# Theorems and Definitions in Group Theory

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1 Theorems and Definitions in Group Theory Shunan Zhao Contents 1 Basics of a group Basic Properties of Groups Properties of Inverses Direct Product of Groups Equivalence Relations and Disjoint Partitions 4 3 Elementary Number Theory GCD and LCM Primes and Euclid s Lemma Exponents and Order Exponents Order Integers Modulo n Integers Modulo n Addition and Multiplication of Z n Subgroups Properties of Subgroups Subgroups of Z Special Subgroups of a Group G Creating New Subgroups from Given Ones Cyclic Groups and Their Subgroups Cyclic Subgroups of a Group Cyclic Groups Subgroups of Cyclic Groups Direct Product of Cyclic Groups Subgroups Generated by a Subset of a Group G 10 9 Symmetry Groups and Permutation Groups Bijections Permutation Groups Cycles Orbits of a Permutation Generators of S n

2 10 Homorphisms Homomorphisms, Epimorphisms, and Monomorphisms Classification Theorems Cosets and Lagrange s Theorem Cosets Lagrange s Theorem Normal Subgroups Introduction to Normal Subgroups Quotient Groups Product Isomorphism Theorem and Isomorphism Theorems Product Isomorphism Theorem Isomorphism Theorems

3 1 Basics of a group 1.1 Basic Properties of Groups Definition (Definition of a Group). A set G is a group if and only if G satisfies the following: 1. G has a binary relation : G G G so that g, h G, g h G. We write (g, h) = g h. (Closure.) 2. g, h, k G, g (h k) = (g h) k. (Associative.) 3. e G, s.t. e a = a = a e. e is called an identity element of G. 4. g G, g 1 G, s.t. g g 1 = e = g 1 g. g 1 is called an inverse of g. Definition If g, h G, we also have g h = h g, then we say that G is an abelian group. Theorem Let G be a group. Then, a G, ag = G = Ga, where Ga = {ga : g G} and ag = {ag : g G} If a, x, y G, then ax = ay = x = y. If a, x, y G, then xa = ya = x = y. Theorem G is a group. Then: G has only one identity element. Each g G has only one inverse g Properties of Inverses Theorem G is a group. If g G, then (g 1 ) 1 = g. If g, h G, then (gh) 1 = h 1 g 1. Theorem Let G be a set with the following axioms: 1. Closure: g, h G = gh G. 2. Associativity: g, h, k G, g(hk) = (gh)k. 3. e G, g G, eg = g. (e is a left identity.) 4. g G, g G, gg = e. ( g is a left inverse.) Then, G is a group. The same applies for a right inverse and a right identity. 3

4 1.3 Direct Product of Groups Theorem Let G and H be two groups. Define the direct product of G and H as G H = {(g, h) : g G, h H}. Then, G H is a group with the component-wise binary operation. Definition Let C = R R = {(a, b) : a, b R}. multiplication in C as: We define addition and Addition: We want to use the component wise addition from (R, +). Thus, (a, b)+ (c, d) = (a + b, c + d). Then, 0 = (0, 0) and (a, b) 1 = (a, b) = ( a, b). Multiplication: Define multiplication by (a, b)(c, d) = (ac bd, ad + bc). Then, the multiplicative identity is (1, 0). Furthermore, define i = (0, 1). Then, the multiplicative inverse is z 1 = z. z 2 Definition Define H = C C = {(z, w) : z, w C}. We define addtion component-wise and multiplication by (z, w)(u, v) = (zu w v, zv wū). The multiplicative identity is (1, 0) and h 1 = h h 2. 2 Equivalence Relations and Disjoint Partitions Definition Let X be a set and R be a relation on X. R is called an equivalence relation on X if and only if the following axioms hold: 1. For each x X, xrx (R is reflexive). 2. x, y X, if xry, then yrx (R is symmetric). 3. If xry and yrz, then xrz (R is transitive). Definition x X, R[x] = {y X : yrx} is called an equivalence class. Theorem Let R be an equivalence relation on X. Then, R[x] = R[z] xrz Theorem Let R be an equivalence relation on a set X. Let D R = {R[x] : x X}. Then, D R has the following properties: 1. R[x], since xrx = x R[x]. 2. If R[x] R[y], then R[x] = R[y]. 3. X = x X R[x]. Definition Let X be a set. The power set of X is P(X) = {S : S X}. Definition (Disjoint Partition). A subset D P(X) is a disjoint partition of X if and only if D satisfies the following axioms: 1. D D, D. 2. If D, D D and D D, then D = D. 4

