kinetic molecular theory thermal energy.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "kinetic molecular theory thermal energy."

Transcription

1 Thermal Physics 1

2 Thermal Energy The kinetic molecular theory is based on the assumption that matter is made up of tiny particles that are always in motion. In a hot object the particles are moving faster (and at higher energies) than the particles in a cooler object. This is easy to visualize in a liquid or gas where the particles are free to roam around, however, it can be difficult to imagine in a solid. We have to imagine the particles in a solid being held together by tiny massless springs. The particles vibrate back and forth extending and compressing the springs while their average position in the solid is unchanged. The sum of the kinetic (energy of motion) and potential (energy stored in the springs) energies of all this internal motion is what we call the thermal energy. 2

3 Thermal Energy is Transferred in Three Ways: 1. Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy that occurs when highly energetic particles collide with less energetic particles, giving them energy. For example, heating a frying pan on a hot burner. 3

4 Thermal Energy is Transferred in Three Ways: 2. Convection is the transfer of thermal energy caused by the movement of fluids due to their different densities at different temperatures. A lava lamp is a nice illustration of how a convection current works. 4

5 Thermal Energy is Transferred in Three Ways: 3. Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. These waves do not need particles to transfer their energy and can travel through a vacuum. Solar energy from the sun is an example of radiation. Also, visible light, gamma rays, x rays, radio waves, etc.. 5

6 Thermal Energy is Transferred in Three Ways: 6

7 Temperature The physical quantity that is proportional the average kinetic energy (energy of motion) of the particles in matter is what we refer to as temperature. Temperature must be measured on some definite scale. Note that absolute zero is the temperature at which scientists believe that all atomic motion stops, and therefore the thermal energy of a substance at absolute zero would be zero. 7

8 Temperature Scales Founder Water Boils Body Temperat ure Water Freezes Absolute Zero 8

9 Working With Celsius and Kelvin Temperatures A useful relationship between Celsius and Kelvin temperatures is: T K = T C Examples: 9

10 Homework: Merrill Physics Page 247 Page 1 to 4 10

11 Heat and Thermal Energy 11

12 Heat Transfer One way to increase the thermal energy (and temperature) of an object is to place it in contact with a hotter object. Thermal energy or heat (symbol: Q) flows from hot to cold and the thermal energy of the hotter object is decreased and that of the cooler object is increased. Heat transfer will depend on three things: The temperature difference between the materials. The masses of the materials involved. The thermal properties of the materials. 12

13 Specific Heat Capacity The specific heat capacity, c, is defined as the amount of heat energy that must be added to a material to raise the temperature of 1 kg of that material by 1 K (or by 1 o C). This is more generally written as: where Q = mc T Q = heat energy transferred (in Joules (J)) m = mass of material (in kilograms (kg)) c = specific heat capacity (in J / (kg o C) or J / (kg K)) T = T f T i = temperature change (in o C or K) T f = final temperature T i = initial temperature 13

14 Example 1: A 400. g block of iron is heated from 295K to 325K. How much heat is absorbed by the iron? 14

15 Example 2: 10. kg of water at 90.0 o C loses 232 kj of heat. What final temperature will the water have? 15

16 Merrill Physics Page 248 Questions 5 to 8 Homework: 16

17 535,000 J of heat energy are removed from water at 80.0 o C, lowering its temperature to 20.0 o C. What is the mass of the water? 17

18 Calorimetry and Heat Transfer One cool judgment is worth a thousand hasty counsels. The thing to do is to supply light and not heat. Woodrow T. Wilson When you can't make them see the light, make them feel the heat. Ronald Reagan 18

19 The Calorimeter A calorimeter is a device used to measure changes in thermal energy. The calorimeter depends on the conservation of energy in systems that are thermally isolated. That is, a calorimeter is a device designed so that no thermal energy can enter and none can leave. As a result, if energy from one part of the system increases then energy from another part of the system must decrease by the same amount. Many calorimeters are well insulated aluminum vessels with tight sealing screw tops, however, a covered Styrofoam cup or travel mug may be used instead. 19

20 A Laboratory Calorimeter 20

21 A Coffee Cup Calorimeter 21

22 Energy in an Isolated System 22

23 Example Problem What mass of milk, c milk = 3930 J/(kg. K), at C must be added to 450. g of coffee initially at 95.0 o C in order to cool the resulting mixture to a temperature of 80.0 o C? (assume coffee has the same specific heat capacity as water) 23

