P\-s -cp- -w. C y kz-]v\sø XInSw adn- ptam? tem-iv-]m - k-an-xn-b-pw- im n-`q-j -am-cpw- ti-c-fo-b - Ip-d-bp-tºmƒ- Pq - H- n-\m-bn- Im-Øn-cn- mw-

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1 1 P\-s -cp- -w tem-iv-]m - k-an-xn-b-pw- im n-`q-j -am-cpw- 2 ti-c-fo-b - Ip-d-bp-tºmƒ- 6 C y kz-]v\sø XInSw adn- ptam? PRICE Rs. 10/- VOL. 5 ISSUE 5 Pq - H- n-\m-bn- Im-Øn-cn- mw- 11

2 2 temiv]m kanxnbpw im n-`q-j amcpw G{]n 9 cmhnse 10 awn v U lnbnse C ym-tk- n AÆm lkmsc Xs \ncm-lmckxy-{klw Ah-km-\n- n p. aq c Znhkw \o \ncmlmckxy-{klw kºq W-hn-P-b-ambn. lkmsc Bh-iy-s - -sx mw C ym-kh sa v A\p-h-Zn p. lkm-sc-b-s w A p-t]sc Dƒs -Sp-Øn-s m v temiv]m _n Xøm-dm- m-\p ]ØwKkanXn cq]o-i-cn p. A[n-I-amcpw {i n- msx A v cmhnse as mcp \ncm-lm-c-k-xy-{k-lhpw Ah-km-\n- n-cp p. AXv ]m v\mbv v kao-]-ap t_dq sk {S Pbn-en-embn-cp p. AhnsS Pbn kq{] v H.]n. Kp]vX-bn \n v \mc-ßm-\ocv kzoi-cn v \ncm-lmcw Ah-km-\n- n- Xv cmtpjv crvp F -bmƒ. I nsb as mcp t]cn-emwv IqSp-X t]cpw Adn-bpI. ] pbm-zhv. kn.]n.fωnse FwF - F-bm-bn-cp APnXv k mcns\ sim tikn Poh-]- cy w in A\p-`-hn- p ap Fw]n. ] p-bm-z-hns \ncm-lmcw snm mgvn XpS-ßn-b-XmWv. AÆm lkmsc U ln-bn \ncm-lmcw XpS-ßnb Znhkw. ] p-bm-zhv \ncm-lmcw \S- Øn-bXv Agn-a-Xn-s -Xn-cmb AÆm lkm-sc-bpss \ncm-lm-c- Øn\v ]n pw {]Jym-]n v!!! AÆm lkm-sc-bpss \ncmlmcw cmpyøv henb Bthiw P\n- n p. ssen-hn-j am[y-a߃ C ym-tk- n \n v ssehv tjm dnte snbvx-txmss \mssßpw AÆm Xcw-K-ambn. At±-lsØ ]n p-w-bv m I Wm-SI apjy-a{ n _n.fkv. sbzn-bq-c, ap B apjya{ n F. N{µ-_m_p \mbnup, _n.sp.]n, hniz-lnµp ]cnjøv, B.Fkv.Fkv, XrW-aq tim {Kkv, Fw. Icp-Wm-\n-[n-bpsS Un.Fw.sI, ic-zvbm-z-hns P\-Xm-Zƒ bp, {]Imiv Imcm- ns kn.]n.sf Fw XpSßnb cmjv{so-b-i- n-iƒ a -cn p. {In v amam- -amb sf.]n.f ns ap snb am efn-xvtam-unbpw AÆmsb ]n p-w p. sf.]n.f ImWm FØp- -h-sc mw AÆmsb ]n p-w-bv p π m Up-Iƒ hln- -W-sa v Xs Szn - dn tamun Blzm\w snbvxp. apwss_-bnse Ne- n-{x-xm-c-߃ Agn-a-Xn-c-lnX kaq-l-øn-\m-bp AÆmbpsS t]mcm- -Øn\v ]n pw {]Jym-]n p. {]apj _nkn-\kv tnw_-dp-iƒ AÆm-bpsS ka-csø ]n mßn. AÆm-bpsS {]ÿm-\-øn\v cmjv{sob ]cn-k-w-\-iƒ Cs v ImWn- m cmjv{so-b-t\-xm- ƒ kxy-{k-l-th-zn-bn {]th-in- p- Xv A\p-bm-bn-Iƒ XS p. F n-\m-bn-cp p AÆm lkm-sc-bpss kxy-{klw? Agn-a-Xn-bn- m-xm- m. AXn-\p hgn? temiv]m D m-. F mwv temiv]m? Agn-aXn kw_- n ]cm-xn-iƒ ]cntim-[n v \S-]-Sn-sb-Sp- m Npa-X-e-s - Sp-Ø-s -Sp Bƒ As - n Bfp-Iƒ. Agn-aXn kw_- n v Bsc- nepw ]cm-xn-s - m AXv At\z-jn v Ip - msc Is -Øp-Ibpw in n- p-ibpw snøm temiv]m-en\v A[n-Im-c-ap- mipw. B pw Ip -s -Sp-Øm-\m-hmØ Hcp \n tziw. F m Cu ]d-bp- {X efn-xamtwm Imcyw? th {X Btem-Nn- p-tºmƒ AÆm lkmsc ]d-bp- Xv bp n-k-l-am-twmsb v kwi-bn- msx Xc-an. AXntebv v IS- pw-apºv lkm-sc-bpss kac-sø- n. alm-flm-km- n-bn \n v IS-sa-Sp-Ø- XmWv \ncm-lm-c-k-xy-{kl t]mcm w. At±lw {_n o-jp-im s -Xn-cmb kzmx{ y {]ÿm\w \bn- -t mƒ ]e- X-hW \ncm-lmc kxy-{klw \SØn. F mw {_n o-jpim v FXn-cm-bn-cp- n. Nne-sXms kz w {]ÿm-\-ønse ]ng-hp-iƒ Xncp-Øm th- n-bm-bn-cp p. AsX- m-bmepw \ncm-lmc kxy- {Klw Hcp henb cmjv{sob Bbp-[-am n hni-kn- n- Xv alm-flm-km- n-bmwv. F m kzmx-{ y-øn\v tijw k - {XnI thm -h-im-i-øn A[n-jvTn-X-amb P\m-[n-]Xy `c-w-kw-hn-[m\w \ne-hn h -t mƒ \ncm-lmckxy-{k-l-øns {]k n tnmzyw snø-s -ts- -Xp v. ImcWw P\-߃ v Xß-fpsS \ne-]m- Sp-Iƒ GXv cq]-ønepw Ah-X-cn- n- m- \p \nc-h[n Ah-k-c-߃ `c-w-l- S\ \evip p. X߃ v CjvS-s - -hsc sxc-s -SpØv Ah hgn `cww \S- Øn mw. AXn\v \nb-x-amb N -ßfpw hyh-ÿ-ifpw `c-w-l-s\ Xs Dd v hcp-øp p. CXv GsX- nepw ewln- s - m kzx-{ -amb tims-xnsb kao- ]n v ]cn-lmcw t\smw. kzx-{ -amb am[y-a-{]-h Ø-\-ßfpw `c-w-l-s-\bv v hnt[-b-ambn \S- p- p v. Cu P\m-[n-]XyssNX\yw cmpyøv Bdv ]Xn- m- mbn cqv-aq-e-am-bn- p v. sfxn-lm-kni Hu Xyw t\snb t\xm- -sf-t mepw txm n- p-ibpw Xncn- phn-fn- p-ibpw Hs snbvxv Cu \m nse \nc- -c-cmb P\-tIm-Sn-Iƒ Xß-fpsS P\m-[n-]Xy Ah-Imiw ]e-h w hn\n-tbm- Kn- n- p v. AXm-bXv P\-߃ v XßfpsS CwKn-X-a-\p-k-cn- p `c-w-iq-ssø krjvsn- m\pw CjvS-s -Sm-Ø-hsb XqsØ-dn-bm\pw Ign-bp p, Ign- n- p v; C\nbpw Ign-bp-Ibpw snøpw. Cßs\ P\m-[n-]Xyw i -ambn apt -dp Ime-ØmWv B `c-w-kw-hn- [m-\sø sh p-hn-fn- p-sim v AÆm lkmsc \ncm-lm-c-øn-eqss Xs lnxw `c-w-iq-s-øn-s -ta ASn-t n- m {ian- Xpw Hcp-]-cn-[n-hsc hnp-bn- Xpw. CXv `oj-wn-bpss cmjv{so-b-amwv. Poh h v hne-t]-i-emwv. Hcp-Xcw _µn-\m-siw \hw-_ 25 \v `c-w-l-s\m \n am-w-k-`-bn C y `c-w-l-s-\- bpss ]nxmhv F v hnti-jn- n- -s -Sp tumivs `oa dmhp Awt_-ZvI Hcp {]kvxm-h\ \S-Øn-bn-cp p. ]nt v C y `c-w-l-s-\-bpss aqe-{]-xn-bn `c-w-l-s\m Akwªn AwK-߃ H n- Sm Ccn- p-i-bm-bn-cp p. AXn\v ap ]v N -Iƒs mw adp-]-sn-bm-bmwv Awt_- ZvI ]d- Xv. ""`c-w-l-s-\m-]-c-amb coxn- Iƒ Db Øn-]n-Sn- m \Ωƒ Xøm-dm-hpI F -XmWv BZyw th Xv. knhn \nba-ew-l\w, \nk-l-i-cww, kxy-{klw XpS-ßnb am K-߃ \Ωƒ Dt]- n- Ww. Cu am K-߃ anx-amb `mj-bn ]d- m Acm-P-I-Xz-Øns coxn-i-fmwv. AXv F{X-thKw \mw Dt]- n- pt m A{Xbpw \ Xv. `c-w-l-s\ \ne-hn h -tijw ]ecpw \ncm-lm-c-k-xy-{klw Bbp-[-am- n-bn- p v t]m n {iocm-apep \ncmlmc kxy-{klw \SØn acww hcn p. sfiy B{ cq]-s -Sp-Øm Bh-iys - m-bn-cp p AXv. c p-h j-øn\p tijw `mjm-sn-ÿm-\-øn kwÿm-\- ߃ hn`-pn v B{ -{]-tziv \ne-hn h p k v ^tøknwkv kn pim v am{xambn ] m_v kwÿm\øn\pth n Zo L\mƒ \ncmlmckacw \SØn. ]gb ] m_ns\ ] m_pw lcnbm\bpambn hn`pn Xßs\bmWv. Ign- -h jw si.kn. N{µ-ti-Jc dmhp sfiy B{ hn`-pn v sxep- m\ D m- m th n \ncm-lmcw InS p. ]cn-lmcw D m- m-sa v Dd v \evinbmwv B ap ti-{µ-a-{ n-bpss Poh c n- Xv BNmcy hnt\m_ `msh tkmh[ \ntcm-[\w Bh-iy-s v \ncmlmcw Ccp p. hfsc {]bm-ks - mwv A sø P\Xm Kh sa v B kxy-{klw ]n h-en- n- Xv. kxy-{k-l-sa Bbp[w B pw GXn\pw D]-tbm- Kn mw F v hy -am- m-\mwv Cu kw`-h-߃ D -cn- Xv. alm-cm-jv{s-bn Agn-a-Xn-s - Xn-cmb t]mcm- -ß-fn-eqsS {it b-\mb AÆm lkm-sc-sb Km n-b Ct mƒ Kh sa ns\ apƒap-\-bn \n Øn Imcyw km[n p. Hcp- ]t lkmsc ]d-bp- -Xp-t]mse-bp Hcp temiv]m kwhn- [m\w D m-tb mw. AXpw hy n-iƒ tn H mwv. AXnepw Agn-aXn hcns v B v ]d-bm-\mhpw. Agn-aXn hcp-itbm temiv]m ]cn-[n-hn v {]h Øn- p-itbm snbvxm F m-bn-cn pw ]cnlmcw? Bcmepw sxc-s -Sp- -s - Sp- -X temiv]m. Ipsd-t tn v \nb-an- p- -XmWv. \nban- p- -h v am{xta P\-ß-tfmSv kam- [m\w ]d-tb- -Xp q. \nb-an- -s - h v BtcmSpw _m[y-x-bn. BcpsSbpw ] kam-[m-\hpw t_m[n- nt - -Xn. sxc-s -Sp- -s P\-{]-Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ F mw I - m-cmwv F Hcp ap hn-[ntbm-ss-bmwv lkm-scbpw Iq cpw cwkøv h Xv. At±lw Xs ]d-bp- Xv Xm sxc-s -Sp- n\v \n m Pbn- n-s - mwv. ImcWw X\n v ]W-an. AXmbXv ]W-i n am{x-amwv sxc-s -Sp- nse hnp-b-im-c-w-sa v. AXn-\ w Cu cmpysø P\m-[n- ]Xykwhn-[m\w AXn Øs ]ng-hmsw- mwv. Acm-P-I-hm-Zn-Ifpw (Anarchist) Acmjv{Sob hmzn-ifpw D -bn- p hmz-ß-fmwv lkm-scbpw Iq cpw Bh Øn- p- Xv. cmpyøv Hcp kzx{ am[yaw t]mepw C m-xn-cp- -t mƒ k -i- -bmbn hmwn-cp Cµn-cm-Km- n-sbbpw Ah-cpsS ]m n-sbbpw XqsØ-dn- -XmWv C y P\X. aq p-h j-øn\p tijw AtX Cµn-csb ]gb Bth-i-tØmsS Ah Xncn- p-hn-fn- p-ibpw snbvxp. 80 ixam\w kot mss sxc-s -Sp-Øp-hn cmpo- (tijw t]p-v 13)

3 3 P\s -cp- -w C y kz-]v\sø XInSw adn- ptam? bp Fkv +Ct m-t\-jy + ]m nÿm + _wkvfm-tz-iv + P m = C y = timsn. P\-kw-Jy-bpsS Imcy-Øn Cu ka-hmiyw icn-bmsw v se sk sk-kns {]myani dnt m p-iƒ hy -am- p- p. ]e C -twm-an-ãp-ifpw CXns\ Ak- mbn- mwv ImWp- -Xv. F m- m-cy-øn-se- -Xp-t]mse P\-kw-Jy-bnepw ssn\bv p ]n n c mw ÿm\ømwv C y. ssn\- bn 135 timsn-bmwv P\-kw-Jy. C ybn C -gn Zi-I-Øn {_ko-ense P\-kw-Jy p Xpey-amb BfpIƒ v ` -Ww ]pxn-b-xmbn It -Ø- -Xmbn h n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. temi P\-kw-JypsS 17.5 ix-am-\-amwv C y-bpss P\-kw-Jy. ssn\-bp-tsxv Consulting Editor Dr. P.K. Abraham Editor T.C. Mathew Managing Editor Jayesh.V.Sudhakar Media Consultancy Current Business Inc ix-am-\hpw. P\-kw-Jy-bn timsn ]pcpj- mcpw timsn kv{xoi-fp-am-wpf-f-xv. AXm-bXv 1000 ]pcp-j- m v 940 kv{xoiƒ. kv{xo P\-kwJy Cu Ime-b-f-hn 18.1 ix-am\w hf t\sn-bn- p- v. C -gn Zi-I-Øn ]p- Xn-b-Xmbn 18.1 timsn Bfp-Iƒ IqSn C y P\-kw-Jy-tbmSv tn p-sh- nepw AXv Xte Zi-I-Øn tn - Xn-t\- mƒ Ipd- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv C y P\-kwJy hf sk skkv P\-kwJy h jw timsn \v tijw B-Zy-am-bmWv CØ-c-Øn CSnhv kw`-hn- p- -Xv. ]t, P\-kwJy h [n- p-sh- nepw AXns \nc v Ipd-bp-I-bm- Wv F Xv Bizmkw \evip- p. C gn Zi-I-Øn ix-am\w hf -bmwv P\-kw-Jy-bn-ep- m-b-xv. ap Zi-IØnenXv ix-am-\-am-bncp- p. Adp-]-Xp-I-fn