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1 131 m e m b e r s c o m e to feel less a m b i v a l e n t a b o u t t h e w o r k e r a n d r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y to h i m a n d t h e i r peers. G r o u p m e m b e r s, f e e l i n g m o r e s e c u r e in the g r o u p a t this s t a g e t h e m s e l v e s, m a y be m o r e a c c e p t i n g of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s, as they p e r c e i v e t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s in g r o u p f u n c t i o n i n g. M e m b e r s c o m e to r e a l i s e that c o n f l i c t s m a y be u s e d c o n s t r u c t i v e l y t o w a r d the a c h i e v e m e n t o f p u r p o s e s. D u r i n g this p h a s e, the p r e d o m i n a n t f o c u s is on the p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s o f m e m b e r s o f the g r o u p, as t h e s e a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r s a n d w i t h the g e n e r a l p u r p o s e o f the g r o u p T h e f o c u s is a l s o o n m a j o r g r o u p p r o b l e m s, t n o s e t h a t a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the f u n c t i o n i n g of the g r o u p as a u n i t. ( N o r t h a r n, 1969, p. 198) In e a r l i e r p h a s e s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t, p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d a d a p t i n g to the n e w s i t u a t i o n, e x p l o r i n g i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p p r o b l e m s ( c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y i n g p u r p o s e s o f the g r o u p ) and r e l a t i n g to the w o r k e r. A t this s t a g e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e a g r e a t e r f o c u s o n w o r k i n g t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m s w i t h m e m b e r s b e c o m i n g m o r e e f f e c t i v e in h e l p i n g e a c h o t h e r. S o m e w o r k i n g t h r o u g h o f p r o b l e m s of b e h a v i o u r that i n t e r f e r e w i t h the s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e of s o c i a l r o l e s is, in a s e n s e, t h e m a j o r c o n t e n t o f this phase. T h e v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f f a i l u r e to p e r f o r m to the e x t e n t of the m e m b e r s ' p o t e n t i a l i t i e s in o n e o r m o r e o f t h e i r r oles is b r o u g h t d i r e c t l y into the g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e. ( N o r t h e n, p. 199) C r i s e s m a y o c c u r in a n y g r o u p ' s life a n d be i n d u c e d by e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s, e i t h e r w i t h i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t, o r internal p r e s s u r e s w i t h c h a n g e s in the w o r k e r o r s t r u c t u r e of the gr oup. All g r o u p s a l t e r n a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k i n g o n t a s k s and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g m e m b e r s. T h i s a l t e r n a t i o n o c c u r s b e c a u s e e f f o r t s in b e h a l f of the t a s k w h i c h c o n f r o n t the g r o u p b r i n g a b o u t s t r a i n s in the s o c i o e m o t i o n a l a r e a. A g r o u p c a n t o l e r a t e the a c c o m p a n y i n g t e n s i o n a n d c o n f l i c t o n l y so long. T h e g r o u p then n e e d s to turn its a t t e n t i o n to the s o c i o e m o t i o n a l a r e a in o r d e r to r e d u c e the s t r a i n. ( N o r t h e n, 1969, p. 206)

2 D e m a n d s on the w o r k e r S a r r i a n d G e l i n s k y (1974) p r o p o s e t h r e e m a i n s o c i a i w o r k e r f u n c t i o n s a t this s t a g e o f a g r o u p ' s d e v e l o p m e n t : s u p p o r t i n g m o d i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e s in the g r o u p, s u p p o r t i n g the g r o u p ' s e f f o r t s to c o p e.;ith p r e s s u r e s, a n d a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s t o w a r d i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t g o a I s. G r o u p s at this s t a g e a r e u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a h i g h e r level o f i n t e g r a t i o n, g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y in goal d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o u r a n d g r o u p s t r u c t u r e, a n d c l e a r e r n o r m s, t r a d i t i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s. T h e f a c t o r s o f i n c r e a s e d m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e a n d goal d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o u r i m p r o v e m e m b e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the g r o u p. N o r t h e n (1969) s t a t e s that o n e of the w o r k e r ' s t a s k s is to a s s i s t m e m b e r s s p e c i f y i n t e r m e d i a t e g o a l s f o r t h e m to m a s t e r in t h e i r e f f o r t s to a t t a i n e n d g o a l s. T h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is to d i a g n o s e the s h i f t i n g a n d c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the m e m b e r s w i t h h i m a n d w i t h e a c h o t h e r, p l a n for m e a n s of b u i l d i n g on t h e s t r e n g t h s of the m e m b e r s a n d the g r o u p, w o r k w i t h m e m b e r s to s e t g o a l s for i m p r o v e m e n t in r e l a t i o n s h i p s, a n d c o n t r i b u t e his o w n k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s to the g r o u p ' s e f f o r t s to c o p e w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s as t h e s e a r i s e. ( N o r t h e n, 1969, p. 196) H e a s s i s t s m e m b e r s c l a r i f y d e v e l o p i n g n o r m s a n d v a l u e s in the g r o u p, to e s t a b l i s h d e s i r a b l e r u ' e s a n d to take m u t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r e n f o r c e m e n t. He g i v e s s u p p o r t for n o r m s l i k e l y to r e s u l t in goal a c h i e v e m e n t w h i l e q u e s t i o n i n g t h o s e u n l i k e l y to d o so T h e r e s e a r c n qr3uo: an a n a l y s i s o* a r? c a s s Sess?on 2 H a r o l d and.<onn a r r i v e d 'ace for rhe f i r s t s e s s i o n o f the token e c o n o m y, r u n n i n g in to the l a u g n t e r of t n e others. T h e y p r o t e s t e d at losirg a p o i n t on the P e n a v i o u r s c h e d u l e b u t the w o r k e r d i d n o t c h a n g e his p o s i t i o n o n the natter. T h e e f f e c t s o f the token e c o n o m y on the boys' s t u d y b e h a v i o u r s w e r e imtrediately a p p a r e n t, p a s s i v e and d i s r u p t i v e b e n a v i o u r s a l m o s t d l s a p o e a r i n g. The q u i z p e r i o d was for the "irst t ime e a s y to record as It was c o n a u c t a d in an o r d e r l y m a n n e r. T h e b o y s w e r e t r e m e n d o u s l y e x c ' : e d on a eing r e w a r a e d w i t h s w e e t s for their e f f o r t s. BIfcb S e s s i o n «:3 A I 3 a In v i e w of a c r i s i s induced by e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s o n the grouo, no w o r k on the t oken BI5a e c o n o m y s y s t e m was c o m o l e t e d this session. see C h a p t e r 12, p. 163)

