Lecture 50 Changing Closed Loop Dynamic Response with Feedback and Compensation

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1 Lecture 50 Changing Closed Loop Dynamic Response with Feedback and Compensation 1 A. Closed Loop Transient Response Waveforms 1. Standard Quadratic T(s) Step Response a. Q > 1/2 Oscillatory decay to a step b. Q < 1/2 Exponential decay to a step c. Q = 1/2 Goldilocks solution critically damped B. Feedback Review 1. (Z ) = Z o (open loop) out closed loop 1+ T G vg (open loop) 2. (G vg ) closed loop = 1+ T, Z out varies with f, G vg (f) 3. Closed Loop Response Time t = 1/ 2π f c (T(s) cross over) f C is at T(s) unity gain 4. Limitations on Transient Overshoot a. V pk /I pk are f(q) and Cause Damage b. Approximating Q for the two nearby poles T(s) Unity Gain Cross-over case c. φ m Tailoring via G c (s) C. Compensation Networks To Tailor T(s) 1. Overview of G c (Alterations Tailoring) 2. Lead Compensator in G c (s) PD Compensator

2 Lecture 50 Changing Closed Loop Dynamic Response with Feedback and Compensation A. Transient Waveforms in Time Domain 1. Standard Quadratic System Response step drive 2 = 1/s Vin(s) T(s) Vo(s) Open loop response 1 T(s) = s 1 + w Q + ( s w ) 2 o o We find f 0 (L-C resonance frequency) and f C ( unity gain of T(s) crossover frequency) of T(s) are sometimes related. Erickson shows that for a SPECIAL case of quadratic open loop gain T(s)= 1/ s/ω 0 (1 +s/ ω 2 ) we find that the two poles of T(s) are f 0 and f o f o f 2 and the crossover frequency of T(s) is related as =. f c f 2 For this case Q=(f 0 /f 2 ) 1/2. In the low Q case there is no Q peaking but in the high Q case there is and Q=f 0 / f C. Next we generalize. a. Q > 1/2 Oscillatory Decay to Unit Step Input For a general second order system as described above the unit step response (or transient response) of the closed loop second order system T/ (1+T) is such that both poles lie close to f 0 : w t/2q 2 4Q -1 c $v(t) = 1 + c t Q e sin ω tan ( 4Q -1) 2 4Q -1 2Q v(t) is oscillatory in time for Q>1/2 and for Q<1/2 is exponential. For Q>1/2 the peak value is 1+ exp( +/- p/ (1-4Q 2 ) 1/2 The peak V may cause problems for solid-state devices in circuits with

3 T(s). That is even brief peak values can destroy devices. b. Q < 1/2 Step Output of T/ (1+T) is exponential The poles of T/ (1+T) are well separated in frequency as compared to to the case for Q>1/2. Roughly speaking we find: ω 1 = Qω c =2 π f C, ω 2 = ω c /Q =2π f 2 w2 $v(t) = 1 - w - w e -w t w1 - w - w e 1 -w2t ( ) c 2 w,w = w 2Q Q 1 2 The plots of the T/ (1+T) response to a step input are summarized below for your perusal. Note the oscillatory and damped conditions vary with the resulting Q of the original T(s). 3 c. For Q =1/2 the two pole locations of T/ (1+T) are roughly f 1 and f 2 = 4 f 1 : Critically Damped Case The critically damped case separates the two sets of transient solutions to T/ (1+T) of one, oscillatory sine waves and two, decaying exponentials. We term this the critically damped case. In the approximation that,f lower = 10-1/2Q f 0 ( of the L-C resonance =1 / 2 π (LC) 1/2,we find the lower frequency pole location in the critically damped case to be.