24 Example Problem A kg sample of water is at 15.0 o C in a calorimeter. A kg block of zinc at 115 o C is placed in the water. Find the final temperature of the system. 24

25 Homework: Merril Physics, Page 252, Questions 9 to 12 25

26 26

27 27

28 Copy and complete. Treat this like a quiz J of heat energy are removed from 500. g of water at K. What is the final temperature of the water? (answer in Kelvin and Celsius) 28

29 29

30 Practice Quiz: What mass of milk, c milk = 3930 J/(kg. K), at C must be added to 500. g of coffee initially at 99.0 o C in order to cool the resulting mixture to a temperature of 87.0 o C? (assume coffee has the same specific heat capacity as water) 3.00 kg of hot water at 80.0 o C is added to a bathtub filled with 50.0 kg of warm water at 30.0 o C. Assuming that no heat is lost to the surroundings calculate the final temperature of the bath water. 30

31 What mass of milk, c milk = 3930 J/(kg. K), at C must be added to 500. g of coffee initially at 99.0 o C in order to cool the resulting mixture to a temperature of 87.0 o C? (assume coffee has the same specific heat capacity as water) 31

32 3.00 kg of hot water at 80.0 o C is added to a bathtub filled with 50.0 kg of warm water at 30.0 o C. Assuming that no heat is lost to the surroundings calculate the final temperature of the bath water. 32

33 33

34 34

35 35

36 36

37 The three most common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. With enough thermal energy the particles in a solid are no longer held together in their fixed locations and eventually become free enough to move past one another. At this point, called the melting point, the substance has changed from a solid to a liquid. When a substance is melting, the added thermal energy is used to break the bonds holding the particles together. It does not increase the temperature. 37

38 38

39 39

40 T ( o C) Q=mc t Q = ml Q (J) c ice = 2060 J/kg o C c water = 4180 J/kg o C c steam = 2020 J/kg o C L f = 3.34 x 10 5 J/kg L v = 2.26 x 10 6 J/kg 40

41 41

42 42

43 43

44 44

45 45

46 46

47 47

What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold?

What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? Heat and Temperature Section 1: Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? 1 Intro: Discussion A person

More information

SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy

SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy THERMAL ENERGY AND LATENT HEAT LEARNING GOALS Students will learn: Heat changes the amount of thermal energy in an object Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy in an object Heat capacity

More information

Chapter 10 Test Form B

Chapter 10 Test Form B Chapter 10 Test Form A 1. B 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. B 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. No, heat and cold do not flow between objects. Energy transferred between objects changes the temperature

More information

The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT

The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT The Kinetic Theory of Matter Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 6 HEAT Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in

More information

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND HEAT OF FUSION

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND HEAT OF FUSION SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND HEAT OF FUSION Apparatus on each table: Thermometer, metal cube, complete calorimeter, outer calorimeter can (aluminum only), balance, 4 styrofoam cups, graduated container,

More information

Temp vs. Heat. Absolute Temperature Scales. Common Temperature Scales. Thermal Energy. Heat and Temperature are not the same!!

Temp vs. Heat. Absolute Temperature Scales. Common Temperature Scales. Thermal Energy. Heat and Temperature are not the same!! Thermal Energy Heat and Temperature are not the same!! Cold is the absence of heat, not an energy Same concept as light/dark Cold can t come in, heat flows out Heat flows from High Temp Low Temp Temp vs.

More information

Thermal Energy. Thermal Energy is the TRANSFER of kinetic energy between two objects that are at different temperatures.

Thermal Energy. Thermal Energy is the TRANSFER of kinetic energy between two objects that are at different temperatures. Thermal Energy Thermal Energy is the TRANSFER of kinetic energy between two objects that are at different temperatures. And remember: heat will always transfer from a warm object to a cold object. HEAT

More information

Conduction is the transfer of heat by the direct contact of particles of matter.

Conduction is the transfer of heat by the direct contact of particles of matter. Matter and Energy Chapter 9 energy flows from a material at a higher temperature to a material at a lower temperature. This process is called heat transfer. How is heat transferred from material to material,

More information

Temperature and Heat. Two systems of temperature. Temperature conversions. PHY heat - J. Hedberg

Temperature and Heat. Two systems of temperature. Temperature conversions. PHY heat - J. Hedberg Temperature and Heat 1. Two systems of temperature 1. Temperature conversions 2. Real science (one scale to rule them all) 3. Temperature scales 2. Effects of temperature on materials 1. Linear Thermal

More information

Name Class Date. What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators? What makes something a good conductor of heat?

