULE 2013 FALL CLASS SCHEDULE 2013 FALL Class # or Lab # 1 Date Aug 26 2 28 Important Concepts (Section # in Text Reading, Lecture note) Examples/Lab Activities Definition fluid; continuum hypothesis; fluid properties

More information

2.1 Forces and Free-Body Diagrams

2.1 Forces and Free-Body Diagrams 2.1 Forces and Free-Body Diagrams A is a push or a pull. Forces act on objects, and can result in the acceleration, compression, stretching, or twisting of objects. Forces can also act to stabilize an

More information

E80. Fluid Measurement The Wind Tunnel Lab. Experimental Engineering.

E80. Fluid Measurement The Wind Tunnel Lab. Experimental Engineering. Fluid Measurement The Wind Tunnel Lab http://twistedsifter.com/2012/10/red-bull-stratos-space-jump-photos/ Feb. 13, 2014 Outline Wind Tunnel Lab Objectives Why run wind tunnel experiments? How can we use

More information

Today s menu. Last lecture. A/D conversion. A/D conversion (cont d...) Sampling

Today s menu. Last lecture. A/D conversion. A/D conversion (cont d...) Sampling Last lecture Capacitive sensing elements. Inductive sensing elements. Reactive Deflection bridges. Electromagnetic sensing elements. Thermoelectric sensing elements. Elastic sensing elements. Piezoelectric

More information

PHYSICS. Chapter 5 Lecture FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E RANDALL D. KNIGHT Pearson Education, Inc.

PHYSICS. Chapter 5 Lecture FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E RANDALL D. KNIGHT Pearson Education, Inc. PHYSICS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E Chapter 5 Lecture RANDALL D. KNIGHT Chapter 5 Force and Motion IN THIS CHAPTER, you will learn about the connection between force and motion.

More information

Meteorology 432. Barometry Spring 2013

Meteorology 432. Barometry Spring 2013 Meteorology 432 Barometry Spring 2013 Basics Revisited Objective: Measure the static pressure exerted by the atmosphere. Static Pressure: Force per unit area in the absence of air motion. In this case,

More information

Note on Posted Slides. Net Force. Normal Force a.k.a. Support Force. PHY205H1S Physics of Everyday Life Class 3. Review from Class 1: What is a force?

Note on Posted Slides. Net Force. Normal Force a.k.a. Support Force. PHY205H1S Physics of Everyday Life Class 3. Review from Class 1: What is a force? Note on Posted Slides These are the slides that I intended to show in class on Tue. Jan. 14, 014. They contain important ideas and questions from your reading. Due to time constraints, I was probably not

More information

PHYS 432 Physics of Fluids: Instabilities

PHYS 432 Physics of Fluids: Instabilities PHYS 432 Physics of Fluids: Instabilities 1. Internal gravity waves Background state being perturbed: A stratified fluid in hydrostatic balance. It can be constant density like the ocean or compressible

More information

Study Guide Solutions

Study Guide Solutions Study Guide Solutions Table of Contents Chapter 1 A Physics Toolkit... 3 Vocabulary Review... 3 Section 1.1: Mathematics and Physics... 3 Section 1.2: Measurement... 3 Section 1.3: Graphing Data... 4 Chapter

More information

Applying Newton s Laws

Applying Newton s Laws Chapter 5 Applying Newton s Laws 5.1 Using Newton s First Law First Law. Abodyactedonbynonetforce,i.e. F i =0 i has a constant velocity (which may be zero) and zero acceleration. Example 5.1. Agymnastwithmassm

More information

To investigate three types of friction and to measure the coefficient of friction for each type

To investigate three types of friction and to measure the coefficient of friction for each type Name Period Date Chapter 6: Newton's Second Law of Motion Force and Acceleration Coefficients of Friction 33 Slip-Stick Purpose To investigate three types of friction and to measure the coefficient of

More information

Turbulence Modeling I!

Turbulence Modeling I! Outline! Turbulence Modeling I! Grétar Tryggvason! Spring 2010! Why turbulence modeling! Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulations! Zero and One equation models! Two equations models! Model predictions!

More information

Concept of Force and Newton s Laws of Motion

Concept of Force and Newton s Laws of Motion Concept of Force and Newton s Laws of Motion 8.01 W02D2 Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion, Sections 7.1-7.4 Chapter 8 Applications of Newton s Second Law, Sections 8.1-8.4.1 Announcements W02D3 Reading

More information

There are two main types of friction:

There are two main types of friction: Section 4.15: Friction Friction is needed to move. Without friction, a car would sit in one spot spinning its tires, and a person would not be able to step forward. However, the motion of an object along

More information

PHY 481/581. Some classical/quantum physics for the nanometer length scale.

PHY 481/581. Some classical/quantum physics for the nanometer length scale. PHY 481/581 Some classical/quantum physics for the nanometer length scale http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 1 What is nano-science? the science of materials whose properties scale with

More information

five mechanics of materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Knowledge Required MECHANICS MATERIALS

five mechanics of materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Knowledge Required MECHANICS MATERIALS RCHITECTUR STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHVIOR, ND DESIGN DR. NNE NICHOS SUMMER 2014 Mechanics o Materials MECHNICS MTERIS lecture ive mechanics o materials www.carttalk.com Mechanics o Materials 1 rchitectural

More information

Unit 8B: Forces Newton s Laws of Motion

Unit 8B: Forces Newton s Laws of Motion Unit 8B: Forces Newton s Laws of Motion Indicator PS-5.7: Explain the motion of objects on the basis of Newton s three laws of motion. Objectives 1. State the meaning of Newton s laws of motion in your

More information

General Physics I. Lecture 3: Newton's Laws. Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 )

General Physics I. Lecture 3: Newton's Laws. Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 ) General Physics I Lecture 3: Newton's Laws Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 ) xinwan@zju.edu.cn http://zimp.zju.edu.cn/~xinwan/ What Causes Changes of Motion? We define the interaction of a body with its environment

More information

Boundary Conditions in Fluid Mechanics

Boundary Conditions in Fluid Mechanics Boundary Conditions in Fluid Mechanics R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University The governing equations for the velocity and pressure fields are partial

More information