Roundabout Level of Service

 Ernest Kelley
 7 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Roundabout Level of Service Rahmi Akçelik Director Akcelik & Associates Pty Ltd web: 8 January 2009 Contents 1. Introduction Fundamental Aspects of Methodology Level of Service Thresholds Level of Service Using Delay and Degree of Saturation Acceptable Level of Service Targets Introduction This paper discusses the issue of Level of Service definitions appropriate for roundabouts. It presents comments related to the following documents: HCM 2010 Draft Chapter 21 (Roundabouts) dated 19 December 2008 Roundabout Threshold dated 15 October 2008 Roundabout Procedure White Paper dated 21 December 2008 Unsignalized F Definition dated 21 December 2008 In summary, this paper is critical of the Level of Service method proposed in HCM 2010 Draft Chapter 21 to use the same thresholds for roundabouts and stopsign control, and its justification. Separate thresholds are proposed for roundabouts, and a method that incorporates the v/c ratio into definition for all intersection types considering both the capacity condition (v/c > 1) and the practical capacity condition (v/c > 0.85).
2 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 2 2. Fundamental Aspects of Methodology The methodology recommended for roundabout has general implications for determining for other intersections. Consistency of methodology given in various chapters of the HCM is of great concern. This is not about the different thresholds used, but problem becomes more serious when combined with the use of different thresholds. HCM2010Rou Exhibit 211 states that "The criteria apply to the critical lane on a given approach. is not calculated for noncritical lanes, the approach, or for the intersection as a whole. " This brings an interesting dimension to determining. Potentially, could be determined for any of the following elements of an intersection using measures such as delay and degree of saturation (v/c ratio): per lane per movement per lane group per approach per intersection In representing of a higher (more aggregate) level element, the following choices are available (not all inclusive). Approach : approach represented by the worst approach lane considering the value of the selected measure: highest delay for any lane and/or highest v/c ratio for any lane; approach represented by the worst approach movement considering the value of the selected measure: highest delay for any movement and/or highest v/c ratio for any movement; approach represented by the average approach value of the selected measure: average delay considering all lanes or all movements is possible (and will be lower than the worst lane or worst movement value) but an average v/c ratio would not be sensible; Intersection (similar to approach, but worth repeating!): intersection represented by the worst intersection lane considering the value of the selected measure: highest delay for any lane and/or highest v/c ratio for any lane; intersection represented by the worst intersection movement considering the value of the selected measure: highest delay for any movement and/or highest v/c ratio for any movement; intersection represented by the average intersection value of the selected measure: average delay considering all lanes or all movements is possible (and will be lower than the worst lane or worst movement value) but an average v/c ratio would not be sensible; With shared lanes on a multilane approach, the values per lane, per movement and per lane group can be different, partly depending on how they are calculated. HCM uses different methodology for determining delay in different chapters, which introduces a problem. A consistent method is not possible since delay can be determined per lane for roundabouts in Chapter 21. Essentially a lanebylane methodology is now used but not for stop control and signals which determine delay per movement. The difference in methodologies is the first factor resulting in an inconsistent method to compare alternative intersection treatments. Considering approach, when roundabouts are assessed according to the worst lane delay, against signals assessed according to the average approach delay (considering all lanes or all movements, which is generally lower than the worst lane delay), and with a more strict thresholds for a roundabout to produce the same, is this a fair treatment? The difference in the selection of the average or worst values of the selected measure is the second factor resulting in an inconsistent method to compare alternative intersection treatments.
3 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 3 Similar considerations apply to the intersection. HCM does not define an intersection for sign control, and now for roundabouts, and removing the intersection based on average delay for signals would improve consistency but does that solve the problem? If is not defined for the intersection, then the traffic analyst (practitioner) will look at the more detailed level, i.e. approach. If is not defined for the approach (as in the new roundabout chapter), the worst lane will be the defacto representative of the approach, and since it is not defined for the intersection, the worst lane will be the defacto representative of the intersection. This would be fine if the worst lane (or worst movement) method were used for all intersection types in a consistent way. Therefore careful decisions should be made regarding consistent method at this fundamental level. This relates to one the most frequently asked questions by software users. 3. Level of Service Thresholds The document titled Roundabout Threshold discusses the issue of appropriate thresholds for roundabouts vs signals. Are more pessimistic thresholds justified for roundabouts, and does this introduce a bias against roundabouts in the context of evaluation of alternative intersection treatments? The document seems to have justified the use of lower thresholds for roundabouts that are the same as sign control, essentially on the basis adopted in Chapter 21 as expressed by text above Exhibit 211: "The criteria have different threshold values than for signalized intersections, 1. primarily because it is assumed that drivers expect different levels of performance from different types of system elements; 2. in addition, the control delay at capacity for a roundabout is approximately 50 seconds, rather than the 80 seconds that would be suggested if using the signalized intersection thresholds." These two points are discussed below. Point 1 The first point may lead to various philosophical discussions. However, it invites an obvious question: Is using the same set of thresholds for roundabouts and signcontrol justified in terms of driver perception, i.e. do drivers expect the same levels of performance from roundabouts and signcontrol? In answering this question, it should be considered that roundabouts display a good safety record as reflected by low gapacceptance (driver behavior) parameters. Drivers negotiating roundabouts do so relatively easily essentially due to the low speed of conflicting vehicles and a single conflicting (circulating) stream. This cannot be matched by critical movements at twoway sign control (e.g. left turn out of the minor road), as reflected by very large gapacceptance parameters which are associated with higher speeds of conflicting movements and the larger number of conflicting movements. It is therefore considered that separate thresholds are justified for roundabouts. Table 1 shows the proposed thresholds for roundabouts which are between those used for signals and twoway sign control. The new thresholds for roundabouts are proposed in order to reduce the bias in assessing signals and roundabouts as alternative intersection treatments. If the acceptable target is D, then the thresholds proposed in Table 1 mean that up to 50 s delay is acceptable at roundabouts as opposed to 35 s at twoway sign control. For the A, B and C ranges in Table 1, the same thresholds are used for roundabouts and signals since roundabouts perform with shorter queues in this range of conditions, and drivers are likely to find negotiating a roundabout easy under these conditions.