Name Class Date. What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators? What makes something a good conductor of heat? CHAPTER 14 SECTION Heat and Temperature 2 Energy Transfer KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators?

More information

Thermal energy 7 TH GRADE SCIENCE

Thermal energy 7 TH GRADE SCIENCE Thermal energy 7 TH GRADE SCIENCE Temperature There s more to temperature than the idea of hot and cold. Remember that all matter is made up of tiny particles that are constantly moving even in solid objects.

More information

HEAT HISTORY. D. Whitehall

HEAT HISTORY. D. Whitehall 1 HEAT HISTORY 18 th Century In the 18 th century it was assumed that there was an invisible substance called caloric. When objects got it was assumed that they gained caloric, therefore hot objects should

More information

Broughton High School. Thermal Energy. Physical Science Workbook Chapter 6 Thermal Energy 2016 Mr. Davis

Broughton High School. Thermal Energy. Physical Science Workbook Chapter 6 Thermal Energy 2016 Mr. Davis 1 Thermal Energy Vocabulary for Chapter 6 Thermal Energy Broughton High School Physical Science Vocabulary No.# Term Page # Definition 2 1. Degrees 2. Higher Specific Heat 3. Heat of Vaporization 4. Radiation

More information

Bernoulli s Principle. Application: Lift. Bernoulli s Principle. Main Points 3/13/15. Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper

Bernoulli s Principle. Application: Lift. Bernoulli s Principle. Main Points 3/13/15. Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper Bernoulli s Principle Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper Where the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases. Due to continuous flow of a fluid: what goes in must come out! Fluid

More information

Chapter 11. Important to distinguish between them. They are not interchangeable. They mean very different things when used in physics Internal Energy

Chapter 11. Important to distinguish between them. They are not interchangeable. They mean very different things when used in physics Internal Energy Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Energy Transfer When two objects of different temperatures are placed in thermal contact, the temperature of the warmer decreases and the temperature of the cooler

More information

What Is Air Temperature?

What Is Air Temperature? 2.2 Read What Is Air Temperature? In Learning Set 1, you used a thermometer to measure air temperature. But what exactly was the thermometer measuring? What is different about cold air and warm air that

More information

Chapter 17 Temperature and heat

Chapter 17 Temperature and heat Chapter 17 Temperature and heat 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium When we speak of objects being hot and cold, we need to quantify this by some scientific method that is quantifiable and reproducible.

More information

Heat. It tells us the ways that we can change the thermal energy of a system:

Heat. It tells us the ways that we can change the thermal energy of a system: Heat Recall what the First Law of Thermodynamics says: It tells us the ways that we can change the thermal energy of a system: 1.) Work Environment does work on system: W > 0, and thermal energy increases

More information

Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat

Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat Textbook pages 424 435 Section 10.1 Summary Before You Read We often use the terms heat and temperature interchangeably. Do you think they mean the same thing? Explain

More information

General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 2130) General Physics (PHY 2130) Lecture 34 Heat Heat transfer Conduction Convection Radiation http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy2130/ Lightning Review Last lecture: 1. Thermal physics Heat. Specific

More information

Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2

Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2 Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2 Name Period Section 4.1 Matching. Match the definition with the term that best correlates to it. 1. Chemical potential energy 2. Elastic potential energy 3.

More information

Physics 201. Professor P. Q. Hung. 311B, Physics Building. Physics 201 p. 1/3

Physics 201. Professor P. Q. Hung. 311B, Physics Building. Physics 201 p. 1/3 Physics 201 p. 1/3 Physics 201 Professor P. Q. Hung 311B, Physics Building Physics 201 p. 2/3 : Study of physical systems involving the transfer of something called Heat. Physics 201 p. 2/3 : Study of

More information

Date: May 8, Obj: Collect data and develop a mathematical equation. Copy: Thermochemistry is the study of heat and chemical reactions.

Date: May 8, Obj: Collect data and develop a mathematical equation. Copy: Thermochemistry is the study of heat and chemical reactions. Do Now Date: May 8, 2017 Obj: Collect data and develop a mathematical equation. Copy: Thermochemistry is the study of heat and chemical reactions. Monday, May 8, 2017 Today: Warm-Up Content: Introduction

More information

Chemistry Heat Review. Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy:

Chemistry Heat Review. Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy: Chemistry Heat Review Name Date Vocabulary Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy: Formulas Heat of phase change Heat for temperature increase Heat of reaction Endothermic/Exothermic

