# How do physicists study problems?

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2 What is Physics? The branch of science that studies the physical world (from atoms to the universe); The study of the nature of matter and energy and how they are related; The ability to understand or predict the outcome of activities occurring around you; Mathematics is the language of physics.

3 How do physicists study problems? Ask questions, researching, experimentation; Use mathematics to develop theories to explain experimental data; Apply the scientific method all scientists study problems in an organized manner, using many techniques (Galileo Galilei).

4 Why Learn Physics? Career preparation; Improve problem solving skills; Better able to make informed decisions about questions related to science and technology.

5 Accuracy and Precision Exact numbers arise from counting. Measured quantities are approximate. Uncertainty of measurements depends on: a) skill of the measurer; b) size of the smallest unit on the measuring device; c) parallax.

6 Precision refers to the degree of exactness of a measurement. Accuracy is an indication of how close a measured value comes to the true value.

7 Because the precision of all measuring devices is limited, the number of digits that are valid for any measurement is also limited. Valid digits are called significant figures.

8 Significant Figures Digits that are certain plus a digit that estimates the fraction of the smallest unit of the measuring scale. Written measured quantities express: a) Quantity b) Degree of accuracy

9 Rules for Significant Figures 1. Nonzero digits are always significant. e.g., m ( 5 sig. Figs.)

10 Rules for Significant Figures 2. All final zeros after the decimal are significant. e.g., mm (4 sig. figs.)

11 Rules for Significant Figures 3. Zeros between other significant digits are always significant. e.g., m (7 sig. figs.) s (5 sig. figs.)

12 Rules for Significant Figures 4. Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal are not significant e.g., m (3 sig. figs.) m (2 sig. figs.)

13 Rules for Significant Figures To avoid confusion, express in scientific notation: 1.86 x 10 5 m (3 sig. figs.) x 10 5 m (4 sig. figs.) m (1 sig. fig) 3.0 x 10-3 m (2 sig. figs.)

14 Practice m mg m L x 10 5 m kg

15 Operations with Significant Figures

16 Operations with Significant Figures The result of any mathematical operation with measurements can never be more precise than the least precise measurement.

17 Addition and Subtraction with SigFigs Round off the calculation to correspond with the least precise measurement. Significant figures after the decimal point should never be more than the least precise measurement. i.e., m m m

18 Addition and Subtraction with SigFigs Round off the calculation to correspond with the least precise measurement. Significant figures after the decimal point should never be more than the least precise measurement. i.e., 5.65 x 10 2 m 1.56 m

19 Multiplication and Division with SigFigs Round off the calculation to have the same number of significant figures as the factor with the least significant figures. i.e., x 3.22 cm 2.1 cm

20 Multiplication and Division with SigFigs Round off the calculation to have the same number of significant figures as the factor with the least significant figures. i.e., 36.5 m s

21 M x 10 n Where: 1< M < 10 Scientific Notation Used for very large or very small quantities The numerical part of a measurement is expressed as a number between 1 and 10 and multiplied by a whole number power of 10. n = integer

22 Move decimal until 1 non-zero number remains on the left. Examples: 5800 m = 5.8 x 10 3 m m = 5.08 x 10-4 m Left is larger Right is reduced

23 Practice: A) m B) cm C) kg D) 32 m E) 7.1 cm F) kg

24 Operations in Scientific Notation

25 Addition/Subtraction with Like Exponents Add or subtract the coefficients and keep the same power a) 4 x 10 8 m + 3 x 10 8 m = 7 x 10 8 m b) 6.2 x 10 3 m x 10 3 m 3.4 x 10 3 m

26 Addition/Subtraction with Unlike Exponents convert measurements to a common exponent, then add or subtract. a) 4.0 x 10 6 m x 10 5 m b) 4.0 x 10 6 kg 3.0 x 10 7 kg ****all measurements need to be in the same units.***

27 Multiplication using Scientific Notation multiply the values and add the exponents; units are also multiplied. Example: (3 x 10 6 m) (2 x 10 3 m)