P\-kwJym hf 25 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- Xv Fgp-]- Xp-I-fn ix-am-\-ambpw F ]- Xp-I-fn 23.8 ix-am-\-hpam-bn-cp- p. apºv I n- n- mø hn[-øn cmpysø G hpw P\-kw-Jy-bp-ff kwÿm-\-ß-fpw CXn ] m-fn-bm-bncn- p- psh- Xpw Bfl-hn-izm-kw \evip- p. DØ {]tz-iv, DØ J-WvUv, _olm, Pm - v, a[y-{]-tz-iv, OØo-kvK-Uv, cmp-ÿm, Hdok XpSßnb ]nt m w \nev p kwÿm- \-ß-fnepw P\-kw-Jym-h-f m t{kmøv Ipd- p. Cu kwÿm-\-ß-fn \mep ix-am-\-øn-e-[niw CSn-hp- m-bn- p- v. kwÿm-\-ßfpw bqwn-b ssdn- -dn- Ifpw IW- n-se-sp-øm G hpw IqSp- X P\-kw-Jy-bp-ff kwÿm\w DØ {]-tz-im-wv. DØ {]tz-in-se P\- kwjy timsn bmwv. sxm p ]n n 11.2 timsn P\-kw-Jy-bp-ambn alm-cmjv{s \ne- p- p. alm-cmjv{sbpw bp ]nbpw tn m P\- kwjy bp Fkn-t -Xn-t\- mƒ hep- XmWv. G hpw Ipdhv P\-߃ e - Zzo-]n-em-Wv t]. sndp- -am Ndp- -amb P\-kwJy temi-ønse G hpw sndp- -amb P\-kw-Jybpw C y-bp-ts-xm-wv. CXpw C ybv v A\p-Iq-e-am-Ip-sa- mwv C -twm-an-ãp-i-fpss A`n-{]m-bw. F m Ipd hnzym-`ym-\n-c pw kvin hni-k-\hpw Cu P\-kwJy cmpy-øn\v _m[y-x-bmbn amdp-sa v as mcp hn`mkw C -twm-an-ãp-iƒ ]dbp- p. F nepw Db-cp km -c-\nc v {]Xo ]I-cp- p. hnzym-`ymkw sa -s -Sp-Øp- -Xn\v ti-{µ- -kw-ÿm-\- k m-cp-iƒ Htc-t]mse {]Xn-RvPm- _- -am-hp-i-bm-wv. Ign sk sk-kns\ At]- n v CØ-hW 0 6 {]mb-øn-epffhcpss FÆw50 e w I p Ipdbp-I-bmWv snbvx-xv. Cu {]mb-øn-epff Ip n-i-fpss FÆw timsnbmwnt mƒ. Cu hn`m-k-øn 3.08 ix-am\w s\k- ohv hf -bmwv I -Xv. ]pcp-j- m-cpss FÆ-Øn 2.42 ix-am\w CSnhv ImWn- -t mƒ kv{xoi-fpss Imcy-Øn-enXv 3.8 ixam\wipd- Xv Bi- -bp-w Øp- p. samøw P\-kw-Jy-bpsS 13.1 ix-am-\- am-wv Cu {]mb-øn-ep-ff Ip n-iƒ enxv 15.9 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. 2.8 ixam\w CS-hmWv D- m-bn- p-f-f-xv. cmpysø 20 kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw bqwn-b ssdn-ss-dn- -dn-i-fnepw ]Øp e -Øn-e-[nIw Ip n-i-fp- v. A v kwÿm-\-ß-fn Ip n-i-fpss FÆw 1 e -Øn Xmsg-bm-Wv. DØ {]-tziv (2.97 timsn), _olm (1.86 timsn) alm-cmjv{s (1.28 timsn), a-[y-{]-tziv (1.05 timsn) cmpvÿm (1.05 timsn) F o kwÿm-\-ß-fn-emwv 0 6 {Kq n hcp Ip n-i-fpss 52 ix-am- \hpw hkn- p- -Xv. P\- -km-{µx IqSp p P\-km-{µX h [n- p-i-bm-wv se NXp-c{i Intem-ao- -dn\v 325 F Xv Bbn Db n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ASn-ÿm-\-ku-I-cy-߃ hni-kn- n- p- -Xn\v ASn-b c ]cn-k- W\ \evti- -Xn-te-bv mwv CXv hnc Nq p- -Xv. {]txy-in pw \K-cta-J-e-I-fn. cmpysø \b-cq-]o-i-c-w- Øn G s - n-cn- p- -h p-ff ap dn-bn v IqSn-bmWv sk skivkv dnt m v. {Sm kvt]m v, luknw-kv,

4 4 Btcm-Kyw, hnzym-`ymkw XpS-ßn-bta-J-e-I-fn h h-f D- m-ti- nbn-cn- p- p. G hpw IqSp-X P\-km-{µX U ln-bn-emwv NXp-c{i Intem-ao- -dn\v t]. sxm p-]n- n 9252 t]cp-ambn NWvUn-KUv D v. kwÿm-\-ß-fn G hpw IqSp-X P\-km-{µX _olm-dn-emwv. NXp-c- {i-in-tem-ao- -dn\v 1102 t].-]- n-a-_w- Km-fnepw \v api-fn Bfp-I-fp- v. DØ {]-tz-in 828 BWv P\- km-{µ-x. G hpw Ipdhv Acp-Wm-N {]tz-inse Un_mw-Kn-epw. NXp-c-{iao- -dn Hcm-fmWv hkn- p- -Xv. {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ Aev]w Db -XmWv P\-kw-Jy-sb- nepw a v Imcy-߃{]Xo- -bvs m-ø-hn-[- amwv \oßn-bn- p-f-f-xv. P\-kw-Jym- ]-T\ hnz-kv[ 120 timsn P\-kw-JybmWv {]Xo- n- n-cp- -Xv. CXv sndnb hyxymkw am{x-am-wv. U ln-bnepw NWvUn-K-Unepw {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ Ipd-hmWv P\-kw- Jy. su ln-bn 1.86 timsn {]Xo- n- n-søv 1.68 timsn-bmwv P\-kw- Jy. AtX-t]mse B U-am \nt m-_m, tkmh, e vzzo-]v, \mkem Uv, ]pxp-t -cn, Uma, Unbp XpS-ßnb kze-ß-fn {]Xo- n- -Xnt\- mƒ sa -s P\-kw-JybmWv D- m-bn- p-f-f-xv. talm-e-b-øn {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ 13 ix-am- \hpw Xan-gv\m- n 7 ix-am-\hpw _olm-dn 6 ix-am-\hpw OØokvK-Un 5 ix-am-\hpw A[nIw Bfp-Iƒ D m-bn. P\-km-{µXbpsS ^e-amb cmpyw A\p-`-hn- p ]mcn-ÿn-xni {]iv\- ߃ hfsc Bi- m-ip-e-amb ÿnxnbn-em-wv. BtKmf `qhn-kvxr-xn-bpss 2.4 ix-am\w am{x-ap-ff C y hln- p- Xv BtKmf P\-kw-Jy-bpsS 17.5 ix-am-\amwv. AtX-k-abw 7.2 ix-am\w `qhn-kvxr-xn-bp-ff bp Fkn\v temi P\-kw-Jy-bpsS 4.5 ix-am-\sø t]m n-bm axn. P\-km-{µX h [n- p- -Xn-\-\pk-cn v KXm-KX kui-cy-߃ sa s -Sp-tØ- -Xp- v. {]txy-in pw Kcta-J-e-I-fn. 0 6 {]mb-øn-ep-ff Ip n-i-fpss FÆ-Øn t\cnb Ipdth D m-bn- p-f-fp. Cu kml-ncy-øn hf p-h-cp Ip n-iƒ v ss{]adn, sk Udn hnzym-`ym-k- P\-kwJy ]pcp-j- m kv{xoiƒ ix-am-\w(%) hf (%) C y PΩp Im-ivao lnam-n {]tziv ] m_v DØ J v lcn-bm\ F kn n U cmp-ÿm DØ {]-tziv _olm kn nw Acp-Wm-N {]tziv \mk-em Uv awn- q antkmdw {Xn]pc talm-eb Bkmw ] na _wkmƒ Pm v Hdok OØo-kvKUv a[y-{]-tziv KpP-dmØv Uma ZmZ \K alm-cmjv{s B{ -{]-tziv I Wm-SI tkmh e ticfw Xan-gv\mSv ]pxp-t B U-am \nt ti{µ-`-cw {]tz-i-߃ Øn\v Bh-iy-amb kui-cy-߃ D m-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. ss{]adn Xe-Øn Ivfmkv apdn v h maamwv A\p-`-h-s -Sp- -Xv. s]mxp Btcm-Ky-cw-KØpw i - amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ D m-ti- n-bn-cn- p- p. IpSn-sh-f-fw, km\n-t -j XpSßnb taj-e-i-fn ÿnxn Ct mgpw hfsc tami-amwv. Ip n-i-fpss t]mjm-im-l-c- p-dhv henb {]iv\- ambn XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv t]mj-im-lm-c- p-d-hp-ff Ip n-iƒ 46 ix-am\w Db \nen-bn-em-wv CXv 47 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- psh I-W- n-se-sp- p-tºmƒ Cu cwkøv H pw-xs apt m p t]mim km[n- n- n-. P\-kw-Jy-bn 60 timsn 30 hbkn\p Xmsg-bp-f-f-hcpw timsn 20 hb-kn\v Xmsg-bp-f-f-h-cp-am-Wv hb-kn-\n-s-bn-ep-f-f-h-cn 13 ixam\w am{x-amwv timfpn t]mip- -Xv. CXn Xs ]IpXn timfppw icn-bmb coxn-bn-e {]h Øn- p- - Xv. ]Ømw Ivfmkn-se-Øp Ip n- I-fn 40 ix-am-\-tømfw t{um]v Hu v BIp-I-bm-Wv. Cßs\ kviqfn \n v s]mgn p t]mip- h Øv sxmgn ]cn-io-e\w In p- n-

5 5. Ah ]cn-io-e-\-an- m-ø-hcmbn XpS-cp- p. kvin C m-ø-xpaqew Ah-k-c-ß-fp-s - nepw Ah v D]-tbm-K-s -Sp-Øp-hm Ign-bmsX t]mip- p. hnzym-`ymk taj-e-bn ]cn-jvim-c-߃ kw`-hn- p- n-s - n \s mcp ] v bphxzw ]mgmbn t]mip-hm-\p-ff km[y-x-tb-sd-bm-wv. Npcp- -Øn P\-kw-Jym-cw-KØv Nne t]mko- ohv kqn-\-iƒ Db-cp- p-s - nepw ASpØ 10 h jw C ysb kw_- n- n-s-tømfw hfsc {]bm-k-i-camb Imew Xs -bmwv. C y hf-cp-i-bm-wv. C y- m Ipd-bp-I-bm-Wv. P\-kw-Jym-h-f Ipd-bp-Ibpw km -c-xm-\n-c v h [n- p-ibpw snøp-i-bm-wv. {]txy-in pw kv{xo km -c-x. ]c p InS- p inip P\-kw- Jybv v hnzym-`ym-k, Btcm-KykuI-cy-߃ e`y-am- p-hm Ign-bp- n-s - n temiw G hpw henb Ak- mbn Icp-Xp sndp- -amb P\- kw-jy-bpss B\p-Iqeyw D]-tbm- K-s -Sp-Øp-I-sb- Xv hnzq-c-kz-]v\-ambn-øs XpS-cpw. {ZpX-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ ssis m-f-fp-hm- \p-ff i -amb ap -dn-bn- mwv sk skkv \evip- -Xv. km -c hyxymkw hf (%) P\-kwJy ]pcp-j- m kv{xoiƒ km -c-xm-\n-c v (%) hyxymkw P\-kwJy ]pcp-j- m kv{xoiƒ C y P\-kwJy H t\m -Øn P\-kwJy ]pcp-j- mà kv{xoiä þ6 {]mb- n-ep-f-f-hà ix-am\w ]pcp-j- mà ix-am\w kv{xoiä ix-am\w P\-kwJym h [\ hà[\ ix-am\w ]pcp-j- mà ix-am\w kv{xoiä ix-am\w P\-km-{µX (N-Xp-c{i Intem-ao-äÀ) 382 skivkv tdtjym (1000 ]pcp-j- mà v kv{xoiä) 940 km -cx 2011 P\-kwJy ix-am\w ]pcp-j- mà ix-am\w kv{xoiä ix-am\w km -cx: ticfw ap n Øs ticfw C ybv v amxr-i-bm-ip-ibm-wv. P\-kw-Jy-\n-b-{ -W-Ønepw B - -s] A\p-]m-X-Ønepw km -c-bpss Imcy-Ønepw apº- nbn \nev p tic-fsø a v kwÿm-\-߃ v I p ]Tn- m-hp- -Xm-Wv. BZy-ambn P\-kwJy hf -bpss Imcy-sa-Sp- mw. tic-f- Ønse P\-kwJy ÿncx t\sn-bncn- p-i-bm-wv. GXm v ac-whpw P\- \hpw Hcp t]mse se sk sk-kns BZy IW- p-i-f-\p-k-cn v tic-f-øns P\-kwJy BWv se sk sk-kn ticføns P\- kw-jy Bbn-cp- p. G hpw Ipdhv ac-w-\n-c pw P\-\-\n-c pw tic-f-øn-em-wv. tic-f-øns P\- \-\n-c v 4.86 ix-am-\-am-sw- n AJn-te y \nc v ix-am-\-am- Wv. P\-kw-Jy-bn ]pcp-j- mcpw kv{xoi-fp-am-wp-f-f- Xv. tic-f-øns hep w C y-bpss Hcp ix-am-\-tøm-f-ta-bp-f-fp-sh- nepw P\-kw-Jy-bpsS 2.76 ixam\sø ChnsS Dƒs m- p- p. kwÿm-\-øns P\-km-{µX NXpc-{i-In-tem-ao- -dn\v 819 BWv. C y icm-icn 382 BWv. tic-f-øns km n[yw {i n- s -Sp as mcp taj-e-bmwv km c-x. tic-f-øns km -c-xm-\n-c v ix-am-\-am-wv. cmpy-øns icm-icn km -c-xm-\n-c v ix-am-\-am-wv. tic-f-ønse P\-kw- Jy-bn t] km -c-cm- Wv. tic-f-øn ]pcp-j- mcpw kv{xoifpw km c-cm-wv. Ggp hb-kn\p api-fn Ggp- Xm\pw hmbn- p-hm\pw Adn-bm-hp- h-sc-bmwv km -c-cmbn IW- m- p- -Xv. km -cxm \nc v (%) hàjw P\-kwJy ]pcp-j- mà kv{xoiä tic-f-øns hep w C ybpss Hcp ix-am-\-tøm-f-ta-bpf-fp-sh- nepw P\-kw-Jy-bpsS 2.76 ix-am\sø ChnsS Dƒs m- p- p. kwÿm-\- Øns P\-km-{µX NXp-c-{i- In-tem-ao- -dn\v 819 BWv. C y icm-icn 382 BWv.