More information

CHEMISTRY: Chapter 10 Prep-Test

CHEMISTRY: Chapter 10 Prep-Test CHEMISTRY: Chapter 10 Prep-Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. calorimeter d. temperature b. calorie e. specific heat c. joule f. heat 1. quantity of heat needed to raise

More information

Chapter 4: Heat Capacity and Heat Transfer

Chapter 4: Heat Capacity and Heat Transfer Chapter 4: Heat Capacity and Heat Transfer Chapter 4: Heat Capacity and Heat Transfer Chapter 4: Heat Capacity and Heat Transfer 4.1 Material Structure 4.2 Temperature and Material Properties 4.3 Heating

More information

Review: Heat, Temperature, Heat Transfer and Specific Heat Capacity

Review: Heat, Temperature, Heat Transfer and Specific Heat Capacity Name: Block: Date: IP 614 Review: Heat, Temperature, Heat Transfer and Specific Heat Capacity All these questions are real MCAS questions! 1. In a copper wire, a temperature increase is the result of which

More information

October 5 A. Bell Work B. Have 4.2 Notes I Out for a stamp C. Today we will work on 4.2 Notes II D. Homework: 4.2 Notes II (due tomorrow end of

October 5 A. Bell Work B. Have 4.2 Notes I Out for a stamp C. Today we will work on 4.2 Notes II D. Homework: 4.2 Notes II (due tomorrow end of October 5 A. Bell Work B. Have 4.2 Notes I Out for a stamp C. Today we will work on 4.2 Notes II D. Homework: 4.2 Notes II (due tomorrow end of class) Read 4.3 and take notes (due Monday) 4.2 Key Concept:

More information

Particle Model of Matter. AQA Physics topic 3

Particle Model of Matter. AQA Physics topic 3 21/11/2017 Particle Model of Matter AQA Physics topic 3 3.1 Changes of State and the Particle Model 21/11/2017 Particle theory revision Particle theory is all about explaining the properties of solids,

More information

Thermochemistry: Heat and Chemical Change

Thermochemistry: Heat and Chemical Change Thermochemistry: Heat and Chemical Change 1 Heat or Thermal Energy (q) Heat is a form of energy Is heat the same as temperature? Heat flows between two objects at different temperatures. Hot Cold 2 Chemical

More information

IB Topic 3: Thermal Physics Summer Assignment

IB Topic 3: Thermal Physics Summer Assignment IB Topic 3: Thermal Physics Summer Assignment How to complete this assignment: 1. The entire assignment is not meant to take more than 8 hours. 2. Download all documents from Blackboard, since there are

More information

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy By now you know that substances are made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules are always in motion and have attractions to each other. When

More information

Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection.

Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. Section 2 Atmospheric Heating Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. What You Will Learn Solar energy travels through space as radiation and passes

More information

Chapter 5: Thermochemistry. Problems: , , 5.100, 5.106, 5.108, , 5.121, 5.126

Chapter 5: Thermochemistry. Problems: , , 5.100, 5.106, 5.108, , 5.121, 5.126 Chapter 5: Thermochemistry Problems: 5.1-5.95, 5.97-98, 5.100, 5.106, 5.108, 5.118-5.119, 5.121, 5.126 Energy: Basic Concepts and Definitions energy: capacity to do work or to produce heat thermodynamics:

More information

Look at the text on page 290 for the answer.

Look at the text on page 290 for the answer. Perpetual Motion? The engine converts the chemical energy stored in the fuel and oxygen into kinetic energy. Could we ever invent an engine that converts all the energy into useful energy of motion? Look

More information

We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity.

We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity. 3/3 Measuring Heat If all we do is add heat to a system its temperature will rise. How much the temperature rises depends on the system. We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much

More information

Matter, States of Matter, Gas Laws, Phase Changes, and Thermal Energy

Matter, States of Matter, Gas Laws, Phase Changes, and Thermal Energy Matter, States of Matter, Gas Laws, Phase Changes, and Thermal Energy Double Jeopardy Jeopardy! Matter Tempera ture Phase Changes Heat Transfer Thermal Energy vs Heat 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200

More information

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 8: TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS This lecture will help you understand: Temperature Absolute Zero Internal Energy Heat Quantity of Heat The Laws of Thermodynamics

More information

Heat Transfer. Heat Transfer. Convection Heat transfer due to the actual motion of a fluid. Conduction Heat transfer by successive atomic collisions

Heat Transfer. Heat Transfer. Convection Heat transfer due to the actual motion of a fluid. Conduction Heat transfer by successive atomic collisions Heat Transfer What are the different ways that heat can move from one place to another? Heat Transfer What are the different ways that heat can move from one place to another? Conduction Convection Radiation

