Lectures on. Constitutive Modelling of Arteries. Ray Ogden

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1 Lectures on Constitutive Modelling of Arteries Ray Ogden University of Aberdeen Xi an Jiaotong University April 2011

2 Overview of the Ingredients of Continuum Mechanics needed in Soft Tissue Biomechanics and the phenomenological description of material properties

3 Lecture Contents Outline of the basics tools from continuum mechanics kinematics, invariants, stress, elasticity, strain energy, stress-deformation relations Characterization of material properties isotropy and anisotropy, fibrous materials Application to arteries (and the myocardium if time allows)

4 Kinematics reference configuration deformed configuration Deformation Properties of Continuous One-to-one and onto invertible Differentiable, inverse differentiable (not necessarily continuously differentiable)

5 Example of a deformation that is Photograph of a kink band in a composite (AS4/PEEK) plate not Photograph under continuously of a kink compression differentiable band in a composite (AS4/PEEK) from Vogler and a kink Kyriakides band (1999) plate under from compression Vogler and from Kyriakides Vogler (1999) and Kyriakides (1999)

6 Deformation gradient Associated (Cauchy Green) tensors left Polar decomposition right rotation tensor positive definite symmetric tensors Eigenvalues of and are the principal stretches Eigenvalues of and are

7 Stretch can be defined for any reference direction unit vector Square of length of a line element unit vector in reference configuration stretch in direction Strain Inextensibility constraint Green strain tensor

8 Deformation of 1. line elements 2. area elements Nanson s formula 3. volume elements Isochoric deformation Incompressibility constraint Deformation invariants Principal invariants of

9 Invariants associated with a distinguished direction in the reference configuration and square of stretch in direction no simple physical interpretation An alternative to based on Nanson s formula square of ratio of deformed to undeformed area element initially normal to

10 Invariants associated with two distinguished directions in the reference configuration Additional invariants and Note: another way to write and similarly for the other invariants is structure tensor

11 Stress tensors Surface force on an area element traction vector Cauchy stress tensor (symmetric) nominal stress tensor first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor Equilibrium (no body forces)

12 Introduction of the (elastic) strain energy consider the virtual work of the surface tractions This is converted into stored (elastic) energy if there exists a scalar function such that from which we obtain the stress-deformation relation for an unconstrained material

13 Some properties of objectivity or or material symmetry

14 For an incompressible material Lagrange multiplier Material symmetry incompressible

15 Incompressible isotropic elastic materials Principal invariants Strain energy right C-G tensor left C-G tensor Principal stresses

16 To characterize it suffices to perform planar biaxial tests on a thin sheet pure homogeneous deformation

17 Eliminate Data with enable to be determined

18 (3,3)

19 Alternatively (and equivalently) in terms of the principal stretches

20 constant

21 In either case there are two independent deformation quantities and two stress components thus, planar biaxial tests (or extension-inflation tests) are sufficient to fully determine the three-dimensional material properties for an incompressible isotropic material This is not the case for anisotropic materials contrary to various claims in the literature

22 Modelling fibre reinforcement fibres reference configuration Fibres characterized in terms of the unit vector field

23 One family of fibres transverse isotropy (locally) rotational symmetry about direction is an isotropic function of and and structure tensor anisotropic (transversely isotropic) invariants

24 Cauchy stress and 4 constitutive functions require 4 independent tests to determine

25 Arterial tissue and characterization of the elastic properties of fibrous materials

26 Typical arterial segments

27 Schematic of layered artery structure Schematic of arterial wall layered structure Intima Media Adventitia

28 Fibrous structure Collagen fibres in an iliac artery (adventitia)

29 ESEM ESEM adventitia of human aorta

30 Rubber and soft tissue elasticity similarities and differences Rubber Elastic Large deformations Incompressible Isotropic Soft tissue Elastic Large deformations Incompressible Anisotropic

31 Comparison Stress-stretch of behaviour responses in simple of rubber tension and Rubber soft tissue Biological soft tissue Simple tension (tension vs stretch) Rubber Soft tissue

32 Stress-stretch behaviour in simple tension Extension-inflation of a (thin-walled) tube Pressure vs circumferential stretch Rubber Biological soft tissue Rubber Soft tissue P P circumferential stretch axial pre-stretch 1.2

33 Typical data for a short arterial length increasing axial load Pressure Circumferential stretch (radius)

34 increasing axial load Pressure Pressure vs axial stretch (length)

35 For arteries two families of fibres unit vector fields Invariants Cauchy stress

36 Stress components Fibre families mechanically equivalent no shear stress

37 principal stresses not symmetric in general as in isotropy These equations are applicable to the extension and inflation of a tube (artery) cylindrical polars

38 Reference geometry Extension-inflation of a tube cylindrical polars azimuthal stretch Deformation axial stretch

39 Principal stretches azimuthal axial radial Strain energy Forms of and may be different for different layers Equilibrium

