Drought damaged area

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1 ESTIMATE OF THE AMOUNT OF GRAVEL CO~TENT IN THE SOIL BY A I R B O'RN EMS S D A T A Y. GOMI, H. YAMAMOTO, AND S. SATO ASIA AIR SURVEY CO., l d. KANAGAWA,JAPAN S.ISHIGURO HOKKAIDO TOKACHI UBPREFECTRAl OffICE HOKKA I DO, JAPAN COMMISSION N. VI ABSTRUCT Airbrne MSS data was analyzed t estimate the degree f gravel cntent in the si I f rp fields. Accrding t the analysis, the fllwing three areas cntain large amunt f gravels. (1) Areas f high si I surface temperature High temperature areas cntain large amunt f gravel. (2) Areas where relative grund level is high In general, areas whs grund level is relatively high cmpared t the surrunding areas, large amunt f gravels are fund in the si I. (3) Drughty damaged area In general, drughty damaged areas r less grwn crp area cntain large amunt f gravel. By using these findings as indices, the amunt f the gravel in the si I culd be estimated with enugh accracy as can be used as ne f the basic data fr land imprvement plan. Intrductin In hkkaid, there is 16 hectars f farm land whse si I cntains mre than 1% f 3Smm diameter gravels. In such cnditins, main crps such as beets and ptates cannt be grwn. And als, areas damaged by drught (figure 1) r areas f pr crpgrwth cntain large amunt f gravels. But 6 hectar f the 16 hectar can be used as a farm land if gravels are remved. In rder t remve gravels, it is necessary t knw the amunt f gravel in the si I f the subject area. Cnventinal methd f gravel cntent survey is direct bservatin f gravel amunt at plts dug in the field. Usually, 4 plts are dug per ne hectar. Size f ne plt is 1 square meter with depth f SOcm. This digging wrk is rdinary dne by man pwer, s it takes much time and cst especially fr large area need t be surveyed. As mre ecnmical survey methd, especially fr large area, app Ii ca t i n f remte sens i ng techn i Ques was exam i ned. Th is

2 fig.1 Drught damaged area paper describes mainly abut the methd f using Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) data t the detectin f si I surface temperature variatins in subsurface gravel amunt. At first, the relatin between the amunt f gravel in the si I and the surface temperature f bare si I was studied using grund survey data. The results f the grund survey was extended t incrprate surface temperature measured by a thermal scanner f airbne MSS. Experimental MSS airbrne data prvide us with infrmatin n thermal distributin at the surface f earth. Therefre, in rder t use MSS airbne data fr the estimatin f gravel cntent, it is necessary t knw the relatin between si I surface temperature and gravel cntent. Fr this purpse ne experiment was cnducted. The experiment was cnducted by using three experimental pts (1m by 1m) which are thermally insulated cntainers fi lied with si I and gravel. first, gravels are placed in the pts and then they were cvered by si I. Gravels and si I used fr three pts are f the same character. Difference amng the three pts is the depth f cvering si I. Three pts f three si I depth, namely 1cm, 5cm, and 15cm were prepared. Since the ttal depth f the cntent was the same difference in the thickness f si I cver means gravelsi I rat i. figure 2 shws the diurnal si I surface temperaturef f the s; I depth f 1cm, 5cm, and 15cm measured by using thermal radimeter. Temperature measurement was dne at 15 minutes interval.

3 As the result f this experiment it was fund that surface temperature increases rapidly if si I is thin, in ther wrds, if the amunt f gravel is large. This indicates that subsurface cnditins affect the surface temperature. In general, si I surface temperature is a functin f si I heat transfer prperties which is a effect f the si I types, si I misture, and r the vlume cntent f the gravels in the sils. If nly the vlume cntent f the sils are different it is bvius that the amunt f gravel cntent in the agricultural crp field can be estimated by extending the result f the experiment t the field investigatin. 3 5~ ~ 3 TIME Fig.2 Diurnal sil surface temperature difference FIELD SURVEY PROCEDURES Airbrne MSS data f a crp field were cllected in Tkachi area, Hkkaid, during the spring f Spring was chsen fr this study because befre the start f cultivatin si I surface cnditin is unifrm. T estimate the amunt f gravel in the si I in several parts f the study area, cllected MSS data were analyzed based n the relatin between gravel cntent and si I surface temperature which was fund by grund survey. Unfrtunately, hwever, the surface cnditins f the study area varies frm ne place t the ther. Fr this reasn, many f the data fel I utside the range determined by the grund-based study. Accrding t the further studies, vegetated farm land had t be mitted frm the study because the temperature f thse (h) 27

