Nonlinear MHD Modelling of Rotating Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations.


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1 Nonlinear MHD Modelling of Rotating Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations. M. Becoulet 1, F. Orain 1, G.T.A. Huijsmans 2, G. Dif Pradalier 1, G. Latu 1, C. Passeron 1, E. Nardon 1, V. Grandgirard 1, A. Ratnani 1, S. Pamela 3, I. Chapman 3, A. Thornton 3, A. Kirk 3 1 Association EuratomCEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Centre de Cadarache, 13108, SaintPaullezDurance, France. 2 ITER Organization, Route de Vinon,13115 SaintPaullez Durance, France 3 JETEFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, UK This work has benefitted from financial support from the National French Research Program (ANR): ANEMOS(2011). Supercomputers used: HPCFF(Julich, Germany), JADE(CINES, France), Mésocentre (Marseille, France)
2 Motivation: Hmode pedestal height (=> global confinement) is limited by MHD instabilities=> ELM crash. Quasiperiodic f ELM ~1150 Hz, t ELM ~250µs. Large heat&particle loads on divertor Safe ELMs for divertor W ELM <1MJ, but predictions for ITER : W ELM,ITER ~20MJ => Droplets, melting of tungsten ITER divertor. Tungsten sample after ELM like power load (produced by electron gun). ELM in JET J Linke et al Proc. 13th Int Conf on Fusion Materials, Nice, Dec , M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 2/24
3 Total ELM suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) : DIIID(US)first experiments, ASDEX Upgrade(Germany), KSTAR (Korea). DIIID (US): T Evans PRL 2004, PoP 2006, NF2008, n=3 AUG (Germany) : W. Suttrop PRL2011,IAEA 2012, n=1,2 KSTAR (Korea) : SiWooYoon, IAEA 2012, n=1 M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 3/24
4 Idea: ergodisation increases edge transport (σ Chir >1 for ψ>0.8) => gradp<gradp crit => no ELMs? But very different response on RMPs! In ITER? Becoulet NF2008 Y Liang PRL2007 RMP n=12 δm + δ σ = m 1 > 1 Chirikov m, m++ 1 JET : ELM mitigation RMPs are foreseen in ITER (90kAt,n=4,3) will it work??? NSTX: ELM triggering. A. Kirk PPCF2013 MAST : small mitigated ELMs (n=3,4,6 ) M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 4/24
5 Many open questions in physics of ELMs+RMPs still remain. Aim: progress in understanding of RMPs, give reliable predictions for ITER. Idea: RMP coils=> magnetic perturbation =>edge ergodic region=> control of edge transport, MHD. However, at the same edge ergodisation in vacuum => different reaction of ELMs to RMPs in experiment: suppression, mitigation, triggering? RMPs are different from vacuum RMPs in plasma! Rotating plasma response : current perturbations on q=m/n => screening of RMPs. [Fitzpatrick PoP 1998], [Waelbroeck NF2012], [Izzo NF 2008], [Becoulet NF 2009, 2012], [Strauss NF 2009], [Orain EPS2012], [Ferraro APS 2011] etc RMPs /ELMs at high ν*? (Type II ELMs like events, density, magnetic field fluctuations, no changes in profiles) Density pumpout (at low ν*)? (here not addressed yet) Rotation braking/acceleration? (here not addressed yet) Why ELMs are suppressed? (not addressed yet) M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 5/24
6 Outline: RMPs and flows in nonlinear resistive MHD code JOREK (model development) : RMPs at the computational boundary (SOL, Xpoint, divertor geometry) 2 fluid diamagnetic effects (large in pedestal!), neoclassical poloidal viscosity ( in pedestal), V : toroidal rotation source, SOL flows. equilibrium radial electric field (large ExB in pedestal!). RMPs in JETlike case. (n=2). Three regimes depending on resistivity and rotation. RMPs in MAST (n=3) RMPs in ITER.(n=3). V ~ V neo θ θ M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 6/24