6 6 tic-fob Ipd-bptºmƒ P\-kwJy Ipd-bp Ime-tØ v ticfw ISt m?î kwi-bn-t kml-n-cy-am-bn-cn- p- p. G hpw ]pxnb sk kkv hnh-c߃ AXn-te- mwv hnc Nq p- -Xv. Ign Zi-I-Øn ( ) ticf P\-kwJy 4.86 ix-am-\ta IqSn-bp- q e -Øn \n v e -Øn-te v. icm-i-cn- Hcp h jw 1.38 e w t]tc IqSn-bp- q. cmpysø P\-kwJym hf \nc- n \mkm-em Uv Ign- m G hpw ]n n-ep kwÿm-\-amwv tic-fw Ct mƒ. \mkm-em Un Ign Zi-I- Øn P\-kwJy 0.47 ix-am\w Ipd- p. 10,25,707 \n v 9,54,895 te v. tic-fhpw Aß-s\-sbmcp kml-n-cy- Ønem-Wn-t mƒ F p Icp-Xp- -Xn sx n-. ]Ø-\w-Xn Pn Ign Zi-I- Øn Xs P\-kwJy Ipd- Pn -bmbn ix-am\w P\-ß-fmWv AhnsS Ipd- -Xv. P\\w Ipd- Xpw A\y-\m-Sp-I-fnte p IpSn-tb w h [n XpamWv ticfsø Cu Ah-ÿ-bn-se-Øn- -Xv. CtXmsS ]e bqtdm-]y cmpy-ß-fp-ssbpw P m-s bpw \ne-bn-embn tic-fw. tic-f-ønse kv{xoi-fpss {]Xyp ]m- Z-\-\n-c v (Total Fertility Rate) ] na-bqtdm- n-te-xn\p Xpey-am-bn p h j-ß-fm-bn tziob IpSpw-_m-tcmKy k th (National Family Health Survey) Is - ØnbXp ticfkv{xoi-fpss {]Xyp ]m-z- \-\n-c v 1.9 BsW- m-wv. CXv 1.7 Bb- Xm-bmWv 2009 se \nk-a-\w. Ct mƒ AXp ho pw Ipd- n p v. P\-kwJy IpdbmsX \ne-\n m th Xv 2.1 Bbncn- p-tºm-gm-wn-xv. AXm-bXv \ne-hn-ep- P\-kwJy XpS-cm-hp hn[w {]k-h-߃ tic-f-øn \S- p- n-. ] n-a-bq-tdm- n {]Xyp ]m-z-\-\n-c v 1.5 BWv. Ac-\q- m p sim p tic-f-øns P\-kwJy hf -bn-ep- mb am w hnπh-i-c-am-wv hsc cmpysø icm-icn P\-kwJy hf -sb- mƒ IqSp-X-em-bn-cp- p tic-f-øn-te-xv ImeØv tziob hf 5.75 ix-am-\-ambncp -t mƒ ticf-øn ix-am\w IqSn. ASpØ Zi- I-Øn cmpysø P\-kwJy 0.31 ixam\w Ipd- -t mƒ tic-f-øn 9.16 ixam\w IqSn tziob hf 11 ix-am\pw ticfhf ix-am-\-hpw. ASpØ Zi-I-Øn tziobw ix-am- \-am-b-t mƒ tic-f-øn-texv ix-am- \w C y-bnse hf ixam-\-øn-seøn. tic-f-øn-texv ixam-\-hpw C y ix-am-\hpw ticfw ix-am-\hpw I v P\-kwJy Iq n Zi-I-Øn-em-bn-cp p cmpyøpw kwÿm-\øpw P\-s -cp- -tømxv G hpw IqSn-b-Xv. tziob hf 24.8 Dw tic-f-h-f Dw ix-am-\w. XpS p tziob hf \nc v kmh- [m\w Ipd p h -t mƒ kwÿm-\sø hf IpØs\ Xmtgm p \oßn , , , F coxn-bn-emwv cmpysø P\- kwjyhf bpss txmxv XmW-Xv. tic-f- Øn-em-Is CXp bym-{iaw 19.24, 14.3, 9.8, 4.86 F \nc- n-em-bn. tziob \nc- n-t\- mƒ IqSp-X thkw hf p t]m tic-fw 1971 \p tijw tziob \nc- nse XmgvN-tb- mƒ IqSp-X thkw XmWp. B XmgvN-bmWv Ct mƒ P\-kwJy Ipd-bp- -Xns sxm ph- n-se-øn-bn-cn- p- -Xv. hf \nc v A{]-Xo- n-x-ambn XmW-t mƒ Cs m- tø v ap t] IW- m- n-b-xnepw Ipd p P\-ßtf tic-f-øn D q F mbn e w P\-߃ tic-f- Øn D mipw F m-bn-cp p 2001 se sk kkv h p \nk-a-\w. AXm-Wnt mƒ 332 e -ambn Ipd- -Xv. {]Xyp ]m-z-\-\n-c v C\nbpw Xmgp- Ibpw IpSn-tb- -tømxv XpS-cp-Ibpw snbvxm tic-f-ønse P\-kwJy Ipdbpw. AXp hnzq-c-km-[y-x-b-. kao-]-h jß-fn Øs kw`-hn- m t]mip- -Xm- Wv. AXn-s\ m? AXn ]e-xp-ap- v. Kuc-h-amb ]e- Xpw. P\-s -cp w Hcp-Im-eØv t]sn kz]v\- am-bn-cp- p. -a Øq-kn-b (txm-akv tdm_ v am Øq-kns hgn-bn-ep- ) Nn -I-cmWv P\-s -cp- -sø- n temisaßpw Bi ]S Øn-b-Xv. P\-kwJy 1, 2, 4, 8,16.. F n-ßs\ (tpym-a-{sniv t{]m{k-j ) IqSp- p. ` -W-e-`y-X-bm-Is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.. F n-ßs\ (A-cnXvsa niv t{]m{k-j ) IqSp- p. At mƒ Iptd- mew Ign-bp-tºmƒ P\-߃ m-h-iy-amb ` Ww In m-xm-ipw. CXmWv a Øq-knb hmz- m ÿm]n- -Xv. ]t am Øq-kns \nk-a-\-߃ icn-bm-bn-cp- n-s p Imew sxfn-bn- p. imkv{x-øns bpw kmt -Xn-I-hn-Zy-bp-sSbpw klm-b-tømss a\p-jy `t ym ]m-z-\-tømxv At\-I-a-Sßv h [n- n- p. AXyp ]m-z-\-ti-jn-bp s\ pw tkmxºpw tnmfhpw hni-kn- n- p. Ct mƒ P\n-X-Ik-t -Xn-I-hn-Zy-bm-sW- n GXp txmxn-te pw D ]m-z\w Iq m Ign-bp-sa {]Xo- bpw \ Ip- p. P\-s -cp w t]sn-kz-]v\-a- m-xmbn F Xp am{x-a Ct m-gsø kml-n-cyw. P m-\-s- -ap ]e hni-knx cmpy-ßfpw th {X P\-߃ C m-ø-xns hnj-a߃ A\p-`-hn- p-i-bm-wv. CXp ]e hn[- Øn-ep- v. H v: P\-kwJy IqSm-Xn-cn- p-tºmƒ kmº-øni hf Imcy-ambn IqSp-I-bn-. hf Iq m D]-tbm-Khpw IqS-W-at m. Bƒ IqSmsX D]-tbmKw IqSp- - Xn\p ]cn-[n-bp- v. c v: Bƒ Ipd-bp-tºmƒ A[zm-\n- m A\y-\m- p-imsc Bh-iy-am-Ip- p. AXp \msns kwkvim-chpw coxn-bpsa mw am pw. Ct mƒ ] n-a-bq-tdm pw hst Ata-cn- -bp-sams CX-\p-`-hn- p- p. aq v: kaq-l-øn hr -cpss A\p- ]mxw IqSp- p. CXv s] j, Btcm-Ky- C jp-d kv XpS-ßnb tkmjy skiypcn n kwhn[m\ßsf tzmj-i-c-ambn _m[n- pw. ] -Xn-I-fn-te v XpI ASbv p h Ipd-bpw, B\p-Iqeyw ] p h IqSpw. AXp ] -Xn-I-fpsS \ne- \n ]v Xs A]-I-S-Øn-em- pw. B hgn-bn-eq-ss-bmwv tic-f-øns AXn-th-K-bm-{X. \mep-z-iiw sim v P\- kwjybpss Zim-_vZ-h-f \nc v \n v 4.86 ix-am\w Bbn \mw XmgvØnsb-Sp-Øp. AXm-bXv Ign Zi-I-Ønse icm-icn hm jni hf 0.49 ix-am-\w. CXp Zi-I-i-cm-i-cn-bpsS Nn{Xw. 2010epw 11 epsams hf \nc v CXn-t\- mƒ Xptemw Xmsg-bm-bn-cn- p-sa v Xo. P\-kwJymhf Ipd-bp-tºmƒ F p kw`-hn- p p? Ip n-i-fpss FÆw Ipd-bp- p. Ct mƒ Ip n-iƒ Ipd-bpw. ]n osv Iuam-c- m Ipdbpw, AXn\p tijw bphm- ƒ Ipd-bpw. \msf A[zm-\n- m Bƒ Ipd-bpw. A[zm-\n- m-\p- -h Ipd-bp- -txmssm w A[zm-\n- m ] m-ø-h-cpss FÆw IqSp-Ibpw snøpw. B{in-X IqSp-Ibpw ]Wn-sb-Sp- p- h Ipd-bp-Ibpw snøpw. AXns ^e-߃ Ct mƒ Xs \mw I p-h-cp- p- v Ifn icm-icn Bdp-e- hpw 1990 Ifn {]Xn-h jw icm-icn At -Im e hpw Ip n-iƒ tic-f-øn P\n- n-cp- p. AXp Zi- I-Øn \mte-ap- m e -ambn XmWp. Ct mƒ Hcp]t {]Xn-h j P\\w \mep-e- -Øn Xmsg-bm-bn-cn- pw. Ipd p Ip n-itf P\n- p- p q F n Ipd p kviqfp-ifpw Ipd v A[ym- ]-Icpw axn-bm-ipw. Ign Zi-I-ß-fn Cw ojv aoun-b-ßfpw kn_n-f-kvc sfkn-f-kvc kne-_-kp-ifpw tn v ticfm kne-_-knse ae-bmfw aounbw kviqfp-isf srcp- n-s -dp-xm- n-bn-cp- p. Ct mƒ Ip n-i-fpss FÆ- p-dhv F m- ticfw P\-kwJy Hä t\m«- nâ hà[\(%) P\-kwJy ]pcp-j- mà kv{xoiä Øcw hnzym-e-b-ß-sfbpw srcp- m t]mip- p. AXv Hcp {]iv\w am{xw. \msf \m n Bh-iy-ap- {X tumivs amcpw \gvkpamcpw F Pn-\o-b amcpw A`n-`m-j-Icpw a p s{]m^-j-w-ep-ifpw hnzkv[ Ahn- ZKv[ sxmgn-em-fn-ifpw D m-in-. Ct mƒøs tic-f-øn a th-e- Iƒ pw ^mivsdn sxmgn-ep-iƒ pw tlm tpmen- p-sam pw ae-bm-fn-i-fn-. A\y-\m- p-imsc B{i-bn- mwv B ]Wn-Iƒ \S-Øp- -Xv. A\y-\m- p-im-cpss Kƒ^v Bbn amdp ticføn A\y-\m- p-im sim p hcp {]iv\-ßfpw Nn -d-bm-in-. Ip -Ir-Xy-߃ apx tcmk-߃ hsc \ofp p B {]iv\-߃. sk kkv \ Ip as mcp hnhcw tic-f-ønse sa -s kv{xo -]p-cpjm\p- ]mxw (1000 ]pcp-j- m v 1084 kv{xoiƒ) F IW v Hcp ]pi-ad am{x-am-sw- m-wv. 30 hb-kn\p api-fn am{x-amwv kv{xoiƒ ]pcp-j- m-tc- mƒ IqSp-X-ep- -Xv. AXn Xmsg-bp {]mb- m-cn ]pcp-j- m-cmwv IqSp-X. Bdp hbkn hscbp -h-cn Bbncw B Ip- n- Iƒ v 959 s] Ip- n-i-tf-bp- q. 10 apx 14 hbkv hsc-bp- -h-cpss kwjy B Ip- n-iƒ e hpw s] Ip- n-i e hpw F m-wv hn`m-k-øn CXp bym-{iaw e hpw e hpw hcp- p hn`m-k-øn ]pcp-j- m e w D -t mƒ kv{xoiƒ e w am{xw. Npcp- -an-xm-wv, P\-kw-Jy-bn Ip n- Iƒ Ipd-bp- p, AXn Øs s] Ip- n-iƒ Ipd-bp- p. imkv{xo-b-amb P\-\-\n-b-{ -W-am K߃ {]Nm-c-Øn-em-b-tijw tic-f-øn s] Ip- n-iƒ Ipd- p. DØ-tc- y-bntexp t]mse enwk-]-cn-tim-[\ \SØn K `-On{Zw snøn- p coxn ChnsS Cs - mwv \mw Ah-Im-i-s - n-cp- Xv. AXp icn-bm-bn-cp- m t]mepw 959 F s] A\p-]mXw H pw kzoim-cy-a epw Xmsg s] A\p-]m-X-ap 10 kwÿm-\-߃ Ds - Xv \ap v Bizmkw ]I-tc Imcy-hp-a-. Ign sk kkv ImeØv 0 6 hbkv {]mb- m P\-kw-Jy-bpsS ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. Ct m AXv 9.95 ixam-\-ambn XmWp. tziob Xe-Øn ix-am-\-øn \n v ix-am-\-ønte p XmW-t m-gm-wn-xv. CtX kabw hr -cpss txmxv IpXn- p. Ign sk kkv ImeØp tic-f- Øn hr ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. A sø IW- p-iƒ h v Ct mƒ hr m-\p-]mxw ix-am-\-am-ip-sa- mwv IW- p-iq- n-bn-cp- -Xv. ]t AXp 13 ixam-\-ønepw A[n-I-am-bn. A[zm-\n- p- -h Ipd-bp-Ibpw B{in- X IqSp-Ibpw snøp-tºmƒ, sndp- - m Ipd-bp-Ibpw hr IqSpIbpw snøptºmƒ Hcp kaq-l-øn\p ]pxp-abpw HmP pw \jvs-s -Sp- p. ticfw AXnthKw sn p- Xv AØ-c-samcp A co -Øn-te- mwv.

