1 Analog Modeling Complex Dynamical Systems Using Simple Electrical Circuits Elena TAMAŠEVIČIŪTĖ Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich Zürich CH-8092, Switzerland Gytis MYKOLAITIS Department of Physics, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 11 Saulėtekio Vilnius LT-10223, Lithuania and Arūnas TAMAŠEVIČIUS Nonlinear Electronics Laboratory, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, 11 A. Goštauto Vilnius LT-01108, Lithuania ABSTRACT Simple analog electrical circuit representing complex dynamical system is described. As case study an array of thirty FitzHugh Nagumo coupled electronic oscillators, imitating dynamics of neurons, is considered. Due to the parallel processing analog simulation exhibits very fast performance compared with the numerical integration. Keywords: Analog Computing, Analog Models, Analog Electrical Circuits, Oscillators and Networks. 1. INTRODUCTION There are many examples in science and engineering where analog electrical circuits have been used to model temporal evolution of dynamical systems. This modeling method has been applied to diverse disciplines and areas. The Mackey Glass delay differential equation, well known to describe hematological disorders, has a simple electronic analog . A simple electrical circuit has been suggested  to imitate the chaotic behavior of a periodically forced mechanical system, described by the Duffing Holmes equations. Several electrical circuits have been proposed to model the dynamics of neurons [3, 4]. A very interesting solution has been suggested to model mammalian cochlea using high order electrical circuit . One more example is the electrical circuit modeling movement of a spacecraft at the Lagrange point of the astrodynamical Sun Earth system . It should be emphasized that design of such electrical circuits is not for its own purpose. The analog circuits mentioned above have been employed for testing various methods developed to control dynamics of the systems, specifically to stabilize either steady states [6-9] or periodic orbits . In addition, experiments with electronic analogs can help to better understand the mechanisms behind the behaviors of complex systems, e.g. pitch in human perception of sound . Moreover, the electronic cochlea provides an efficient design of an artificial hearing sensor . One can argue that there is no difference between an analog electrical circuit, imitating a dynamical system, and an analog computer, solving corresponding differential equations. We note that any analog computer is a standard collection of the following main blocks: inverting RC integrators, inverting adders, invertors, inverting and noninverting amplifiers, multipliers, and piecewise linear nonlinear units. Programming of the differential equations on an analog computer is simply wiring these units according to strictly predetermined rules. Differences between the "intrinsically" analog electrical circuits, simulating behavior of dynamical systems, and the conventional analog computers were discussed by Matsumoto, Chua and Komuro 25 years ago in . In this regard it makes sense to present here an excerpt of their paper: the circuit is not an analog computer in the sense that its building blocks are not integrators. They are ordinary circuit elements; namely, resistors, inductors and capacitors. Both current and voltage of each circuit element play a crucial role in the dynamics of the circuit. On the contrary, the variables in a typical analog computer are merely node voltages of the capacitor integrator building block modules, where the circuit current is completely irrelevant in the circuit s dynamic operation. Hence it would be misleading to confuse our circuit as an analog computer .
2 In the present paper, we describe an analog model presented as case study, namely a network of simple electrical circuits, which imitates dynamics of interacting neurons. 2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL The mathematical model is given by a set of coupled ordinary differential equations : x& i = a F( ) yi bi + c ( < x > ), y& i = dyi, i = 1,2,... N, < x > = / N, F( 1) = 0, F( < 1) = d1, F( > 1) = d2. Here c is the coupling factor; N is the number of cells. 3. NUMERICAL SIMULATION RESULTS Fig. 3. Lissajous figure (phase portrait) [ vs., i j], synchronized case, c = 0.7; 1500 periods of the variable. Numerical simulations for N = 30, a = 3.4, b i = (i 1), d = 0.15, d 1 = 60, d 2 = 3.4 were performed using the FREEPASCAL software with the integration step h = Typical results are presented in Figs Fig. 4. Poincaré section [ vs. at x k (t) = 1±0.01, dx k (t)/dt < 0, i j, i k, j k], synchronized case, c = 0.7; 1500 dots. 4. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS A network of 30 mean-field coupled (star configuration) electronic neurons is sketched in Fig. 5. Fig. 1. Lissajous figure (phase portrait) [ vs., i j], nonsynchronized case, c = 0; 1500 periods of the variable. 1 R* O 2 R* Fig. 2. Poincaré section [ vs. at x k (t) = 1±0.01, dx k (t)/dt < 0, i j, i k, j k], non-synchronized case, c = 0; 1500 dots. 30 R* Fig. 5. Block diagram of the mean field coupled neurons. Coupling resistors R* are tuneable units. Node O is the common coupling node.
