# A PHYSICAL SPACE PROOF OF THE BILINEAR STRICHARTZ AND LOCAL SMOOTHING ESTIMATES FOR THE SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION

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1 A PHYSICAL SPACE PROOF OF THE BILINEAR STRICHARTZ AND LOCAL SMOOTHING ESTIMATES FOR THE SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION TERENCE TAO Abstract. Let d 1, and let u, v : R R d C be Schwartz space solutions to the Schrödinger equation iu t + x u = 0; iv t + x v = 0. The standard L 2 bilinear Strichartz estimate for the Schrödinger equation asserts that uv L 2 t,x (R R d ) d M (d 1)/2 N 1/2 u(0) L 2 x (R d ) v(0) L 2 x (R d ) whenever u, v are supported in frequency regions {ξ R d : N ξ 2N}, {η R d : M η 2M}, and N 4M. This estimate has been used extensively in the theory of nonlinear Schrödinger equations. It is normally proven using the spacetime Fourier transform. In this short note we show that by reducing to a local smoothing estimate, one can derive this estimate by an integration by parts argument which does not rely so heavily on Fourier techniques. This may be of use in extending the above estimate to variable-coefficient situations. 1. Introduction The purpose of this note is to give a new proof of the following standard inequality: Theorem 1.1 (Bilinear Strichartz estimate). [2] Let d 1, and let u, v : R R d C be Schwartz class solutions to the Schrödinger equation iu t + x u = 0. (1) Suppose that u, v have Fourier supports 1 in the regions {ξ R d : N ξ 2N} and {η R d : M η 2M} respectively, where N, M > 0 are such that N > 4M. Then we have 2 uv L 2 t,x (R R d ) d M (d 1)/2 N 1/2 u(0) L 2 x (R d ) v(0) L 2 x (R d ). 1 The Fourier support of a function u(t, x) is the support of its spatial Fourier transform û(t, ξ) := R d e ix ξ u(t, x) dx. 2 We use X d Y or X = O d (Y ) to denote the estimate X C d Y for some constant C d depending only on d. Similarly for other choices of subscripts. 1

2 2 TERENCE TAO This inequality is of importance in the theory of nonlinear Schrödinger equations: see e.g. [2], [11]. It can be easily proven using the spacetime Fourier transform, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, and Plancherel s theorem. The requirement that u, v be Schwartz class can of course be relaxed by the usual limiting arguments. In this note, we will give a new physical space proof of this inequality which is less reliant on the spacetime Fourier transform, instead using integration by parts arguments somewhat reminiscent of those used to prove the interaction Morawetz inequality [4] (or the Glimm interaction inequality [6]). As it turns out, the bilinear Strichartz inequality can be quickly reduced via tensor products to a local smoothing estimate in 2d spatial dimensions, which we then prove by standard integration by parts methods (see e.g. [13] for some related arguments). The approach turns out to be surprisingly simple, when compared for instance with the known physical space proofs [9] of analogous bilinear Strichartz estimates for the wave equation. It seems plausible that the arguments here can be extended to establish bilinear estimates in variable coefficient settings, as studied for instance in [3], [1], [8] using different methods. We hope to report on this in a subsequent paper. The author is supported by NSF Research Award DMS , the NSF Waterman award and a grant from the MacArthur Foundation. The author thanks Zaher Hani and Paul Smith for raising this question. 2. One-dimensional local smoothing To motivate the argument, let us first give a new proof of a classical local smoothing estimate in one dimension. Theorem 2.1 (Integration by parts estimate). Let u : R R C be a Schwartz class solution to the Schrödinger equation (1) for d = 1. Then Im(u x u)(t, 0) dt 1 R 2 u(0) 2 L 2 (R). x Proof. Consider the functional M(t) := On the one hand, we clearly have 0 u(t, x) 2 dx. 0 M(t) u(t) 2 L 2 x (R2 ) = u(0) 2 L 2 x (R2 ).