4 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 4 Table 1  Level of Service thresholds including new thresholds proposed for roundabout Level of Service Control delay per vehicle in seconds (d) Signals Roundabouts Stop Control A d 10 d 10 d 10 B 10 < d < d < d 15 C 20 < d < d < d 25 D 35 < d < d < d 35 E 55 < d < d < d 50 F 80 < d 70 < d 50 < d Table 2  Roundabout delay at capacity and its components (singlelane roundabout) Circulating flow rate (pcu/h) Capacity, Q Prop. of time with available gaps, u Firstterm delay, d 1 = 3600 / Q Secondterm delay at capacity, d 2 Delay at capacity, d = d 1 + d (HCM Unsig) (Proposed in Table 1) E D F E F E F F F F F F F F Point 2 The second point made in Chapter 21 Exhibit 211 (based on the document titled Roundabout Threshold) is a very weak and biased one (not factual) as it is discussed below. The Roundabout Threshold document presents a figure which gives delay curves for a singlelane roundabout compared with 80 s delay as the F threshold for signals. The curve which represents the highest roundabout delay is for a circulating flow of 900 veh/h (pcu/h). In Table 2, capacities and delays calculated using the Chapter 21 equations for a singlelane roundabout are shown. The delay for a circulating flow of 900 pcu/h is shown to be 72.2 s whereas the figure presented in the Roundabout Threshold document is close to 60 s (this should be checked for accuracy). This type of analysis should also be applied to critical movements at twoway sign control to see that this approach makes sense in relation to the same thresholds proposed in HCM 2010 Chapter 21 for roundabouts and twoway sign control. The Unsignalized F Definition document describes various scenarios for twoway stop control which could be explained in the same way as the explanation given for roundabout cases.
5 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 5 The use of circulating flow rates above 900 pcu/h in Table 2 needs discussion. The document titled Roundabout Procedure White Paper justifies the equation selected for the critical lane of a twolane roundabout by stating that it gives higher capacities above a circulating flow rate of 824 pcu/h, and shows capacity curves for circulating flow rates up to above 2000 pcu/h. Single lane data in the NCHRP 572 report show observed capacities of up to around 1400 veh/h. This indicates potential for this level of flow rate to enter the circulating road from one approach alone. In Table 2, circulating flow rates of 1100 (close to the maximum capacity of 1130 for a singlelane roundabout), 1200 and 1400 are also considered. These higher values of circulating flow should not be dismissed on the basis that they are not in the NCHRP 572 single roundabout data. If they are to be dismissed, then the singlelane model should be restricted to certain circulating flow rates, say 1200 as in HCM The following discussion is presented to explain the main mechanism which is at work here, which would be hidden when using circulating flows which are not high enough. This is rather fundamental, and needs to be discussed in order to demonstrate the bias in the Roundabout Threshold document. Two main contributors to delay (ignoring geometric or acceleration & deceleration delays) are: red time at signals and similarly lack of gaps (blocked time) at roundabouts (2way sign control is similar), and v/c ratio representing the congestion (overflow) effects. In the HCM delay equation (d = d 1 + d 2 ), the first term (d 1 = 3600 / Q) represents the effect of lack of gaps, and the second term represents the congestion effects. At low degrees of saturation, the first term is the more important component of delay since capacity is high enough to absorb variations in arrival flow rates without causing overflows. At high degrees of saturation, the second term is the more important component of delay due to high levels of overflows. The firstterm delay is related to the proportion of green time at signals and proportion of time when gaps are available at roundabouts (parameter u). Capacity is given by Q = (3600 / h s ) u where h s is the saturation headway at signals or followup headway at roundabouts. The highest capacity is obtained when u = 1.0 at zero circulating flow, Q o = 3600 / h s. Thus, Q = Q o u and the proportion of time when gaps are available at a roundabout can be determined from u = Q / Q o. Essentially, the decrease in capacity with increasing circulating flow rate is due to the decreasing proportion of time when gaps are available in the circulating stream (decreasing value of u). In Table 2, values of capacity, proportion of time when gaps are available, first term delay, secondterm delay at capacity (v/c = 1) and overall delay at capacity (v/c = 1) are given for various circulating flow rates using the HCM 2010 delay equation for singlelane roundabouts (Q o = 1130, T = 0.25 h, and 5 s added as the thirdterm value at capacity). It is seen that at high circulating flow rates, the proportion of time when gaps are available becomes very low, and the delay reaches levels above the signalized intersection threshold of 80 s. The situation is similar to minor road movements at signals, which receive relatively shorter green times, resulting in low green time ratios and high firstterm delays even when the v/c ratio is not high. Contrary to statements such as "delays can be balanced at signals", both actuated signal control and pretimed control methods will allocate low green time ratios to minor movements. The latter method uses the equal degree of saturation method for critical movements, therefore minor movements get allocated short green times. It is also possible that the HCM unsignalised delay equation (3600 / Q) underestimates the firstterm delay, as it uses an equation based on simple queuing theory. The last table in the Roundabout Threshold document is also misleading since it presents values for varying green time ratios for signals but gives only one set of results for roundabouts for an unknown capacity condition.