3 133 Session 2? D e s p i t e the g r o u p not h a v i n g a t t a i n e d the n e c e s s a r y f our h u n d r e d c o i n t s, the w o r k e r r e g a r d e d it as e x p e d i e n t for the g r o u p to p r o c e e d w i t h its '-eward' s o c c e r -natch, in v i e w o f its recent c r i s ' s. T h e g r o u p w e n that s o c c e r -natch. 314b S e s s i o n 30 O n l y f i v e b o y s a t t e n c e d the s t u d y p e r i o d, 3 r u c e a n d R o b e r t o a r r i v i n g v e r y late. T h e low a t t e n d a n c e -nay h ave b een p a r t l y d u e to the r e c a n t c r i s i s in the g r o u p induced by Hr. a n d a c o n s e a u e n t d rop in g r o u p c o h e s i o n and t rust in the w o r k e r. This was f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d in a h i g i level of t e n s i o n (teasing, temper d i s p l a y s a n d *oul play) in the s o c c e r at the end cf the s e s sion. H o w e v e r d u r i n g the s t u d y p e r i o d the bovs w o rxed oroficiently. SUo S e s s i o n S h o r t l y a f t e r s t a r t i n g w o r n in this s e s s i o n, o n e o f fhe boys s h o u t e d that Mr. T *as A l l a coining. T h e r e w«*s f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y b y the b o v s and by the time Mr. T a r r i v e d they A 1 2 a w e r e all s e a t e d d u i e t l y, r e a ding. Mr. T r e m a i n e d for a b c ; t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s m a k i n g " 1 e small talk an*? w a t c h i n g the g r o u p w o r k - w h i c h in its e n d e a v o u r s to p r o v a a p o i n t did s o w i t h o u t f i d g e t i n g o r :alking. D u r i n g the s t u d y p e r i o d a f t e r Mr. T left, John, H e c t o r a n d Ivan 'ost p o i n t s as they s t a r e d o u t o f the w i n d o w o r d i s t u r b e d o t h e r s n e a r them. W h i l e H e c t o r c o n d u c t e d the q u i z p e r i o d H a - o l d, Ivan, J o h n a n d E d w a r d i n t e r r u p t e d t h e i r p e e r s and c o n s e q u e n t l y lost points. B U b A 1 2 a St e v e, h a v i n g p r e v i o u s l y r e f u s e d to a n s w e r q-iestions, w a s n o w m a k i n g serious e f f o r t s to do so, a s k i n g for r e p e a t s o f q u e s t i o n s and d o i n g his b e s t to e a r n points. H i s q u i e t b e h a v i o u r in the s e s s i o n e a r n e d h i m p o i n t s. E u g e n e p e r f o r m e d well in all a s p e c t s of the s c h e d u l e e a r n i n g 3 2 / 3 8 points. A l t e r c a t i o n s in the s o c c e r g a m e re s u l t e d Jn f our p o i n t s b e i n g d e d u c t e d f r o m the g r o u p total ( t e a s i n g and f i g h t i n g ). f o r this b e h a v i o u r. In the p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n they lost twelve p o i n t s A 11e sejs ion. Having studied Geography for two sessiors, the boys decided to study health next S e s s i o n 32 A 1 2 a H e a l t h s u b j e c t was s t u died. S U b A 1 3 a A 1 2 * Session 33 O n l y s e v e n m e m b e r s a t t e n d e d, H e c t o r a n d E u g e n e be r»o sick, C h a r l e s a n d T o n y b e i n g a b s e n t. S t e v e a n d B r u c e lost p o i n t s for a r r i v i n g late. T h e b o y s told the w o r W e r that Mr. T was n o w saying " m i s b e h a v i o u r ", w h e r e ' s y o u r b e h a v i o u r s h e e t ", "Mr. A's j u s t b r i b i n g y o u " and "you are ig boys and yet like c h i l d r e n you h a v e to n a v e s w e e t s to w o r k ". T h e y told the w o r k e r the g i r l s in c l a s s laughed at t h e m w h e n these things w e r e said. T h e w o r k e r r e f l e c t e d that he t h o u g h t b r i b e r y was eo r pad things - E d w a r d a d d i n g " y e s, like s a v i n g us to rob a h o u s e '. All a g r e e d it *-as n o t b r i b e r y. The w o r k e r e x p l a i n e d he h a d i n t r o d u c e d the reward s y s t e m to try a n d m a k e w o r k m o r e fun and to g i v e them s o m e t h i n g to w o r k for. N o - o n e s u g g e s t e d the s y s t e m oe s t o o p e d. H a r o l d c a l l e d the g r o u p to o r d e r and they s t a r t e d w ork, Steve, John a n d B r u c e losing points for s t a r i n g out of the w i n d o w. D u r i n g q u i z time E d w a r d o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d others, and s u r p r i s i n g l y Steve, w h o at o n e s t a g e had r e * u s e o to p a r t i c i p a t e, t r i e d so h ard that he o f t e n a n s w e r e d out of turn a n d had to be r e m i n c e d by the w o r k e r t hat n e was losing p o i n t s. His rise in d i s r u p t i v e o e n a v i o u r s was in actual fact a r e l a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e c h a n g e. i r o n i c a l l y the t oken e c o n o m y w h i c h.vas the v e h i c l e for his c h a n g e in e f f o r t, n o w o e c a n e a v e r f c l e for loss of coints. H o w e v e r, l e a r n i n g self control was r e g a r d e d BI 5a 3<5a B U b