4 places depend n the vegetatin cver, nt the gravel cntent. But it was very difficult t separate vegetated farm land frm bare farm land using nly the thermal images. S, we used the cmputated value f the rati f near infrared band and red band t extract bare farm land which is in darker tne. Old river channels als had t be extracted by cmputatin f the density using red band data. Because smetimes they shw relatively high temperature than the surrunding areas because f different sil even if there is less gravels. figure 3 shw the relatin between the si I surface temperature and gravel amunt fr 25cm si I depth cheked by grund-level measurement. The crrelatin cefficient was.46 t.82. Crrelatin cefficient f the field (d) is nt as high as the ther field, prbably resulting frm varius surface cnditins. ( a ) -- C... 1> 15 P T J "' r - O > 2:: _ I:._ - = 1. ~ 2:: en n (OC ) -- C...1>...J "' 3 >z_ -l:1..i.j._ =1-- ~ Zen Ue L.&";) - N Z _1 ::::> % -I: ( b ) P=4. 18T r=o. 7 e,..----' (OC ) -C...1>...J "' 15 u...t - >:z: _ l:u...t._ =1-- ~z en 1 I...I.-U e - Z ::::> % I:.- 2, ,. L.&";) C'J ( c ) P=3. 2T r (OC ) _ -- C Ue L.&";) 5 - C'J 2:: ::::> % I:...1>...J "' 15 u...t >2::- -I: u...t._ :::::1-- ~ Z en 1 I...I.-(..;>e "' ( d ) P=2. 24T r.. O. 46 L :-"-4.-:-- ---:-C 3S :'-:. ---:-:-36-:-. -~37. C ("C ) fig. 3 Si I surface temperature versus gravel amunt fr 25cm si I depth 28

5 The accuracy f gravel amunt derived using I inear mdel is shwn in figure 4. Accrding t the figure 4 estimated errr was abut plus minus 2-3%, which is sufficient as a basic data t caluculate the amunt f gravel in the si I. l z_ Z - ::::;l~ ::::::>~ _ - ::E:~ ::E:.. II> Q I 1...I io :;:;:::.. :;:;:::.. ". :::: :::: ~ Y. c::.!:i.... " '... Q. Q ' ::E: ::E:.... i-... en en S GROUND BASED MEASUREMENT GROUND BASED MEASUREMENT P ( % ) P ( % ) :. z_ Z - ::::::>~ ::::::> ~.. _...-. ::E:. ~ ::::c ~. Q.. Q I...I :;:;:::...'". :;:;::: ::: :::: ~ ~ c::.!:i.- h lit Q Q ::E:. ::E: en en GROUND BASED MEASUREMENT GROUND BASED MEASUREMENT P ( % ) P ( % ) fig.4 Grund based measurement versus estimated gravel cntent (--- estimated errr f3%)

6 Abve relatin indicates that the amunt f gravel can be estimated frm si' surface temperature prvided that independent I inear mdel is made fr each field as shwn in figure 3. This is because each area has its wn cnditin determined by si I type, si I clr, si I misture besides the g rave I amunt. Accrding t the further field survey, hwever, relatin between gravel cntent and si I surface temperature can be divided int tw parts. First part is the relatin between s; I depth and gravel cntent whi Ie the secnd is between si I depth and si I surface temperature. Equatin f the relatin between si I depth and gravel cntent can be fund by grund survey. Therefre, the amunt f gravel can be caluculated after estimateing the si I depth frm si I surface temperature. Relatin betwen si I depth and gravel cntent is stable regardless f si I type, s; I clr, and misture cntent. Cmpared t this relatin, relatin between si I surface temperature and si I depth changes frm ne area t anther. Therefre, relatin between s; I surface temperature and si I depth need t be checked fr each type f area, such mdels are less cmplex t si I surface temperature. Figure 5 shws the maps f estimated gravel amunt. Sme grid pint measurement shws the high crrelatin with the estimated data. Accuracy f the estimatin f gravel cntent drived frm s; I surface temperature in the study area is shwn in figure 6 in the frm f cmparisn with gravel cntent data btained by grund survey. A c cr din g t fig u r e 6 m s t f the est Lm ate dam u n tis VI i t h i n estimated errr f 3% and this indicates that the estimatin is accurate enugh t be used as basic data fr land imprvement plan. CONCLUSION By cnventinal grund survey methd, nly data f very I imi ted area can be cllected. By using thermal image fr gravel cntent survey, data f large area can be btained with sufficient accuracy, estimated errr f 3%, fr a basic data t calculate gravel amunt in the sil. Further, if MSS airbne data is used fr the estimatin f gravel cntent, the MSS data can als be used in irrigatin and management plans such as the study f needs f underdrain water supply. 21

7 + SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURE OLD RIVER CHANNEL GRAVEL AMOUNT(%) DISTRIBUTION MAP () GRAVEL CONTENT DATA OBTAINED BY GROUND SURVEY Fig.S ESTIMATED GRAVEL AMOUNT 2 ( estimated errr f3%) -~ - 15 ;- z: :=;:) %:...J u...j :::> :::.::S u...j ; %: w :. ~... ;:. "" II 8 CD., " '"... e. II" l. i) ;- :.. (') ". u...j GROUND BASED MEASUREMENT P ( %) Fig 6 ACCURACY r GRAVEL AMOUNT CONTENT VESUS ESTIMATED GRAVEL AMOUNT 1 1

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