6 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 6 Table 3 gives assessments for roundabouts with different ratios of time when gaps are available corresponding to low, medium and high circulating flow rates of 300, 600 and 1100 (shown in Table 2). The delay values are calculated using the HCM 2010 Chapter 21 equation. values in accordance with the thresholds given in the HCM 2010 Chapter 21 and those proposed here for roundabouts (in Table 1) are given for comparison. The values for signals are as in the Roundabout Threshold document (unchecked). It is seen that the new thresholds proposed for roundabouts in Table 1 match the signal values for comparable conditions as indicated by the values of parameter u. At capacity (v/c = 1.0) both Chapter 21 and the proposed Table 1 values are less favorable to roundabouts compared with signals. Table 3  values for roundabouts and signals v/c ratio Del. (s) Roundabout Signals Circulating flow rate (pcu/h) Cycle time (s) Capacity (veh/h) Capacity (veh/h) Draft Ch ??? Proportion of time when gaps are available, u Green time ratio, u 0.33 u = 0.55 u = Proposed Tab. 1 Del. (s) Draft Ch 21 Proposed Tab. 1 Del. (s) Draft Ch 21 Proposed Tab C C 14 B B 11 B B C C B D C 22 C C 17 C B C C C D D 34 D C 28 D C D C C F E 45 E D 37 E D E D D F F 62 F E 53 F E E D D Proposed thresholds for roundabouts are given in Table 1. values for Signals are those given in the Roundabout Threshold document. HCM HCM HCM
7 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 7 4. Level of Service Using Delay and Degree of Saturation The Unsignalized F Definition document proposes consideration of redefining unsignalized intersection as control delay 50 s or v/c 1.0, and seems to be in favor of this. It is recommended that the above condition is stated as " control delay > 50 s or v/c > 1.0" to be consistent with current HCM threshold tables. When assessing intersection performance it is a very good practice to pay attention to both delay and v/c ratio (degree of saturation). Trying to devise a method for definitions to give an indication of oversaturated conditions is fine as long as this is done in a consistent way for all intersection types. It is most important that such a redefinition is applied to all intersection types, and not just to unsignalized intersections. This is also related to the fundamental issues discussed in Section 2, i.e. consistent use of the worst lane, worst movement, and so on. There should be an additional consideration to this. Should the consideration of v/c ratio be limited to the capacity condition (v/c> 1.0), or should there also be a consideration of the practical capacity limit? It is an accepted practice to use v/c = 0.85 as the practical degree of saturation for roundabouts (0.90 for signals, and 0.80 for sign control) in designing intersections. Should this be incorporated into definitions, e.g. consider conditions 0.85 < v/c 1.0 separately. The use of the capacity condition (v/c 1.0) alone could introduce some sudden jumps in allocation whereas introduction of practical capacity condition (0.85 < v/c < 1.0 for roundabouts) along with this would lead to smoother allocation of values. The use of a practical capacity (or practical v/c ratio) limit reflects the objective of avoiding conditions when delay (and queue length) increases at an increasingly higher rate, and the variability of delay times increases due to increased overflows (cycle failures) above such a v/c ratio value. This also reflects the fact that, for example, v/c = 0.98 is as almost as bad as v/c = 1.0 in practice. A method that uses both delay and v/c ratio exists for signalized intersections. This method was proposed by Prof. Berry in 1980s, and is implemented in SIDRA INTERSECTION as a option. The method is shown in Table 4. Table 4  Levelofservice definitions for VEHICLES based on both vehicle delay and degree of saturation (SIDRA INTERSECTION option) Level of Service Control delay per vehicle in seconds (d) Signals and Roundabouts Stop and GiveWay / Yield Signs Degree of saturation (v/c ratio) (x) A d 10 d 10 0 < x 0.90 B 10 < d < d 15 0 < x 0.90 C 20 < d 35 0 < d 35 D 35 < d 55 0 < d 55 E 55 < d 80 0 < d < d 25 0 < d < d 35 0 < d < d 50 0 < d 50 0 < x < x < x < x < x < x 1.00 F 80 < d 50 < d 1.00 < x method based on: BERRY, D.S. (1987). Using the volumetocapacity ratios to supplement delay as criteria for levels of service at traffic signals. Transportation Research Record 1112, pp
8 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 8 The method shown in Table 4 uses an "or" condition, e.g. F is allocated if the specified delay limit (80 or 50 sec) is exceeded or x > 1.0 (not 1). Thus this method will always give F for oversaturated conditions regardless of the delay. Similarly, D will result if the v/c ratio is in the range 0.93 to 0.95 and delay does not exceed 55 s for signals whatever the value of delay subject to this condition. The method shown in Table 4 could be simplified and modified for the incorporation of the practical capacity condition in a general way to avoid complications of using separate v/c thresholds for different intersection types. The system shown in Table 5 is a possible method where the v/c ratio limits could apply to all intersection types reasonably well. According to the method in Table 5, the effect of the v/c ratio on would be as follows: If x > 1, = F whatever the delay value is; If 0.95 < x 0.85, = E whatever the delay value is in the range 80 s / 70 s / 50 s or less; If 0.85 < x 0.95, = D whatever the delay value is in the range 55 s / 50 s / 35 s or less; If x 0.85, = A, B or C according to the value of delay only. For these values, same thresholds are used for roundabouts and signals since roundabouts perform with shorter queues in this range of conditions, and drivers are likely to find negotiating a roundabout easy under these conditions. Table 5  Levelofservice definitions for VEHICLES based on both vehicle delay and degree of saturation (a possible general method) Level of Service Control delay per vehicle in seconds (d) Signals Roundabouts Stop and GiveWay / Yield Signs Degree of saturation (v/c ratio) (x) A d 10 d 10 d 10 0 < x 0.85 B 10 < d < d < d 15 0 < x 0.85 C 20 < d < d < d 25 0 < x 0.85 D 35 < d 55 0 < d < d 50 0 < d < d 35 0 < d 35 0 < x < x 0.95 E 55 < d 80 0 < d < d 70 0 < d < d 50 0 < d 50 0 < x < x 1.00 F 80 < d 70 < d 50 < d 1.00 < x
9 Akçelik  Roundabout Level of Service 9 5. Acceptable Level of Service Targets HCM does not specify what an acceptable target is. The Design Analysis section in Chapter 21 ( page 21) states "The operational analysis described earlier in this chapter can be used for design purposes by using a given set of traffic flow data to iteratively determine the number and configuration of lanes that would be required to produce a given level of service." The Unsignalized F Definition document acknowledges the issue: "The definition of has at least two key practical implications: how users perceive the quality of service, and how agencies use the resulting letter grades for decision making. Specifically on the latter point, how should agencies react to the presentation of F for an unsignalized intersection? Does a F condition require mitigation or not? The discussion presumes the typical policy determination that E is acceptable for unsignalized intersections, although some agencies use D or other measures. While the HCM is silent on what is acceptable or not, AASHTO and other agencies do provide guidelines and/or standards that rely on HCM measures." In practice, it is necessary to choose acceptable targets for intersection evaluation, for example in design life analysis based on. The targets can be different for different intersection types, especially if different thresholds are used. Without defining acceptable thresholds, the method appears to be incomplete. The new thresholds for roundabouts in Tables 1 and 5 are proposed in order to reduce the bias in assessing signals and roundabouts as alternative intersection treatments. For example, if the acceptable target is D, then the thresholds proposed in Tables 1 and 5 mean that up to 50 s delay is acceptable at roundabouts compared with 35 s at twoway sign control if the HCM 2010 Chapter 21 thresholds are adopted. It is recommended that E is used as the acceptable target for roundabouts if the HCM 2010 Chapter 21 thresholds for sign control are adopted for roundabouts.