4 134 as an i m p o r t a n t goal for Steve. AI Id T h e b o y * e a r n e d two h u n d r e d ana s e v e n t y - s i x p o i n t s for the s e s s i o n, o e i n g v ery e x c i t e d o v e r t heir p r o g r e s s as s h o w n to them by the w o r k e r on their " b e n a v i o u r g r a o h s ". T he w o r k e r p r a i s e d the ooys e f f o r t s, i n d v i d u a I i s i n g S t e v e in the p r o c e s s. W h i l e t r y i n g to d i s c u s s the g r o u p ' s i m p e n d i n g v i s * t to the zoo, E a w a r d k e p t i n t e r r u p t i n g and c a l k i n g a b o u t o t h e r things. T h e w o r x e r r e l e c t e a it w a s h a r d ( o r the g r o u p to make a n y d e c i s i o n s w h i l e ne was t a l k i n g a p o u t o t h e r t h i n g s - the g r o u p told h i m to oe q u i e t. H a r o l d, l e a d i n g q u i z time in the g r o u p, e m e r g e d as a c l e a r task leader. 9 l*»a 813b 3 1 3c 313a S e s s i o n 3u AI la AI la R o e e r t o h a v i n g to m a k e a n o t h e r t rip in the late a f t e r n o o n, sent a m e s s a g e that he w o u l d be u n a b l e to a c c o m p a n y the g r o u p to the zoo. T h e g r o u p a g r e e d u n a n i m o u s l y that the v i s i t to the zoo be s h o r t e n e d to e n a b l e R o o e r t o to come and the w o r k e r d r o v e r ound to f e t c h him. T h i s r e v e a l e d a -narked c h a n g e in a t t i t u d e to r e s p o n s e s to J o h n e n d B r u c e w n e n they h a d a c a m o i n g t rip ( s e s s i o n 16), a n d the o t h e r s d i d n ' t w a n t to c h a n g e a s o c c e r m a r c h d ate to a l l o w them to play. Ivan s e n t f i f t y c e n t s to the g r o u p w i t h his a p o l o g i e s, e n a b l i n g h i m to m a i n t a i n a type of i n d e p e n d e n t m e m b e r s h i p in the g r o u p - p a y i n g h i s w a y a n d so n e u t r a l i s i n g any p o s s i b l e g r o u p a c t i o n s for his a b s e n c e s. O n r o u t e to p i c k i n g up R o b e r t o, the w o r k e r s a w T o n y p l a y i n g w i t h some o l d e r b oys * s t o o p i n g, he c a l l e d to him. T h e w o r k e r told h i m that he m i s s e d h i m at g r o u p m e e t i n g s. T o n y s a i d he liked the g r o u p but Mr. T had told h i m he w a s w a s t i n g the w o r k e r ' s time a n d h ereafter he h a d not f e l t like c o m i n g. The w o r k e r a s s u r e d T o n y this w a s n o t the c a s e, b u t a l t h o u g h T o n y s a i d h e ' d r e t u r n nex»- iession, the w o r k e r d o u b t e d he would. A t the zoo 5 t e v e a n d R o b e r t o w e r e the b u t t o f s o m e t e a sing, w h i c h u p s e t t hem both. S e s s i o n b A5b A 1 2 a AI tc A! 2a P r i o r to the s e s s i o n the w o r k e r had a p p r o a c h e d T o n y at school to a s c e r t a i n his i n t e n t i o n s vis a vis f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t ion. T h e g r o u p m e m o e r s c o n f r o n t e d him, t e l l i n g h i m to say " y e s or no". T o n y r e p l i e d h e w o u l d a t t e n d this s e s s i o n - his f a i l u r e to do s o b e i n g a d e a r m e s s a g e o f not w i s h i n g to a t t e n d w h i l e a e i n g u n a b l e to v e r b a l i s e t his to the w o r k e r or the grouo. D e s p i t e p l a n s to s t u d v h e a l t h, the b o y s b r o u g h t h i s t o r y b o o k s, p r o b a b l y a w a r e that they w e r e likely to e a r n m o r e p o i n t s on the t o k e n e conomy on this subject. Edwari a r r 'ved lace, thereby disturbing the group. John *ell a s l e e p b r i e f l y d u r i n g the s t u d y p e r i o d b u t w a s a b l e to c o n t i n u e s z u d y i n g a f t e r a few m i n u t e s. O u r i n g tne b u z z g r o u p E u g e n e s a t t e n t i o n w a n d e r e d at one stage. T h e r e was m a r k e a i m p r o v e m e n t in s e l f control d u r i n g the q u i z p e r i o d. H a r o l d a p p e a r e d to h a v e a d o o t e d the role of q u i z m a s t e r, a p o s i t i o n he a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h g r e a t e x p r e s s i o n in p a r t m i m i c r y o f a t e a cher, w h i c h the g r o u p e n j o y e d. At the same time h e is a r t i c u l a t e and m a n a q e d to get t h r o u g h o u e s t i o n s q u i c k l y. As usual the w o r k e r e x p l a i n e d to g r o u p m e m o e r s at the e n d of the s e s s i o n w n e r e they h a d lost points. H e told them they w o u l d n a v e to a t t a i n n i n e h u n d r e d points a e f o r e the next g r o u p reward. H a r o l d p r o t e s t e d that It w a s six h u n d r e d b u c R o b e r t o u n d e r s t o o d i m m e d i a t e l y, s a y i n g " n o as we get b e t t e r, the p o i n t s m u s t go jp". T h e w o r k e r c o n f i r m e d this o b s e r v a t i o n but a s s u r e d the g r o u p the total w o u l d n o t be raised a n y further. T h e p oor b a l a n c e of the token e c o n o m y was b e c o m i n g n c r e a s m g ' y e v i d e n t - o n l y o n e p o i n t b e i n g e a r n e a for twenty m i n u t e s study, the s ame as for a c o r r e c t answer. R e s e a r c h r e o u i r e m e n t s of s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n of m e a s u r e m e n t i n h i b i t e d a n y c h a n g e o f the 3 U b 3 U p B H b 3l<*b AI 3b Ai3a s c h e d u l e. Of c o n c e r n w e r e the d rop o uts of T o n y and C h a r l e s, a n d i r r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e s

5 135 of 'van and S t e v e wno w ere " t a r g e t " m e m b e r s for g r o u p goals. Sess ';n 36 At this s t a g e a c l a s s r o o m s c h e d u l e was i n t r o d u c e d. T o p r e v e n t the boys b e i n g v i c t i m i s e d in the c l a s s r o c * o r e x p o s e d to t h e i r o e e r s d u r i n g this p h a s e, a c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t e a c n e r s, g roup m e m o e r s and the w o r k e r was e s t a b l i s h e d w n e r e b y the t e a c h e r s w o u l d n o t m e n t i o n the s c h e d u l e s to the c lass as a w n o l e but m e r e l y m e n t i o n the 315a 313h 'offenae?' name. T h e b o y w o u l d then k n o w he «ad lost a b o i n t on the s c h e d u i e. The c l a s s r o o m s c h e d j l e was d f f t e r e n t i a t e d f r o m the g r o u p s c h e d u l e b y the r e w a r d s y s t e m ( c l a s s r o o m - o n e red s u c k e r : per four p o i n t s / g r o u p - o n e t o f f e e : o e r six p o i n t s ). E d w a r d m i s s e d the s e s s i o n (he o b t a i n e d n o u g h t for the c l a s s r o o m that d ay), and John w h o o n l y o b t a i n e d four w a s r i d i c u l e d by o t h e r g r o u p m e m b e r s. T h e w o r k e r did not try to m i n i m i s e the s i t u a t i o n, a l l o w i n g for m a x i m u m s e e r - r e s s u r e f o r o e h a v i o u r a l 3 o d c h a n g e. T h e b o y s r e p o r t e d b e i n g h a p p y w i t h the s c h e d u l e n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f immediate A l 2 a r e w a r d s b u t b e c a u s e it r e d u c e d s c o u t i n g by the t e a c h e r - " t h e y j u s t s a y o u r n a m e and w e k n o w they will w r i t e it down". T h e s y s t e m a p p e a r e d to h a v e e a r l y s u c c e s s In m a k i n g the b o y s a w a r e o f ;heir b e h a v i o u r a n d in e n a b l i n g t e a c h e r s to e x p e r i e n c e a n a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e o f c l a s s r o o m control to the 'hit and s h o u t m e t h o d '. T h e b o y s d e c i d e d they d i d n o t war.t T o n y b a c k in the group. O u r i n g the s t u d y p e r i o d S t e v e lost two p o i n t s for i n t e r r u p t i n g o t h e r s d u r i n g q u i z time. f o r the rest, the scores w e r e v e r y h i g h a n d the b o y s w e r e v e r y e x c i t e d w i t h t h e i r s c o r e s in the f i f t i e s a n d s i x t i e s. H o w e v e r R o b e r t o r e m i n d e d them tney h a d s c o r e d h i g h l y b e c a u s e few b o y s w e r e p r e s e n t a t the g r o u p, g i v i n g e a c h m e m b e r m o r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s. T h e o o o r a t t e n d a n c e m i g h t h a v e b e e n i n d i c a t i v e of the fact that the token e c o n o m y w a s not a s u f f i c i e n t a t t r a c t i o n to e n s u r e g r o u p a t t e n d a n c e w i t h the w o r k r e q u i r e m e n t s. S e s s i o n 3? W h e n the w o r k e r a r r i v e d, Mr. T was w a i t i n g to tell h i m thar h e d s e e n a big i m p r o v e m e n t In the boys' c l a s s r o o m o e n a v ' o u r - 'even S t e v e o n l y lost two p o i n t s today" A l l a AI lc AI 2a In the e u p h o r i a of t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s u c c e s s e s the b o y s s e e m e d to r elax t heir e f f o r t s in the group. S t e v e a r r i v e J late a n d lost p o i n t s for t h i s, b u t the w o r k e r s i n g l e d h i m o u t for his i m p r o v e m e n t in c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r a n d Mr. T s p l e a s u r e In this. The boys s h o w e d t heir p l e a s u r e in S t e v e ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s, w i n k i n g a n d s m i l i n g at h i m - S t e v e r e t u r n e d to his s e a t b e a m i n g. At t h e end of the g r o u p t here was f u r t h e r e x c i t e m e n t as the b o y s l e a f e d t h r o u g h t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l g r a p h s a n d d i s c u s s e d t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l " u t s a n d d o w n s ". T h e bovs w e r e well p l e a s e d w i t h the c l a s s r o o m token e c o n o m y, B r u c e s a y i n g " o t h e r b o y s try and m a k e us talk but we ignore it b e c a u s e we t hink a b o u t the p o i n t s ". 3 U a 3 I4a S e s s i o n 38 A U T h e s o c c e r m a t c h s i g n i f i e d the b e g i n n i n g of the t e r m i n a t i o n s t a g e o f the g r o u b (see C h a p t e r II, p. 11*7). S e s s on Al Tc G r o u p m e m b e r s e x p l a i n e d to the n s w m e m b e r s, the w o r k i n g s of the token e c o n o m y oefore work i ng. 3 U b A15b S e s s i o n -C W i t h t e r m i n a t i o n a n x i e t i e s o r e v a l e n t in the g r o u p. H e c t o r tried to ta<e o v e r as q u i z