4 f lower = f 0 / 10 WHAT about f higher??. Below we consider three cases for Q in the open loop responset(s) and the overview of the different closed loop transient responses. Q< ½ is considered OVERDAMPED and Q>1/2 is considered to be UNDERDAMPED. Q < 1/2 Q = 1/2 Q > 1/2 fo Q =, f 2 4fo critically damped Underdamped f 2 w 1 = Qw 0 at low f causes slow response of the closed loop system 2 - π / 4Q -1 v peak = 1+e NO OVERSHOOT Q=1, V PEAK =1.16 V IN Q=2, V PEAK =1.44 V IN 4 t = t = 1 f o for 3.3V Pentium Q = 2 V max = 4.7V ok? Any Problems for the IC??? 1 2f o for 82% t= 1/ 2 f CROSS-OVER For 82% rise for 98.6% of rise t = 1 for 98.6 % rise Goldilocks solution of fastest response without overshoot, Dt = 1/ f C We term f C as the unity gain cross-over frequency of T(s). It is easily measured or calculated from the model. It also turns out to be the cross-over frequency, f C, for both T/ (1+T) and 1/ (1+T). Hence f C sets response time. f c

5 We next consider the issues involved with open-loop T(s) in a general feedback loop and how we wish to tailor T(s) versus frequency to attain a variety of goals for the closed-loop system with feedback. In general we wish the highest f C possible so that we have a quickly responding system to any transient disturbances. The practical limit to f C is roughly 1/5 of thew switch frequency of the converter, f SW. If we have f C above this we may inadvertently amplify the switch ripple and cause instability. B. Effects of Feedback on Converters: A Review We place feedback around a converter with open-loop gain,t(s), in order to achieve a better converter. In particular we improve the output impedance by 1/(1+T), we improve G VG by 1/ (1+T). We can also improve the closed loop response, T/(1+T), by increasing the unity gain cross-over frequency of an already existing T(s). We do this by placing compensation networks in series within the loop gain. Hence the transient response in closed loop is made faster by compensation. We must be careful to tailor the Q of the new T(s) so that we do not cause too much overshoot or ringing during the transient response. Peak values can kill solid state devices rapidly. We also must also not cause closed loop stability problems by having too low a phase margin in new T(s) plots. This is an exercise in tradeoffs. Key to success of compensation networks is careful analysis of the old and new T(s) Bode plots as shown below. Compensation tailors the open loop response, T(s) to achieve the best set of closed-loop goals. Large values of T at the mains( Hz and harmonics) frequencies will reduce G VG (output to line voltage variations) as well as reduce the output impedance by a factor 1/ (1+T). That is the reduction occurs only when T is large. However, large T at low frequency might mean too high values of f C causing inadvertent amplification of the switch frequency of too low a phase margin resulting in oscillation. We will see that as designed phase margins of 76 degrees are safe but we often push phase margin as low as 30 degrees due to temperature and aging effects. Even at thirty 5

6 degrees the converter may break into periods of oscillation when large transients are experienced. The feedback converter is shown below with the associated variables and transfer functions. il 6 vg Gvg Zout vref ve vc vo Gc(s) 1/Vm d Gvd(s) B ref g vd o V out = V $ T + V $ G (s) $ z - i L β 1+ T 1+ T 1+ T Gc Where the open loop gain T = β V G vd in the control to output m loop has contributions from the feedback ratio( β) the compensation network (G C ) and the control to output transfer function of the converter topology chosed(g VD ). Note that G C is a separate block containing the compensation network that will tailor T(s) from what it is without compensation to what it will become with compensation in order to achieve closed-loop capabilities. It often employs an op-amp circuit. 1. Effect of i (load) over a frequency range: f min <f<f MAX Vout out = - Z (open loop) iload 1+ T if z out (open loop) cannot be made small enough in a frequency range we want for our design then what?? Z OUT specification. we seek over a given frequency range

7 Note now that by clever use of compensation networks, G C we Can tailor the amplitude of T in specific frequency regions. f min f f MAX increase 1+T by compensation of T(s) over f min f f MAX Usually we easily achieve low Z OUT at f< f C, but not at f>f C. WHY? 2. Effect of DV g (input voltage) on the Converter Output Usually V g is a very crude rectified ac, with lots of variations especially at 120, 180 Hz etc. Below we consider Europe or Japan where the mains power is at 50 Hz and the harmonic ripple is at 100 Hz. The effect of the ripple is reduced by feedback. V V out g vg = G 1+ T Usually the Spec of G vg(100) 1+ T(100) is given as x 100 Hz by the customer. If G vg is considered Hz we need to tailor the open loop response T(100) to meet specification on G VG / (1+T). For 10 % variation at the output due to V G effects we need 1/(1+T) to be at least -20 db. For 1% variation at the output due to V G effects we need 1/(1+T) to be - 40 db. Again to do this we need high T at the mains frequency, and all harmonics of the mains. An op-amp is ideal to achieve this high low frequency gain. That is the gain of an op-amp at low frequency is > Desired Closed Loop Response Time to a Large Disturbance We term f C as the unity gain cross-over frequency of T(s),1/ (1+T(s)) as well as T/ (1+T) as shown on the top of page 8. To verify this, just consider the two cases of T>>1 and T<<. Hence, if we modify the open-loop gain and change f C we will also change the closed-loop f C as well. This means we can use compensation to increase f C to higher values to improve transient response. The practical limit to higher f C is 1/5 the switch frequency. 7