3 Fig. 6 depicts the FitzHugh Nagumo type electronic circuit representing the individual neurons. The neuron cells in the array are slightly mismatched, either by setting different parameters of the LC tanks or by different external dc biasing of the circuit (corresponds constant term b i in the differential equations), meeting the fact that in real world there are no strictly identical units. Table 1. Frequencies of individual electronic neurons. No. f, khz No. f, khz No. f, khz ANALOG SIMULATION RESULTS Fig. 6. Circuit diagram of an electronic analog of a neuron. Element labeled with R is a negative resistance, implemented by means of a negative impedance converter. General view of the hardware circuit is shown in Fig. 7. The construction contains four floors. The electronic neurons are on the ground, the 1 st, and the 3 rd floor (10 neurons on each floor), while the all coupling resistors R* are placed on the 2 nd floor. Output waveform from a single neuron is presented in Fig. 8. In the case of weak coupling (large R*) the neurons are spiking independently at their individual frequencies (see Table 1). The intricate Lissajous figure (Fig. 9), multi-dot Poincaré section (Fig. 10), and multiple discrete lines in the spectrum (Fig. 11) confirm this statement. Fig. 9. Lissajous figure (phase portrait) [ vs., i j], nonsynchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s of snapped periods. Fig. 7. Hardware prototype of the array of 30 neurons. Dimensions W H D=27 cm 8 cm 6.5 cm (10.6" 3.1" 2.6") V 1 (t) Fig. 8. Typical output waveform from a single electronic neuron V 1 (t). Spike amplitude 10 V, period T 80 µs, frequency f = 1/T 12.5 khz. Fig. 10. Poincaré section [ vs. at x k (t) = 1, dx k (t)/dt < 0, i j, i k, j k], non-synchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s snapped dots (1 dot per period of variable x k (t)).
4 S (f) S (f) f Fig. 11. Frequency spectrum S(f) of the mean field < x > in the full range from 11.5 khz to 14.5 khz, non-synchronized case. 30 lines from the electronic neurons i = 1,2, 30. Spectral lines fill the band from 12.3 khz to 13.8 khz. Horizontal scale: linear 500 Hz/div. Spectral resolution f = 3 Hz. Vertical scale: linear. f Fig. 14. Frequency spectrum S(f) of the mean field < x > in the full range from 11.5 khz to 14.5 khz, synchronized case for i = 1,2, 30. Single spectral line from the all thirty oscillators at f 0 12 khz (higher harmonics at 24 khz, 36 khz, are out of the shown range). Horizontal scale: linear 500 Hz/div. Spectral resolution f = 3 Hz. Vertical scale: linear. For stronger coupling (smaller R*) all neurons become fully synchronized, i.e. phase locked, as is evident from the Lissajous figure displaying a simple ellipse (Fig. 12), a single dot in the Poincaré section (Fig. 13), and the spectrum containing a single line (Fig. 14). In addition to the main simulation results presented in Figs. 9 14, we have taken frequency spectrum in a zoomed frequency scale (Fig. 15) to be sure that the spectrum is not continuous one (as observed in noisy and chaotic systems), but has well defined discrete structure. S (f) Fig. 12. Lissajous figure [ vs., i j]. Synchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s snapped periods. Fig. 13. Poincaré section [ vs. at x k (t) = 1, dx k (t)/dt < 0, i j, i k, j k], synchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s snapped dots (1 dot per period of variable x k (t)). f Fig. 15. Frequency spectrum S(f) of the mean field < x >, detailed view in the frequency range from to khz, non-synchronized case. Seven spectral lines from the oscillators i = 7, 8, 13. Horizontal scale: linear 50 Hz/div. Spectral resolution f = 3 Hz. Vertical scale: linear. We note that in order to display analog simulation results presented in Figs from the hardware circuit in Fig. 7 one needs some special electronic equipment. Namely, an oscilloscope with an X input (horizontal deflection channel) and a Y input (vertical deflection channel) is required to take the Lissajous figures. An X Y channeled oscilloscope with an additional feature of external beam modulation ( Z input) is necessary (along with an external pulse generator) to plot the Poincaré sections. Finally, either a digital oscilloscope with an integrated Fast Fourier Transform function or an analog spectrum analyzer is needed to get the frequency spectra. However this equipment may not be available in a standard scientific or engineering laboratory.