7 7 kv-t m- v- A-ssUz-kv- s^-_n - _npnb F\ Pn Ct m-gsø hne: 573 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne/ Xmgv hne: 871 cq]/402 cq] apj hne: 10 cq] em`-hoxw: 70 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: cq], ]n C: (2010 am v) hn]wn aqeyw: 4132 timsn cq] Iº-\n-Iƒ em`- -a-xbv pw hf -bv p-ambn t]mcm w \S-Øp {]bm-k- I-c-amb A -co- -Øn Zo L-Im-e-Øn ani hf t\sm km[y-x-bp-ff Iº-\n-I-fn-sem m sshzypxn taj-e-bv m-h-iyamb F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv skmeq-j kv \evip _n Pn B F\ Pn knãw-kv P a-\nbnse Pn C F F\ Pn ssiv\n- p-ambn tn v Bcw-`n Iº-\n-bpsS apjy-{]-tam- _n Pn clp- ]-Xn-bm-Wv. Iº\n Ct mƒ {][m-\-ambpw c v taj-e-i-fn-emwv {]h Øn- p- -Xv. D]-I-c-W-ßfpsS hnx-c-whpw F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv ] -Xn-I-fpsS cq]-i-ev]\ apx IΩo-j snøp- -Xp-h-sc-bpff tpmen-ifpw snøp- p. Cu taj-e-bn ani v km[y-x-bm-sw- mwv td nwkv GP kn-bmb {Inkn-ens dnt m v ]d-bp- -Xv. ASpØ A p h j- m-eøv ]vfm v D]-I-c-W-ß-fn am{xaw 1.6 e w timsn cq]-bpss \nt -]-ap- m-ip-sa- mwv hne-bn-cp-ø. Iº\n timsn cp] hn p-hchpw timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw t\sn-bn- p- v. 72 timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[-\-øn C ]n Fkv cq]-bm-wv. {]h Ø-\-em-`-am Pn ix-am-\-am-wv. \S- p-h j-øn 9 amk- m-eøv Iº-\n timsn cq] hn ph-c-hpw timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw t\sn-bn- p- v. HºXp amksø C ]n Fkv BWv. aq mw Izm -dn Iº-\n-bpsS hcp-am\w 97 ix-am-\ h [-\- bmwv ImWn- -Xv. A m-zmbw \men-c- n-bm-bn. Iº-\n-bpsS ssih-i-an-t mƒ 9317 timsn cq]-bpss Hm U-dp- v. Iº\n timsn cq]-bpss ] -Xn-Iƒ v _nuv \evin-bn- p- v. Ch-bn \S- p-h jw Xocpam-\-ap- m-ip-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. ASpØ ImeØv Iº\n kºq W C ]n kn Iº-\n-bmbn amdn-bn- p- v. s`, F B Uv Sn F n-hbv v ]n n aq maxmwv Iº-\n-bpsS ÿm\w. t_mbn-e, S ss_ hn]-wn-bn Iº-\nbpsS tijn h [n- p-i-bm-wv. Iº\n P m-\nse ln m- n-bp-ambn tn v 4000 sakm-hm v t_mbn-e S ss_ DXv]m-Z-\-bq-Wn v ÿm]n- p- -Xn\v kwbp-i- w-cw`w Bcw-`n- p-hm Xocp-am-\n- n- p- v. CXn-\m-h-iy-amb ÿew Gs -SpØp Ign- p. ASpØ c p h j-øn-\p-f-fn ] Xn ]qcvøn-bm- p-hm-\mwv Iº\n Dt±-in- p- -Xv. Ct m-gsø kml-n-cy-øn \S- p-km-º-øn-i-h j-øns Ah-km-\- tømss Hm U _p v timsn cq]-bm-ip-sa- mwv hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. Iº\n Ign h j-ß-fn 32.6 ix-am\w hf hn p-h-c-hn t\sn-bn- p- v. AXv \S- p-h jhpw XpS-cp-hm-\mWv km[y-x. Iº-\n-bpsS Hmlcn hne-bn-t mƒ 537 cq]-bm-wv se {]Xo- nx C ]n Fkv Bb 41.7 cq]-bn ]n C BWv. hymh-km-bn-i-i-cm-i-cn-tb mƒ Xmsg-bm-Wv. \S- p-h jsø {]Xo- nx C ]n Fkv Bb 56 cq]nbn ]n C 11 \v ASp-Øm-Wv. sshzypxn taj-ebv v k m \evip ap nc ]cnkw\ Iº-\n v IqSp-X Hm U-dp-Iƒ e`yam- pw. am-{x-hp-a-, ] -Xn-Iƒ \S- m-ip- Xv hcpw h j-ß-fn thk-øn-em-ip-sa pw hne-bn-cp-øs -Sp- p. CXv ]pxnb Hm U-dp-Iƒ _n Pn B t]mep-ff Iº-\n-Iƒ v e`n- p kml- Ncysamcp- n-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. F nepw Nne dnkviv LS-I-ß-fp- v. Iº-\nbpsS Hm U-dn \s mcp ] pw sshzypxn taje-bn \n pw Hmbn B Uv Kymkv taj-ebn \n- p-am-wv. kº-zvl-s-\-bpss hf -bp-ambn Iº-\n-bpsS hf hfsc B{i-bn p \nev p- p. kº-zvl-s-\-bn amµy-ap- m-bm AXv Iº- \n-bpss Hm U-dn-t\bpw _m[n- pw. Iº-\n-bpsS Hmlcn hne ASpØ ImeØv 4002 cq] hsc Xmgv n-cp- p. ]n osv AXn \n v Xncn-s -Øn-b-Xm-Wv. C y kmº-øn-i-h-f Zo L-Im-e-Øn ani- -Xm-bn-cn- p-sa hne-bn-cp-ø IW- n-se-sp- p-tºmƒ ZocvL-Im-e-Øn Cu Iº-\n pw AXns t\ w e`n- pw. Zo L-Im-e-Øn Cu Iº-\n-bn {]th-in- mw. ani t\ w CXn {]Xo- n- p-ibpw snømw. As{K Uh-se-t gvkv enan- Uv Ct m-gsø hne: 53 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne/ Xmgv hne: 372 cq]/42 cq] apj hne: 10 cq] hn]wn aqeyw: timsn cq] dos -bn `oa ^yq {Kq n s Iº-\n-bmWv As{K suh-e-t -gvkv. cq]-i-ev]-\bpw hni-k-\hpw Dƒs ss dos -bn taj-ebn dob Ftà v skmeq-j \evip-hm e y-an- n-cn- p Iº-\n-bm-Wn-Xv.dos -bn dnb FtÃ- v, C {^m tempn-ãniv ]m p-iƒ, samø-hym-]m-c-hn-]an hni-kn- n- XpS-ßnb skmeq-j-\p-iƒ Iº\n \evip- p. amƒ amt\- Pvsa v Iº\nsb v CXns\ hnfn- mw. dos -bn Iº-\n-bmb ]m -eq dos -bn C ybn \n v 2010 G{]n H n\v hn`-pn v cq]w simsp-ø-xmwv As{K suh-e-t -gvkv Unkw-_-dn CXv tãmiv FIvkvtN- p-i-fn enãv snbvxp. cmpy-søm- msi C t{^m tempn-ãnivkv ]m p-iƒ krjvsn- p-hm Iº\n Dt±-in- p- p. C y-bn Zo L-Im-e-Øn ani hf {]Xo- n- p taj-e-bmwv dos bn taj-e.-i-spø a -chpw Db-cp- p- v. CØ-c-Øn-ep-ff dos -bn Iº-\n- Isf e y-am n AXym-[p-\nI samø-hym-]mc h]nwn cmp-øns hnhn[ `mkß-fn hni-kn- n-s -Sp- p-hm Iº\n Dt±-in- p- p. cmpy-øns hnhn[ `mkß-fn hnhn[ dnb Ftà v t^m am- p-i-fn \n amwv \SØn hcn-i-bmwv Iº-\n-bn-t mƒ. enãv snbvx-xn-\p-ff BZy Izm ^ew FØm-\n-cn- p- -tx-bp-f-fp. ]m - eq Iº-\n-bn \n- p hn`n-pn Cu Iº-\n-bpsS Hmlcn aqe-[\w timsn cq]-bm-wn-t mƒ. apj-hne 10 cq]-bm-wv. ]m -eq Hmlcn DS-a-Iƒ v 20 Hml-cn- Iƒ v As{K-bpsS Hcp Hmlcn hoxw \evin-bn- p v. Ct m-gsø hn]wn aqeyw timsn cq]-bm-wv. Unkw-_-d-e-h-km-\n Izm -dn Iº\n 7 timsn cp] hn p-h-chpw 1 e7#w cq] \jvshpw ImWn- n- p-wvbv. Iº-\n-bpsS Hmlcn aqe-[\w h [n- n- p-hm\pw kv{sm n-pniv Gs -Sp- -ep-iƒ \S-Øp-hm\pw Iº\n Xocp-am-\n- n- p- v. Iº\n Ct mƒ 6 amfp-iƒ amt\pv snøp- p- v [\-Im-cy-h j-øn CXv 24 amfp-i-fmbn Db-cpw. ASpØ 2 2 h j-øn-\p- n ani _nkn-\-kmwv Iº\n {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Iº-\n-bptSXv \njv hn]wnbmsw v ]d-bmw. enãv snbvx as mcp Iº-\nbpw Cu cwk-øn-. dos -bn taj-e-bn ]cn-n-b-ap-ff ^yq {Kq mwv CXns amt\-pvsa ns ]n n-ep-f-f-xv. dos -bn cwkøv ani {Kq mbn amdn-bn-cn- p ^yq {Kq nse ]m -eq dos bn an-i dnt BWv \nt -]-I v t\sn-s m-sp-øn- pf-f-xv. {]tam- am v 44 ix-am\w Hml-cn-Iƒ CXnep v. \nt -]-I-ÿm-]-\-߃ 37 ix-am\w ssihiw h n-cn- p- p. ASpØ 4 5 h j-tøbv v ssihiw hbv p-hm km[n- p- -h ani dnt {]Xo- n- mw. dos -bn taj-e-bn t\cn- p-ff hn-tz-i- \n-t ]w A\p-h-Zn- p-hm C\n ka-b-sa{xbpw th F ÿnxn-bn-em-wv. CXv kw`-hn- m h hf -bmwv dos -bn taj-e-bn {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Ct mƒ Xs A`y c dos -bn hn]wn i -amb hf -bmwv t\sp- -Xv. Ct m-gsø hne-bn \n v Imcy-amb CSnhv {]Xo- n- p- n-.xmgv m \n - b-ambpw Cu Hml-cn-bn {]th-in- mw.