6 136 A 15 m a s t e r. H a r o l d led a p r o c e s s o f d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r s r e s u l t i n g in a c o l l a p s e o f p e r f o r m a n c e o n the s c h e d u l e - then s t a g e d an a n g r y w a l k - o u t from the group. S e s s i o n m I A 1 1d S t u d y b e h a v i o u r s r e t u r n e d to a level of control in the g r o u p. S t e v e v o l u n t e e r e d w i t h no o b j e c t i o n s from the g r o u p to lead the q u i z p e r i o d, vrfiich he did s u c c e s s f u l l y. T h i s r ole a d o p t i o n s h o w e d a 'narked role c h a n g e for S t e v e f. o m e a r l i e r s t a g e s w h e n n e r e f u s e d to try to a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s in the q u i z period. S e s s i o n *»2 A12a G r o u p wo n t e d well on the schedule. B U b

7 137 (A) C H A R A C T F R I ST 1CS OF THE G R O U P (B) W O k K E R A C T I V I T I E S Social p r o c e s s e s T A 1 1 Social p r o c e s s e s BI3 - h i g h level g r o u p i n t e g r a t i n - s u p p r t i n g m d i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p a n d c o h e s i v e n e s s A l l a s t r u c t u r e B 13a - g r e a t - s t a b i l i t y in g r u p - m a i n t a i n i n g interest and s t r u c t u r e Al lb s a t i s f a c t i n in g r u p 6 1 3b - c l e a r e r n o r m s a n d t r a d i t i n s A 1 Ic - r e i n f o r c i n g m e m b e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f r the g r o u p P 13c - g r e a t e r m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e but a l s o t l e r a n c e a m o n g m e m t e r s Al Id - m o r e c o - o p e r a t i n a n d i n t e r T a s k p r o c e s s e s Blit d e p e n d e n c e Al le - a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s, and g i v i n g f e e d b a c k t g r u p n p r g r e s s t w a r d g al a ' t a i n m e n t B 1ha T a s k p r o c e s s e s A 12 - a p p l y i n g the t ken e c o n o m y - - g r e a t e r c o n c e r n «. th, and o b s e r v i n g a n d r e c o r d i n g w o r k i n v o l v e m e n t in g al d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o u r s, r e w a r d i n g w o r k a c t i v i t i e s (work) Al 2a b e h a v i o u r s a n d e v a l u a t i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t ken e c o n o m y B U b G r o u p c r ise Al 3 D e s p i t e g r e a t e r.tab i 1 ity in G r u p c r i s e s BIS the g r o u p s-'-ictjre o c c a s i o n a l - s u p p o r t i n g g r u p t h r o u g h c r i s e s c r i s e s m a y b*- n d u c e d by a n d r e i n f o r c i n g its c o p i n g e f f o r t s BI5a - e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s Al 3a - internal pr^-bsures, and A 13b - g ro u p trie- to deal w i t h c r i s e s Al 3c F i g j r e 2: -old o u t s u m m a r y f g r u p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and w o r k e r a c t i v i t i e s in n t e r m e d i a t e p h a s e II of g r o u p life: a n a l y s i s s h e e t

8 (A) C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF THE G R O U P (B) W O R K E R A C T I V I T I E S Social p r o c e s s e s A 11 Social p r o c e s s e s Bl 3 - h i g h level g r o u p i n t e g r a t i n - s u p p r t i n g m d i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p a n d c o h e s i v e n e s s / ia s t r u c t u r e B 13a g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y in g r u p - m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t and s t r u c t u r e Al lb s a t i s f a c t i n in g r u p B 13b - c l e a r e r n o r m s a n d a d i t i n s A 1 Ic - r e i n f o r c i n g m e m b e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f r the g r o u p - g r e a t e r m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e but a l s o t l e r a n c e a m o n g m e m b e r s A! Id Bl 3c - m o r e c o - o p e r a t i n and i n t e r T a s k p r o c e s s e s B U d e p e n d e n c e Al le - a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s, a n d g i v i n g f e e d b a c k t g r u p n p r g r e s s T a s k p r o c e s s e s A12 t w a r d g al a t t a i n m e n t B U d - a p p l y i n g the t ken e c o n o m y - - g r e a t e r c o n c e r n w i t h, a n d o b s e r v i n g a n d r e c o r d i n g w o r k i n v o l v e m e n t in g al d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o u r s, r e w a r d i n g w o r k a c t i v i t i e s (work) Al 2a b e h a v i o u r s a n d e v a l u a t i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t ken e c o n o m y B U b G r o u p c r i s e s A I 3 D e s p i t e g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y in G r u p c r i s e s B 15 the g r o u p s t r u c t u r e o c c a s i o n a l - s u p p o r t i n g g r u p t h r o u g h c r i s e s c r i s e s m a y be induced by a n d r e i n f o r c i n g its c o p i n g e f f o r t s B 15a - e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s Al 3a - internal p r e s s u r e s, and Al 3b - g r o u p t ries t deal w i t h c r i s e s Al 3c F i g u r e 12: Fold o u t s u m m a r y f g r u p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and w o r k e r a c t i v i t i e s in i n t e r m e d i a t e p h a s e II cf g r o u p life: a n a l y s i s s h e e t