5 To get around the problem a standard multi channel (at least 2 channel) oscilloscope can be used for displaying the waveforms and from the pairs of neurons, i j, as shown in Fig. 16 and Fig. 17. The internal horizontal sweep saw tooth generator of the oscilloscope should be synchronized with one of the input waveform, either to or to. The waveforms can be inspected visually on the screen of the oscilloscope and photos can be taken, if necessary. of checking the all P = 435 pairs, the method makes use of a single measurement only. Examples are shown in Fig. 18 and Fig. 19. In the non-synchronized case the mean field voltage < x > taken from the node O has relatively low amplitude ( < 1 V) and can not synchronized by the oscilloscope (Fig. 18). In contrast, the synchronized mean field voltage < x > has relatively high amplitude ( > 10 V); it is easily synchronized on the screen of the oscilloscope (Fig. 19); exhibits spiking waveform similar to that of a single neuron (see Fig. 8.) < x > Fig. 16. Waveforms (top) and (bottom), i j, nonsynchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s. 250 snapped sweeps. Each waveform is 125 sweeps (750 periods of ). Oscilloscope is synchronized internally to. Fig. 18. Waveform of the mean field < x >, non-synchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s. 250 snapped sweeps. Oscilloscope is not able to synchronize to this intricate nonperiodic waveform. < x > Fig. 19. Waveform of the mean field < x >, synchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s. 250 snapped sweeps (1500 periods). Oscilloscope easily synchronizes to this simple periodic waveform. Fig. 17. Waveforms (top) and (bottom), i j, synchronized case. Exposure time 1/8 s = s. 250 snapped sweeps. Each waveform is 125 sweeps (750 periods of ). Oscilloscope is synchronized internally to. However, this method (also the previously described Lissajous plots and Poincaré sections techniques) requires checking the state of all different pairs of the oscillators (i j). It maybe time consuming procedure, since there are P = N (N 1)/2 pairs in the network of N neurons. In the case of N = 30 there are P = 435 pairs. Therefore we propose one more extremely simple alternative technique for checking the network, whether it is in either non-synchronized or synchronized state. One needs a simple single channel oscilloscope only. Instead 6. COMPARISON BETWEEN NUMERICAL AND ANALOG SIMULATIONS One of the most important characteristics of any modeling technique is the simulation time required to obtain the result. This parameter is given in Table 2 to compare the two considered methods, numerical versus analog. Table 2. Time elapsed building a plot. Plot type Lissajous figure (1500 periods) Poincaré section (1500 dots) Waveform x(t) (1500 periods) Numerical method* Analog method 8 min. 20 s s 33 min. 40 s s 8 min. 20 s s * A standard PC with Intel 1.7 GHz central processor was used.