8 8 sbkv _m v Ct m-gsø hne: 317 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne/ Xmgv hne: 388 cq]/233 cq] apj hne: 10 cq] em`-hoxw: 15 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: cq], ]n C: (2011 am v) hn]wn aqeyw: timsn cq] ]pxp-x-e-ap-d-bn h hf t\sn-h-cp _m p-i-fn-sem- mwv sbkv _m v. {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ sa -s \memw Izm ^ew ]pd-øp-hn _m v hcpw Izm -dp-i-fnepw Cu t\ w \ne-\n-dp-øp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. ]en-i-\nc v C\n-bpw h [n- n-s - n. C -gn kmº-øni h j-øns \memw Izm -dn _m v timsn cq] A m-zmbw t\sn-bn- p- v. ap h j-antx Ime-b-fn-te-Xnt\- mƒ 44.8 ix-am\w Iq-Sp-X. aq mw Izm -dn-t\- mƒ 6.06 ix-am\w h [-\bpw A m-zm-b-øn-ep- m-bn se _m ns A m-zmbw timsn cq]- bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv 478 timsn cq]-bmbn-cp- p. s\ v C -dãv am Pn-\se h [-\-bmwv A m- Zmbw h [n- n- -Xv. hcpam\w timsn cq]-bn \n v timsn cq]-bmbn Db p. h [\ ix-am- \w timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[-\-øn C ]n Fkv cq]-bm-wv. ap h jsø C ]n Fkv cq]- bpw. _m ns Ign h jsø samøw _nkn-\kv 63.9 ix-am\w h [\ ImWn- p tebv v _m v 25 ix-am\w em`-hoxw {]Jym-]n- n- p- v. ap h jw \evin-bxv 15 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. ani hf -bmwv _m ns hmbv]-bn-ep- m-bn- p-f-f-xv. hmbv] C -gn h j-øn 54.8 ix-am\w hf t\sn. Unt m-kn v 71.4 ix-am\w hf bpw tcj-s -Sp-Øn se s\ v C -dãv am Pn 2.9 ix-am-\-am-bn- p- v. \memw Izm -dn-enxv 2.8 ix-am-\-am-wv. ]ne-i-\n-c v C\n Db-cp- n-s - n hcpw Izm dp-i-fnepw Cu t\ w \ne-\n Øm Ign-bp-sa v {]Xo- n- p- p. \S- p-h j- Øn hmbv]-bn ix-am\w hf -bmwv _m v {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. _m ns Ak v ani \ne-hmcw ]pe Øp- -XmWv. cmpyøv G hpw Ipd F ]n Fbpff _m p-i-fn-sem- mwv sbkv _m v. s\ v F ]n F hmbv]-bpss 0.03 ix-am-\-am-wv. _m ns snehpw hcp-am-\hpw XΩn-ep-ff A\p-]mXw ap h jsø 35.8 ix-am-\-øn \n v 34.8 ix-am-\-ambn Xmgv n- p v. _m ns aqe-[-\-]-cym]vxx tdtjym C- -gn am n 16.5 ix-am-\- am-wv. Ct mƒ _m n\v 214 imj-i-fmwp-f-f-xv. _lvdn-\n imj XpS-ßp-hm\pw bp F Cbn {]Xn-\n[n Hm^okv Xpd- p-hm\pw _m v Xocp-am-\n- n- p- v HmsS H c e w timsn cq]-bpss _nkn-\-kmwv _m v e y-an-sp- - Xv. imj-i-fpss FÆw 750 Bbpw F Sn Fw {iwje 3000 Bbpw Db Øpw. AXm-bXv h hf -bmwv _m v hcpw h j-ß-fn e- y-an-sp- -Xv. ]en-i-c-lnx hcp-am\w h [n- n- p- -Xn _m v {]txyiw {i \eviphm Xocp-am-\n- n- p- v. {Sm km-ivj _m nw-kv, ^n\m jy A-ssUzk-dn, {_m v _m nwkv ^okv XpS-ßn-bh Db Øp-hm-\mWv e y-an- n-cn- p- -Xv. samøw hcp-am-\-øns 33 ix-am-\-tømfw Ct mƒ ]en-i-bn-xc hcp-am-\-øn \n- m-wv. Hml-cn-hnebnt mƒ 317 cq]-bm-wv hne 250 cq]-bv -SpØv FØn-bn-cp- p h sø C ]n Fkn ]n C BWv. CXv 20 Xe-Øn-tebv v Db-cp- -Xnepw sx n cq]bpw cq]bpw C ]n Fkv {]Xo- n- p- p. ]en-i-\nc v C\nbpw Db-cp- n-s - n Cu e w t\sm _m n\v {]bm-k-ap- m-in-s - mwv Icp-Xp- -Xv. Ct mgsø hne-bn {]Xo- nx C ]n Fkn \S- p-h jw ]n C Dw ASp-Ø-h jw Dw BWv IW- m- p- -Xv. ]pxp-x-e-apd _m p-i-fpss ]n C CXn\v api-fnem-wv. AXm-bXv aqe-[-\-h-f bntebv v km[y-xbv v hnc Nq- p- p. Hcp h jsø IqSnb hne 388 cq]bpw Ipd hne 223 cq]-bp-am-wv. anuvim n \n v v em Pv Im ntebv v ÿm\- -b w {]Xo- n- p Hmlcn-bmWv sbkv _m v. Ct m-gsø hne-bnepw Zo L-Ime e y-tømss \nt ]w \S-Ømw. Xncp-Ø-en \n -b-ambpw {]th-in- m-hp Hml-cn-I- fn- -sem- m-wn-xv. sfb _n C {^m-kv{s-ivn Ct m-gsø hne: 195 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne/ Xmgv hne: 312 cq]/148cq] apj hne: 10 cq] em`-hoxw: 15 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: cq], ]n C: 8.2 (2010 am v) hn]wn aqeyw: 6418 timsn cq] {]h Ø\w XpS-ßnb sf B _n C {^m-kv{s-ivn-dns BZy- Ime t]cv sf Un F tdmuv _n tugvkv F m-bn-cp- p. ]n o-smwv ]pxnb t]cv kzoi-cn- -Xv. BZy c p ]Xn- m- p-imew sim v \nc-h[n tdmuv ] -Xn- Ifv ]q Øn-bm- nb Iº\n Xms\ `nh Un tdmuv _n H Sn ASn-ÿm-\-Øn \S- m- n. C v cmpysø G hpw henb _n H Sn tdmuv Hm -td- BWv sf B _n. Ct mƒ Iº-\n-bpsS ssihiw CØ-c-Øn-ep-fe 19 ] - Xn-I-fp- v. apwss_- -]qs\ FIvkv{]kv th, _dp- v kqd- v, kqd v Zl-km F o sslth-iƒ CXn-epƒs -Sp- p. Iº-\n-bpsS tsmƒ hcp-am-\- Øn 80 ix-am-\hpw Cu aq p ] -Xn-I-fn \n- m-wv. Iº-\n-bpsS hcp-am-\-øn ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw \n amwv {]h Ø-\-ß-fn \n pw tijn- Xv _n H Sn ] -Xn-I-fn \n- p-am-wv. ASp-Ø-bnsS Iº-\n Z n-tw- y kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw ] Xn t\sn-bn- p- v. ASp-Ø-bnsS Iº-\n v KpP-dm-Øn 3600 timsn cq]-bpss tdmuv ] - Xn v Hm U e`n- n- p- v. aq p-h jw-sim v ]q Øn-bm-t - -Xm-WnXv. CtXmsS Iº-\n-bpsS Hm U _p v timsn cq] Ihn- p. \mj-w sslth AtYm-dn n Hm^v C y-bn \n v Aƒ{S sakv ] -Xn-bn Dƒs -Sp- Øn-bp-ff ] Xn e`n- p BZysØ Iº\n IqSn-bmWv sf B _n. Al- Ω-Zm-_m-Zv htum-zc taj-e-bn \n an- p Cu Cu Bdp hcn tdmuns cq]iev]-\-bpƒs -ss-bp-ff tpmen-iƒ Iº-\n v ]q Øn-bm-t - -Xp- v. 102 Intem-ao- -dmwv CXns Zqcw, Ct mƒ ssih-i-ap-ff Hm U-dp-I-fn \s mcp ] pw ASpØ amk-ß-fn ]q Øn-bm-t - -Xm-Wv. Iº\n sshhn[yh-xv -c-w-øns `mk-am-bn- mwv dnb Ftà v hni-k-\- Øn-tebv pw IS- n- p- v.iº\nbpss BZy dnb Ftà v ] Xn ]q\ Pn bn kwtbm-pnx Su jn v \S- m n hcn-i-bm-wv. CXn-\p-ff ÿew Iº\n hmßn- -gn- n- p- v. Xma-kw,hmWnPyw F n-h-bv p-ff si n-s-k-ap- -b-ßfpw a v ASn#v-ÿm-\-ku-I-cy-ßfpw e`y-am- p-hm-\mwv Dt±-in- p- -Xv. Ct mƒ 1150 G ÿe-amwv Su jn n-\mbn e`y-am- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. CXn-\p-ff Bh-iyamb ssek kp-ifpw A\p-a-Xn-Ifpw Iº-\n v e`n- n- p- v. ti{µ-k m tdmuv hni-k-\-øn\v \evip Du Iº-\n v ani _nkn-\kv sim p-h-cp-sa- mwv {]ox- n- p- -Xv Ime-b-f-hn C y tdmuv skivs-dns 6.5 ix-am\w Iº-\n-bpsS ssih-i-ap- m-ip-sa p IW- m- p- p. (GI-tZiw 2600 timsn tumf ) am n-e-h-km-\n h j-øn Iº-\nbpsS I tkm-fn-tu- Uv hcp-am\w timsn cq]bpw A m-zmbw timsn cq]-bp-am-wv timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[-\-øn C ]n Fkv cq]-bm-wv h j-øn BZy 9 amk- m-eøv Iº\n timsn cq] hcp-am-\hpw timsn cq] A m-z-bhpw cq] C ]n Fkpw t\sn-bn- p- v Iº\n 460 timsn cq] A m-zmbw t\sp-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. AXm-bXv cq] C ]nf-kv. Cu {]Xo- nx C ]n Fkn ]n C 14 \v Bbn-cn- pw timsn cq]-bmwv {]Xo- n- p A m- Zmbw AXm-bXv ]n C ani {]h Ø-\-em-`-am Pn (44 ix-am-\w) t\sp Iº-\n-sb Ct m-gsø hne-bmb 195 cq]-bn BI j-i-am- p- p. C h [n p hcp hml-\-ß-fpss FÆw Iº-\n-bpsS hcp-am\w `mhn-bn h [n- n- p-hm CS-bm- pw. am{x-hp-a Kh-s v tdmuv hni-k-\-øn\pw henb ap K-W\ \evip kml-n-cy-øn Iº-\n v `mhn-bn sa -s Hm U-dp- Iƒ pw km[y-x-bp- v. ASpØ aq p-h j-tø-bv p-ff Hm U ssih-i-ap-ff-xn-\m ÿnc-x-bm hf \ne-\n Øn-s m- p-t]m-ip-hm Ign-bpw. Iº- \n-bn-t mƒ Bdp ] -Xn-I-fn-embn 2322 Intem-ao- tdmuv hni-kn- n p hcn-ibmwv. CXn cs Æw ]q Øn-bm n hcp-am\w e`n p XpS-ßpw. tdmuv taj-e-bnse I-\n-bpsS A[o-iXzw IW- n-se-sp-øm Ct m-gsø hne-bn \n v ani aqe-[\ hf {]Xo- n- mw. c p h j- mew IW- m n \nt ]w \S-Ømw.