9 T H E T E R M I N A T I O N PHASE: T E R M I N A T I N G T H E G R O U P

10 139 CHAPTER 11 - T E R M I N A T I N G T H E G R O U P J o h n s o n (197*'' h a s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r the a p p a r e n t v e r e m p h a s i s in the l i t e r a t u r e or, the e a r l y s r a g e s o f g r o u p w o r k, t the n e g l e c t f the e n d i n g p h a s e, w h i c h she a s s e r c s is j u s t as i m p r t a n t as a n y t h e r p a r t f a g r u p ' s lire. N o r t n e n s t a t e s ' T e r m i n a t i n is a d y n a m i c a n d v i t a l p r c e s s in s o c i a l w o r k. It is a p r c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h a s o c i a l s e r v i c e is d i s c o n t i n u e d t an i n d i v i d u a l r a g r u p '. ( N r t h e n, 1969, p. 222) A u t h o r s h a v e g i v e n a a r i e t y f n a m e s t the e n d i n g o f a g r o u p w o r k s e r v i c e : t r a n s i t i n s a n d e n d i n g s ( S c h w a r t z ), s e p a r a t i n ( G a r l a n d et al) a n d t e r m i n a t i n ( N r t h e n, J o h n s o n a n d S a r r i a n d Gal insky) but t h e r e is a c o m m o n r e c o g m.! o n that '... ( b e g i n n i n g s and) e n d i n g s a r e h a r d for p e o p l e t m a n a g e ; they o f t e n call o u t d e e p f e e l i n g s in b o t h w o r k e r a n d m e m b e r s ; and m u c h skill is n e e d e d t h e l p p e o p l e h e l p e a c h o t h e r t h r o u g h t h e s e t imes'. ( S c h w a r t z, 1971, p. 18) G i t t e r m a n (1971) h a s p o i n t e d t the n e c e s s i t y f r the g r o u p w o r k e r t b e c o m e a t t u n e d t tii p t e n t i a l m e a n i n g o f t e r m i n a t i n f r a g r u p ' s m e m b e r s, a n d p r o b a b l e r e a c t i n s. T h r e e e l e m e n t s f the t e r m i n a t i n p r c e s s a r e d i s c u s s e d : r e - o n s for t e r m i n a t i n g a g r u p, i n d i v i d u a l a n d g r u p r e a c t i n s t t e r m i n a t i n a n d d e m a n d s for w o r k e r i n t e r v e n t i n in t h i s p h a s e o f g r o u p w o r k p r a c t i c e R e a s o n s for t e r m i n a t i n f the g r o u p T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a p u r p o s e in g r o u p w o r k a g a i n b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t w n e n d e c i s i o n s h a v e t be m a d e r e g a r d i n g e n d i n g the g r o u p. P r o p e r l y f o r m u l a t e d g o a l s for the g r o u p a n d its m e m b e r s p r o v i d e a m e a n s of o n g o i n g e v a l u a t i n f the a p p r o p r i a t e. i e s s o f m e a n s of i n t e r v e n t i n, a n d t w h a t e x t e n t d e s i r e d c h a n g e is o c c u r r i n q w i t h i n the g r o u p p r o c e s s. T h e u l t i m a t e test f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f social w o r k p r a c t i c e is the e x t e n t t w h i c h the p e r s o n s w h o w e r e s e r v e d h a v e m a d e p o s ' t i v e c h a n g e s t w a r d s the g o a l s s e t w i t h t hem, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e. T h e p r o g r e s s or r e g r e s s i o n o f a m e m b e r is a p p r o p r i a t e l y m a d e in r e l a t i n t his p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s, b a c k g r o u n d s, p r o b l e m s and n e e d s, r a t h e r than in r e l a t i n t f i x e d or u n i f o r m s t a n d a r d s. (N rthen, 1969, p. 224)

11 140 D o u g l a s c l a r i f i e s the v a l u e o f c l e a r p u r p o s e in a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s a n d m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t e r m i n a t i n, b y s t a t i n g ' U n l e s s e v a l u a t i n s h a v e beer, m a d e o f the p r o g r e s s o f the g r o u p, a n d u n l e s s t h e r e w a s s o m e k i n d o f b a s e l!n e at t h e g r o u p ' s i r c e p t i n, t h e n a s s e s s m e n t f p r g r e s s b e c o m e s a m a t t e r o f i n s p i r e d o r u n s p i r e d g u e s s w o r k '. ( D o u g l a s, 1976, p. 169) S a r r i and G a l i n ' k y (197*0 and N o r t h e n (1969) s p e c i f y a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s, a s s e s s m e n t s a n d d e c i s i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t e r m i n a t i n f 3 g r u p. T h e w r i t e r has a t t e m p t e d t s y n t h e s i s e t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i n s w i t h i n the b r o a d f r a m e w o r k o f p l a n n e d a n d u n p l a n n e d e n d i n g s p r o v i d e d by D o u g l a s ( ). In e s s e n c e d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t e r m i n a t i n d e m a n d c o n s i d e r a t i n s b y the g r o u p w o r k e r o f c h a n g e s a c h i e v e d in the g r o u p ( r e l a t i v e t g a l s ), the p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n o r e x t e r n a l t the g r o u p for f u r t h e r goal o r i e n t e d c h a n g e s, a n d s e r v i c e l i m i t a t i n s in t e r m s o f p o l i c y a n d time P l a n n e d t e r m i n a t i n A c h i e v e m e n t f g r u p g a l s T h e g r o u p w o r k e r a n d m e m b e r s o f the g r o u p s h o u l d a t all times be i n v o l v e d in the o n g o i n g e v a l u a t i n f t a s k a n d g *«l a t t a i n m e n t in the g r o u p. T h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d e n a b l e c l e a r p e r c e p t i n s f a c h i e v e m e n t s a c c o m p l i s h e d in t h e g r o u p, and i d e a l l y t h e r e c o g n i s e d a t t a i n m e n t f g a l s w i l l s i g n a l the c o r r e c t ime f o r t e r m i n a t i n f t h e g r o u p. H o w e v e r full goal a c h i e v e m e n t by a 1 g - u p m e m b e r s is a n u n l i k e l y o c c u r r e n c e, it b e i n g m o r e l i k e l y t h a t v a r i u s l e v e l s o f p ro g r e s s w i l l h a v e b e e n m a d e by i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s. N o r t h e n (1969) t h e r e f o r e a d d s p r o v i s o s t a s s e s s m e n t s f g r u p g al a c h i e v e m e n t : s t a t i n g that if p r g r e s s lias b e e i m a d e t w a r d s g al a c h i e v e m e n t but t h e r e is e v i d e n t p t e n t i a l f r f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t in this d i r e c t i n, then the g r a u p s h o u l d c o n t i n u e. H o w e v e r if p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m a d e but it is e v i d e n t t h a t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t an c o n s o l i d a t i n f l e a r n i n g c a n t a k e p l a c e in the e n v i r o n m e n t, w i t h o u t g r u p w r k, then the g r o u p s h o u l d be d i s c o n t i n u e d L a c k cf p r o g r e s s t w a r d g al a c h i e v e m e n t N r t h e n (196?) s t a t e s that if l i t t l e p r o g r e s s has b e e n m a d e t w a r d g r u p g al a c h i e v e m e n t b u t t h e r e a p p e a r s t b e p o t e n t i a l