8 8 0 db T/(1+T) T fc Both T and T/(1+T) have the same fc In general the transient response of the closed loop system will depend on the open loop T(s) cross-over frequency f C according to the relationship. 1 t (response) = 2π fc Our spec Our design for t choice for f c for Dt fl «f c is the trend However, fast closed-loop response brings it s own problems like overshoot and ringing to the dynamic waveforms as described below in section 4. This is avoided by proper care of the phase margin at the unity gain cross-over of the open-loop T(s). Finally we repeat that f C cannot exceed 1/5 of f SW as an upper limit. 4. Allowable Overshoot Due to Solid State Limitations In both the time and frequency domains we saw closed loop response overshoot occurs and was related to Q of the open loop, T(s). T/ (1+T) in particular was prone to Q peaking. time Q=1 44% overshoot f 0 db frequency T T/(1+T) Q = fo/fc = fo/fc

9 9 We can not always predict T/1+T behavior from T behavior alone. But for the special cases where T has a 0 db or unity gain crossover via two isolated poles, we can relate the phase margin, φ m, of T(s) to the closed loop Q peaking of,t/1+t. This is summarized below. Given a desired phase margin in the phase angle of T(s) = β G c /V m G vd, what do we do to achieve it, especially if the original uncompensated T(s) is considered inadequate? Often the compensator box, G C, is the only system box in the entire T(s) loop easy to diddle, with the goal of modifying T(s) to the desired shape versus frequency. In short to tailor a desired phase margin, φ m, Use phase compensators in the G c (s) box. Sometimes we apply compensation to make an unstable system stable. More often we apply G C to make a better T(s) from an old T(s) that is stable but not optimum. We tailor the shape of the old T(s) by the G C network alone.. In our studies we will limit G C (s) to four cases given below to balance load regulation versus transient response in closed loop.

10 10 The use of an op-amp in the compensation network insures a pole at DC in the G C frequency response which is very useful for achieving low values of G VG (load regulation) at mains frequencies via the 1/ (1+T) factor. More on compensation networks and the use of Op-amps later. In summary, use of feedback in PWM converters has some clear goals, several of which are in competition with each other and tradeoffs need to be made in T(s) shapes. We will be able to tailor different portions of the original T(s) with G C (s) to achieve most goals simultaneously. To know T(s) we need to measure or calculate it by breaking the loop. Once we have open loopt(s) we can carefully inspect it to see how to improve it by the addition of compensation. For example on page 11 we plot two T(s) plots and show in general why we would employ compensation to improve the old T(s) to create a new T(s) with improved properties. The first T(s) is one that has three poles and too a small phase margin at unity gain. It needs phase compensation to be stable under closed loop operation. The second has a single pole and will always be stable under closed loop conditions. Unfortunately its cross-over frequency is too low resulting in a sluggish transient response. It may not be able to correct fast transient disturbances. We can change that.