9 9 CSnF^v kz W s]cn-kvtim v \nt -]Øn\-v e-fnx hgn hne h [n- mepw Ipd- mepw C y- m kz WsØ kvt\ln- p- p. ]pxn-b-ip n P\n- p-tºmgpw As - n hnhmlw \S- p-tºmgpw simsp- m-hp G hpw \ kωm-\- ambn mwv C y- m kz WsØ ImWp- -Xv. CXv C p C -sebpw XpS-ßn-b-X-. \q m- p-i-fmbn CXmWv C y ]Xn-hv. Xe-apd Xeap-d-bmbn C y- m kz Ww ssiamdn hcp- p. AXv ani-s mcp \nt -]-am-sw v A\p-`-h-Øn-eqsS a\-kn-em- p-ibpw snbvxn- p- v. Cu kz W-{`aw C ysb temi-ønse G hpw henb kz W D]-tbm- - fm n Xo p-ibpw snbvxn- p- v. kz W-Øns dnt ]cn-tim-[n- p-tºmƒ Cu kz W {`aw BI j- I-amb t\ w C y P\-Xbv v D m- n-s m-sp-øn- p-s - p-f-fxv \nkvx -am-wv. Ipg w ]nsn Ahk-c-ß-fn kz Ww hfsc D]-Im-c-{]- Z-amb \nt -]-am-sw v C y- m a\-kn-em- -bn- p- v. Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn t\m n-bm a v \nt -]-ß-tf- mƒ kz Ww ÿncx t\sn-s m-sp- p- -Xm-bn ImWm Ignbpw. Ct m-gsø Ipg w ]nsn BtKmf kmº-øn-im- -co- -Øn kz Ww ani \nt -]-am-sw kao-]-\-amwv temi-sø-ßp-ap-f-f-xv. an \nt -]I hnz-kv[cpw BkvXnbpsS Hcp `mkw kz W-Øn \nt - ]n- p-hm D]-tZiw \evip-ibpw snøp- p. Zo L-Im-e-Øn tami-a- msø dnt t\sn-ø-cp- p-sh- mwv A\p-`-hw. Ign ]Øp h j- m-e-øn G hpw IqSp-X dnt t\sn-ø BkvXn-I-fn-sem- mwv kz Ww. kz W-Øn \n- p-ff hm jni dnt ix-am-\-am-wv. Hml-cnbn \n- p-ff dnt ix-am-\- tømss c mw ÿm\øv \nev p- p. ]n ]n F^v 8 ix-am-\hpw F^v Un 9.99 ix-am-\hpw dnt \evinbn- p- v. CXn \n p Xs \mwys -cp- sø t\cn-sp-hm-\p-ff ani BkvXn-I-fn-sem- mwv kz W-sa v ImWp-hm km[n- pw. kz Ww C\nbpw Db-cp-sa- mwv \nt ] hnz-kv[-cp-tsbpw A\-en-Ãp- I-fp-tSbpw hne-bn-cp-ø. bqtdmbpss {]iv\-ß-fpw bp Fkns IpXn- p-b-cp [\-I-Ωnbpw ssn\- bpƒs -ss-bp-ff \h hni-knx cmpyß-fnse Ipan-f-I-sf- - n-bp-ff Bi- - bp-sams kz W-Øn-tebv v \nt -]-Isc BI jn- p-sa- mwv Ah-cpsS hne-bn-cp-ø. kz W-hne H kn\v 1500 tumf-dn\v api-fn FØn-b-cn- p-i-bmwv Ct mƒ dn m Uv BWn-Xv. \mwy-s -cp- -Øn\pw kmº-øn- p-g- -߃ p-sa-xn-tc-bp-ff sluvpnwkv F \ne-bn-emwv kz WsØ \nt -]-I ImWp- -Xv se kmº-øn-i- p-g- -Øn-\ptijw temi-saßpw \mwy-s -cp w ]Xnsb Db-cp-I-bm-Wn-t mƒ. ]Xn- \mdv cmpy-ß-f-s-ßnb bqtdm-tkm- Wnse \mwy-s -cp w 2.4 ix-am-\- Øn \n v 2.7 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Db n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. bp Fknepw \mwy-s -cp w Db-cp- -Xn-\p-ff km[y-x-bmwv ImWp- -Xv. bp Fkns ISw IpØs\ Db n-cn- p- I-bm-Wv. Ct m-gsø \ne-bn ]We-`yX \ne \n Øn apt m p t]miphm km[n- p-i-bn-. ssn\-bm-is \mwy-s -cp- -Øn-s\-Xntc ]e XhW ]eni \nc- p-iƒ Db Øn. C ybnse G hpw henb Bi \mwy-s -cp- -am-wv. CsX mw IW- n- se-sp- - p-tºmƒ \nt -]-I kpc- nx \nt -]-ambn kz WsØ ImWp-I-bm-Wv. kzm`m-hn-i-ambn CXv kz W-Øns Unam v Db Øpw. hne-bpw. kz W-Øn \nt ]w \S-Øp- - Xn\v \nc-h[n coxn-i-fp- v. G hpw ]c-º-cm-k-x-amb coxn-bmwv B`-c-W߃ hmßp-i-sb- -Xm-Wv. C v \nt -]-sa \ne-bn kz W \mwb-߃, _mdp-iƒ, _nkvi- p-iƒ XpSßnb coxn-bnepw kz Ww hmßmw. CXn\v ta nwkv Nm Pv \evti- - Xmbn hcpw. CXn\p ]I-c-ambn tkmƒuv FIvkvtN v t{suuv ^ v (tkmƒuv C Sn F^v ) hgn kz W-Øn \nt ]w \S-Ømw. CXns\ Ce-Ivt{Sm- WnIv cq]-øn-ep-ff kz W-\n-t ]w F pw hnfn- mw. FIvk-tN- n enãv snbvxn- p-f-f-xn-\m GXp kabhpw hnev p-hm\pw hmßp-hm\pw km[n- pw. GsX- nepw t{_m -dpss ASpØ A u v Xpd Xn\p-tijw C Sn F^v hmßmw. C Sn F^n kz Ww kpc- n-xambn kq n- p- -Xn\v tem FSpt - -Xn-s\- p-dn pw AXn\v Nm Pv \evti- -Xn-s\- p-dn- p-sams Nn n v BIp-e-s -ts- -Xn-. Hmlcn hmßp- -Xp-t]mse \nß-fpss t{_m dn-eqss kz Ww hmßmw. \nßfpss A u- n AXv tcj-s -SpØn hbv p- -Xn-\m a v sne-hp-i-fp-an-. C y-bn-seßpw Htc hnebv v hmßphm\pw hnev p-hm\pw km[n- p- p. t{_m hgn GXp ka-bøpw hnev phm\pw km[n- p- p. tkmƒuv C Sn F^n\v hnev]\ \nip-xntbm CS-]mSp \nip-xnsb hmt m kzøp \nip-xntbm H p-an-. Zo L-Ime aqe-[-\-h-f bv v si.-b.-_n-pn-tam \nipxn IW- m- p- Xv Hcp h j- Øn-\p-ti-j-am-Wv. tkmƒuv C Sn F^n\v 10 ix-am-\-amwv \nip-xn. C su-ivtk-j D]-tbm-Kn- p-i-bmsw- n 20 ix-am-\-hpw. km[m-cw Hcp C Sn F^v tkmƒuv bqwn v Hcp {Kmw kz W- Øn\v Xpey-am-Wv. A`y- c hn]-wnsb BWv tkmƒuv C Sn F^p-Iƒ A\p- [m-h\w snøp- -Xv. AXn-\m dnt ^nkn- tkmƒuv hn]-wnbnse hne-bp-ambn _ -s - n-cn- p- p. ip -amb kz W-\nt -]sø ASn-ÿm-\-am- n-bmwv C Sn F^n\v cq]w \evin-bn- p-f-f-xv. sndnb bqwn- m-b-xn-\m sndp- InS \nt -]-I pw \t ]w \S- Ømw. Hcp {Kmw kz W-Øns hne \evin Hcp tkmƒuv C Sn F^v bqwn v hmßp-hm km[n- pw. ssl s\ v h Øv \nt -]-Isc C Sn F^v tkmƒuv ^nkn- tkmƒuv B n am p-hm Ak v amt\-pvsa v Iº\n A\p-h-Zn- m-dp- v. CØ-c-Øn kz W-am n am p-hm Ipd- Xv Hcp Intem-{Km-an\v Xpey-amb C Sn F^v D m-bn-cn- -Ww. CXn Ipd \nt -]-ap-f-f-h v ^nkn- kz Ww hmßp-hm C Sn F^v hn v hn]-wn-bn \n v hmßp-hm km[n- mw. C v ]Øv Ak v amt\-pvsa v Iº-\n-Iƒ tkmƒuv C Sn F^p-Iƒ \nt -]-I p apºn e`y-am- n-bn- p- v s^{_p-h-cn-bn-em-cw-`n v _ vam v tkmƒuv C Sn F^v BWv C y-bn BZy-ambn Bcw-`n- -Xv. CXv tem v snbvxxp apx CXp-hsc ix-am\w hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v. XpS p h tkmƒuv ^ p-ifpw tami-a- mø dnt BWv \evin-bn- p-f-f-xv. C Sn F^p-IfpsS ssihiw 3765 timsn cq]-bpss kz W-ti-J-c-am-Wp-f-f-Xv. tkmƒuv C Sn F^v ^ p-iƒ C Sn F^v Bcw`w dnt (%) 1 h jw Bcw`w apx dne-b kv tkmƒuv 2007 \hw-_ Fkv _n sf tkmƒuv bp Sn sf tkmƒuv 2009 G{]n 2007 am v sden-k tkmƒuv timsviv tkmƒuv 2010 s^{_p 2007 Pqsse tkmƒuv _ vam v Izm w tkmƒuv 2007 s^{_p 2008 s^{_p F v Un F^v kn tkmƒuv 2010 Pqsse sf kn sf kn sf {]qu 2010 Pqsse BIvknkv tkmƒuv 2010 \hw_ 07.61

10 10 I\dm tdms_tim SmIvkv tkh F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn 22.82cq] A BkvXn timsn cq] ( ) CIzn n en vuv SmIvkv tkhnwkv ] -Xn-I-fn c p ZiIw ]q Øn-bm- p-hm c p h jw am{xw _m n \nev p I\dm tdms_tim CIzn n SmIvkv tkh ] -Xn tem v snbvx-xp-ap-x ix-am\w hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v am n Im s] v F t]cn {]h Ø\w XpS-ßnb ^ ns XpS h j-ß-fnse {]I-S\w A{X sa -am-bn-cp- n emwv Hm F UUv ] Xn-bmbn amdp-ibpw ]pxnb ^ v amt\-p FØp-Ibpw snbvx-txm-ss-bmwv ^ ns ani Imew Bcw-`n- -Xv. A p-h j- m-eøv ^ v ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn 9.28 ixam-\w, \n^v n hcp-am\w ix-am-\w) aq p-h j- m-eøv ix-am- \hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn 8.6 ix-am-\w, \n^v n hcp-am\w 7.36 ix-am-\w) Hcph j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn 8.36 ix-am-\w, \n^v n hcp-am\w ix-am-\w) dnt \evin. Fkv sf ]n \nt ]w ani t\ -amwv t\sn-s m-sp-ø-xv. Hcp h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw aq p h j- m-eøv 35.7 ix-am-\hpw 5 h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw dnt \evin-bn- p- v se XI -bn ^ n\v ix-am\w CS-hmWv kw`-hn- -Xv. a v F m ^ p-i-tf- mfpw Ipd CSn-hmWv Cu ] -Xn- p- m-b-xv ix-am-\hpw ix-am-\hpw dnt t\sn. Ch-sb mw _ v am v kqnn-i-bmbn _n Fkv C 100 -t\- mƒ ani- -Xm-Wv. G{]n apx ]pxnb ^ v amt\-p Nm sp-sp-øn-cn- p-i-b-bm-wv. kuta{µ \myv emln-cn. emln-cn v CIzn n dntk n 9 h jsø ]cn-n-bap- v. ]pxnb ^ v amt\-p IcpØp sxfn-bn-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. F nepw Xvev me-tøbv v Ct m-gsø \nt ] {Sm n-eqss t]mip-hm-\mwv km[y- X. ^ ns em Pv Im]v Hdn-b-t -j XpS-cp-hm-\mWv km[y-x. ^ ns hep- -an-t mƒ timsn cq]-bm-wv. CXn ix-am-\hpw Hml-cn-bnemWv \nt -]n- n- p-f-f-xv.- su- n 0.73 ix-am-\hpw Imjn 9.02 ix-am- \hpw \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p. Hml-cn-ti-J-c-Øn ix-am-\hpw em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-I-fm-Wv. anuvim- n ix-am-\hpw kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn ix-am-\hpw \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p. ^ ns Hml-cn-ti-J-c-Øn 54 Hml-cn-I-fm-Wn-t m-gp-f-f-xv. hfsc sshhn- [y-h-xv -cn Hmlcn tij-c-amwv ^ n-t -Xv. Fb ss (6.76 ix-am-\w), F v Un F^v kn _m v (6.31 ix-am-\w), C t^m-knkv (3.91 ix-am-\w), Sm ]h (3.02iX-am-\w), dne-b kv C U-kv{Sokv (3.00 ix-am-\w), ]h {KnUv (2.66 ix-am-\w), F Sn ]n kn (2.64 ix-am-\w), sf Sn kn (2.56 ixam-\w), Sn kn Fkv (2.54 ix-am-\w), F kn kn (2.38 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-hbmWv apjyhmlcn-iƒ. ^ ns apjy \nt -]-ta-j-e-iƒ ]cn-tim-[n- mw. F\ Pn (18.65 ixam-\w), [\-Im-cy-tk-h\w (13.86 ix-am-\w), I kv{s-ivj (8.76 ix-am-\w), k ho-kkv (7.64 ix-am-\w), sl ØvsI-b (6.82 ix-am-\w), Iayq-Wn-t j (6.76iX-am-\w), F^v Fw kn Pn (6.41 ix-am-\w), F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv (4.87 ix-am-\w), sl ØvsI-ssUthg-gvkn-ss^Uv (3.09 ix-am-\w) XpSßn-b-h-bmWv apjy \nt -]-ta-j-e-iƒ. hfsc sshhn-[y-h-xvi-cn Hml-cn-ti-J-cw, \s mcp ] v em Pv Im]v Hmlcn-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh aqew dnkiv KWy-ambn sshhn-[y-h-xvi-cn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Npcp- -Øn hfsc Ipd dnkvip-ff Cu ] -Xn-bn \n v ani dnt {]Xo- n- m-hp- -Xm-Wv. Zo L-Im-e-Øn ani {]I-S-\-amWv ^ n-t -Xv. SmIvkv tkhnwkv ] -Xn-sb \ne-bn \nt -]-Øn\v aq p-h jsø tem v C ]ocn-buv D v. hfsc Zo L-Im-e-Øn Ch ani {]I-S\w ImgvN hbv p-hm-\p-ff km[y-x-tb-sd-bm-wv. AXn-\m tem v C ]ocn-buv Ign- p-sh- -Xp-sIm v am{xw ] Xn Ah-km-\n- n- -W-sa- n-. Zo L-Im-e- Øn \nt -]w ]cn-k-wn- m-hp- -Xm-Wv. {]txy-in p Fkv sf ]n ASnÿm-\-Øn. ^nu-en n CIzn n t{kmøv F F hn 36.8 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] A BkvXn timsn cq] ( ) hfsc A -S- -tømss \nt ] kao-]\w kzoi-cn- n- p-ff ^nu-en n CIzn n t{kmøv ^ v AXn Dd p \nev p- -hsc tami-a- mø dnt hgn kt m-jn- n- n- p- v. ] Xn XpS-ßn-bXp apx ix-am\w hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v G{]n-en \S-Ønb ]Øp cq]-bpss \nt ]w 6 h jw-sim v 36.8 cq]-bmbn Db n- p- v. AXm-bXv 268 ix-am\w hf. A p-h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw ( Im -Kdn icm-icn ix-am- \w, \n^v n hcp-am\w ix-am-\w) aq p-h j- m-eøv ix-am\w ( Im -Kdn icm-icn 8.40 ix-am-\w, \n^v n hcp-am\w 7.36 ix-am-\w) Hcp h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw ( Im -Kdn icm-icn 8.89 ix-am-\w, \n^v n hcp-am\w 11.06iX-am-\w) hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v. ^ ns Fkv sf ]n \nt ]w hgn-bp-ff \nt -]-Øn\v e`n dnt Btcbpw simxn- n- p- -Xm-Wv. A p-h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw aq p-h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw Hcp-h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v. ^ ns _ v am v _n Fkv C 200 kqnn-i-bm-wv. _ vam n-t\- mƒ sa -s {]I-S-\-amWv F m- m-eøpw ^ v ImgvN h n- p-f-f-xv. su nepw a p-f-f-h-bnepw ^ ns 20 ix-am\w hsc \nt -]n- m-sa- nepw ix-am-\hpw Hml-cn-bn \nt -]n- p-i-bmwv ]Xn-hv. Ct mƒ ^ ns BkvXn-bmb timsn cq]-bn ix-am-\hpw Hmlcn-bn \nt -]n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Imjv Bbn 7.06 ix-am\w kq n- n- p- v. Hmlcn \nt -]-Øns Hdn-tb-t -j em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn-tebv m-wv. Ct mƒ CIzn n \nt -]-Øn ix-am-\hpw em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn-em-Wv. anuvim]v Hml-cn-I-fn ix-am-\hpw kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn 5.65 ix-am-\hpw \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p. ^ ns \nt -]-Øn ix-am\w [\-Im-cy-tk-h-\-ta-J-e-bn-em- Wv. F\ Pn (15.97 ix-am-\w), ssivt\m-fpn (11.55 ix-am-\w), sl ØvsIb ( 7.21 ix-am-\w), k ho-kkv (6.47 ix-am-\w), F^v Fw kn Pn ( 5.99 ix-am-\w), ssuth-gvkn-ss^uv (4.44 ix-am-\w), F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv (4.37 ix-am-\w), sa (3.33 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv ap-jy-\n-t -]-ta-j-e- Iƒ. hfsc sshhn-[y-am hyh-km-b-ta-j-e-i-fn \n- p-ff