12 141 in the g r o u p for e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s, then the g r o u p s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d. C o n v e r s e l y, the c o m b i n a t i n f l i t t l e p r o g r e s s a n d l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f r it i n d i c a t e s t e r m i n a t i n f the g r o u p. In a s s e s s i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l f a g r u p t a t t a i n g a l s, S arri a n d Gal insky (1974) p o i n t t a lack o f m i n i m a l i n t e g r a t i n in the g r o u p w h i c h the w o r k e r c o n s i d e r s is u n a t t a i n a b l e, and m a l a d a p t i n by the g r o u p o w i n g t its l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e m e c h a n i s m s t c o p e w i t h internal o r e x t e r n a l s t r e s s e s, as c a u s e s of g r o u p t e r m i n a t i n. T h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t that w h e r e s u c h f a c t r s a r e l a c k i n g in the g r o u p, t h e w o r k e r e x a m i n e g r o u p c o m p o s i t i n, m e m b e r c o m m i t m e n t t g r u p p u r p c s e s a n d tasks, p r e s s u r e s f r o m the e n v i r o n m e n t a n d his o w n p r a c t i c e in t r y i n g t l c a t e p o s s i b l e c a u s e s. In c a s e s of m a l a d a p t i n the g r o u p w o r k e r m a y be a b l e t i n t e r v e n e t s t r e n g t h e n g r o u p c o p i n g m e c h a n i s m s t p r e v e n t g r u p d i s s l u t i n P r e d e t e r m i n e d d u r a t i n f the g r o u p by ~ g e n c y p o l i c i e s o r o b j e c t i v e s A g e n c i e s o r p r a c t i t i n e r s m a y h a v e t l i m i t the d u r a t i n f s e r v i c e t g r u p s w i n g t p r e s s u r e s o f t ime, w o r k l o a d a n d s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i n U n p l a n n e d t e r m i n a t i n U n p l a n n e d e n d i n g s t a g r u p m a y c c u r if (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) m e m b e r s or the w o r k e r l e ' v e the area m e m b e r s c h a n g e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s r w r k m e m b e i s b e c o m e ill o r g a n i s a t i n a l c h a n g e s o c c u r in the a g e n c y s u p p l y i n g s e r v i c e the g r o u p l oses a l e a d e r (vi) a low p e r f o r m a n c e / a c h i e v e m e n t level is a t t a i n e d. It w i 11 be o b v i o u s that the ' ine b e t w e e n p l a n n e d a n d u n p l a n n e d t e r m i n a t i n s is f t e n an i n d i s t i n c t ne, s o m e t i m e s d e p e n d i n g on the g r o u p w o r k e r ' s p e r c e p t i n f p s s i b l e b r e a k d o w n in a g r o u p a n d p l a n n i n g of a s u i t a b l e t e r m i n a t i n p r c e d u r e in c a s e s w h e r e the g r o u p m i g h t t h e r w i s e j u s t a p p e a r t

13 142 d i s i n t e g r a t e a r o u n d him. D o u g l a s (1?76) a s s e r t s that the u sual c a u s e for u n p l a n n e d t e r m i n a t i n is a lack of goal a c h i e v e m e n t. In all s u c h c a s e s it is e s s e n t i a l that the w o r k e r p r o v i d e c r r e f e r c l i e n t s t t h e r m e a n s o f s u p p o r t t p r e v e n t t h e g r o u p e x p e r i e r c e b e i n g a t t a l l y n e g a t i v e o n e I n d i v i d u a l a n d g r o u p r e a c t i n s t t e r m i n a t i n J h n s o n ( *) h a s? h o w n t h a t a g r u p nay g i v e the w o r k e r i n d i c a t i n s f t h e i r r e a d i n e s s for t e r m i n a t i n, i n c l u d i n g t a l k i n g a b u t g a i n s m a d e in t h e g r o u p a n d e x p r e s s i n g c o n f i d e n c e for the f u t u r e, i r r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e, b r e a k i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l ties a n d f i n d i n g a n d d i s c i s s i n g n e w t i e s e x t e r n a l t the g r o u p, a (Tore f l e x i b l e g r o u p s t r u c t u r e w i t h a d i m i n i s h m e n t f c o h e s i v e n e s s, c h a n g e s in r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e a n d n o r m s ( m o r e in h a r m o n y w i t h t h o s e o f the b r o a d e r c o m m u n i t y ), a l w e r i n g of g r o u p c o n t r l s a n d d e m a n d s f o r c h a n g e s in the t i m e, l o c a t i n a n d n u m b e r o f r e m a i n i n g s e s s i o n s. N o r t h e n (1969) p o i n t s u t t h a t w h e r e a s g r o u p m e m b e r s m a y h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a n x i e t y in c o m i n g t g e t h e r in the g r o u p ' s e a r l y s t a g e s, they a r e n o w f a c e d w i t h the a n x i e t y f h a v i n g t m v e a p a r t as the g r o u p e n d s. T h e c e n t r a! f e e l i n g is d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g that f a m b i v a l e n c e ( N o r t h e n 1969, D o u g l a s 1976, J o h n s o n * ), g r o u p m e m b e r s o f t e n f e e l i n g the d e s i r e for i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d p r i d e in s o m e goal a c h i e v e m e n t, w h i l e e x p e r i e n c i n g f e a r s, r e g r e t s a n d f e e l i n g s of loss as the g r o u p t e r m i n a t e s. J o h n s o n ( *) in e v a l u a t i n g the w o r k of F o x et al (1969) p i n t s t t h r e e c e n t r a l e l e m e n t s in the a m b i v a l e n t s t a t e - f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i n g i v i n g rise t p a n i c, rage a n d a s e n s e o f w o r t h l e s s n e s s, f e e l i n g s o f loss g i v i n g r i s e t g r i e f a n d m o u r n i n g, a n d the n e e d t f u n c t i n n n e ' s o w n g i v i n g r i s e t f e e l i n g s of m a t u r i t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e. T h e a n x i e t y a n d a m b i v a l e n c e e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g the t e r m i n a t i n p h a s e m a y g i v e rise t s e r i e s o f b e h a v i o u r s a n d a t t i t u d e s w h i c h the w o r k e r m a y f i n d d i f f i c u l t t u n d e r s t a n d. J h n s o n (197*0 c l a s s i f i e s t h e ^ e int p s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e r e a c t i n s. N e g a t i v e r e a c t i n s i n c l u d e g r o u p m a n o e v e r i n g t f r e s t a l l t e r m i n a t i n ; d e n i a l, by a s s e r t i n g that an e n d t the g r o u p w a s n e v e r m e n t i n e d, or b y m a n i f e s t i n g a c l i n g i n g t g e t h e r ( s u p e r c o h e s i v e n e s s ) ;