11 11 The T(s) below is not acceptable because it s phase margin is not adequate, possibly negative, insuring positive not negative feedback. How would you fix it? The next T(s) while stable would benefit from an increase in it s f C. How would you achieve this? The single pole in the above T(s) arises from the load in parallel with the filter capacitor. Since f P 1/ R LOAD we also see that the G VD pole location depends on the loading. That is T(s) will shift with the load. Finally in the above plot we see the appearance of a zero in T(s) from the ESR of the output capacitor. These details

12 are crucial to proper compensation design, and do not always appear clearly to the new engineer. In summary we see that compensation is not limited to unstable T(s) and its use is more likely to arise to improve closed loop response. Looking ahead to section C there will be two broad classes of compensation networks, G C. One, lead compensators or proportional differential (PD) compensators and two,lag or proportional integral (PI) compensators. Each will tailor a different portion of the original T(s) to create a new and better T(s). However, there will be undesired effects from one type of compensation on the T(s) shape in a different frequency region that we will have to carefully monitor and design around. In addition we need to realize that the converter transfer function poles and zero locations may also depend on loading conditions and the existence of parasitic elements. We will see examples of both in this lecture. Four separate G C networks with op-amps are shown below. a)-single pole G C, b)one pole with gain limiting G c )pole-zero 12

13 compensation,d)2-pole and 2 zero G C compensation. The one pole G C Bode plots are given below. Note the constant phase. 13 What about the double zero/ double pole G C network with opamp? We will find use for these G C networks in improving T(s) response to achieve better closed loop response in Lecture 51.

14 C. Compensation Networks G c and its use for Alterations/Tailoring of Open-Loop T(s) to Achieve Closed-Loop System Goals G In a loop gain T = β c G Vm vd G c (s), the compensator, is in the low power portion of the loop where it is easier to manipulate and diddle with. We are diddling G C for several reasons. One, to T(s) improve φ m of T(s) so that either 1+ T(s) or so that 1 has 1+ T(s) the desired DYNAMIC or TRANSIENT characteristics. Two, so that 1/ (1+T) has the desired characteristics in some specified lowfrequency range, usually around the AC mains low frequency region, so as to achieve low sensitivity to input voltage changes. Illustrative Goal G c (s) Solution i) φ f x or to 1. Add a zero to G c (s) at f y < f x so increase f c of T(s) φ m (f x ) is larger and so is f c This is termed a PD compensator network. ii). Increase low f 2. Add an inverted zero to the loop gain to insure loop f y >f x so that that the Vo Vg f x 1/1+T is smaller at f x is met via 1/1+T This is called PI a compensator network. iii). We can try to do both 1 and 2 to the same T(s) via a combined PID G C network. We must be careful because extra phase margin at one frequency does NOT GUARANTEE the proper phase margin at another frequency, where undesired instability may occur. Tradeoffs are required. iv) We usually employ an operational amplifier with feedback as the lynchpin element of the compensation network. Clearly the op-amp frequency response must be high enough to

15 15 exceed the location of any compensation pole or zero or the G C block, when employing an op-amp, will not work properly. Before we start the detailed discussion of compensation schemes we need to keep four guidelines in mind as we tailor open loop,t(s), for various converters to achieve closed-loop goals. a. T(s) phase should be less than 300 degrees whenever the open-loop gain exceeds o db. φ M =??? b. The closed loop f C should be high, if a fast transient response is desired. However f C should never exceed 1/5 of the switch frequency, f C < f SW / 5. Why is this?? c. T(s) should have as LARGE value as possible in order to make T/(1+T) be dependent only on passive elements in H(s) and no other factors. d. For reliable closed-loop stability it is best for T(s) to cross unity gain at 20 db /decade if possible. In the following three sections we will cover lead (section C2 lecture 50) lag (lecture 51) and lead/lag (lecture 51) 2. Lead Compensator in G c (s)or PD Compensator This G C increases f C of T/(1+T) thereby improving transient response but it also increases φ M,which can improve the closed loop stability, reduce overshoot and improve reliability. Consider a no-brainer T(s) below that under proper conditions crosses unity gain with TOO big a phase margin. If we start with a potentially unstablet(s) as shown T 0 db fo -40 db/dec fc < fsw/10 fsw f original two pole system that oscillates closed loop where f c is chosen << f sw