6 7. CONCLUDING REMARKS We have designed, built and investigated an electrical network consisting of N FitzHugh Nagumo oscillators coupled in a star configuration, and have demonstrated the synchronization effect. The following was taken into account when choosing the number of oscillators N = 30. The minimal number of units in a star configuration is N min = 3 . On one hand, number 30 is by an order larger than N min. Thus, 30 oscillators are sufficient to be treated as large array. On the other hand, 30 oscillators is rather small amount of electrical units that can be easily and inexpensively built for a scientific laboratory. It is evident from Table2 that the analog simulation technique has great advantage against the numerical simulation from the point of view of time consumption. This is due to fact that analog simulation uses parallel processing; it is independent on N, the number of the units. Meanwhile, numerical simulation employs series processing; the processing time is proportional to N. Moreover, analog simulations operate with continuous flows on a continuous time scale, in contrast to numerical methods, which require discretization of time and other variables by using small integration step. In contrast to analog computers, the analog modeling described in the paper is based on some specific analog electrical circuit for a given dynamical system or given differential equation. Despite its limitation to specific systems or equations, electrical circuits have an attractive advantage of simplicity and cheapness. Such circuits comprise rather small number of simple electrical components: resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductor diodes, may include operational amplifiers. The analog modeling method using simple electrical circuits can be applied to many other dynamical systems, especially to complex networks. ACKOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful to professor Ruedi Stoop from the Institute of Neuroinformatics of the University of Zürich and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich for many useful advices. REFERENCES  A. Namajūnas, K. Pyragas, A. Tamaševičius, An Electronic Analog of the Mackey Glass System, Physics Letters A, Vol. 201, No. 1, 1995, pp  E. Tamaševičiūtė, A. Tamaševičius, G. Mykolaitis, S. Bumelienė, E. Lindberg, Analogue Electrical Circuit for Simulation of the Duffing Holmes Equation, Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2008, pp  S. Binczak, V.B. Kazantsev, V.I. Nekorkin, J.M. Bilbaut, Experimental Study of Bifurcations in Modified FitzHugh Nagumo Cell, Electronics Letters, Vol. 39, No. 13, 2003, pp  E. Tamaševičiūtė, A. Tamaševičius, G. Mykolaitis, S. Bumelienė, R. Kirvaitis, R. Stoop, Electronic Analog of the FitzHugh Nagumo Neuron Model and Noninvasive Control of its Steady State, Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems, June, 2009, Rapperswil, Switzerland, pp , USB memflash.  S. Martignoli, J.J. van der Vyver, A. Kern, Y. Uwate, R. Stoop, Analog Electronic Cochlea with Mammalian Hearing Characteristics, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 6, 2007,  A. Tamaševičius, E. Tamaševičiūtė, G. Mykolaitis, S. Bumelienė, R. Kirvaitis, Stabilization of Saddle Steady States of Conservative and Weakly Damped Dissipative Dynamical Systems, Physical Review E, Vol. 82, No. 2, 2010,  A. Namajūnas, K. Pyragas, A. Tamaševičius, Analog Techniques for Modeling and Controlling the Mackey Glass System, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1997, pp  A. Tamaševičius, E. Tamaševičiūtė, G. Mykolaitis, S. Bumelienė, Switching from Stable to Unknown Unstable Steady States of Dynamical Systems. Physical Review E, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2008,  A. Tamaševičius, E. Tamaševičiūtė, G. Mykolaitis, S. Bumelienė, R. Kirvaitis, R. Stoop, Neural Spike Suppression by Adaptive Control of an Unknown Steady State, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5768, Part I, 2009, pp  A. Tamaševičius, G. Mykolaitis, V. Pyragas, K. Pyragas, Delayed Feedback Control of Periodic Orbits without Torsion in Nonautonomous Chaotic Systems: Theory and Experiment, Physical Review E, Vol. 76, No. 2, 2007,  S. Martignoli, R. Stoop, Local Cochlear Correlations of Perceived Pitch, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 105, No. 4, 2010,  R. Stoop, T. Jasa, Y. Uwate, S. Martignoli, From Hearing to Listening: Design and Properties of an Actively Tunable Electronic Hearing Sensor, Sensors, Vol. 7, No. 12, 2007, pp  T. Matsumoto, L.O. Chua, M. Komuro, The Double Scroll, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 32, No. 8, 1985, pp  A. Tamaševičius, S. Bumelienė, E. Tamaševičiūtė, G. Mykolaitis, R. Kirvaitis, Desynchronization of Mean Field Coupled Oscillators by Remote Virtual Grounding, Proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems, May, 2010, Dresden, Germany, pp , USB memflash.
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