5 3. X = D D D. Corollary If R is an equivalence relation on a set X, then D R = {R[x] : x X} is a disjoint partition of X. Theorem Let D be a disjoint partition of a set X. Define a relation on X, R D as follows: xr D y D D so that x, y D. Then, R D is an equivalence relation. 3 Elementary Number Theory 3.1 GCD and LCM Axiom (The Well Ordering Principle). Every non-empty subset of N has a smallest element. Theorem (Division Algorithm). Let a, b Z, b 0. Then,!q, r Z s.t. a = bq + r, 0 r < b. Definition Let a, b Z, not both zero. Then, c > 0, c N is a greatest common divisor of a and b c satisfies the following properties (a, b Z, a 0 b): 1. c a and c b. 2. If x a and x b, then x c. Theorem There exists a GCD of a and b, say c, and c = λa + µb, λ, µ Z. Furthermore, c is smallest n N s.t. n = λa + µb. Definition Let a, b Z, a > 0, b > 0. d Z and d > 0 is a least common multiple of a and b if and only if d satisfies the folloing properties: 1. a d and b d. 2. If a x and b x, then d x. Theorem Assume a, b Z, a > 0, b > 0. Then, d = and b. 3.2 Primes and Euclid s Lemma ab gcd(a, b) Definition p N, p is a prime n p = n = 1 or n = p. is the LCM of a Theorem Let p N. p is a prime if and only if n N, p n or gcd(n, p) = 1 (relatively prime). Theorem For a, b, c N, if a bc and gcd(a, b) = 1, then a c. Corollary (Euclid s Lemma). If p is a prime and p ab, then p a or p b. 5

6 4 Exponents and Order 4.1 Exponents Definition G is a group and a G. We define a 0 = e, a 1 = a and a n+1 = a n a, for n N +. Also, if m > 0, define a m = (a 1 ) m. Theorem (Properties of Exponents). G is a group and a, b G and m, n N. Then, we have 1. e n = e 2. a m+n = a m a n 3. (a m ) n = a mn 4. Let ab = ba. Then, ab n = b n a and (ab) n = a n b n = b n a n. 5. a m = (a m ) 1 6. If 0 m n, then a n m = a n a m. 7. (a 1 ba) n = a 1 b n a 4.2 Order Definition G is a group and a G. If there is a positive integer n > 0 s.t. a n = e, we say a has finite order. If a has finite order, then the smallest n > 0 s.t. a n = e is called the order of a. We write o(a) as the order of a. If n N +, a n e, then we say a has infinite order and we write o(a) =. If o(a), then a has finite order. Theorem Let G be a group and a G, m > 0. Then, 1. If a m = e, then o(a) m. 2. Let o(a) =. If a k = e, then k = o(a) = a m = a n = m = n. 4. If o(a), then o(a k ) and o(a k ) o(a). Theorem Let G be a group, a G, o(a) and k N. Then, 1. If d = gcd(o(a), k), then o(a k ) = o(a d ). 2. o(a k ) = o(a) gcd(o(a), k) 6