Incorporating the Effects of Traffic Signal Progression Into the Proposed Incremental Queue Accumulation (IQA) Method
#060107 Incorporating the Effects of Traffic Signal Progression Into the Proposed Incremental Queue Accumulation (IQA) Method Dennis W. Strong, President Strong Concepts 1249 Shermer Road, Suite 100 Northbrook,
More informationSpeedFlow and Bunching Relationships for Uninterrupted Flows
25th Conference of Australian Institutes of Transport Research (CAITR 2003), University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, 35 December 2003 First Version: 2 December 03 SpeedFlow and Bunching Relationships
More informationAnalytical Delay Models for Signalized Intersections
Analytical Delay Models for Signalized Intersections Ali Payidar Akgungor and A. Graham R. Bullen INTRODUCTION Delay is the most important measure of effectiveness (MOE) at a signalized intersection because
More information1 h. Page 1 of 12 FINAL EXAM FORMULAS. Stopping Sight Distance. (2 ) N st U Where N=sample size s=standard deviation t=z value for confidence level
Page 1 of 12 FINAL EXAM FORMULAS Stopping Sight Distance 2 2 V V d 1.47Vt 1.075 i f a 2 2 Vi Vf d 1.47Vt 30( f 0.01 G) Where d = distance (ft) V = speed (mph) t = time (sec) a=deceleration rate (ft/sec
More informationTraffic Modelling for MovingBlock Train Control System
Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 47 (2007) pp. 601 606 c International Academic Publishers Vol. 47, No. 4, April 15, 2007 Traffic Modelling for MovingBlock Train Control System TANG Tao and LI KePing
More informationTraffic Signal Timing: Green Time. CVEN 457 & 696 Lecture #18 Gene Hawkins
Traffic Signal Timing: Green Time CVEN 457 & 696 Lecture #18 Gene Hawkins The Problem N 25 134 77 128 643 216 181 517 171 111 154 56 NBLT = 181 vph NBTR = 688* vph SBLT = 216 vph SBTR = 771* vph WB = 321*
More informationEmpirical Relation between Stochastic Capacities and Capacities Obtained from the SpeedFlow Diagram
Empirical Relation between Stochastic Capacities and Capacities Obtained from the SpeedFlow Diagram Dr.Ing. Justin Geistefeldt Institute for Transportation and Traffic Engineering RuhrUniversity Bochum
More informationLab NotesIssue. Disability Glare in the Outdoor Workplace
Lab NotesIssue 10 Disability Glare in the Outdoor Workplace 1.00 Introduction : This Lab Note is one of several which discusses the matter of glare in the workplace. They have been issued as a series of
More informationDerivation of the Yellow Change Interval Formula
Derivation of the Yellow Change Interval Formula Brian Ceccarelli, PE; Joseph Shovlin, PhD The yellow change interval formula traffic engineers use to set yellow light durations originated from a paper
More informationTraffic Flow Theory & Simulation
Traffic Flow Theory & Simulation S.P. Hoogendoorn Lecture 4 Shockwave theory Shockwave theory I: Introduction Applications of the Fundamental Diagram February 14, 2010 1 Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
More informationAppendix I: Traffic Study
City of Fontana Sierra Lakes Commerce Center Draft EIR Appendix I: Traffic Study FirstCarbon Solutions H:\Client (PN JN)\0144\01440050\EIR\1 ADEIR\01440050 Sec99 99 Appendix Dividers.doc THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY
More informationMODELING PERMISSIVE LEFTTURN GAP ACCEPTANCE BEHAVIOR AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS
MODELING PERMISSIVE LEFTTURN GAP ACCEPTANCE BEHAVIOR AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Ismail Zohdy Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment
More informationAnticipatory Pricing to Manage Flow Breakdown. Jonathan D. Hall University of Toronto and Ian Savage Northwestern University
Anticipatory Pricing to Manage Flow Breakdown Jonathan D. Hall University of Toronto and Ian Savage Northwestern University Flow = density x speed Fundamental diagram of traffic Flow (veh/hour) 2,500 2,000
More informationDynamic resource sharing
J. Virtamo 38.34 Teletraffic Theory / Dynamic resource sharing and balanced fairness Dynamic resource sharing In previous lectures we have studied different notions of fair resource sharing. Our focus
More informationPotential Issues with Advance Preemption. Roelof Engelbrecht Texas Transportation Institute
1 Potential Issues with Advance Preemption Roelof Engelbrecht Texas Transportation Institute 2 Rail Preemption Designed to transfer rightofway to the track movement and clear vehicles off the track(s)
More informationUncertainty due to Finite Resolution Measurements
Uncertainty due to Finite Resolution Measurements S.D. Phillips, B. Tolman, T.W. Estler National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 899 Steven.Phillips@NIST.gov Abstract We investigate
More informationVariable Speed Approach for Congestion Alleviation on Boshporus Bridge Crossing
Variable Speed Approach for Congestion Alleviation on Boshporus Bridge Crossing A. Akbas a,1, V. Topuz a,1, H.H. Celik b,2 and M. Ergun c,3 a University of Marmara, Vocational High School of Technical
More informationConception of effective number of lanes as basis of traffic optimization
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Computer Science 91 (016 ) 94 100 Information Technology and Quantitative Management (ITQM 016) Conception of effective number of lanes
More informationMicroeconomic Algorithms for Flow Control in Virtual Circuit Networks (Subset in Infocom 1989)
Microeconomic Algorithms for Flow Control in Virtual Circuit Networks (Subset in Infocom 1989) September 13th, 1995 Donald Ferguson*,** Christos Nikolaou* Yechiam Yemini** *IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
More informationStandard Highway Sign Border Specifications
Standard Highway Sign Border Specifications A Radius Radius B C SIGN SIZE SIGN SIZE Variable Radius B C SIGN SIZE BORDER WIDTHS A B C CORNER RADIUS 18 4 30 36 48 60.375.375.375 1.375.375.438 1.5.5.375.65
More informationNDOR Research Project Number SPRP1(05) P574 Transportation Research Studies. Final Report. Karen S. Schurr Daniel Sitorius
NDOR Research Project Number SPRP1(05) P574 Transportation Research Studies Safety and Driver Behavior Studies at Multiple Lane Approaches to StopControlled Intersections Final Report Karen S. Schurr
More informationMEMORANDUM. Trip Generation Analysis
MEMORANDUM To: RMC Architects From: Matthew Palmer, PE Subject: Trip Generation, Parking Analysis & Level of Service Project: Port of Everett, GTC #13053 Date: August 25, 2014 The trip generation and
More informationCapacity Drop. Relationship Between Speed in Congestion and the Queue Discharge Rate. Kai Yuan, Victor L. Knoop, and Serge P.