3 PHYSICAL SPACE BILINEAR STRICHARTZ 3 On the other hand, from the Schrödinger equation we have the pointwise mass conservation law t u(t, x) 2 = 2 x Im(u x (t, x)u(t, x)); if we then differentiate under the integral sign (which is justified when u is Schwartz class) and use the fundamental theorem of calculus, we obtain t M(t) = 2Im(u x u)(t, 0). The claim then follows from another application of the fundamental theorem of calculus. As a corollary, we can obtain the standard local smoothing estimate (see [12], [5], [10]) in one dimension: Corollary 2.2 (Local smoothing). Let u : R R C be a Schwartz class solution to the Schrödinger equation (1) with d = 1, with Fourier support in the region {ξ R : ξ N} for some N > 0. Then ( u(t, 0) 2 dt) 1/2 N 1/2 u(0) L 2 x (R). R Proof. Let 0 < ε < 1 be a small constant to be chosen later. By a partition of unity in the Fourier variable and reflection symmetry, it will suffice to show that the bound holds whenever u has Fourier support in the frequency interval [(1 ε)n, (1 + ε)n]. By scaling we may take N = 1. Let T > 0, and let A T,ε be the best constant such that ( u(t, 0) 2 dt) 1/2 A T,ε u(0) L 2 x (R) (2) whenever u is a Schwartz class solution to (1) with Fourier support in the interval [1 ε, 1+ε]. From Bernstein s inequality we see that A T,ε is finite for each T ; our task is to show that it is bounded independently of T. Let u be as above. From Theorem 2.1 we have Im(u x u)(t, 0) dt 1 2 u(0) 2 L 2 x(r). Heuristically, we have u x iu due to the Fourier support of u. To exploit this, we split Im(u x u) = u 2 + Im((u x iu)u).

4 4 TERENCE TAO From the previous inequality and the triangle inequality, we conclude that u(t, 0) 2 dt 1 2 u(0) 2 L 2 x (R2 ) + u x iu u (t, 0) dt. Now observe that u x iu is also a Schwartz class solution to the Schrödinger equation (1) with Fourier support in [1, 1 + ε]. Applying (2), we conclude that ( u x iu 2 (t, 0) dt) 1/2 A T,ε u x (0) iu(0) L 2 x (R). But from Plancherel s theorem we have u x (0) iu(0) L 2 x (R) ε u(0) L 2 x (R) and thus by Cauchy-Schwarz and (2) We conclude that u x iu u (t, 0) dt εa 2 T u(0) 2 L 2 x(r). u(t, 0) 2 dt ( O(εA2 T,ε)) u(0) 2 L 2 x (R); from the definition of A T,ε, we conclude that A 2 T,ε O(εA2 T,ε) (3) and thus (if ε is small enough) that A T,ε = O(1) for all T, and the claim follows. Remark 2.3. The derivation of (3) used the fact that the space of functions with Fourier support in [1, 1 + ε] was exactly preserved by the operator u u x iu. This fact is special to Euclidean space, and would not extend directly to variable coefficient settings. However, one could imagine adapting the above argument to such settings to prove weaker estimates such as or perhaps A 2 T,ε 1 + εa 2 T,2ε 1/ε A 2 T,ε 1 + ε k C A 2 T,kε for arbitrarily large constants C. Combining this with a crude estimate such as A T = O(T ), this would lead to estimates of the form k=1 A T,ε 1 + ε C T which upon summing would then lead to estimates such as A T (1 + T ) 1/C.

5 PHYSICAL SPACE BILINEAR STRICHARTZ 5 This would give (2.2) with a loss of O((1 + T N 2 ) 1/C ) for any fixed C, which may be good enough for some applications. 3. Multidimensional local smoothing The arguments of the previous extension extend to higher dimensions as follows. First, we generalise Theorem 2.1: Theorem 3.1 (Integration by parts estimate). Let d 1, and let u : R R d C be a Schwartz class solution to the Schrödinger equation (1). We split R d as R R d 1, and write x R d as x = (x 1, x ) for x 1 R, x R d 1. Then Im(u x1 u)(t, 0, x ) dtdx 1 R R 2 u(0) 2 L 2 x(r d ). d 1 Proof. Repeat the proof of Theorem 2.1 with the functional M(t) := u(t, x 1, x ) 2 dx dx 1 0 R d 1 using the pointwise mass conservation law d t u(t, x) 2 = 2 xj Im(u xj (t, x)u(t, x)), j=1 noting that the terms involving derivatives in the x 2,..., x d directions will vanish. By repeating the proof of Corollary 2.2 verbatim, we obtain a local smoothing estimate of Ionescu and Kenig[7]: Corollary 3.2 (Local smoothing on a hyperplane). Let d 1, and let u : R R d C be a Schwartz class solution to the Schrödinger equation (1), with Fourier support in the region {(ξ 1, ξ ) R d : ξ 1 N} for some N > 0. Then ( u(t, 0, x ) 2 dtdx ) 1/2 N 1/2 u(0) L 2 x (R ). d R R d 1 Remark 3.3. One could also deduce Corollary 3.2 directly from Corollary 2.2 (or Theorem 3.1 from Theorem 2.1) by a Fourier transform in the x variables. The condition ξ 1 N is ensuring that the bicharacteristics of the Schrödinger equation are transverse to the hyperplane x 1 = 0, which as is well known is the basic ingredient (together with the non-trapping nature of Euclidean space) that makes local smoothing possible.