7 5 Integers Modulo n 5.1 Integers Modulo n Definition Let a, b Z. Define a b(n) (a is congruent to b modulo n) if and only if a = b + nt, t Z. Or, n a b. Theorem a is congruent to b modulo n is an equivalence relation on Z. Definition The equivalence classes of (n) are denoted as [x] n, where [x] n = {z Z : z x(n)}. Z n = {[x] n : x Z} is the set of integers modulo n. Theorem Z n = {[r] n : 0 r < n} = {[0] n, [1] n,..., [n 1] n }, and all these elements are distinct (i.e. Z n = n). 5.2 Addition and Multiplication of Z n Definition (Addition on Z n ). Let [x] n, [y] n Z n. Define [x] n [y] n = [x + y] n. Lemma Let a b(n) and c d(n). Then, (a + c) (b + d)(n). Theorem Z n is an additive group with group operation [x] n [y] n = [x + y] n. The identity is [0] n and the inverse of [x] n is [ x] n. Z n is an abelian group, since Z is abelian. Theorem In general, Z n = [1] n, where [1] r n = [r] n. Definition (Multiplication on Z n ). Define [x] n [y] n = [xy] n. Lemma If a b(n) and c d(n), then ac bd(n). Theorem Z n under the multiplication [x] n [y] n = [xy] n satisfies all the properties of a multiplicative group, except for, in general, the inverse. Theorem Z n under multiplication has the following property: [x] n has a multiplicative inverse gcd(x, n) = 1. Definition In Z n, define U(n) = {[r] n : gcd(r, n) = 1, 0 r < n}. U(n) is called the set of units (multiplicative inverses) of Z n with respect to multiplication. Theorem U(n) is a multiplicative group (abelian) under. 6 Subgroups 6.1 Properties of Subgroups Definition Let G be a group. A subset S G is called a subgroup of G if and only if S is a group under the same group operations as G. We write S G. Theorem Let G be a group and S G. Then, 1. If t, s S, then st S (Closure). 2. e S. 3. If s S, then s 1 S. Corollary (Second test for subgroups). Let S G, G is a group. S G S and s, t S = st 1 S, s, t S. 7

8 6.2 Subgroups of Z Theorem Let S Z. S Z S = mz, m > 0. Corollary If m is the smallest integer greater than 0 in S {0}, S Z, then S = mz. Theorem (Test for finite subgroups). G is a group and S G, S finite. Then, S G S and S satisfies property 1 of subgroups. 6.3 Special Subgroups of a Group G Definition Let G be a group. Then, we define the following: 1. The centre of G is Z G = Z(G) = {z G : za = az, a G}. 2. If a G, then C(a) = {z G : za = az}, is called the centralizer of a. 3. S = {e} is called the trivial subgroup. 4. S is called a proper subgroup of G S G. Theorem If G is a group, then Z G is an abelian subgroup of G. Theorem In any group G, C(a) G for each a G. Definition Let G be a group. Then, T = {g G : o(g) } is the Torsion subset of G. Theorem Let A be an abelian group. Then, T A is called the Torsion subgroup of A. 6.4 Creating New Subgroups from Given Ones Theorem G is a group and P, Q G. Then, 1. P Q G. In fact, if {P α } α I is a collection of subgroups, then α I P α is also a subgroup. 2. P Q G P Q or Q P. 3. P Q G P Q = QP. Theorem G is a group, P, Q G. Then every element g G can be represented uniquely as g = pq, where p P, q Q if and only if G = P Q and P Q = {e}. 8

9 7 Cyclic Groups and Their Subgroups 7.1 Cyclic Subgroups of a Group Definition Let G be a group and let a G. Define a = {a k : k Z}. Theorem Let G be a group and a G. Then, we have: 1. a G. 2. a is the smallest subgroup of G containing a. (If S G and a S, then a S.) 3. a 1 = a. 4. Let o(a) = n. Then, a = {a k : 0 k < n}. 5. If o(a) =, then a = {a k : k Z}, where a r = a s = s = r. 7.2 Cyclic Groups Definition Let G be a group. We say G is a cyclic group a G s.t. G = a. In this case, a is called a generator of G. 7.3 Subgroups of Cyclic Groups Theorem Let G = a. Then, S a = G S = a k, k 0. Corollary If G = a and S G, S {e}, then S = a k, where k is the smallest integer greater than 0 s.t. a k S. Theorem Let G = a and o(a) = n. Then, a k is a generator of a (i.e. a k = a ) gcd(n, k) = 1. Hence, S = a k is a proper subgroup of G gcd(n, k) 1. Definition If G is a finite group of n elements, we say G has order n and we write o(g) = n. For cyclic groups G = a, we have o(g) = o( a ) = o(a). Theorem Let G = a be a cyclic group. Then, Let o(a) = n = o(g). If S G, then o(s) o(g). (A special case of Legrange s theorem.) Let o(a) =. Then, a r = a s r = ±s, r, s Z. Theorem Let G = a and o(a) = n. If d n, then there exists exactly one subgroup S s.t. o(s) = d. If d n and d 1, then S is a proper, non-trivial subgroup. Definition (Euler-Phi Function). The function φ : Z N is defined by φ(n) = U(n). (The number of positive integers less than or equal to n that are coprime to n.) Theorem Let G = a with o(a) = n. Then, if d n, then {x G : o(x) = d} = φ(d). Corollary Let G be a finite group with o(g) = n. Then, φ(d) {x G : o(x) = d}. Theorem If G is a cyclic group and g G, s.t. o(g) =, then x G, o(x) = x = e. 9

