# Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory. Introduction: The Lecture Contains: Laminate Theory with Thermal Effects

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1 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Introduction: In this lecture we are going to develop the laminate theory with thermal and hygral effects. Then we will develop the relations for effective coefficients of thermal and hygral expansion for laminate. Further, we will develop governing differential equation for laminate. We will conclude this lecture with some sample numerical examples based on this. The Lecture Contains: Laminate Theory with Thermal Effects Laminate Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Laminate Theory with Hygral Effects Laminate Coefficients of Hygral Expansion Hygro-thermal Effects on Laminate Governing Differential Equations for Classical Laminate Theory Examples Homework References file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_1.htm[8/18/ :40:56 PM]

2 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Laminate Theory with Thermal Effects: In the classical laminate theory we make the assumption that the total strain is superposition of mechanical strain and thermal strains. Thus, (5.96) where, laminate as is the thermal strain in laminate. We can write the stresses in global direction for Thus, using Equation (5.95) in above equation, we get (5.97) Now we find the resultant in-plane forces as Recalling the development of classical laminate theory with the use of Equation (5.21), we write (5.98) Let us define (5.99) as the effective laminate thermal forces per unit length. Thus, with this definition we can write Equation (5.97) as (5.100) file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_2.htm[8/18/ :40:56 PM]

3 Now let us define the resultant moments using Equation (5.96) as With the use of Equation (5.21) and Equation (5.27), we write (5.101) Let us define (5.102) as the effective laminate thermal moments per unit length. Thus, with this definition we can write Equation (5.101) as (5.103) Combining Equation (5.99) and Equation (5.102), we write (5.104) The inverse of this equation is written as (5.105) file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_2.htm[8/18/ :40:56 PM]

4 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Laminate Coefficient of Thermal Expansion The derivation of laminate coefficients of thermal expansion is dealt here for symmetric laminates. This is because there is no extension-bending coupling due to the fact that for symmetric laminates. Let us derive the expression for the coefficient of thermal expansion for laminate. Let us define the coefficient of thermal expansion for laminate,, as the laminate mid-plane strain,, to the per unit uniform change in temperature,. Thus, (5.106) Now for symmetric laminates with pure thermal loading, we have (5.107) Combining Equation (5.105) and Equation (5.106), we get (5.108) For a uniform temperature change the equivalent thermal force is given as (5.109) Thus, the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion becomes (5.110) It is known that the and are constant in each lamina in thickness direction. Thus, the integration over thickness can be simplified as the summation over laminae thicknesses as (5.111) where, is the thickness of kth lamina. Figure 5.12 shows the variation of for laminate along with of layer for for AS4/ Epoxy material from Soden et al [4]. Similarly, Figure 5.13 and Figure 5.14 show the variation of and. From these figures it is seen that these coefficients vary from positive to negative values. Further, it file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_3.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

5 is observed that the coefficient of thermal expansion depends upon stacking sequence. This fact is very important from laminate designing point of view where it is used in an environment with large thermal gradient. One can choose a laminate sequence for which a coefficient of thermal expansion is zero. From Equation (5.109) and Equation (5.110) for a uniform temperature change, the equivalent thermal force is written as (5.112) Figure 5.12: Variation of for lamina and of for laminate Figure 5.13: Variation of for lamina and of for laminate file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_3.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

6 Figure 5.14: Variation of for lamina and of for laminate file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_3.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

7 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Laminate Theory with Hygral Effects: In this study, the total strain is assumed to be superimposition of mechanical and hygral strains. (5.113) where, is the hygral strain in laminate. The stress in global direction is given as (5.114) The resultant in-plane forces are given as (5.115) where, (5.116) is defined as the resultant in-plane forces per unit length due to hygral strains. In a similar way, we can give the resultant moments as (5.117) where, (5.118) is defined as resultant moments per unit length due to hygral strains. Combining Equation (5.116) and Equation (5.118), we write (5.119) The inverse of this equation is written as (5.120) file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_4.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

8 file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_4.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

9 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Laminate Coefficients of Hygral Expansion Here we derive the laminate coefficients hygral expansion,, for symmetric laminates. Let us define the coefficient of hygral expansion for laminate as laminate mid-plane strains to the per percentage change in moisture absorption,. Thus, (5.121) For symmetric laminates with hygral loads alone, we can write (5.122) Combining Equation (5.121) and Equation (5.122), we get (5.123) For a uniform moisture absorption the equivalent hygral force is given as (5.124) Thus, the laminate coefficient of hygral expansion becomes (5.125) It is known that the and are constant in each lamina in thickness direction. Thus, the integration over thickness can be simplified as summation over laminae thicknesses as (5.126) Combining Equation (5.124) and Equation (5.125) we can get the effective hygral force as (5.127) Figure 5.15 shows the variation of for laminate along with of a layer of for T300/5208 material from Pipes et al [5]. Similarly, Figure 5.16 and Figure 5.16 show the variation of and. file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_5.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

10 Figure 5.15: Variation of for lamina and of for laminate Figure 5.16: Variation of for lamina and of for laminate file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_5.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

11 Figure 5.17: Variation of for lamina and of for laminate file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_5.htm[8/18/ :40:57 PM]

12 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Hygro-thermal Effects on Laminate: When thermal as well as hygral strains are present in total strain, then (5.128) The resultant in-plane forces are given as (5.129) and the resultant moments are given as (5.130) Equation (5.115) and (5.116) are combined as (5.131) The inverse of this equation is written as (5.132) file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_6.htm[8/18/ :40:58 PM]