More information

Lecture Outlines Chapter 16. Physics, 3 rd Edition James S. Walker

Lecture Outlines Chapter 16. Physics, 3 rd Edition James S. Walker Lecture Outlines Chapter 16 Physics, 3 rd Edition James S. Walker 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in

More information

Temperature and Heat 4.1. Temperature depends on particle movement Energy flows from warmer to cooler objects. 4.3

Temperature and Heat 4.1. Temperature depends on particle movement Energy flows from warmer to cooler objects. 4.3 Temperature and Heat NEW the BIG idea Heat is a flow of energy due to temperature differences. 4.1 Temperature depends on particle movement. 4.2 Energy flows from warmer to cooler objects. 4.3 The transfer

More information

Temperatura i toplina

Temperatura i toplina Temperatura i toplina FIZIKA PSS-GRAD 22. studenog 2017. 12.1 Common Temperature Scales Temperatures are reported in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit. Temperature changes, on the other hand, are reported

More information

Exercises Conduction (pages ) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor?

Exercises Conduction (pages ) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor? Exercises 22.1 Conduction (pages 431 432) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor? 3. are the best conductors. 4. In conduction, between particles transfer thermal energy. 5. Is the following sentence

More information

PHYSICS 149: Lecture 26

PHYSICS 149: Lecture 26 PHYSICS 149: Lecture 26 Chapter 14: Heat 14.1 Internal Energy 14.2 Heat 14.3 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat 14.5 Phase Transitions 14.6 Thermal Conduction 14.7 Thermal Convection 14.8 Thermal Radiation

More information

Physics 4C Chapter 18: Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Physics 4C Chapter 18: Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Physics 4C Chapter 18: Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. Albert Einstein Experience is the name that everyone gives

More information

Kinetic Theory of Matter. Matter & Energy

Kinetic Theory of Matter. Matter & Energy Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter & Energy 1 Kinetic Theory of Matter All matter is made up of atoms and molecules that act as tiny particles. 2 Kinetic Theory of Matter These tiny particles are always in

More information

Part I- Review how the molecules for a solid, liquid and gas differ at a constant temperature.

Part I- Review how the molecules for a solid, liquid and gas differ at a constant temperature. Temperature and Kinetic Energy Web Quest 8 th Grade PSI Science Classwork 1 Name Part I- Review how the molecules for a solid, liquid and gas differ at a constant temperature. 1. Follow this link: http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/multimedia/chapter1/lesson5.

More information

Mr Chiasson Advanced Chemistry 12 / Chemistry 12 1 Unit B: Thermochemical Changes

Mr Chiasson Advanced Chemistry 12 / Chemistry 12 1 Unit B: Thermochemical Changes Mr Chiasson Advanced Chemistry 12 / Chemistry 12 1 Unit B: Thermochemical Changes Students will be expected to: Compare the molar enthalpies of several combustion reactions involving organic compounds.

More information

Chapter 17. Work, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Topics: Chapter Goal: Conservation of Energy Work in Ideal-Gas Processes

Chapter 17. Work, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Topics: Chapter Goal: Conservation of Energy Work in Ideal-Gas Processes Chapter 17. Work, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics This false-color thermal image (an infrared photo) shows where heat energy is escaping from a house. In this chapter we investigate the connection

More information

4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium?

4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium? Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL 2010 4.1 4 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM What is thermal equilibrium? 1. (, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body.

More information

A thermodynamic system is taken from an initial state X along the path XYZX as shown in the PV-diagram.

A thermodynamic system is taken from an initial state X along the path XYZX as shown in the PV-diagram. AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Thermodynamics 1. The maximum efficiency of a heat engine that operates between temperatures of 1500 K in the firing chamber and 600 K in the exhaust chamber is most

More information

Energy Transformations

Energy Transformations Thermochemistry Energy Transformations Thermochemistry - concerned with heat changes that occur during chemical reactions Energy - capacity for doing work or supplying heat weightless, odorless, tasteless

More information

What is energy??? The ability to do work or produce heat. Potential Energy (PE) energy due to position or composition

What is energy??? The ability to do work or produce heat. Potential Energy (PE) energy due to position or composition Chapter 10: Energy What is energy??? The ability to do work or produce heat. Potential Energy (PE) energy due to position or composition Kinetic Energy (KE) energy due to motion Law of Conservation of

More information

Chapter 20 Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry First Law of Thermo Work