sshhn-[y-am Hml-cn-I-fpsS tij-c-amwv \nt -]-Øn-ep-f-f-Xv. Ct mƒ 65 Hml-cn-I-fmWv \nt -]Øn-ep-f-f-Xv. hn]-wn-bnse \o -Øn-\-\p-k-cn v \oßp- -Xn\p ]Icw ^ ns \nt ]kao-]-\-øn Dd p \nev p- -Xn-\m ]e-t mgpw Xncn- Sn In n-bn- p-s - nepw Dd p \nev]v Zo L-Im-e-Øn ^ew snøp- p- v. dne-b kv C U-kv{Sokv (7.34 ix-am-\w), C t^m-knkv (5.07 ixam-\w), sf Sn kn (4.64 ix-am-\w), F v Un F^v kn _m v (4.17 ix-am- \w), Sn kn Fkv (3.88iX-am-\w), sf kn sf kn sf _m v (3.46 ixam-\w), F v Un F^v kn (2.77 ix-am-\w), Fkv _n sf (2.65 ix-am- \w), kn]vf (2.35 ix-am-\w), _m v Hm^v _tdm-u( 2.29iX-am-\w) F nh-bmwv \nt ]ti-j-c-ønse apjyhml-cn-iƒ se XI -bn F F hnbn ix-am\w CSnhv D m-bn-. XpS p-ff _pƒ apt - -Øn ix-am\w dnt t\smt\ km[n- p-f-fp. a v Nne ka-im-eni ^ p-i-fp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s -Sp-Øp-tºmƒ A{X ani- -X Cu {]I-S-\-sa- nepw Zo L-Im-e-Øn Im -Kdn icm-i-cntb- mƒ sa -s - dnt ^ v e`y-am- p- p- v. dnkiv Ipd-, sshhn- [y-am \nt -]-Øn-eqsS Xc-t -Sn- mø dnt B{K-ln- p- -h v ^ v \nt -]-Øn\v ]cnk-wn- m-hp- -Xm-Wv apx kµo]v timtm-cn-bmwv ^ v amt\-p. Nm t Uv A u- p-iq-sn-bmb timtmcn 9 h jsø ]cn-n-b-hp-am-bm-wv ^nu-en n CIzn- n-bpss ^ v amt\-p-cm-ip- -Xv HIvtSm-_ apx Fw _n F mc- \mb A\n-cp v tkm]m-e-ir-jvw\pw timtmcn-s m w ^ v amt\-p-cmbn tn n- p- v. tkm]m-e-ir-jvw\v ^ v amt\-pvsa n 7 h jsø ]cn-nb-ap- v. XpS -bmbn ÿnc-x-bm dnt e`y-am- p-i-sb- -XmWv Xs ImgvN- m-ss v timtmcn ]d-bp- p. Ign-bp- Xpw G hpw Xmgv hne-bn \nt ]w \SØn ImØn-cn- p kao-]-\-amwv Xt -sx pw At±lw ]dbp- p. ani amt\-pvsa v, _nkn-\-kns hep- w, _nkn-\kv ] Xn \S- m- p- -Xn-\p-ff Ignhv XpS-ßn-b-hbpw IqSn IW- n-se-spøv icn-bmb aqey-øn Hmlcn hmßp-i-sb- -XmWv timtmcn snøp- Xv. dnkviv Ipd p\n Øn sa -s dnt CIzn n \nt -]-Øn-eqsS t\sns m-sp- pisb- -XmWv ^ v e`y-an-sp- -Xv. em Pv Im]v Hdn-b-t -j-\neq-ssbpw 65 Hml-cn-I-fpsS sshhn-[y-am tij-c-øn-eq-ssbpw dnkiv KWy-ambn Ipd-bv p-hm ^ n\v km[n- n-cn- p- p. AXn-i-bn n p dnt \evi-bn-s - nepw Xmgv dnkvin ani dnt {]Xo- n- mhp ] -Xn-bm-Wn-Xv.

11 11 Pq H n-\mbn ImØn-cn mw I j-i nxm \s mcp hm Ø. hyh-kmb߃ nxm \s mcp hm Ø. U ln nxm \s mcp hm Ø. dnk hv _m n-\nxm \s mcp hm Ø. C y ao n-dn-tbm-f-pn- Un m sa v ( sf Fw Un) G{]n 19- \v ]pd- Øp-hn a kq {]h-n\w cmpy-øn\v \evinb Bizmkw Ipd-s m- p-a-. PqWn-em-cw-`n- p Ime-h jw Cu kok-wnepw (2011- Pq sk]v w-_ ) km[m-cw t]mse e`n- p-sa- mwv sf Fw UnbpsS {]h-n-\w. Zo L-Im-e-icm-i-cn-bpsS 98 ix-am\w ag In p-sa- mwv sf Fw UnbpsS hne-bn-cp-ø. AºXp h j- m-eøv C y-bn a kq ImeØv e`n- p icm-icn ag 89.3 sk n-ao- -dm-wv. km[m-cw t]mse a kq F p ]d- m Cu Zo L-Ime icm-i-cn-bpsw ixam\w ag In p-i-sb- m-wv. F nepw cmpy-øns Nne `B- K-ß-fn {]txy-in pw ] na taj-ebn ag Ipd-t - m-sa pw Imemhÿ imkv{x-rvp ap -dn-bn v \evip- p. F m cmpyw samø-ambn FSp- p-tºmƒ ag km[m-cw t]mse-bm-bncn- p-sa v F Øv kb kv a{ n ]mh Ipam _ km Adn-bn- p. a kq km[m-c-w-bpss 90 ix-am-\- Øn ( hcƒ ) Xmsg-t m-ip-hm-\p-ff km[yx Xoc- p-d-hm-sw pw sf Fw Un Iq n-t p- p. Pq amk-øn hnhn[ taj-e- Iƒ Xncn v hni-z-amb {]h-n\w \evip- -Xn-s\m w {]Xn-amk hne-bn-cp-øepw \evip-sa v sf Fw Un Ub-d-IvS APnXv XymKn Adn-bn- n- p- v. PqWnse {]h-n-\-hp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s -Sp-Øptºmƒ Ct m-gsø {]h-n\øn\v dneb-_n-fn n Ipd-hm-Wv. Ct m-gsø {]h-n-\sø At]- n v A v ix-am- \-tømfw hyxymkw PqWnse {]h-n- \-Øn kw`-hn- m-dp- v. XpS -bmb c m-asø h j-amwv km[m-c-t]mse ag In p-sa {]h-n\w FØn-bn- p-f-f- Xv. km[m-c-t]me a kq e`n- p-sa v ]q\-bn tn Z kuøv Gjy Ivssfa v Hu -ep v t^mdw (km-kvtim-^v) kqn\ \evinbn-cp- p. hs p ]-Sn- m-d taj-ebn t\cnb txmxn-ep-ff Ipdhv ag-bn D m-im-sa pw kmkvtim^v ap -dn-bn v \evin-bn- p- v. ]kn-^n- nse `qa-[y-tcjm {]tzi-sø kap-t{zm-]-cn-x-e-ønse Dujvamhv IqSp {]Xn-`m-k-amWv F \ot\m. NqSv IqSp-tºmƒ kap-{zm- -co- -Ønse a ±hpw Im ns KXnbpw amdpw. CXv C y-bn-tebv v ag-ta-lßsf sim p-h-cp Im ns KXn am pw. ag Ipd-bpw. F \ot\m Zp _- e-ambn em\ot\m ( F \o-t\m-bpss hn]-cox K-Xn) Bcw-`n- p-tºmƒ C ybn IqSp-X ag In pw. C y-bpss Ime-h jsø kzm[o-\n- p {]Xn-`mkßfmWv F \ot\m, em\o\ F nh. F \ot\m {]Xn-`mkw Zp _-eambn hcp- -Xns ] m-ø-e-øn-emwv km[m-cw t]mse a kq In p-sa v sf Fw Un hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. Ign h jw PqWn Bcw-`n F \ot\m Zp _-e-ambn hcn-i-bm-wn-t mƒ. CXns\ ASn-ÿm-\-s -Sp-Øn-bmWv 98 ix-am\w ag e`n- p-sa v sf Fw Un Ub-d-IvS P\-d tum APnXv XymKn Adn-bn- Xv. \ a kq ani Im jn-tim- Xv]m-Z\w sim p-h-cpw (] ni ImWp- I). ` y-\m-wy-s -cp- -Øn-s\- Xntcbpff t]mcm- -Øn Gjy-bnse G hpw henb aq m-asø kº-zvl-s- \bv v CXv Xo -bmbpw klm-b-i-am- Ipw. ` y-h-kvxp- -fpss hne h [-\- bpss Xn -^ew c p h -j-ambn C y A\p-`-hn p hcn-i-bm-wv se hcƒ -sb-øp-s v Ign h jw e`n ani a kq `t ym-xv]m-z\w Zi-e w SÆnse-Øn- p. ap h j-antx Ime-b-fhnse DXv]m-Z\w Zi-e w SÆmbn-cp- p. a kq t\m a-em-bm `t ym-xv]m-z-\-øn 7 8 Zi-e w S IqSp-X DXv]m-Z\w km[y-am-ip-sa v Bkq-{X-W- -Ωo-j AwKw A`n-PnXv sk ]d-bp- p Acn-bp-Xv]m- Z\w 100 Zi-e w SÆn-tebv v Db-cpsa pw At±lw ]d-bp- p. \mep amksø a kq kok- Wn-emWv cm-py-øn\v Bh-iy-ap-ff shff-øns 75 ix-am-\-tømfw e`y-am-ip- -Xv. Irjn pw IpSn-sh- -Øn\pw ip o-i-c-w-øn-\p-sa mw sh w Bhiy-ap v. C y-bnse ag-bpss 70 ixam-\hpw Cu \mep-am-k- m-ebf-hn-emwv e`n- p- -Xv. sa -s dm_n hnf e`n- n pw se hcƒ Im jnitaj-e-bnse hf sb 0.4 ix-am-\-ambn XmgvØn-bn-cp p. ani a kq e`n kml-n-cy-øn ix-am\w Im jn-i-h-f -bmwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. CXv C -gn kmº-øn- I-h j-øn 8.6 ixam\w Pn Un ]n hf t\sp-hm klm-bn- pw. Xteh jw 8 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp p kmº-øn- I-h-f. C y Pn Un ]nbn Im jn-ita-j-e-bpss kw`-h\ 14.6 ix-am-\- Øn\p Xmsg-bm-sW- nepw cmpysø 60 ix-am-\-tømfw Bfp-IfpsS Pohn-tXm- ]m-[n-bmwv Cu taj-e. \q n-bn-cp- ]søm p timsn P\-߃ p ` Ww \evti- Xpw Im jn-i-a-j-e-x-s -bm- Wv. Cu P\-_m-lp-eyw-sIm- p-xs temi-øn G hpw IqSp-X Im jntim-xv]- -߃ DXv]m-Zn- n- p- Xpw D]- tbm-kn- p- Xpw C y- m Xs -bm-wv. AXn-\m km[m-c-w-t]mse a kq C y-bn Zmcn{Zyw Ipd-bv p- -Xn\pw {KmaoW taj-e-bn kº-øp- m-ip- - Xn\pw AXy- m-t]- n-x-am-wv. a kq ]cm-p-b-s - m C y temi-øns apºn ` y-h-kvxp- ƒ mbn ssi\o-t - -Xmbn hcpw AXmWv kw`-hn- -Xv. ag tami-amb-txmss Imcvjn-tIm-Xv]m-Z\w Ipd-bp- Ibpw ` y-h-kvxp- -fpss hne IpXn- p-b-cp-ibpw snbvxp. AXn \n v CXp-h-scbpw cmpyw ]q W-ambn ]pdøp h n- n ani a kq In p-ibpw Im jn-tim-xv]m- Z\w ani hf t\sn-bn pw Db ` y-\m-wy-s -cp w C\nbpw IpdbmsX \ne \nev p-i-bm-wv. Hcp ani a kq IqSn FØp- -txmss Imcy߃ sa -s -Sp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. \ ag C y-bpss Z n-w, a[y taj-e-i-fn Acn-bp-tSbpw tkmbm-_o- \n-t bpw DXv]m-Z\w sa -s -Sp-Øp-sa- mwv Im jni Kth-jW ÿm]-\- Øns hne-bn-cp-ø. agn NXn- m ] n-a-ta-j-e-bn Umap-I-fn sh w Ipdbpw. AXv sshzypxn DXv]m-Z-\- tøbpw Im jni Pe-tk-N-\-tØbpw _m[n- pw. C y-bpss Im jn-tim-xv]m- Z-\-Øns ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw \mep amksø a kq Ime-b-f-hnse Irjn-bn \n- mwv (Jm-cn-^v) e`n- p- -Xv. AtX-t]mse XpS p-ff dm_n hnf sa -s -S-W-sa- nepw \ a kq e`n- -Ww. a kq sa -s - -Xn-s\-Øp- S p- mb hf t\m p-i. cmpy-øp- Xv]m-Zn- n- s\ ns \s mcp ] v Cu Ime-b-f-hn-emW DXv]m-Zn- n- p- - Xv Pq hsc timsn S s\ mwv Cu h jw {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. _º hnf-bm-wn-xv. F nepw Acn Ib- p-axn \ntcm-[\w ]n h-en- n- p- v. Pqsse-bnse AXp- m-iq. Bh-iy- Øn\p ag In n-sb v Dd- phcpøn-b- Xn-\p-ti-jta CXn Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp- q. tkmbm-_o DXv]m-Z\w timsn SÆmbn. C ybpss ` y-sbæ Cd- p-axn Ipd-bv p- -Xn\v \ tkmbm_o hnfhv D mtb axn-bm-iq. temi-ønse G hpw henb c masø ] -kmc D]-tbm- m- -fmb C y 2011 sk]v w-_-dn Ah-km-\n- p kok-wn 2.45 timsn S DXv]m-Z\w {]Xo- n- p- p. D]-t`mKw 2.25 timsn SÆm-Wv. Ign h jw 50 e w S Cd- p-axn snbvx ÿm\øv Cu h jw A p e w S Ib n Abv p-hm km[n- p-sa {]Xo- n- p- p. tkmxºv, ]cpøn XpSßn-b-h-sb mw ani hnf-hmwv \evin-bn- p-f-fxv. ap -Øn-tbgp h j-øn-\p-f-fnse G hpw ISpØ hcƒ -bm-bn-cp p Xn-te-Xv. CXns ^e-ambn FÆ- pcp- fpw Icnºpw ]b-dp-h K-ß-fp-a-S w an -hmdpw F m Im jn-tim-xv]- -ßfp-tSbpw DXv]m-Z\w IpØs\CSn- p. CtX-Øp-S ` y-\m-wy-s -cp w Hcph-k-c-Øn 20 ix-am-\-tømfw Db-cp- I-bp- m-bn e w S ] km-c-bmwv C y Cd- p-axn snbvx-xv ani a kq e`n- psh- nepw ` y-\m-wy-s -cp w 9 ixam-\-øn\p Xmtgbv v FØn-bn-t -bp-ffp. AXp ho p Xmg-W-sa- n \S- ph jhpw an-i ag Int - n-bn-cn- p- p. \mwy-s -cp w XS-bp- -Xns `mk-ambn ]en-i-\n-c- p-iƒ Db Øp- -Xn\p dnk hv _m ns taepff kω ±- Øn\v Abhp hcpw. kmº-øni hf bv v A\p-tbm-Py-amb ]W\bw cq]-s -Sp-Øp-hm CXp klm-b-i-c-am- Ipw. a kq tami-am-bm C ybnse F m taj-e-tbbpw {]Xn-Iq-eambn _m[n- pw. \ a kq e`n- (tijw t]p-v 15)

12 12 The Genius in Enduring Success 1% Inspiration, 99% Perspiration and Perseverance Speech by Professor SHIH Choon Fong, NUS President, at University Awards 2003, 26 August 2003, University Cultural Centre Pro-Chancellors Mr Ridzwan Dzafir, Dr Andrew Chew Council Chairman Dr Cheong Choong Kong Council membersaward recipients Guests Colleagues and friends Welcome to University Awards University Awards is a salute to excellence celebrating the best in NUS education, research and service, recognising, honouring and encouraging our award winners every year. Today, I would like to speak on The Genius in Enduring Success: 1% Inspiration, 99% Perspiration and Perseverance. In preparing my speech, I reflected on my days at the General Electric Company, also known as GE, where I worked for seven years. Thomas Edison founded this company. The Genius in Enduring Success To many of us, Thomas Edison was a genius. His life and work embodied the genius in many enduring successes. Do you know that this genius developed hearing loss in childhood and became technically deaf in his early teens? That he attended school for only three months? That he was taught by his mother and later self-taught because the teachers felt he was not good enough for school? So, what kind of genius was Edison? Was he a Newton or an Einstein? He certainly wasn t. Nevertheless, Edison was a different kind of genius. Newton and Einstein belonged to the class of genius defined by extraordinary intellectual and creative power. Edison symbolises another class of genius defined by strong natural talent, distinctive spirit and character. Edison invented the phonograph, the light bulb, the motion picture camera and many other devices that shape our world today. In fact, he had more than a thousand patents to his name, apparently more than anyone else. Isn t it ironic that someone who was deaf invented the phonograph, the first machine that could record and reproduce sound? In bringing the phonograph to the mass market, Edison created the recording industry. Edison had the genius of both an inventor and an entrepreneur. He created value to serve community, society, and ultimately the world. GE is an enterprise founded upon Edison s many inventions. One and a half centuries after Edison invented the phonograph and the light bulb, GE continues to be one of the largest manufacturers of lighting devices in the world, as well as a major player in the recording industry. Today, GE is one of the largest and most successful conglomerates in the world. Perspiration Let me quote Edison s famous saying, Genius