13 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Governing Differential Equations for Classical Laminate Theory The equilibrium equations for a laminate are (5.133) In the laminate, in general, we consider that the transverse shear stresses are vanishing at the top and bottom of the laminate, that is at and. Now, integrate Equation (5.133) with respect to z. The first two of the above equation give us (5.134) The third of the Equation (5.133) gives (5.135) where, and Now, multiply the first of Equation (5.133) with z and integrate with respect to z to get (5.136) Now, let us write Now recalling that at and we can write for the third term in Equation (5.136) as and file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_7.htm[8/18/ :40:58 PM]

14 Thus, Equation (5.136) becomes (5.137) Similarly, we can write (5.138) Now putting Equation (5.137) and Equation (5.138) in Equation (5.135) we get (5.139) Note that this equation is identical with the homogeneous plate theory. However, in these equations the definition of the resultants is different. One can express the moment resultants in terms of A, B and D matrices and the derivatives of midplane displacements as given below. Equation (5.137) can be written as (5.140) Equation (5.138) becomes (5.141) And Equation (5.139) becomes (5.142) file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_7.htm[8/18/ :40:58 PM]

15 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Examples: Note: In the following examples, each lamina has a thickness of 1 mm and material is AS4/ Epoxy from Soden et al [4]. Example 5.9: For the laminate in Example 5.2 (that is, coefficients of thermal expansions. ), calculate the laminate Solution: This is a symmetric matrix. Hence,. A matrix is given as: Now we have Now we calculate effective thermal forces for fictitious thermal change of. which gives, The laminate coefficients of thermal expansion are calculated as file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_8.htm[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

16 file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_8.htm[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

17 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Example 5.10: For the laminate in Example 5.3 (that is, thermal expansions. ), calculate the laminate coefficients of Solution: This is a symmetric matrix. Hence,. A matrix is given as: And Now we calculate effective thermal forces for fictitious thermal change of. In the thermal force calculation we have assumed that the middle two layers are combined to form one layer of 2 mm thickness. which gives, The laminate coefficients of thermal expansion are calculated as file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_9.htm[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

18 Example 5.11: Material properties for T300/5208 material are given here [Error! Reference source not found.]. Calculate the laminate coefficients of hygral expansion for laminate with each layer of 1 mm thickness. Solution: This is a symmetric matrix. Hence,. A matrix is given as: And Now we calculate effective thermal forces for fictitious hygral change of. In the hygral force calculation we have assumed that the middle two layers are combined to form one layer of 2 mm thickness file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_9.htm[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

19 which gives, The laminate coefficients of hygral expansion are calculated as file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_9.htm[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

20 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Example 5.12: The laminate in Example 5.1 is subjected to a thermal gradient of. Calculate the thermal residual stress at the top of the laminate. Solution: The matrix for this material is calculated as Now, matrix for and is calculated as The coefficients of thermal expansion in global directions for and layers are and And the A, B and D matrices are calculated as The thermal forces are file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_10.html[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

21 Now we calculate the thermal moments as We can write for the thermal forces and moments as which becomes, Solving for the mid-plane strains and curvatures file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_10.html[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

22 The total strains at the top of the laminate, that is, at in lamina is We calculate the mechanical strains by subtracting the thermal strains from total strains. Now the thermal strain in top lamina is Thus, the mechanical strains become And the stresses at the top of the laminate are given as file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_10.html[8/18/ :40:59 PM]

23 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory Homework: 1. Derive the resultant in-plane forces and moments for a laminate with thermal effects. 2. Derive the resultant in-plane forces and moments for a laminate with hygral effects. 3. Derive an expression for laminate coefficient of thermal expansion under the uniform temperature condition. 4. Derive an expression for laminate coefficient of hygral expansion under the condition of uniform moisture absorption. 5. Derive the expressions for resultant in-plane forces and moments for a laminate with hygrothermal effects. 6. Derive the governing differential equations for classical laminate theory. 7. Calculate the laminate coefficients of thermal expansion for the following laminates of AS4/ Epoxy from Soden et al [4]. Take thickness of each layer as 1 mm. a. b. c. d. 8. Calculate the thermal residual stresses for a temperature change of at the top and bottom of the following laminates of AS4/ Epoxy. (Write a computer code for this problem. Repeat the Example 5.12). a. b. 9. Calculate the laminate coefficients of hygral expansion for laminate sequences in exercise example 7 with T300/5208 material as in Example Take thickness of each layer as 1 mm. file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_11.htm[8/18/ :41:00 PM]

24 Module 5: Laminate Theory Lecture 19: Hygro -thermal Laminate Theory References: CT Herakovich. Mechanics of Fibrous Composites, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, BD Agarwal, LJ Broutman. Analysis and Performance of Fibre Composites, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, AK Kaw. Mechanics of Composite Materials, CRC Press Boca Raton, New York, PD Soden, MJ Hinton, AS Kaddour. Lamina properties, lay-up configurations and loading conditions for a range of fibre-reinforced composite laminates. Composite Science and Technology, 1998;58: RB Pipes, JR Vinson, TW Chou. On the hygrothermal response of laminated composite systems. Journal of Composite Materials, 1976, Vol. 10, pp file:///d /Web%20Course%20(Ganesh%20Rana)/Dr.%20Mohite/CompositeMaterials/lecture19/19_12.htm[8/18/ :41:00 PM]

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