Chapter 20 Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry First Law of Thermo Work Chapter 20 Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry First Law of Thermo Work HW: Conceptual: 9, 11, 15, 23, 27, 28, 29 Problems: 8, 11, 18, 2023, 30, 32, 38, 43, 46, 51, 69 Heat Energy

More information

Before Statement After

Before Statement After Thermal Energy Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with

More information

100 Physics Facts. 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) s (seconds)

100 Physics Facts. 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) s (seconds) 100 Physics Facts 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) 2. The standard international unit (SI unit) for time (t) is. s (seconds) 3. The standard international unit

More information

5. Temperature and Heat

5. Temperature and Heat Leaving Cert Physics Long Questions 2017-2002 5. Temperature and Heat Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Contents Temperature:

More information

Chapter 5 THERMO. THERMO chemistry. 5.4 Enthalpy of Reactions 5.5 Calorimetry 5.6 Hess s Law 5.7 Enthalpies of Formation

Chapter 5 THERMO. THERMO chemistry. 5.4 Enthalpy of Reactions 5.5 Calorimetry 5.6 Hess s Law 5.7 Enthalpies of Formation Chapter 5 THERMO THERMO chemistry 5.4 Enthalpy of Reactions 5.5 Calorimetry 5.6 Hess s Law 5.7 Enthalpies of Formation Chemical Equations 1 st WRITE the Chemical Equation 2 nd BALANCE the Chemical Equation

More information

Thermal Energy and Heat Notes. Ch. 14

Thermal Energy and Heat Notes. Ch. 14 Thermal Energy and Heat Notes Ch. 14 Temperature When scien

More information

Energy in Thermal Processes. Heat and Internal Energy

Energy in Thermal Processes. Heat and Internal Energy Energy in Thermal Processes Heat and Internal Energy Internal energy U: associated with the microscopic components of a system: kinetic and potential energies. The larger the number of internal degrees

More information

Activity Calorimetry

Activity Calorimetry Activity 201 5 Calorimetry Directions: This GLA worksheet goes over the concepts of heat and calorimetry. Part A introduces the concepts of heat and specific heat capacity. Part B introduces calorimetry

More information

Chapter 6. Thermochemistry

Chapter 6. Thermochemistry Chapter 6 Thermochemistry Section 5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases http://www.scuc.txed.net/webpages/dmackey/files /chap06notes.pdf ..\..\..\..\..\..\Videos\AP Videos\Thermochemistry\AP

More information

Physical Science. Thermal Energy & Heat

Physical Science. Thermal Energy & Heat Physical Science Thermal Energy & Heat Sometimes called internal energy Depends on the object's mass, temperature, and phase (solid, liquid, gas) TOTAL potential and kinetic energy of all the particles

More information

Thermal Energy and Society

Thermal Energy and Society CAPTER 6 Thermal Energy and Society ow Can People Utilize Thermal Energy? KEY CONCEPTS After completing this chapter you will be able to describe the differences among temperature, thermal energy, and

More information

Chapter Practice Test Grosser

Chapter Practice Test Grosser Class: Date: Chapter 10-11 Practice Test Grosser Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of

More information

O-LEVELS REQUIREMENT. Name: Class: Date: THERMAL PROPETIES OF MATTER

O-LEVELS REQUIREMENT. Name: Class: Date: THERMAL PROPETIES OF MATTER Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 THERMAL PROPETIES OF MATTER 82465685 calvinkongphysics@yahoo.com NOTES O-LEVELS REQUIREMENT Candidates should be able to: 1. describe a rise in temperature of a body in terms

More information

Activities for chapter 13: States of matter

Activities for chapter 13: States of matter Activities for chapter 13: States of matter What do I already know about states of matter? (index card) and Vocabulary table Chapter 13 reading guide (feb break assignment) and Powerpoints POGIL activities:

More information

5.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions

5.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions Topic 5: Energetics 5.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions Chemical reactions involve the breaking and making of bonds. Breaking bonds requires energy,whereas energy is given out when new bonds are formed.