7 Nonlinear reduced resistive MHD in torus (Xpoint, divertor, SOL) with 2 fluid diamagnetic and neoclassical effects (important in large pedestal gradients region!). JOREK. [Huysmans PPCF2009] 2 V R2 u R B = F ϕ + ψ ϕ = ϕ τ p ϕ V B IC ρ + τ = m /(2 e F µ ρ ) 0 IC i E B parameter diamagnetic 1 ψ 1 1 F τ F F η ψ ψ 1 Poloidal flux: ψ R R R B R R = u, 0 u IC 0 0 p p, 2 t R 2 ϕ ρ ϕ R If this term is ~zero at q=m/n => V dia 0 e, Parallel θ = VE, θ + Ve, θ => no RMP screening momentum: B ρ V = ρ V V ( ρt ) J B S VS ν ( ) V neo Π t V ρ i Poloidal ϕ ρ V = ρ V V ( ρt ) J B S VS ν ( ) V neo Π V i momentum: t ρ ( ρt) = V ( ρt ) γρt V + T T (1 γ ) S 1 Κ +Κ + + V 2 Temperature: S p = ρt t T 2 ρ ρ Mass density: = ρv + ( D ρ ) S t + Temperature dependent η ~ η ( T / T ) 3 / 2 ρ 0 0 viscosity, resistivity: Neoclassical poloidal Πneo µ ρ( B2 / B2)( V V ) e e = ( R/ ψ ) ψ ϕ i i, neo θ θ, i θ, neo θ θ viscosity [Gianakon PoP2002] Ion poloidal velocity => V V = k τ ( ψ T )/ B / θ, i θ, neo i, neo IC B = ψ R θ θ neoclassical M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 7/24
8 JETlike case. Equilibrium flows (w/o RMPs) : parallel velocity (central source, SOLsheath conditions on divertor targets). Poloidal velocity => neoclassical in the pedestal. Parallel flow. Poloidal flow. V Central plasma: toroidal V = ( ψ, u) τ ( ψ, p) / ρ V B 2 / B, i + IC rotation source keeps initial V profile: S = ν V V = ( ψ, u ) + τ ( ψ, p ) / ρ / B V, t = 0 θ, e IC θ SOL: sheath conditions on Pedestal: V V T θ, i θ, neo i targets: V = ±C SOL: V V B, div s θ θ θ θ, i θ V V θ,i V θ,neo JETlike:R=3m, a=1m,q 95 =3,T 0 =5keV,n e = m 3,f 0 =9kHz. τ ~ 2.10 ; µ ~10 5; k = 1.; η = IC i, neo i, neo M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 8/24
9 JETlike case. Radial electric field well in the pedestal=> large ExB rotation=>likely to screen RMPs. Er ( u, ψ )/ ψ SOL center=> <=center SOL JETlike parameters. Pedestal M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 9/24 Pedestal
10 JETlike case. Static RMPs + rotating plasma => response currents on the resonant surfaces=> RMP screening. Vacuum RMP (EFCC, n=2, I coil =40kAt ) are increased in time at JOREK boundary. ψ ( t ) = ψ vacuum f ( t ) n = 2 bnd n = 2, 40kAt Poloidal magnetic flux perturbation (max) with RMPs in plasma with flows. ψ n=2 ERGOS [NF Becoulet 2008] Toroidal current perturbations on the rational surfaces (q=m/2; m=3,4,5,6) with RMPs. j φ,n=2 ERGOS[Becoulet NF 2008] JETlike JOREK M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 10/24 JOREK
11 JETlike case. Stronger RMP screening for lower resistivity and larger poloidal rotation. Ergodic region at the edge. Central islands are screened: (m/n)=3/2; 4/2. Edge ergodic region: (5/2,6/2) penetrate (η~t 3/2 ) JETlike Similar results in cylinder [Becoulet NF 2012] M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 11/24
12 JETlike case. Three regimes depending on rotation & resistivity. high η, low τ IC : rotating oscillating islands f * mv / (2 π r ) ~ 6kHz θ res high τ IC : static islands, more screening of RMPs. low η, low τ IC : intermediateocsillating, quasistatic islands =>fluctuations of magnetic field, density and temperature, no significant transport (Possibly related to RMPs suppression at high ν*? Rutherford regime? [Fitzpatrick PoP 1998], [IzzoNF2008]) JETlike M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 12/24
13 JETlike case. V can be stabilising and destabilising. Mechanism? Change in radial electric field (ExB part in poloidal rotation)? => under investigation V is destabilizing V is stabilizing JETlike M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 13/24
14 MAST case. Penetration of n=3 RMP in MAST. Small amplification with diamagnetism included. RMPs generated by coils in 90L configuration. Limits (numerical stability): I coil,simulation = I coil,experiment /10 τ = 10 2 (realistic one: ) IC With RMPs: n=3 grows, driven by RMPs n=3 Fourier component of the magnetic perturbation M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 14/24
15 MAST case. Current response on resonance surfaces. Density, temperature, toroidal current are not uniforme on flux surfaces (here presented surface close to separatrix) Flux ψ n=3 Current j n=3 M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 15/24
16 MAST case. In both cases (w/wo dia): screening of the central harmonics (m=49), penetration/amplification (with dia) at the edge (m>10) Dashed: without diamagnetic. Full line: with diamagnetic effects. M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 16/24
17 Boundary deformation in MAST. Lobes induced by RMPs: in DND configuration, only located in the LFS. M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 17/24