Capacity Drop Relationship Between in Congestion and the Queue Discharge Rate Kai Yuan, Victor L. Knoop, and Serge P. Hoogendoorn It has been empirically observed for years that the queue discharge rate
More informationRoundabout Construction. SP LA 8 / US 171 Roundabout Leesville, LA Vernon Parish
Roundabout Construction SP 373010020 LA 8 / US 171 Roundabout Leesville, LA Vernon Parish What this presentation covers Recognition for District 08 Design and Traffic Sections Difference between a circle
More informationPartial elliptical two regime speed flow traffic model based on the highway capacity manual
Partial elliptical two regime speed flow traffic model based on the highway capacity manual Yousif, S Title Authors Type URL Partial elliptical two regime speed flow traffic model based on the highway
More informationRegional Traffic Timing Plan Optimization Based on Improved Particle Swarm Algorithm
, pp. 367378 http://dx.doi.org/10.1457/ijhit.016.9.1.31 Regional Traffic Timing Plan Optimization Based on Improved Particle Swarm Algorithm Zhongyu Li, Bing Li, Keli Chen, Tao Yang and Honge Li School
More informationSTABILIZATION OF AN OVERLOADED QUEUEING NETWORK USING MEASUREMENTBASED ADMISSION CONTROL
First published in Journal of Applied Probability 43(1) c 2006 Applied Probability Trust STABILIZATION OF AN OVERLOADED QUEUEING NETWORK USING MEASUREMENTBASED ADMISSION CONTROL LASSE LESKELÄ, Helsinki
More informationUtility, Fairness and Rate Allocation
Utility, Fairness and Rate Allocation Laila Daniel and Krishnan Narayanan 11th March 2013 Outline of the talk A rate allocation example Fairness criteria and their formulation as utilities Convex optimization
More informationRussell s logicism. Jeff Speaks. September 26, 2007
Russell s logicism Jeff Speaks September 26, 2007 1 Russell s definition of number............................ 2 2 The idea of reducing one theory to another.................... 4 2.1 Axioms and theories.............................
More informationRURAL SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND ACCESS TO DEVELOPMENT LAND: DEVELOPING THE EVIDENCE BASE
School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering RURAL SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND ACCESS TO DEVELOPMENT LAND: DEVELOPING THE EVIDENCE BASE Prepared for Friends of the Earth Northern Ireland 18 th April
More informationCompetitive Management of NonPreemptive Queues with Multiple Values
Competitive Management of NonPreemptive Queues with Multiple Values Nir Andelman and Yishay Mansour School of Computer Science, TelAviv University, TelAviv, Israel Abstract. We consider the online problem
More informationMinimizing Total Delay in FixedTime Controlled Traffic Networks
Minimizing Total Delay in FixedTime Controlled Traffic Networks Ekkehard Köhler, Rolf H. Möhring, and Gregor Wünsch Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, MA 61, Straße des 17. Juni
More informationAvailable online Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 2017, 4(4): Research Article
Available online www.jsaer.com, 2017, 4(4):137142 Research Article ISSN: 23942630 CODEN(USA): JSERBR A Qualitative Examination of the Composition of the Cooperative Vehicles Çağlar Koşun 1, Çağatay Kök
More informationFREEWAY WEAVING. Highway Capacity Manual 2000 CHAPTER 24 CONTENTS EXHIBITS
CHAPTER 24 FREEWAY WEAVING CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION... 241 Scope of the Methodology...241 Limitations of the Methodology...241 II. METHODOLOGY...241 LOS...242 Weaing Segment Parameters...243 Determining
More informationQMatrix Development. NCME 2009 Workshop
QMatrix Development NCME 2009 Workshop Introduction We will define the Qmatrix Then we will discuss method of developing your own Qmatrix Talk about possible problems of the Qmatrix to avoid The Qmatrix
More informationA MODIFIED CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR RING ROAD TRAFFIC WITH VELOCITY GUIDANCE
International Journal of Modern Physics C Vol. 20, No. 5 (2009) 711 719 c World Scientific Publishing Company A MODIFIED CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR RING ROAD TRAFFIC WITH VELOCITY GUIDANCE C. Q. MEI,,
More informationA MACROSCOPIC SINGLELANE ROUNDABOUT MODEL TO ACCOUNT FOR INSERTION DELAYS AND OD PATTERNS. Estelle Chevallier, Ludovic Leclercq *
MCROSCOPC SNGLELNE ROUNDBOUT MODEL TO CCOUNT FOR NSERTON DELYS ND OD PTTERNS Estelle Chevallier, Ludovic Leclercq * Laboratoire ngénierie Circulation Transport LCT ENTPE / NRETS Université de Lyon Rue
More informationRelationship between Traffic Density, Speed and Safety and Its Implication on Setting Variable Speed Limits on Freeways
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Relationship between Traffic Density, Speed and Safety and Its Implication on Setting Variable Speed Limits on Freeways Jake Kononov, Ph.D., P.E. Colorado Department of Transportation
More informationMETHODS FOR EVALUATING RESILIENT MODULI OF PAVING MATERIALS
Project Number ST 20197 Summary Report METHODS FOR EVALUATING RESILIENT MODULI OF PAVING MATERIALS sponsored by The State of Alabama Highway Department Montgomery, Alabama Frazier Parker, Jr. David J.