10 7.4 Direct Product of Cyclic Groups n Theorem Let G 1,..., G n be groups and (g 1,..., g n ) G i = G 1 G n. If o(g i ) = r i, (1 i n), then o(g 1,..., g n ) = lcm(o(g 1 ),..., o(g n )). Theorem Let G 1,..., G n be groups. Then, n If G i is a cyclic group with generators (g 1,..., g n ), then each group G i is a also i=1 a cyclic group with generators g i. i=1 Z Z is a not a cyclic group even though Z is! Theorem Let G i be finite groups, 1 i n. (g 1,..., g n ) n G i is cyclic with generators i=1 1. Each G i is cyclic with generator g i. 2. o(g 1 ) o(g n ) = lcm(o(g 1 ),..., o(g n )), or equivalently gcd(o(g i ), o(g j )) = 1, i j. 8 Subgroups Generated by a Subset of a Group G Definition Let G be a group and suppose M G. Then, subgroup containing M. We denote this subgroup by M. Theorem Let G be a group and M G. Then, M = M S G S is the smallest [M M 1 ] n. Corollary Let A be an abelian group and M = {m 1,..., m t } A. M = {x ε 1 1 x εn n : x i M} = {m t 1 1 m tt t : t i = ±1, m i M, t 1}. n=1 Then, Definition (Dihedral Group). Let G be a group and M = {σ, δ}, where o(σ) = 2, o(δ) = n, and σδ = δ 1 σ. Theorem {σ, δ} = {e, δ 1,..., δ n 1 } {σ, σδ,..., σδ n 1 } = D n (Dihedral group with 2n elements). Note that D n = δ σ δ. 9 Symmetry Groups and Permutation Groups 9.1 Bijections Definition Let X, Y be sets and f : X Y a function. Then, 1. If S X, then f(s) = {f(s) : s S}. 2. If T Y, then f 1 (T ) = {x X : f(x) T }. 3. f is injective one-to-one if and only if x, y X, f(x) = f(y) = x = y. 10

11 4. f is surjective (onto) if and only if y Y, x X, s.t. f(x) = y. 5. f is a bijection if and only if f is injective and surjective. Theorem Let f : X Y be a function. 1. f is injective g : Y X s.t. g f = id X. In other words, f has a left inverse. 2. f is surjective h : Y X s.t. f h = id Y. In other words, f has a right inverse. 3. f is is bijective k : Y X s.t. k f = id X and f k = id Y. I.e. k is the inverse of f. Theorem Let X be a set with X = {x 1,..., x n }. If f : X X is a function, then f is injective f is surjective. 9.2 Permutation Groups Definition Let X be a set. Define S X = {f f : X X is a bijection }. Theorem For any set X, S X is a group under composition of functions, where the identity is 1 = id X : X X. Theorem If X is a set and X 3, then S X is non-abelian. Definition S X is called the symmetry group on X. If X = {1,..., n}, we write S X = S n. Here, S n is called the permutation group on X and S n = n!. Definition If f S n, we denote f as: ( ) n i.e. f(i) = a i. 9.3 Cycles a 1 a 2 a 3 a n Definition A permutation ϕ S n is called a cycle if and only if ϕ = (a 1... a l ), which means that: a i+1 x = a i, (1 i l 1) ϕ(x) = a 1 x = a l x x a i, i l is called the length of ϕ. Theorem (Properties of Cycles). We have the following results for cycles: 1. (a 1... a l ) 1 = (a l... a 1 ). i.e. the inverse of a cycle is a cycle cycles do not produce another cycle, in general cycles do not necessarily commute. 11