40 Pressure Axial load Illustrative strain energy (Holzapfel, Gasser, Ogden, J. Elasticity, 2000)

41 Pressure Axial load Illustrative strain energy (Holzapfel, Gasser, Ogden, J. Elasticity, 2000)

42 Specifically matrix fibres with neo-hookean Material constants (positive) only active if

43 Fits the data well for the overall response of an intact arterial segment

44 Typical data for a short arterial length increasing axial load Pressure Circumferential stretch (radius)

45 However! The behaviours of the separate layers are very different

46 Stiffness of Media and Adventitia Compared

47 From Holzapfel, Sommer, Regitnig 2004 mean data for aged coronary artery layers

48 Fibrous structure Collagen fibres in an iliac artery (adventitia)

49 Description of distributed fibre orientations Orientation density distribution Normalized

50 Generalized structure tensor Generalized structure tensor Transversely isotropic distribution Transversely isotropic distribution mean fibre direction Parameter calculated from given Parameter calculated from given or treated as a phenomenological parameter or treated as isotropy a phenomenological parameter transverse isotropy no fibre dispersion

51 Fibre orientation distribution illustration Plot of

52 Deformation invariant based on now the mean direction material constants

53 Application to a thin-walled tube Pressure reduced axial load

54 Pressure vs circumferential stretch for a tube with

55 Pressure vs circumferential stretch for a tube with ( in kpa)

56 Application to uniaxial tension of axial and circumferential strips circumferential axial

57 Uniaxial tension axial specimen mean fibre direction circumferential specimen for simulations

58 Tensile load (N) Displacement (mm)

59 No fibre dispersion No fibre dispersion FE simulation uniaxial tension Fibre dispersion Fibre dispersion

60 Conclusion In modelling the mechanics of soft tissue it is essential to account for the dispersion of collagen fibre directions it has a substantial effect Reference Gasser, Ogden, Holzapfel J. R. Soc. Interface (2006)

61 Structure and Modelling of the Myocardium

62 Anatomy of the Heart Epicardium LA RA Myocardium RV Endocardium LV 1/16

63 Anatomy of the Heart Change of the 3D layered organization of myocytes through the wall thickness Epicardium (external) Epicardium LA Endocardium (internal) RA Myocardium RV Endocardium LV 2/16

64 Structure of the Left Ventricle Wall Change of the 3D layered organization of myocytes through the wall thickness Epicardium (external) Endocardium (internal) Sands et. al. (2005) 10% 30% 50% 70% 90% Locally: three mutually orthogonal directions can be identified forming planes with distinct material responses 2/16

65 Structure of the Left Ventricle Wall Change of the 3D layered organization of myocytes through the wall thickness Epicardium (external) Endocardium (internal) n 0... sheet-normal axis Basis vectors Mean fibre orientation s 0... sheet axis f 0... fibre axis 2/16

66 An alternative view from Pope et al. (2008) collagen fibres exposed

67 Simple Shear of a Cube 6 modes of simple shear 13/16

68 Mechanics of the Myocardium Simple shear tests on a cube of a typical myocardial specimen in the fs, fn and sn planes Dokos et al. (2002) Stiffest when the fibre direction is extended Least stiff for normal direction Intermediate stiffness for sheet direction 3/16

69 C o n s e q u e n c e Within the context of (incompressible, nonlinear) elasticity theory, myocardium should be modelled as a non-homogenous, thick-walled, orthotropic, material

70 Mechanics of the Myocardium Biaxial loading in the fs plane of canine left ventricle Yin et. al. (1987) The only biaxial data available! Limitations: e.g. no data in the low-strain region (0 0.05) 4/16

71 Structurally Based Model Define n 0... sheet-normal axis mean fibre orientation s 0... sheet axis f 0... fibre axis direction coupling invariants expressible in terms of the other invariants 9/16

72 Structurally Based Model General framework compressible material: 7 independent invariants incompressible material: 6 independent invariants Cauchy stress tensor isotropic contribution anisotropic contribution left Cauchy-Green tensor 10/16

73 Simple Shear of a Cube 6 modes of simple shear 13/16

74 Simple Shear of a Cube Shear stress versus amount of shear for the 6 modes: The modes in which the fibres are stretched are (fs) and (fn) 13/16

75 Dokos et al. (2002) data Simple shear tests on a cube of a typical myocardial specimen in the fs, fn and sn planes Stiffest when the fibre direction is extended Least stiff for normal direction Intermediate stiffness for sheet direction 3/16

76 Simple Shear of a Cube Shear stress versus amount of shear for the 6 modes: The modes in which the fibres are stretched are (fs) and (fn) 13/16

77 A Specific Strain-energy Function isotropic term transversely isotropic terms orthotropic term discriminates shear behaviour 8 constants 12/16

78 Simple Shear of a Cube Fit without term data of Dokos et al. (2002) model model shear stress kpa amount of shear

79 Simple Shear of a Cube Fit with term 16 data of Dokos et al. (2002) model 12 shear stress kpa amount of shear 13/16

80 Reference Holzapfel, Ogden Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (2009) myocardium Health warning Much more data needed

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