16 T 76 fc < fsw/10 Worst case two poles cause φ m 0 far from desired φ m > 76 o The above T(s) exhibits a double pole filter response characteristic of, for example, the voltage controlled DCM flyback converter. We can via G c (s) add a term to the open loop response, T(s) to improve things. Specifically a zero placed at or below the DOUBLE POLE of the original T(s), in order to improve φ M. At somewhat higher frequency another pole is placed in order to compensate for the zero at all higher frequencies of T(s). We wish our compensation of T(s) to make its effects felt only where needed. Clearly in general, for phase lead compensation f Z << f P. Full phase contribution from the zero starts at 10 f Z whereas the full pole phase doesn t occur till 10 f P. Hence we insert phase over a limited frequency range. In short, z G s(s) = G (1+ s / w ) co 1+ s / w the zero is located below f c of original p T(s) to increase φ m and f P lies above original f C of T(s). Again we always want f p << f sw as well as below the maximum frequency response of the operational amplifier used in implementing G C. We are seeking positive and increasing φ f = f c so we design G C carefully: (1) Choose w z and w p locations such that maximum phase from G c (s) f c the original cross-over of uncompensated T(s). Intuitively f for φ max f = f z fp But value of φ max is complex Clearly the extremes are f z = f p f = 0, f p >> f z φ 90 o 16

17 17 Graphically we plot the phase contribution fore various f P / f Z ratios using the relationship Sin(φ) = (f P - f Z ) / (f P +f Z ). We find φ MAX =55 degrees for f P / f Z = 10 and 75 for f P / f Z = 60 as shown below. To better employ the φ max chart to insure that we place maximum phase lead at f c = fφ max do the following in the G C design. 1. Choose ratio f p /f z from the desired phase we want to introduce to T(s) to achieve the closed-loop goals. 2. From the desires Max φ we get both f Z and f P locations 1- sinφmax 1+ sinφ f z = max f c f p = fc 1+ sinφmax 1+ sinφmax This sets the two frequencies in the G C network. The uncompensated and compensated T(s) are shown on page 18.

18 18 fz The case above G co was purposely set to so that the lead fp compensator inserted unity gain at f c and thus the crossover frequency of the open loop was unchanged as compared tto that of the open-loop gain even with the addition of the compensator. We need not be so picky. Sometimes we even wish to increase or decrease f C to achieve faster/ slower transient response. Other G co choices are sometimes employed as shown below: G co < 1 G co > 1 less open loop T, less -db 1/1+T more T, more -db for the 1/1+T factor lower f c larger f c Slower transient response Faster transient response In summary lead compensation increases phase margin the original T(s) at f C but it can also introduce increased gain to the new T(s) and also alter the f C of T(s) if we so choose. We must carefully pick G C component values such that G C introduces no new gain at f C to keep the f C and transient response the same. The op-amp circuit to achieve this is shown on page 19. The

19 inherent DC gain of the op-amp usually has a pole at DC or low frequency that provides higher T(s) values near the mains frequencies and it s harmonics. A zero is introduced just below the double pole of the L-C filter in order to provide as much as 90 of phase compensation at f C, in order to keep φ M positive and close to the desired value of 76. That is the phase lag of the opamp decreases, due to compensation, between f Z and f P. The last pole rolls off the T(s) gain at high frequency, BUT it ALSO counteracts the inevitable extra zero arising from the capacitor ESR in the output circuit of any PWM converter. The pole-zero compensation achieved with an op-amp and one set of feedback R-C elements is shown below in the G C (f) plots. For HW #4 can derive the pole and zero locations for G C only in the op-amp circuit below. Show circuit element conditions for f Z < f P to occur. For HW #4 please derive f Z and f P expressions for the G C plots shown: 19 Use your knowledge of op-amps from earlier courses.

20 A simple lead circuit design in a G C network is next. We show how G C design in determining a new T(s) from an old T(s) is an iterative process. It requires patience to see the changes we cause. We start with a T(s) that has too small a phase margin, causing a METASTABLE system that sometimes under strong transient disturbance will break into oscillation. We need to tweak the original φ M to achieve a bigger value. The old T(s) around the cross-over frequency will be altered to achieve a better T(s). Not only will the phase margin be improved but the transient response will improve on the new T(s). What especially difficult about design is the cut-and-try nature of the process. For example here the addition of a phase lead will also increase the f C of the new T(s) and we have to guesstimate it during design. Knowing f C will increase also tells us we have to choose φ M to bigger than what we think we need to accommodate the extra phase lag from the old T(s) at the new and higher f C. A simple R-C network to achieve phase lead is shown below. For HW # 4 show that the pole and zero locations are as shown. 20

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