12 Theorem When do 2 cycles commute? 1. If ϕ S n, then ϕ(a 1... a l )ϕ 1 = (ϕ(a 1 )... ϕ(a l )), or ϕ(a 1... a l ) = (ϕ(a 1 )... ϕ(a l ))ϕ. 2. If ϕ S n and ϕ(a i ) = a i, (1 i n), then ϕ(a 1... a l ) = (a 1... a l )ϕ. 3. Let θ 1 = (a 1... a l ) and θ 2 = (b 1... b k ). If {a i } l 1 {b i } k 1 =, then θ 1 θ 2 = θ 2 θ 1. Corollary If θ = (a 1... a l ) is a cycle, then o(θ) = l, the length of θ. 9.4 Orbits of a Permutation Definition Let ϕ S n. Then, the set O ϕ (i) = {ϕ m (i) : m Z} is called the orbit of i under ϕ. Note that O ϕ (i) X = {1,..., n}, so O ϕ (i) is finite and hence there exists a smallest integer l > 0 s.t. ϕ l (i) = i. l is called the length of the orbit. Theorem Suppose ϕ S n and O ϕ (i) is an orbit with length l > 0. Then, O ϕ (i) = {i, ϕ(i),..., ϕ l 1 (i)} Theorem Let ϕ S n. Then, the set of orbits of ϕ, O ϕ = {O ϕ (i) : 1 i n} forms a disjoint partition of X. Theorem Let ϕ S n with an orbit O ϕ (i) of length l. The orbit determines a cycle θ = (i ϕ(i)... ϕ l 1 (i)) of length l so that ϕ(x) = θ(x) if x O ϕ (i). Definition We define C = set of cyles. Theorem (Cycle Decomposition Theorem). Let ϕ S n, let O ϕ = {O ϕ (t i ) : 1 i p} be the set of distinct orbits of ϕ. Let θ i be the cycle determined by the orbit O ϕ (t i ), 1 i p. Then, ϕ = θ p θ 1, where θ i θ j = θ j θ i, i j. Hence, S n = C = C n, since C 1 = C. n=1 Theorem Let ϕ S n with cycle decomposition ϕ = θ 2 θ 1. Then o(ϕ) = lcm(o(θ 1 ), o(θ 2 )). Furthermore, if ϕ = θ n θ 1, where θ i θ j = θ j θ i, i j, then o(ϕ) = lcm(o(θ 1 ),..., o(θ n )). 9.5 Generators of S n Theorem S n = C Theorem G is a group and G = M. Let N G. Then, G = N M N. Definition In S n, let T be the set of transpositions. Theorem Corollary S n = T = T i, (T 1 = T ). i=1 (a 1... a l ) = (a 1 a 2 )(a 2 a 3 ) (a l 1 a l ) 12

13 Theorem In S n, let T 1 = {(1 x) : 1 < x n}. Then, S n = T 1. Corollary If (a b) S n, then (a b) = (1 a)(1 b)(1 a). Definition (The Alternating Group). Let X n = {x 1,..., x n : x i x j, (i j)} Define P : Xn N by P (x 1,..., x n ) = (x i x j ). 1 i<j n Theorem We have the following results: 1. P (ϕ)(ψ)(x 1,..., x n ) = P (ϕ)(x ψ(1),..., x ψ(n) ). 2. If τ is a transposition, then P (τ) = P. 3. If ϕ S n, ϕ = τ n τ 1, where τ i is a transposition. Then, P (ϕ) = ( 1) n P. Definition Let P : Xn N be given. Then, we define G(P ) = {ϕ S n : P (ϕ) = P }. Theorem We have the following results: 1. G(P ) S n. 2. G(P ) = {ϕ S n : ϕ is the product of an even number of transpositions.} Definition G(P ) is called the alternating group on n-letters. We write A n for G(P ). Theorem (Generators for A n ). A n = {(1 a b)}, if n 3. Corollary If (a b c) S n, then (a b c) = (a c)(a b). 10 Homorphisms 10.1 Homomorphisms, Epimorphisms, and Monomorphisms Definition Let G and H be groups. Then, a function ϕ : G H is a homomorphism ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b). We also say ϕ is an epimorphism if and only if ϕ is surjective and ϕ is a monomorphism if and only if ϕ is injective. If ϕ is surjective and injective, we say ϕ is an isomorphism. Definition Let G be a group. An isomorphism ϕ : G G is called an automorphism. We write Auto(G) = {ϕ : G G ϕ is an automorphism.}. Theorem Let ϕ : G H be a homomorphism. Then, we have: 1. If ϕ is an isomorphism, then ϕ 1 is also a homomorphism. 2. Auto(G) is a group under functional composition. 3. ϕ is an isomorphism a homomorphism ψ : H G s.t. ϕ ψ = I H and ψ ϕ = I G. Theorem Let ϕ : G H be a homorphism. Then, 13