More informationCity and SUMP of Ravenna
City and SUMP of Ravenna Nicola Scanferla Head of Mobility Planning Unit, Municipality of Ravenna nscanferla@comune.ra.it place your logo here 19 April, 2017 1st Steering Committee Meeting, Nicosia, Cyprus
More informationENHANCING ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT WITH GIS MAPPING AND GEOSPATIAL DATABASE
Abstract ENHANCING ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT WITH GIS MAPPING AND GEOSPATIAL DATABASE Dr Wei Liu GHD Reliable and accurate data are needed in each stage of road safety management in order to correctly identify
More informationTraffic Forecasting Risk: Study Update 2004
Publication date: 19 Oct2004Primary Credit Analyst(s): Robert Bain, London (44) 207176 3520; robert_bain@standardandpoors.com Secondary Credit Analyst(s): Jan Willem Plantagie, Frankfurt (49) 6933999132;
More informationCAPACITY DROP: A RELATION BETWEEN THE SPEED IN CONGESTION AND THE QUEUE DISCHARGE RATE
CAPACITY DROP: A RELATION BETWEEN THE SPEED IN CONGESTION AND THE QUEUE DISCHARGE RATE Kai Yuan, PhD candidate TRAIL research school Department of Transport and Planning Faculty of Civil Engineering and
More informationA Study on Performance Analysis of Queuing System with Multiple Heterogeneous Servers
UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GENERAL EXAM REPORT A Study on Performance Analysis of Queuing System with Multiple Heterogeneous Servers Prepared by HUSNU SANER NARMAN husnu@ou.edu based on the papers 1) F. S.
More informationAdaptive designs beyond pvalue combination methods. Ekkehard Glimm, Novartis Pharma EAST user group meeting Basel, 31 May 2013
Adaptive designs beyond pvalue combination methods Ekkehard Glimm, Novartis Pharma EAST user group meeting Basel, 31 May 2013 Outline Introduction Combinationpvalue method and conditional error function
More informationLand Use, Service Interchange Spacing and Performance of Toll Roads: A Model and Case Study on Jakarta to Cikampek Toll Road, Indonesia
Land Use, Service Interchange Spacing and Performance of Toll Roads: A Model and Case Study on Jakarta to Cikampek Toll Road, Indonesia Hari Suko Setiono 1, a, Ofyar Z. Tamin 2, b, Najid 3, c 1 Civil Department.
More informationEngineering SelfOrganization and Emergence: issues and directions
5/0/ Engineering SelfOrganization and Emergence: issues and directions Franco Zambonelli franco.zambonelli@unimore.it Agents and Pervasive Computing Group Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia SOAS 005
More informationCapacity management for packetswitched networks with heterogeneous sources. Linda de Jonge. Master Thesis July 29, 2009.
Capacity management for packetswitched networks with heterogeneous sources Linda de Jonge Master Thesis July 29, 2009 Supervisors Dr. Frank Roijers Prof. dr. ir. Sem Borst Dr. Andreas Löpker Industrial
More informationACCURACY AND PRECISION IN TRAFFIC NOISE PREDICTION
ACCURACY AND PRECISION IN TRAFFIC NOISE PREDICTION Wolfgang Probst DataKustik GmbH, Greifenberg, Germany wolfgang.probst@datakustik.de Abstract Traffic is the main source responsible for unacceptable exposure
More informationTraffic Flow Theory & Simulation
Traffic Flow Theory & Simulation S.P. Hoogendoorn Lecture 1 Introduction Photo by Wikipedia / CC BY SA Course 4821  Introduction 1 57 Photo by wikipedia / CC BY SA Traffic Flow Theory & Simulation An
More informationApplying for Time at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) Christian Hummel (ESO, User Support Department)
Applying for Time at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) Christian Hummel (ESO, User Support Department) User Support Team 2 3 Applying for time CfP released twice a year, March and September
More informationACCESSIBILITY TO SERVICES IN REGIONS AND CITIES: MEASURES AND POLICIES NOTE FOR THE WPTI WORKSHOP, 18 JUNE 2013
ACCESSIBILITY TO SERVICES IN REGIONS AND CITIES: MEASURES AND POLICIES NOTE FOR THE WPTI WORKSHOP, 18 JUNE 2013 1. Significant differences in the access to basic and advanced services, such as transport,
More informationLoadStrength Interference
LoadStrength Interference Loads vary, strengths vary, and reliability usually declines for mechanical systems, electronic systems, and electrical systems. The cause of failures is a loadstrength interference
More informationConservative variance estimation for sampling designs with zero pairwise inclusion probabilities
Conservative variance estimation for sampling designs with zero pairwise inclusion probabilities Peter M. Aronow and Cyrus Samii Forthcoming at Survey Methodology Abstract We consider conservative variance
More informationEDITORIAL NOTE: PERSONAL/COMMERCIAL DETAILS ONLY HAVE BEEN DELETED. IN THE DISTRICT COURT AT AUCKLAND CIV [2016] NZDC 12626
EDITORIAL NOTE: PERSONAL/COMMERCIAL DETAILS ONLY HAVE BEEN DELETED. IN THE DISTRICT COURT AT AUCKLAND BETWEEN AND CIV 2015092000479 [2016] NZDC 12626 MEDICAL ASSURANCE SOCIETY NEW ZEALAND LIMITED Plaintiff
More informationConstruction Exits Rock pads
Construction Exits Rock pads SEDIMENT CONTROL TECHNIQUE Type 1 System Sheet Flow Sandy Soils Type 2 System Concentrated Flow [1] Clayey Soils Type 3 System Supplementary Trap Dispersive Soils [1] Minor
More informationAnalytical investigation on the minimum traffic delay at a twophase. intersection considering the dynamical evolution process of queues
Analytical investigation on the minimum traffic delay at a twophase intersection considering the dynamical evolution process of queues HongZe Zhang 1, Rui Jiang 1,2, MaoBin Hu 1, Bin Jia 2 1 School
More informationMulti agent Evacuation Simulation Data Model for Disaster Management Context
Multi agent Evacuation Simulation Data Model for Disaster Management Context Mohamed Bakillah, Alexander Zipf, J. Andrés Domínguez, Steve H. L. Liang GI4DM 2012 1 Content Context Requirements for Enhanced
More informationThe empirical foundation of RIO and MRIO analyses. Some critical reflections
The empirical foundation of RIO and MRIO analyses Some critical reflections Josef Richter March 2017 1 1 Contents o Introduction o Models to generate statistical data o The model content of national IOT
More informationFUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING By Jon D. Fricker and Robert K. Whitford
FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING By Jon D. Fricker and Robert K. Whitford This table includes typos Dr. Saito found besides the ones listed in the authors official errata sheet. Please note that
More informationAppendix: Simple Methods for Shift Scheduling in MultiSkill Call Centers
Appendix: Simple Methods for Shift Scheduling in MultiSkill Call Centers Sandjai Bhulai, Ger Koole & Auke Pot Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081a, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands Supplementary Material
More informationReminder that we update the website: with new information, project updates, etc.