28 Division using Scientific Notation divide the values and subtract the exponent of the divisor from the exponent of the dividend. Units are divided. Examples: a) 8 x 10 6 m 2 x 10 3 s b) 8 x 10 6 kg 2 x 10 2 m 3

29 Practice: 1. a) (2x10 4 m)(4x10 8 m) b) (6x10-4 m)(2x10-8 m) 2. a) 6 x 10 8 kg b) 6 x 10-5 m 2 x 10 4 m 3 3 x 10 3 s 3. a) (3 x 10 4 kg)(4x10 4 m) b) (2.5 x 10 6 kg)(6x10 4 m) 6 x 10 4 s 5 x 10-2 s 2

30 Metric System Systeme International d Units (SI) Developed in France in 1795 Convenient, based on powers of 10 Fundamental/base units used worldwide: Length - metres (m) Mass - kilograms (kg) Time - seconds (s)

31 PREFIXES Used to change SI units by powers of ten.

32 Multiples Units Larger than the base unit (i.e., km, Mg) How do we convert 452 g to kg?

33 Multiples Units How do we convert 5.3 kg into g?

34 Fractional Units Smaller than the base unit (i.e., cm, mg) How do we convert 500 nm to m? How do we convert m into nm?

35 Practice: Convert each of the following to its equivalent in meters a) 3.0 cm b) 83.2 pm c) 5.2 km d) Mm

36 Practice: Convert each of the following to its equivalent in kilograms a) 293 g b) 207 µg

37 Practice: Convert each of the following to its equivalent in kilograms c) 82.3 Mg d) 426 mg

38 Derived Units A derived unit is composed of more than one unit or units with exponents. Conversions require cancellations in two directions

39 Convert 90 km/h into m/s: Convert 0.25 m 3 to cm 3 :

40 Practice: 1. Convert 25 m/s to km/h: 2. Convert 5.0 mg/ml into kg/l. 3. Convert mm 2 to m 2.

41 Graphing

42 Graphing Independent variable The one whose values the experimenter chooses and changes (manipulated variable); Plotted on the horizontal axis. i.e., the experimenter chooses the time at which to record the distance a toy car has traveled.

43 Graphing Dependent variable Responding variable; Changes as a result of a change in the independent variable; Plotted on the vertical axis. i.e., the distance a toy car has travels increases as time increases.

44 Plotting Graphs 1. Independent variable is placed on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable is placed on the vertical axis. 2. Determine the range of data and spread the scale as widely as possible. Number and label each axis and put a title on top of the page (dependent-independent). 3. Plot each data point and mark it in pencil. Draw a small circle around each dot, and then draw the best straight line or smooth curved line that passes as many points as possible.

45 Example: The distance a car travels over time is recorded in the table below. Plot the data on the graph. Time (h) Distance (km)

46 Types of Data Relationships Direct (Linear) y = mx + b b = y intercept m = constant (slope) y = rise x = run

47 Types of Data Relationships Exponential (Parabolic) y = kx z k = constant y varies directly with the square of x. (as x increases, y increases more quickly)

48 Types of Data Relationships Inverse (Hyperbolic) xy = k or y = k x k = constant As x increases, y decreases.

49 Interpolation finding values between measured points. Extrapolation finding points beyond measured points. if graph is extended beyond plotted points, use a dotted line.

50 Manipulating Equations

51 It is important in physics to be able to arrange equations to solve for different variables. R V I Solve for V:

52 R V I Solve for I:

53 Solve for X: Ay = cb X S

54 Practice: 1. y = mx + b a)solve for x b) Solve for b

55 2. Solve for v. a) d = vt b) t = d c) a = v 2 d) v = b v 2d a c

56 Solve for E: 3. a) f = E b) m = 2E c) E = m s v 2 c 2 Solve for a: 4. a) v = v o + at b) v 2 = v o 2 + 2ad c) v = 2ad

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