14 1. ϕ(e) = e. 2. ϕ(a 1 ) = (ϕ(a)) ϕ(a n ) = ϕ(a) n. 4. ϕ( a ) = ϕ(a). 5. If S G, then ϕ(s) H. 6. If T H, then ϕ 1 (T ) G. 7. If a G and o(a) = n, then o(ϕ(a)) o(a). Definition Let ϕ : G H be a homomorphism. Then, the set ker ϕ = {g G : ϕ(g) = e} is called the kernel of ϕ. Corollary Let ϕ : G H be a monomorphism and o(a) = n. Then, o(ϕ(a)) = o(a). Theorem Let ϕ : G H be a homomorphism. Then, 1. ker ϕ G. 2. ϕ is a monomorphism ker ϕ = {e}. Definition Let G be a group. Then, I nn (G) = {ϕ g : g G, ϕ g (x) = gxg 1, x G} is called the set of inner Automorphisms Classification Theorems Theorem We have the following two classification results: 1. Any 2 infinite cyclic groups are isomorphic. Hence, up to isomorphism Z is the only cyclic group. i.e. if o(a) =, then a = Z. Or, Z is the unique infinite cyclic group. 2. Two finite cyclic groups, a and b, are isomorphic if and only if o(a) = o(b), or a = b. Hence, up to isomorphism, the only finite cyclic groups are Z n. Theorem (Cayley s Theorem). Every group G is isomorphic to a subgroup of a permutation group, namely S G. Theorem (Product Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group with subgroup P and Q. If we have: 1. G = P Q 2. P Q = {e} and pq = qp, p P, q Q Then, G = P Q. 14

15 11 Cosets and Lagrange s Theorem 11.1 Cosets Definition Let G be a group and S G. Then, for each g G, the set Sg (gs) is called a right coset (left coset) of G. Theorem Let G be a group and S G. Then: 1. Sg 1 = Sg 2 g 1 g 1 2 S g 1 2 g 1 S. 2. S = Se = es is a coset and so Sg = S g S. 3. Sg = o(s) = gs. Theorem Let G be a group and S G. Then, {Sg : g G} and {gs : g G} are disjoint partitions of G Lagrange s Theorem Theorem (Lagrange s Theorem). Let G be a finite group and S G. Then, o(s) o(g). Definition The index of S relative to G is written as [G : S]. Note, [G : S] =, which is the number of left cosets of S (and the number of right cosets of S). o(g) o(s) Corollary Let G be a finite group and g G. Then, o(g) o(g). Corollary If G is a finite group and g G, then g o(g) = e, g G. Corollary (Euler s Theorem). If gcd(n, k) = 1, then k φ(n) 1(n). i.e. In Z n, [k φ(n) ] n = [1] n. Corollary (Fermat s Little Theorem). If p is prime, then k p 1 1(p), for k Z s.t. gcd(p, k) = 1. Corollary Let G be a group. Then, G is a cyclic group with no proper non-trivial subgroups if and only if o(g) is a prime. Theorem If H, K G, where G is a finite group, then HK = o(h)o(k) o(h K). Corollary If G is a finite group, H, K G, and H K = {e}, then HK = o(h)o(k). Theorem (The converse of Lagrange s Theorem). If d o(g), then there exists a subgroup S s.t. o(s) = d is true if G is abelian, but is not true if G is not abelian. Theorem (The First Sylow Theorem). If G is a finite group and p n o(g), where p is a prime, then S G, with o(s) = p n. 15