More information

Section 2: The Atmosphere

Section 2: The Atmosphere Section 2: The Atmosphere Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives The Atmosphere Composition of the Atmosphere Air Pressure Layers of the Atmosphere The Troposphere Section 2: The Atmosphere Preview, continued

More information

SI Measurements. (also known as metric system ) SI stands for System International or International System of Measurement

SI Measurements. (also known as metric system ) SI stands for System International or International System of Measurement SI Measurements (also known as metric system ) SI stands for System International or International System of Measurement SI Measurements (also known as metric system ) What about it? Common Language for

More information

Most of the energy from the light sources was transferred to the sand by the process of A) conduction B) convection C) radiation D) transpiration

Most of the energy from the light sources was transferred to the sand by the process of A) conduction B) convection C) radiation D) transpiration 1. Light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation are given off by stars using energy released during A) nuclear fusion B) conduction C) convection D) radioactive decay 2. At which temperature would

More information

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY Name Date Class 17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity

More information

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 8: TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS This lecture will help you understand: Temperature Absolute Zero Internal Energy Heat Quantity of Heat The Laws of Thermodynamics

More information

Exercises Temperature (pages ) 1. Define temperature. 2. Explain how a common liquid thermometer works.

Exercises Temperature (pages ) 1. Define temperature. 2. Explain how a common liquid thermometer works. Exercises 21.1 Temperature (pages 407 408) 1. Define temperature. 2. Explain how a common liquid thermometer works. Match each number with the corresponding description. Temperature Description 3. 273

More information

Chapter 5: Thermochemistry

Chapter 5: Thermochemistry Chapter 5: Thermochemistry 1. Thermodynamics 2. Energy 3. Specific Heat 4. Enthalpy 5. Enthalpies of Reactions 6. Hess s Law 7. State Functions 8. Standard Enthalpies of Formation 9. Determining Enthalpies

More information

Thermal Conductivity, k

Thermal Conductivity, k Homework # 85 Specific Heats at 20 C and 1 atm (Constant Pressure) Substance Specific Heat, c Substance Specific Heat, c kcal/kg C J/kg C kcal/kg C J/kg C Solids Aluminum 0.22 900 Brass 0.090 377 Copper

More information

1 Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute temperature of the gas doubles.

1 Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute temperature of the gas doubles. 1 Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute temperature of the gas doubles. The mean square speed of the gas molecules A remains constant. B increases by a factor of 2.

More information

Energy. Different types of energy exist (heat, potential, kinetic, chemical, nuclear etc.)

Energy. Different types of energy exist (heat, potential, kinetic, chemical, nuclear etc.) Change in Energy Energy Different types of energy exist (heat, potential, kinetic, chemical, nuclear etc.) Heat - the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures. Unit of heat

More information

Phase Changes and Latent Heat

Phase Changes and Latent Heat Review Questions Why can a person remove a piece of dry aluminum foil from a hot oven with bare fingers without getting burned, yet will be burned doing so if the foil is wet. Equal quantities of alcohol

More information

Matter and Energy Homework Problems

Matter and Energy Homework Problems Matter and Energy Homework Problems 1. For each of the following, determine if E is positive, negative, or zero. a. Energy is released b. Energy is consumed c. Water absorbs heat. d. The velocity of an

More information

Chapter 2: Energy, Temperature, and Heat

Chapter 2: Energy, Temperature, and Heat 2.1 Energy The fundamental concept that connects all of the apparently diverse areas of natural phenomena is the concept of energy. Energy can be subdivided into welldefined forms such as: (1) mechanical

More information

Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat

Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat Chapter 3 Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat Name: Lab Partner: Section: 3.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between heat and temperature. Calorimetry will

More information

Practice Packet Unit 7: Heat

Practice Packet Unit 7: Heat Regents Chemistry: Mr. Palermo Practice Packet Unit 7: Heat Review (Things you need to know in order to understand the new stuff ) Particle Diagrams Draw a particle diagram of a compound of CaCl2, using

More information

Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES

Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES Section Review Objectives Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory Define the relationship between

More information

2. THE STATES OF MATTER

2. THE STATES OF MATTER 2. THE STATES OF MATTER 2.1. THE THREE STATES OF MATTER Every substance can take on several distinct forms called phases or states of aggregation of matter. Four states of matter are observable in everyday

More information

CHEMISTRY 109 #25 - REVIEW

CHEMISTRY 109 #25 - REVIEW CHEMISTRY 109 Help Sheet #25 - REVIEW Chapter 4 (Part I); Sections 4.1-4.6; Ch. 9, Section 9.4a-9.4c (pg 387) ** Review the appropriate topics for your lecture section ** Prepared by Dr. Tony Jacob http://www.chem.wisc.edu/areas/clc

More information

1. State in your own terms what is the first law of thermodynamics, a closed system, an isolated system, surroundings, heat, work, and energy.