14 143 ar, a p p a r e n t l ss f l e a r n e d a b i l i t i e s a n d the a p p e a r a n c e o f r e g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s ; a w i s h t b e g i n a g a i n ; a n a s s e r t i n t h a t 'we still n e e d the c l u b ' ; p r e c i p i t u s d e p a r t u r e s ('I'll l e a v e y o u b e f o r e y o u leave m e ' ) ; a n g e r ; or a r e j e c t i n f the w o r k e r l nd t h e v.ilue of the g r o u p. A p r o c e s s t e r m e d ' d o o r k n o b t h e r a p y ' h a s b e e n n o t e d b y S c h w a r t z, w h e r e b y t w a r d s the e n d of g r o u p life, or e v e n i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s, c l i e n t s b r i n g u p s i g n i f i c a n t p r b l e m s. It h a s b e e n f o u n d that s u c c e s s i v e s e s s i o n s c a n n o t be s t a r t e d on t h e s e t h e m e s, a n d p e r h a p s c a n b e s e e n as p l o y s, t m a i n t a i n r c o n t i n u e the g r o u p t deal w i t h t h e s e ' i m p o r t a n t ' p r b l e m s w h i l e n e v e r a l l o w i n g it t g e t t g r i p s w i t h them. P o s i t i v e r e a c t i n s i n c l u d e r e m i n i s c e n c e a b o u t a c h i e v e m e n t s a n d r e l a t i n s h i p s f o r m e d in the g r o u p ; e v a l u a t i n s f p r g r e s s m a d e ; a f o c u s i n g o n n e w e x p e r i e n c e s a n d r e l a t i n s h i p s e x t e r n a l t the g r o u p ; a n d a l o o s e n i n g of g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s. (From: J o h n s o n 1974, N o r t h e n 1969, a n d D o u g l a s 1976) 11.3 W o r k e r a c t i v i t i e s a n d t a s k s H a r t f r d (1972) f f e r s t h r e e s t a g e s o f v o r k e r i n t e r v e n t i n in the t e r m i n a t i n p r c e s s : a p e r i o d of p r e p a r a t i n, the t e r m i n a t i n itself a n d p l a n s f o r f o l l o w - u p s. D o u g l a s (1976) a s s e r t s t h a t d u r i n g t e r m i n a t i n the g r o u p w o r k e r a s s u m e s s o m e o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he p o s s e s s e d >n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f g r o u p life - he f o r m e d the g r o u p a n d it is n w h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t e n s u r e that it e n d s t the oe,,efit f its m e m b e r s T h e p r e p a r a t i n p e r i o d / D o u g l a s (1976) a s s e r t s that in t e r m i n a t i n p r c e s s e s p r e p a r a t i n f the g r o u p m e m b e r s is of p a r a m o u n t i m p r t a n c e. T h e g r o u p ' s e n d s h o u l d be m a d e c o n t i n g e n t n g al a c h i e v e m e n t, a n d thus be f o r e s e e n a n d p e r c e i v e d as p a r t c' he n a t u r a l p r g r e s s i o n in g r o u o life. 'Thus f r o m the m o m e n t f its i n c e p t i n a g r u p is a w a r e of its d e m i s e '. ( D o u g l a s, 1976, p. 168) N o r t h e n (1969) w h i l e a g r e e i n g w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p a r a t i n s f g r u p m e m b e r s w a r n s a g a i n s t r a i s i n g the m a t t e r t e a r l y,

15 ]Uk h o w e v e r, for f e a r o f a r o u s i n g a n x i e t y a n d h o s t i l i t y t w r k in the g r o u p, t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g c h a n c e s o f goal a c h i e v e m e n t. She a s s e r t s that t i m i n g in i n t r d u c i n g the m a t t e r d e p e n d s on the g r o u p ' s p u r p o s e, its l e n g t h of t i m e t g e t h e r, the p r o b l e m s a n d p r o g r e s s o f m e m b e r s a n d a n t i c i p a t e d r e a c t i n s t termi nat i n. O w i n g t the i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e of r e a c t i n s t t e r m i n a t i n the w o r k e r ' s t a s k f p r e p a r a t i n is f t e n c o m p l e x but in g e n e r a! he s h o u l d a d d r e s s h i m s e l f t the f o l l o w i n g : r a i s i n g the m a t t e r of the i m p e n d i n g e n d o f the g r o u p ; l i s t e n i n g for f e e l i n g s of a n g e r, r e j e c t i n a n d l ss a t this time; d e m a n d i n g t h a t the g r o u p f a c e the issue; h e l p i n g m e m b e r s t e x p r e s s a n d c l a r i f y t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f a m b i v a l e n c e ; g i v i n g s u p p o r t w h e r e f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i n a r e e v i d e n t ; i n i t i a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d i n v o l v i n g m e m b e r s in r e c o g n i s i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s in the g r o u p ; p o i n t i n g u t s i m i l a r i t i e s t, a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s in d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s e x t e r n a l t the g r o u p ; s t a b i l i s i n g c h a n g e s m a d e in the g r o u p t h r o u g h a c t i n r i e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e s ; p u r p o s e s a n d e v a l u a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r g r e s s ; r e v i e w i n g g r o u p g i v i n g r e c o g n i t i n t c l i e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p i d e n t i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s e x t e r n a l t the g r o u p ; a n d s h a r i n g his o w n f e e l i n g s o f a m b i v a l e n c e a n d s o r r o w w i ^ h g r o u p m e m b e r s. In a d d i t i n, he s h o u l d s p e n d t i m e r e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t g r u p e x p e r i e n c e s a..d a c h i e v e m e n t s. 'The w o r k e r h e l p s the y o u n g s t e r s m o v e b e y o n d t h e i r a n g e r a n d s h a r e t h e i r c l o s e n e s s t g e t h e r... h e l p s the g r o u p t e x p e r i e n c e its w n f e e l i n g s of a n g e r, m o u r n i n g, i n t i m a c y a n d the s e p a r a t i n i t s e l f '. ( G i t t e r m a n, 1971, p. 70) J o h n s o n (197^+) s u g g e s t s that the w o r k e r ' s m a i n t a s k in this p h a s e is t d i m i n i s h c o h e s i o n in the g r o u p or e n a b l e a n e w f o r m o f c o h e s i o n t s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i n f the g r o u p. T h e w r i t e r is of the o p i n i o n t h a t if this a d v i c e is t a k e n t l i t e r a l l y the p r a c t i t i n e r m a y f i n d h i m s e l f in a d i l e m m a. T h e p r o c e s s e s of e v a l u a t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s in the g r o u p, r e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t g r u p e x p e r i e n c e s, s h a r i n g a n x i e t i e s a n d f e e l i n g s a b o u t t e r m i n a t i n a n d s h a r i n g h i s o w n f e e l i n g s a b o u t g i n g a r e l i k e l y t i n c r e a s e ri-tner than d e c r e a s e c o h e s i v e n e s s in the g r o u p - u n l e s s g r o u p g o a l s h a v e b e e n f u l l y a c h i e v e d e n a b l i n g all m e m b e r s t e n d the e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g