16 12 Normal Subgroups 12.1 Introduction to Normal Subgroups Definition Let G be a group and N G. N is called a normal subgroup of G if and only if Ng = gn, g G. Or, equivalently, gng 1 = N, g G. We write N G for N to be a normal subgroup of G. Theorem (Tests for Normal Subgroups). Let G be a group and N G. Then, 1. N G gng 1 N, g G. 2. If [G : N] = 2, then N G. Theorem Let G be a group. Then, 1. Z(G) = Z G G. 2. If ϕ : G H is a homomorphism, then ker ϕ G. Theorem (Operations on Normal Subgroups). Let M, N G, where G is a group. Then, 1. If N G, then M N M. 2. If N G, then MN G and N MN. 3. If both M and N are normal, then M N and MN are normal subgroups of G Quotient Groups Theorem Let N G, G is a group. Let G/N = {Ng : g G}. Define a binary relation on G/N by (Ng 1 )(Ng 2 ) = Ng 1 g 2. Then, G/N is a group. Definition If N G, where G is a group, then the set of cosets, G/N, we say G modulo N, is a group with identity Ne and inverses Ng 1 = (Ng) 1. G/N is called the quotient group of G and N. If G is finite, then o(g/n) = [G : N] = o(g) /o(n). In general, G/N inherits properties from G. Theorem Let G be a group and N G. Then, 1. If G is abelian, then so is G/N. 2. If G is cyclic, then so is G/N. Theorem Let A be an abelian group and let T = {a A : o(a) } be the Torsion subgroup. Then, A/T is Torsion-free, i.e. all elements of A/T have infinite order. Theorem (The G/Z(G) Theorem). Let G be a group and we know that Z(G) G. If G/Z(G) is cyclic, then G is abelian. Corollary Let G be a group, N G and N Z(G). If G/N is cyclic, then G is abelian. 16

17 13 Product Isomorphism Theorem and Isomorphism Theorems 13.1 Product Isomorphism Theorem Theorem Let G be a group and M, N G. Then, G satisfies: 1. G = MN. 2. M N = {e}. 3. mn = nm, m M, n N. If and only if G also satisfies: 1. G = MN. 2. M N = {e}. 3. M and N are normal subgroups. Definition Let M and N be subgroups of a group G. We say G is the internal direct product of M and N if and only if: 1. G = MN. 2. M N = {e}. 3. mn = nm, m M, n N. In general, we say G is the internal direct product of subgroups N 1,..., N t 1. G = N 1 N t. 2. (N 1 N i ) N i+1 = {e}, (1 i t 1). 3. N i G, i = 1,..., t. Definition Let N i (1 i n) be n subgroups of G. n N i = N 1 N n is the external direct product of the N i s. If G is the internal direct product of the N i s, n then we write G = N i. i=1 Theorem (Product Isomorphism Theorem). If G = i=1 n N i, then G = i=1 n N i. Theorem Let G be a group and o(g) = p 2, where p is a prime. Then, G = Z p 2 or G = Z p Z p and hence G is abelian. i=1 17

18 13.2 Isomorphism Theorems Theorem Suppose G is a group and N G. The map ϕ N : G G/N defined by ϕ N (g) = Ng is an epimorphism whose kernel is N. Corollary Let G be a group. Then, N G N is the kernel of some homomorphism ϕ : G H. Theorem (Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem). If ϕ : G H is a homomorphism, then G/ ker ϕ = ϕ(g). If ϕ is an epimorphism, then G/ ker ϕ = H. Theorem (Second Isomorphism Theorem). G is a group, M G and N G. Then, 1. M N M. 2. MN G and N MN. 3. MN/N = M/M N. Theorem (Third Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group and M and N are both normal subgroups of G with N M. Then, 1. M/N G/N. 2. G/M = (G/N)/(M/N). Theorem (Basis Theorem). Let A be an abelian group, with A = M, and M is finite, i.e. A is a finitely generated abelian group. Then, A = Z m1 Z m2 Z mr Z S, where m 1 m 2 m r 1 m r (m i m i+1, 1 i r 1). Here, T = Z m1 Z mr is called the Torsion subgroup and the m i are called the Torsion coefficients. The S is called the rank of A, or the Betti number. If S = 0, we have a finite abelian group. If r = 0, we have A = Z S and we have a free abelian group of rank S. Theorem (The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups). Let A be a finitely generated abelian group. If A = Z m1 Z mr Z S = Zn1 Z nt Z W, then r = t, m i = n i (1 i r), and S = W. If A is a finite abelian group, A has type (m 1, m 2,..., m r ) if and only if A = Z m1 Z mr, with m i m i+1 (1 i r 1). 18

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