1. State in your own terms what is the first law of thermodynamics, a closed system, an isolated system, surroundings, heat, work, and energy. Worksheet 1 1. State in your own terms what is the first law of thermodynamics, a closed system, an isolated system, surroundings, heat, work, and energy. The first law of thermodynamics is the conservation

More information

Physics 111. Lecture 34 (Walker 17.2,17.4-5) Kinetic Theory of Gases Phases of Matter Latent Heat

Physics 111. Lecture 34 (Walker 17.2,17.4-5) Kinetic Theory of Gases Phases of Matter Latent Heat Physics 111 Lecture 34 (Walker 17.2,17.4-5) Kinetic Theory of Gases Phases of Matter Latent Heat Dec. 7, 2009 Kinetic Theory Pressure is the result of collisions between gas molecules and walls of container.

More information

Chapter 3 Basic Physical Principles Applications to Fluid Power Sy S stems

Chapter 3 Basic Physical Principles Applications to Fluid Power Sy S stems Chapter 3 Basic Physical Principles Applications to Fluid Power Systems 1 Objectives Identify and explain the design and operation of the six basic machines. Describe the factors that affect energy in

More information

Thermochemistry, Reaction Rates, & Equillibrium

Thermochemistry, Reaction Rates, & Equillibrium Thermochemistry, Reaction Rates, & Equillibrium Reaction Rates The rate at which chemical reactions occur Reaction Rates RXN rate = rate at which reactants change into products over time. This tells you

More information

Unit 6 Forces in Nature gravity; Law of Universal Gravitation; current; series/parallel circuits; magnets; electromagnets

Unit 6 Forces in Nature gravity; Law of Universal Gravitation; current; series/parallel circuits; magnets; electromagnets 8 th grade Physical Science comprehensive study guide Unit 2 Nature of Matter atoms/molecules; atomic models; physical/chemical properties; physical/chemical changes; types of bonds; periodic table; states

More information

3 Types of Heat Transfer

3 Types of Heat Transfer 3 Types of Heat Transfer The movement of heat from a warmer object to a cooler object. Heat Transfer- 1. Conduction Heat transfer by direct contact of molecules. In other words, when one molecule runs

More information

UNIT II. Energy Transfer of Energy. Chapter 2: Energy Transfers

UNIT II. Energy Transfer of Energy. Chapter 2: Energy Transfers UNIT II Energy Transfer of Energy Chapter 2: Energy Transfers The ability of matter to do work or make things happen is known as Energy. There are various forms of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy

More information

CP Chapter 17 Thermochemistry

CP Chapter 17 Thermochemistry CP Chapter 17 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry Thermochemistry is the study of energy that occur during chemical reactions and phase changes (changes of state) The Nature of Energy Energy is the ability

More information

Three special ideal gas processes: one of, W or Q is 0

Three special ideal gas processes: one of, W or Q is 0 Lecture 12 1st Law for isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic process Temperature change: specific heat Phase change: heat of transformation Calorimetry: calculating heat exchanges Specific heats of gases

More information

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. Duration of resource: 21 Minutes. Year of Production: Stock code: VEA12052

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. Duration of resource: 21 Minutes. Year of Production: Stock code: VEA12052 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Chemical changes occur around us, and inside us, all the time. When chemical reactions happen, one or more new substances are formed and energy is either given off or absorbed in the

More information

Chapter 14: Science Study Guide

Chapter 14: Science Study Guide Chapter 14: Science Study Guide Name 1. Step-by-step, tell me what we did with the sand in the jar. What energy was produced? 2. In your own words define: observation. 3. There are many forms of energy.

More information

Topic 05 Energetics : Heat Change. IB Chemistry T05D01

Topic 05 Energetics : Heat Change. IB Chemistry T05D01 Topic 05 Energetics 5.1-5.2: Heat Change IB Chemistry T05D01 5.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions - 1 hour 5.1.1 Define the terms exothermic reaction, endothermic reaction and standard enthalpy change

More information

Chemistry. Understanding Water V. Name: Suite 403, 410 Elizabeth St, Surry Hills NSW 2010 (02)

Chemistry. Understanding Water V. Name: Suite 403, 410 Elizabeth St, Surry Hills NSW 2010 (02) Chemistry Understanding Water V Name: Suite 403, 410 Elizabeth St, Surry Hills NSW 2010 (02) 9211 2610 info@keystoneeducation.com.au keystoneeducation.com.au Water has a higher heat capacity than many

More information

Energy and Chemical Change

Energy and Chemical Change Energy and Chemical Change Section 16.1 Energy In your textbook, read about the nature of energy. In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the italicized

More information