1 Reminder that we update the website: http://www.njfishandwildlife.com/ensp/connectivity_proj.htm with new information, project updates, etc. regularly. Any suggestions are welcome on how to make the
More informationTRB Traffic Flow on Freeway Upgrades. By Werner Brilon and Andrea Bressler
TRB 42953 Traffic Flow on Freeway Upgrades By Werner Brilon and Andrea Bressler Ruhr University Bochum D447 Bochum, Germany Phone: + 49 234 322 5936 ; Fax: +49 234 32 14 151 Email: verkehrswesen@rub.de
More informationADAPTIVE SIGNAL CONTROL IV
ADAPTIVE SIGNAL CONTROL IV Evaluation of the Adaptive Traffic Control System in Park City, Utah Dr. Peter T. Martin Associate Professor Aleksandar Stevanovic Research Associate Ivana Vladisavljevic Research
More informationStatus of implementation of the INSPIRE Directive 2016 Country Fiches. COUNTRY FICHE Ireland
Status of implementation of the INSPIRE Directive 2016 Country Fiches COUNTRY FICHE Ireland Introduction... 1 1. State of Play... 2 1.1 Coordination... 2 1.2 Functioning and coordination of the infrastructure...
More informationFinal Grade Calculator Formulae
Final Grade Calculator Formulae Roger Chen Published: September 203 Updated: December 205 Contents Introduction 2 2 Grade required on the final exam 2 3 Extended Calculators 2 3. Overall grade after final
More informationReview of Anemometer Calibration Standards
Review of Anemometer Calibration Standards Rachael V. Coquilla rvcoquilla@otechwind.com Otech Engineering, Inc., Davis, CA Anemometer calibration defines a relationship between the measured signals from
More informationDetermining the minimum percentage of vehicles equipped with a ucan necessary to accurately estimate the traffic speed
Delft University of Technology Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics Determining the minimum percentage of vehicles equipped with a
More information2 Prediction and Analysis of Variance
2 Prediction and Analysis of Variance Reading: Chapters and 2 of Kennedy A Guide to Econometrics Achen, Christopher H. Interpreting and Using Regression (London: Sage, 982). Chapter 4 of Andy Field, Discovering
More informationI95/I85 INTERCHANGE ROADWAY SAFETY ASSESSMENT
FINAL REPORT I95/I85 INTERCHANGE ROADWAY SAFETY ASSESSMENT Prepared for: Prepared by: 117306012.B MARCH 2013 Final Report March 2013 I95/I85 Interchange ROADWAY SAFETY ASSESSMENT Prepared for: Prepared
More informationNorth Carolina s First Quadrant Left: History and Lessons Learned
North Carolina s First Quadrant Left: History and Lessons Learned Michael P. Reese, P.E. (Corresponding Author) Congestion Management Section Project Engineer North Carolina Department of Transportation
More information2 How many distinct elements are in a stream?
Dealing with Massive Data January 31, 2011 Lecture 2: Distinct Element Counting Lecturer: Sergei Vassilvitskii Scribe:Ido Rosen & Yoonji Shin 1 Introduction We begin by defining the stream formally. Definition
More informationThe World Bank. Key Dates. Project Development Objectives. Components. Public Disclosure Authorized. Implementation Status & Results Report
Public Disclosure Authorized EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC Vietnam Transport & ICT Global Practice IBRD/IDA Specific Investment Loan FY 2008 Seq No: 16 ARCHIVED on 28Dec2016 ISR26429 Implementing Agencies: Hanoi
More informationLecture December 2009 Fall 2009 Scribe: R. Ring In this lecture we will talk about
0368.4170: Cryptography and Game Theory Ran Canetti and Alon Rosen Lecture 7 02 December 2009 Fall 2009 Scribe: R. Ring In this lecture we will talk about TwoPlayer zerosum games (minmax theorem) Mixed
More informationChristina Karaberi Msc Health Management European Program Manager ITR. CityMobil2 Reference Group Meeting, Antibes, France 22/03/206
TRIKALA DEMONSTRATION TITLE A CTS SITE FOR Large THE Scale PerspectiveNEW ROME EXHIBITION Christina Karaberi Msc Health Management European Program Manager ETrikala Gabriele S.A Giustiniani, ITR 22/03/206
More informationNorth Carolina s First Quadrant Left: History and Lessons Learned
0 0 0 North Carolina s First Quadrant Left: History and Lessons Learned Michael P. Reese, P.E. (Corresponding Author) Congestion Management Section Project Engineer North Carolina Department of Transportation
More informationImproving the travel time prediction by using the realtime floating car data
Improving the travel time prediction by using the realtime floating car data Krzysztof Dembczyński Przemys law Gawe l Andrzej Jaszkiewicz Wojciech Kot lowski Adam Szarecki Institute of Computing Science,
More informationWe provide two sections from the book (in preparation) Intelligent and Autonomous Road Vehicles, by Ozguner, Acarman and Redmill.