16 1**5 s a t i s f i e d. It is, in h i s o p i n i o n, m o r e r e a l i s t i c t h e l p m e m b e r s s h a r e f e e l i n g s a n d e v a l u a t e p r o g r e s s m a d e t e n a b l e m a x i m i s a t i n f s a t i s f a c t i n w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c t, than t p l a c e e m p h a s i s on r e d u c i n g g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s. J o h n s o n ( I 9 7 1*) r a i s e s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i n in e v a l u a t i n g the g r o u p ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s - n a m e l y t h a t in d i n g s the w o r k e r is in the d i f f i c u l t p s i t i n f h a v i n g t a s s e s s n i m s e l f as w e l l. T h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f the g r o u p is a r e f l e c t i n n t n l y f c l i e n t p r g r e s s b u t a l s f the w o r k e r ' s p r o v i s i o n of a d e q u a t e o r a p p r o p r i a t e t r e a t m e n t. It m a y f t e n be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k t m a k e a n u n b i a s e d e v a l u a t i n in s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s. A c t i v i t i e s p l a n n e d for this s t a g e s h o u l d b e o n e s in w h i c h s u c c e s s is a s s u r e d, e n a b l i n g f e e l i n g s of a c h i e v e m e n t * a n d a c t i v i t i e s f o u n d s a t i s f y i n g a t a n e a r l i e r s t a g e m a y be r e i n t r d u c e d. J o h n s o n ( M a d d s t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be of a p a r a l l e l n a t u r e t p r m t e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d l ower g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s T h e t e r m i n a t i n itself J o h n s o n (1974) a s s e r t s t h a t d u r i n g the t e r m i n a t i n p h a s e g r o u p m e m b e r s s h o u l d be h e l p e d t r e a c h b e y o n d the g r o u p for s a t i s f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s. S h e s u g g e s t s a t r i p r u t i n g a r r a n g e d, b u t at the b e g i n n i n g of the t e r m i n a t i n p h a s e not the e n d as it is l i k e l y t r a i s e g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s. riorthen ( 1969), h o w e v e r, m e n t i n s t h a t g r u p s f t e n h a v e a final c e r e m o n y t s y m b l i s e the g r o u p ' s e n d, a n d as s u c h w o u l d s e e m t d i s a g r e e with. J o h n s o n 's p o i n t f view. T h e w r i t e r is o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a final u t i n g r c e r e m o n y p r o v i d e s g r o u p m e m b e r s w i t h a r a t i n a l e f o r r e m a i n i n g t g e t h e r d u r i n g the s t r e s s o f the e n d i n g p h a s e, a r e a s o n (in the p r e s e n t study) t c o n t i n u e w i t h t a s k s, a n d a r e a s o n t r e m a i n a m e m b e r t the last s e s s i o n. A h i g h p o i n t at the e n d o f a g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e g i v e s it s p e c i a l m e a n i n g in the m e m o r i e s o f its m e m b e r s, a n d in the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n, this is of m o r e v a l u e than " g r i n d i n g t a h a l t " t a l l w c o h e s i v e n e s s t d w i n d l e in the g r o u p.

17 P l a n s f o r f o l l o w - u p s N o r t h e n (1969) s t r e s s e s that it is i m p r t f r g r u p m e m b e r s t r e a l i s e the g r o u p w o r k e r ' s c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t in t h e m a f t e r t h e g r o u p e n d s, a n d p r o p o s e s t h a t the w o r k e r be a v a i l a b l e o n an i n d i v i d u a l level a f t e r t e r m i n a t i n. 'He n e e d s t m a k e p l a n s f o r s u p p l e m e n t i n g the g r o u p s e r v i c e, and f o l l o w - u p s e r v i c e s t m e m b e r s, w h e n i n d i c a t e d b y his e v a l u a t i n s '. ( N r t h e r n, p. 227) T h i s w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y b e the c a s e w h e r e g r o u p s are t e r m i n a t e d b e f o r e all m e m b e r s h a v e a c h i e v e d t h e i r g o s, o r w h e r e n e w p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o u r n e e d s u p p o r t a n d s t a b i l i s a t i n in the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t. T h e w o r k e r m a y b e a b l e t p r v i d e a f o l l o w - u p s e r v i c e h i m s e l f, o r m a y h a v e t a s s u m e the r e s p o n s i b i 1 icy o f f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r s i g n i f i c a n t t h e r s in the e n v i r o n m e n t t p r v i d e this s e r v i c e. In a n y e v e n t it s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y e l u c i d a t e d t the c l i e n t w h a t m a n n e r o f f o l l o w - u p he can e x p e c t T h e r e s e a r c h g r o u p : a p r o c e s s a n a l y s i s T h e r e s e a r c h g r o u p h a d a p r e d e t e r m i n e d d u r a t i n f f ur m n t h s f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s. T h e r e w e r e a t tal f f r t y - f i v e g r o u p s e s s i o n s. A p r o c e s s r e c o r d of the t e r m i n a t i n p h a s e f o l l o w s : S e s s i o n - Z5August, 1978 T h e m a t t e r o f the w o r k e r leaving w a s s u d d e n l y b r o u g h t u p by J h n a n d R o b e r t, g u r i n g A U b an u t i n g t the zoo (grouo reward). T h e y a s * e d h i m If He w o u l d be g o i n g at the A 15b e n d o f S e p t e m b e r and o n his c o n f!r*natin, a s k e d w n y he had t g. T h e w r i t e r e x p r e s s e a his sadness at leaving but s a i d chat he h a d t d a n t h e r job at the U n i v e r s i t y w h i c h m a d e it n e c e s s a r y t g. The b o y s we'-e q u i e t f r a i t b e f o r e Joel suggested that s me food would be a good iaea as ne was hungry.

The Ind ian Mynah b ird is no t fro m Vanuat u. It w as b ro ug ht here fro m overseas and is now causing lo t s o f p ro b lem s.

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