6 6 TERENCE TAO Of course, there is nothing special about the x 1 variable here, and by rotation symmetry we can have the same estimate in any direction: Corollary 3.4 (Local smoothing, again). Let d 1, let ω be a unit vector in R d, and let u : R R d C be a Schwartz class solution to the Schrödinger equation (1), with Fourier support in the region {ξ R d : ξ ω R d : ξ 1 N} for some N > 0. Then ( u(t, x) 2 dtdx) 1/2 N 1/2 u(0) L 2 x (R d ) R x ω=0 where dx is d 1-dimensional Lebesgue measure on the hyperplane {x R d : x ω = 0}. Remark 3.5. One can average over ω and recover the standard local smoothing estimate in higher dimensions; we omit the details. 4. Proof of the bilinear estimate Now we prove Theorem 1.1. We will rescale M = 1 (this step is not strictly necessary, but reduces the clutter slightly). By a partition of the frequency domain and rotation invariance we may assume that u has Fourier support in the region {(ξ 1, ξ ) R d : 0.9N ξ 1 2N} (say). We observe that the tensor product function U : R R d R d C, defined by the formula U(t, x, y) := u(t, x)v(t, y) solves the 2d-dimensional Schrödinger equation with initial data of size iu t + x,y U = 0 U(0) L 2 x,y (R d R d ) = u(0) L 2 x (R d ) v(0) L 2 x (R d ). It has Fourier support in the region {((ξ 1, ξ ), (η 1, η )) R d R d : 0.9N ξ 1 2N; (η 1, η ) 2} and in particular we have ξ 1 η 1 N on this region. Applying Corollary 3.4 to this 2d-dimensional setting (using the unit vector ω = ((1/ 2, 0), ( 1/ 2, 0))), we conclude that ( U(t, (x 1, x ), (x 1, y )) 2 dx dy dx 1 dt) 1/2 N 1/2 u(0) L 2 x (R ) v(0) d L 2 x (R ). d R R R d 1 R d 1 We can write the left-hand side as u(t, x 1, x ) 2 ( v(t, x 1, y ) 2 dy )dx dxdt. R R R d 1 R d 1

7 PHYSICAL SPACE BILINEAR STRICHARTZ 7 On the other hand, since v has Fourier support in the region {η R d : η 1}, the d 1-dimensional functions y v(t, x 1, y ) have Fourier support in the region {η R d 1 : η = O(1)}. From Bernstein s inequality (or Plancherel s theorem and Cauchy-Schwarz) we conclude that v(t, x 1, x ) 2 v(t, x 1, y ) 2 dy. R d 1 Combining this with the previous inequality we obtain Theorem 1.1. References [1] M. Blair, H. Smith, C. Sogge, On multilinear spectral cluster estimates for manifolds with boundary, Math. Res. Lett. 15 (2008), no. 3, [2] J. Bourgain, New global well-posedness results for non-linear Schrödinger equations, AMS Publications, [3] N. Burq, P. Gérard, N. Tzvetkov, Multilinear estimates for the Laplace spectral projectors on compact manifolds, C. R. Math. Acad. Sci. Paris 338 (2004), no. 5, [4] J. Colliander, M. Keel, G. Staffilani, H. Takaoka, T. Tao, Global well-posedness and scattering in the energy space for the critical nonlinear Schrodinger equation in R 3, to appear, Annals Math. [5] P. Constantin, J.C. Saut, Effets régularisants locaux pour des équations disperives générales, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Sér. I. Math. 304 (1987), [6] J. Glimm, Solutions in the large for nonlinear hyperbolic systems of equations, Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 18, (1965), [7] A. Ionescu, C. Kenig, Low-regularity Schrödinger maps, Differential Integral Equations 19 (2006), no. 11, [8] J.-C. Jiang, Bilinear Strichartz estimates for Schrödinger operators in 2 dimensional compact manifolds with boundary and cubic NLS, preprint. [9] S. Klainerman, I. Rodnianski, T. Tao, A physical approach to wave equation bilinear estimates, J. Anal. Math. 87 (2002), [10] P. Sjölin, Regularity of solutions to Schrödinger equations, Duke Math. J., 55 (1987), [11] T. Tao, Nonlinear dispersive equations: local and global analysis, CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics, Number 106, AMS Publications, [12] L. Vega, Schrödinger equations: pointwise convergence to the initial data, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 102 (1988), [13] L. Vega, N. Visciglia, On the local smoothing for the Schrödinger equation, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 135 (2007), no. 1, Department of Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles CA address:

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