We provide two sections from the book (in preparation) Intelligent and Autonomous Road Vehicles, by Ozguner, Acarman and Redmill. 2.3.2. Steering control using point mass model: Open loop commands We consider
More informationDynamic Pricing, Managed Lanes and Integrated Corridor Management: Challenges for Advanced Network Modeling Methodologies
Dynamic Pricing Managed Lanes and Integrated Corridor Management: Challenges for Advanced Network Modeling Methodologies Hani S. Mahmassani Transportation Center Northwestern University November 16 2007
More informationChemistry 20, Section 1204 Fundamentals of Chemistry, 5 Units El Camino College Spring 2008
Chemistry 20, Section 1204 Fundamentals of Chemistry, 5 Units El Camino College Spring 2008 Instructor: Lida Latifzadeh Masoudipour, Ph.D. Lecture: M, 6:00 PM 9:10 PM, Room Chem. 133 W, 6:00 PM 7:00 PM,
More informationField Balancing Experiences
E:\Marketing Communications\Papers and Presentations\Technical Papers\New Technical Papers\Field Balancing Experiences#4.doc 1 Field Balancing Experiences By Brian Howes and Bryan Long Brian Howes is Manager
More informationTHE POTENTIAL OF APPLYING MACHINE LEARNING FOR PREDICTING CUTIN BEHAVIOUR OF SURROUNDING TRAFFIC FOR TRUCKPLATOONING SAFETY
THE POTENTIAL OF APPLYING MACHINE LEARNING FOR PREDICTING CUTIN BEHAVIOUR OF SURROUNDING TRAFFIC FOR TRUCKPLATOONING SAFETY Irene Cara JanPieter Paardekooper TNO Helmond The Netherlands Paper Number
More informationAdvanced information feedback strategy in intelligent tworoute traffic flow systems
. RESEARCH PAPERS. SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences November 2010 Vol. 53 No. 11: 2265 2271 doi: 10.1007/s1143201040701 Advanced information feedback strategy in intelligent tworoute traffic flow
More informationThe commonline problem in congested transit networks
The commonline problem in congested transit networks R. Cominetti, J. Correa Abstract We analyze a general (Wardrop) equilibrium model for the commonline problem in transit networks under congestion
More informationThe Road to Improving your GIS Data. An ebook by GeoComm, Inc.
The Road to Improving your GIS Data An ebook by GeoComm, Inc. An individual observes another person that appears to be in need of emergency assistance and makes the decision to place a call to 911.
More informationSlope Stability Model of the Questa Rock Pile Phase 2
2 Proceedings Tailings and Mine Waste 2011 Slope Stability Model of the Questa Rock Pile Phase 2 Murray Fredlund SoilVision Systems Ltd., Saskatoon, Canada Haihua Lu SoilVision Systems Ltd., Saskatoon,
More informationLittle s Law assumptions: But I still wanna use it! The Goldilocks solution to sizing the system for nonsteadystate dynamics
Little s Law assumptions: But I still wanna use it! The Goldilocks solution to sizing the system for nonsteadystate dynamics Alex Gilgur Abstract Little s Law is well known: number of concurrent users
More informationMultipleChoice Answer Key
MultipleChoice Answer Key The following contains the answers to the multiplechoice questions in this exam. Answer Key for AP Physics 1 Practice Exam, Section I Question 1: C Question : A Question 3:
More informationMore on Venn Diagrams for Regression
More on Venn Diagrams for Regression Peter E. Kennedy Simon Fraser University Journal of Statistics Education Volume 10, Number 1 (2002) Copyright 2002 by Peter E. Kennedy, all rights reserved. This text
More informationComplex Behaviors of a Simple Traffic Model
Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 46 (2006) pp. 952 960 c International Academic Publishers Vol. 46, No. 5, November 15, 2006 Complex Behaviors of a Simple Traffic Model GAO XingRu Department of Physics
More informationINDIANA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES, WORLD GEOGRAPHY. PAGE(S) WHERE TAUGHT (If submission is not a book, cite appropriate location(s))
Prentice Hall: The Cultural Landscape, An Introduction to Human Geography 2002 Indiana Academic Standards for Social Studies, World Geography (Grades 912) STANDARD 1: THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS Students
More informationEfficiency promotion for an onramp system based on intelligent transportation system information
Efficiency promotion for an onramp system based on intelligent transportation system information Xie DongFan( 谢东繁 ), Gao ZiYou( 高自友 ), and Zhao XiaoMei( 赵小梅 ) School of Traffic and Transportation,
More information37.3. The Poisson Distribution. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes
The Poisson Distribution 37.3 Introduction In this Section we introduce a probability model which can be used when the outcome of an experiment is a random variable taking on positive integer values and
More informationQueue Spillovers in Transportation Networks with a Route Choice
INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY Queue Spillovers in Transportation Networks with a Route Choice Carlos F. Daganzo October 1997 PATH TECHNICAL NOTE 971 This work
More informationRESEARCH INTEGRITY: MACROETHICS RESEARCH ETHICS O U T S I D E T H E B O X
RESEARCH INTEGRITY: MACROETHICS RESEARCH ETHICS O U T S I D E T H E B O X So, as we knew all along, chronic fatigue syndrome or ME is not a chronic illness at all. The Oxford study suggests that what
More informationProcurement Plan for Eth Expressway Project ( P148850)
Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized I. General Plan for Eth Expressway Project ( P148850) 1. Bank s approval Date of the
More informationSupplementary material: Methodological annex
1 Supplementary material: Methodological annex Correcting the spatial representation bias: the grid sample approach Our landuse time series used nonideal data sources, which differed in spatial and thematic
More informationActivity 4. Life (and Death) before Seat Belts. What Do You Think? For You To Do GOALS
Activity 4 Life (and Death) before Seat Belts Activity 4 Life (and Death) before Seat Belts GOALS In this activity you will: Understand Newton s First Law of Motion. Understand the role of safety belts.
More informationTraffic Simulation Toolbox User s Manual
User s Manual Jesse HaberKucharsky Shreyas Sundaram University of Waterloo Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering May 31, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Basic Use 2 2.1 QuickStart Example.......................
More informationInstallation instructions, accessories. Snow chains
Instruction No 30664147 Version 1.0 Part. No. Snow chains R7700468 страница 1 / 15 Equipment A0000162 R7700458 страница 2 / 15 R7700448 страница 3 / 15 INTRODUCTION Read through all of the instructions
More information