18 RMPs in ITER. W/o RMPs n=3 is stable. With RMPs =>n=3 static perturbations at the edge. Courtesy to E.Day, M.Schaffer ITER, IVC, max: I coil =90kAt, n=2,3,4. Used here n=3, 54kAt. ERGOS (vacuum) =>JOREK boundary ψ n=3 ERGOS JOREK M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 18/24
19 Equilibrium flows and radial electric field in ITER (w/o RMPs) ITER: Hmode,15MA/5.3T, R=6.2m, a=2m,q 95 =3,T 0 =27.8keV,n e = m 3,f 0 =1kHz τ ~ 5.10 ; µ ~10 5; k = 1; η = IC i, neo i, neo M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 19/24
20 RMPs in ITER. With RMPs =>n=3 static perturbations at the edge. ψ n=3 n e, n=3 j φ, n=3 T e, n=3 ITER M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 20/24
21 With RMPs: (density, temperature, pressure, current have stationary 3D structures at the edge. They are not constant at flux surfaces as in equilibrium. Future: 3D MHD stability to study Pressure inside separatrix with RMPs in ITER. Current inside separatrix with RMPs in ITER Pressure on separatrix with RMPs in ITER. Current on separatrix with RMPs in ITER. M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 21/24
22 Boundary deformation. Lobes near Xpoint (smaller with rotation). Splitting of strike points (> on outer target) ~6cm w/o flows with all flows  screening ITER wall ITER ~22cm Inner target Outer target M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 22/24
23 Small changes in edge T e, n e profiles. Modulations of T e,n e : max ~near Xpoint. T e n e RMP off RMP on RMP off T e n e RMP off RMP on ITER RMP on M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 23/24
24 Discussion and conclusions. Nonlinear resistive MHD code JOREK development for RMPs with flows: RMPs  at the boundary, 2 fluid diamagnetic effects, neoclassical poloidal viscosity, toroidal rotation source, SOL flows. JETlike(n=2).Three regimes: high η, small (poloidal) rotation (high ν*?) => oscillating and rotating islands, fluctuations δn e, δt e, δψ (t) (~khz). low η, higher rotation => static islands, more screening of RMPs. Intermediate => oscillating, quasistatic islands. MAST case (still limited in coil current amplitude /10,dia parameter /5) : RMP penetration, screening/amplification with dia. 3D boundary deformation. RMPs (n=3) in ITER. Screening of central islands, static screened edge islands, ergodic edge, splitting of strike points (>outer), flattening of averaged ne,te profiles, 3D edge temperature, density, current structures, boundary deformation: lobes near Xpoint. Future: RMPs interaction with ELMs (miltiharmonics modelling). Modelling of realistic shots MAST, JET, AUG. Continue ITER RMPs with ELMs. M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 24/24
25 Comparison JOREK&ERGOS(vacuum)&RMHD(cylinder). JOREK (torus, rotating plasma) : RMPs screening on q=m/n (stronger for central islands). Amplification r<r res in JOREK. Compared to vacuum (ERGOS). RMPs screening by rotating plasma (JOREK), smaller screening for edge RMP harmonics (η~t 3/2 ). Compared to cylinder (RMHD,q=q tor ): Stronger RMPs screening in JOREK. Amplification for r<r res. [RMHD: Becoulet NF 2012] ITER ITER M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 25/24
26 DIIID like [RMHD: Becoulet NF 2012] Island is not screened if at q~(m/n) electron poloidal velocity => zero. For ITER parameters: V θ Ohm s law=>if electron poloidal velocity=>zero: current perturbation Jϕ, mn => 0 q ~ m / n no RMP screening => vacuumlike island. vacuum in plasma V e, θ = 0 ~ / V + E, V e dia For ITER parameters used here q m n θ, θ V θ, e 0 electron poloidal velocity is not zero: =>screening V dia 0 e, θ = V V E, θ + e ITER RMP off RMP on e, 0 V = ( ψ, u ) + τ ( ψ, p ) / ρ / B θ, e IC V θ,e M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 26/24 θ
27 Peak heat fluxes on divertor targets are ~25% reduced (spreading due to ergodisation ) with RMPs on. Heat flux on inner and outer divertor targets. NB! No divertor physics (radiation, ionisation, sources, detachment.) in the model M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 27/24
28 Pressure gradient is 3D, locally could be even steeper with RMP. RMP off RMP on M. Bécoulet, , Meeting ANEMOS 28/24
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