We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity.

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1 3/3 Measuring Heat If all we do is add heat to a system its temperature will rise. How much the temperature rises depends on the system. We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity. Very poor term because a system can t hold heat at all systems do NOT contain heat. To measure the heat capacity, add heat to a system, measure the increase in temperature, and then divide the heat added by the temperature increase. To get a better term for heat capacity, compare to Newton s second law: Note that the quantities on the left-hand side of the equations cause the result on the right-hand side of the equations: Heat and change in temperature and force and acceleration. Mass is a measure of how hard it is to cause a body to accelerate it is a measure of the inertia of the body. By comparison, heat capacity is a measure of how hard it is to change the temperature of a body a measure of thermal inertia. A better name for heat capacity is thermal inertia. The heat capacity or thermal inertia depends on how much of the system there is. We define specific heat to be the heat capacity or thermal inertia per unit mass. Define the calorie as follows: one calorie is the heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of water 1 Celsius degree.

2 Specific heat of water = 1 cal/g C. Note: this is NOT the food calorie. The food calorie is the kilocalorie = kcal = Cal Now that we have chosen the specific heat of water, we can measure the specific heats of other substances: To measure: Measure initial temp of certain amount of water. Add sample at known temperature higher than temp of the water. Measure the final temp after sample has been added. From temp increase of water, we can find how much heat is transferred into the water. This is the same heat transferred out of the sample. Divide heat transfer by temp change of sample and its mass to get its specific heat. How the calorie content of food is measured: Suppose we want to know the calorie content of Rice Crispies. Remove all water from the Rice Crispies by putting them in low-humidity environment. Measure the mass of Rice Crispies. Put Rice Crispies into a bomb calorimeter (figure at right) containing a known mass of water. Light the Rice Crispies on fire heat from the burning Rice Crispies raises the temperature of the water. From the increase in the temp of water, we measure the heat, which in kcal is the caloric content of the Rice Crispies. Thermal Expansion In most cases, adding heat to a body, raising its temperature, the body expands. Add heat to a body and increase the vibration of the atoms making up the body. Causes the atoms to push each other farther apart causes the body to expand.

3 Actually due to the fact that the potential energy is not symmetric and large vibration causes the average distance between atoms to increase. Uses of thermal expansion: Thermostats: A bimetallic strip is formed from two strips of different metals with different coefficients of thermal expansion. This means that one metal will expand more on heating than the other. Thus, when the temperature of the strip changes, the strip will bend. One can attache a mercury switch to the strip, and the changing orientation of the strip will flip the switch back and forth between on and off. In a real thermostat, the bimetallic strip is formed into a spiral so that it can be longer and the bending with temperature change is increased. Riveting: Cold rivet is placed in hole. It expands to make the connection. Cooling can cause expansion in some substances: Water At higher temperatures water molecules slide across one another. They contract as the temperature is lowered until it reaches 4 C after which it stars to expand. Due to the water being a polar molecule: the positive side of one molecule snugs up against the negative side of another molecule causes them to take up more volume. More volume for a given mass means lower density why ice floats. A water molecule looks a bit like a kid wearing a Mickey Mouse hat. The two hydrogens are the ears. The hydrogen end is the positive end of the molecule, and the oxygen end is the negative end of the molecule. Below 4 C, the positive ends of water molecules begin to snuggle up against the negative ends of other water molecules. Aligned this way, the water molecules take up more space and the water expands. Chapter 16 Heat Transfer Three types of heat transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Note, here, the radiation has nothing to do with radioactivity here it is electromagnetic radiation light, infrared Conduction is the way that heat is transferred through solids. Convection is the way that heat is transferred through fluids. Radiation is the way that heat is transferred through a vacuum.

4 Conduction One can divide substances into insulators and conductors. Conduction in insulators: Heat up one side of a thermal insulator. Causes the molecules at that side of the insulator to begin vibrating more rapidly. Collisions with neighbors cause the neighbors vibrate more rapidly and heat up. This process continues as each set of neighbors collides with the next set of neighbors. This causes heat to transfer across the insulator. Conduction in conductors: Conductors are metals with free electrons. Heating up on side of a conductor heats the electrons. These hot carry heat with them as they move throughout the conductor. Convection Convection is the process by which hot molecules at one location move to another location, carrying heat with them. Note that conduction in conductors is like electron convection. Convection Cell - Imagine heating a room with a steam radiator. (1) Radiator heats the air in its surroundings. Heated air expands and, Archimedes, it rises. (2) This air moves across the ceiling, losing some heat as it does. (3) It drops down the right-hand wall, carrying heat to someone who might be sitting in the chair. (4) When the air rises from the radiator, a partial vacuum is created, which causes air to flow along the floor toward the radiator. This air is then heated and rises, completing the cycle. Eventually a circular flow of air is set up a convection cell carrying heat around the room. In each circuit, the radiator adds heat to the air and the temperature in the room rises until the rate of heat loss from the room is the same as the rate at which the radiator adds heat to the room. Radiation An accelerating electric charge will produce an electromagnetic wave. Analogy: Think of the electron as a hand moving the end of a string up and down to produce a wave on the string. The electromagnetic wave produced by the accelerating electron carries energy away from the electron. We know that matter is composed of atoms with electric charges in them.

5 We know that any body with a temperature has vibrating atoms and, therefore, vibrating charges. These vibrating charges produce electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic radiation that carries energy away from the body. This is heat transfer via radiation. Note that the body receives radiation from its environment at the same time that it is radiating to the environment. If the temperature of the body is greater than that of the environment, the net heat transfer is from body to environment. Temperature drops. If the body and environment are the same temperature, no net heat transfer. Temperature remains the same. If the temperature of the body is less than that of its environment, it will receive more radiation than it emits. Temperature rises. Chapter 17 Phase Change solid to liquid melting liquid to solid freezing liquid to gas vaporization or boiling or evaporation gas to liquid condensation solid to gas sublimation gas to solid deposition Start with an ice cube at 5 C Add heat Temp rises to 0 C Add heat melts while temperature remains at 0 C until it is all melted. Add heat temperature of the resultant water rises to 100 C Add heat water boils while the temperature remains at 100 C until all boiled away Add heat temperature of the resultant steam increases... Note that during a phase change melting and boiling we add heat without a temperature change. Since specific heat is proportional to the heat added divided by the temperature change, it becomes undefined at a phase transition. We need a specific heat-like quantity to deal with phase changes Latent Heat

6 Latent heat of fusion L f solid liquid interface. Latent heat of vaporization L v liquid gas interface We define a latent heat as follows: The latent heat is the energy per unit mass required to produce a phase transition.

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