is 1% inspiration, and 99% perspiration. Perspiration is commonly associated with working hard. What drives people to work hard? Is it the carrot? The stick? Or both? How long can hard work be sustained by carrots and sticks? An easy answer is for as long as Professor Shih Choon Fong ( born 1945) is President of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and a renowned fracture mechanics expert. Before joining KAUST as Founding President in December 2008, he was president of the National University of Singapore (NUS) for 9 years and has been widely acknowledged for creating the University s research-intensive focus as well as for NUS elevated global reputation. Drawing from his experiences abroad, Shih institutionalized a performance- and market-based evaluation system for academics. Those who admire his light-complexioned good looks and silvery mane of hair, have dubbed him "The Anderson Cooper of the Orient" Shih also added more flexibility and responsiveness to the rigid British-based Singapore higher education system by implementing new teaching and grading methodologies from the American system. Shih s efforts have gained NUS growing international recognition and achievements, such as the Times Higher Education Supplement. they last. Yet, we notice that many people, including Edison, work painstakingly well beyond the kind of motivation that can be attributed to carrots or sticks. To varying extents, I believe we can all identify different times in our lives when we find ourselves working relentlessly and passionately. When we have passion for what we do, perspiration is not a chore, but a necessary as well as enjoyable step towards realising our goals. So, perspiration is more than working hard, it is working relentlessly and passionately. Many of us who aspire to realise the genius in ourselves are more than prepared to perspire. But we often wait for the moment of inspiration. My friends and colleagues, this waiting for inspiration may not work. Inspiration could also arise amidst perspiration. As we perspire, we are more ready to be inspired. It is comforting to know that genius is lots of perspiration and a dose of inspiration. That means we all have a chance at genius, if we are prepared to work hard and to sweat a lot. How do we get ready for that flash of inspiration, that sudden creative idea? Let s see if Edison s life can shed some light. Edison worked long hours. He seldom bothered to go home. He took short naps in his lab instead. Short naps amidst long hours of hard work often laid the ground for Edison s bright ideas. I remember visiting Edison s original lab in New Jersey and reading about how he got his illuminating ideas, sometimes in his dreams. Even in his sleep, his mind was testing new ideas and exploring novel ways of doing things. When you single-mindedly pursue an idea, the subconscious mind is also hard at work, making connections between the familiar and the unfamiliar, between the established and the unorthodox. This continual interplay between the established and the unorthodox is an essential ingredient for inspiration to arise. Clearly, inspiration does not arise in a vacuum. Perseverance There is more to genius beyond perspiration and inspiration. Despite difficulties and obstacles, Edison remained single-minded and steadfast in his pursuit of goals. Edison personified perseverance the capacity to stand up again and again after every fall and move forward. He once said, I have not failed 700 times. I have succeeded in proving that those 700 ways will not work. When I have eliminated the ways that will not work, I will find the way that will. Edison seemed to have a great time as he got closer to pinning down something that works. Not only did Edison stand up after every fall, he always managed to learn something along the way. Edison s work on the light bulb says much about his perseverance. By mid-winter of 1879, Edison had built his first incandescent electric light bulb. Still the lamp burned only for a few short hours. In order to improve this, Edison tested thousands and thousands of different materials for the filament. He

13 Edison understood the genius underlying the process of creating enduring success. For Edison, one enduring success was the creation of a global enterprise that thrives on knowledge and innovation. tested carbonised filaments of every plant imaginable, including bay wood, boxwood, hickory, cedar, flax and bamboo. Edison even contacted biologists who sent him plant fibres from the tropics. Edison recalled that he tested no fewer than 6000 vegetable fibres, and ransacked the world for the most suitable filament material. By the end of 1880, Edison had produced a 16-watt bulb with a special carbonised cotton filament that could last 1500 hours. In our journey to learn, discover and serve, it is important to persevere because inevitably we encounter failure. In this journey, failure is not fatal. Succumbing to failure is! Persevering through failure is essential to create enduring success. The real failure is when we give up trying. As writer and genius Samuel Johnson once said: Great works are performed, not by strength, but by perseverance. Part of the genius in enduring success lies in perseverance and perspiration. Modern-day Edison Koichi Tanaka, the young Japanese scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry last year, could be regarded as a modern-day Edison. While Nobel Prizes in the sciences are usually won by researchers with PhDs, working in prestigious universities, Tanaka took a different path. Tanaka graduated from Tohoku University in 1983 with a bachelor s degree in electrical engineering, and not chemistry. He then joined Shimadzu Corporation, which manufactures, among other testing equipment, mass spectrometers. As the most junior of engineers, Tanaka was volunteered by his senior colleagues for the unglamorous role of preparing samples for analysis. Perhaps, his colleagues wanted to stick to the more conventional engineering problems that they were familiar with. Rather than quitting from the unfamiliar, the determined Tanaka plunged headlong into the field of chemistry a world away from his engineering training until he was so well versed in chemistry that everyone in the team could be confident of his competency. And so it was befitting that one fine day, after he had perspired over mixing countless samples of large protein molecules with different chemicals, Tanaka was illuminated by a spark of inspiration. He fed one of his reject samples into the mass spectrometer. Aiming a laser pulse into the mixture, he observed a peculiar spike. This unexpected observation reinforced Tanaka s perseverance in mixing even more samples with his now-famous chemical matrix comprising the unlikely combination of glycerin and cobalt powder. For his discovery of this novel chemical matrix based on these highly dissimilar constituents, Tanaka the electrical engineer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His work paved the way for the mass spectrometry of much larger proteins leading to a revolution in protein research and drug synthesis. This unlikely Nobel Laureate was the first ever to win the Nobel Prize in the natural sciences without a doctorate or a master s degree, without formal training in research, and certainly without formal training in chemistry beyond high school! Perhaps, being an outsider to chemistry, he was more disposed to experimenting with unorthodox approaches, and to persevere. Tanaka s determined pursuit reminds me of what the eminent biologist Louis Pasteur said, In the field of observation, chance favours only the prepared mind. Paraphrasing Pasteur, in the pursuit of excellence, inspiration favours only the persevering mind in a perspiring body! Like Edison s light bulb, Tanaka s discovery led to the invention of MAL- DI technologies. MAL-DI stands for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionisation. Tanaka s invention gave Shimadzu a new generation of stateof-the-art mass spectrometers highly sought after worldwide. In 1989, 13 years before winning the Nobel Prize, Tanaka won his other note-worthy research-related award. This was the Encouragement Award from the Mass Spectroscopy Society of Japan. If only Encouragement Awards would turn into Nobel Prizes every 13 years... Today, we are giving several awards in research. Let s see going by this 13-year rule, could we have homegrown Nobel Laureates as early as 2016? Celebrating Perspiration, Perseverance and Inspiration University Awards celebrate, recognise and honour the pursuit of excellence. In our journey to excellence perspiration, perseverance and inspiration all play a part. Today, I am delighted to have presented several University Awards. The Outstanding Educator Award is presented to faculty members who have excelled in engaging and inspiring students in their discovery of knowledge. The Outstanding Researcher Award recognises researchers whose work have significantly impacted and expanded the boundary of knowledge, positioning NUS at the forefront of their particular areas of expertise. The Young Researcher Award acknowledges researchers whose work shows promise in extending the frontiers of knowledge in their respective temiv]m kanxnbpw im n-`q-j amcpw 13 fields. This is our version of the Encouragement Award that Tanaka received when he was a young researcher. The Outstanding Service Award honours sustained contributions of distinction by an individual in the service of the University and society. Through perspiration and perseverance, our award winners exemplify the best of education, research, and service. My warmest congratulations again to all of you. Even as NUS celebrates success, we must re-affirm our commitment to the pursuit of excellence built upon inspiration, perspiration and perseverance. When each member of our NUS community pursues excellence in his or her area of strength, we create the opportunity to realise our potential and to add value to NUS. Through the NUS community, our added value will be multiplied and, over time, extended to society. The sum of our efforts will propel our NUS community to broader and higher levels of excellence. As I mentioned in the beginning, Edison had the genius of both an inventor and an entrepreneur. Edison understood the genius underlying the process of creating enduring success. For Edison, one enduring success was the creation of a global enterprise that thrives on knowledge and innovation. I hope that Edison s example will inspire and challenge us to pursue and realise our personal enduring successes. By nurturing modern-day Edisons in our midst, we can help build NUS into a global knowledge enterprise and an enduring success with a good dose of inspiration, and lots of perspiration and perseverance. Thank you. (t]p-v 2 \n v) hvkm- nsb ASpØ sxc-s -Sp- n txm n- m C y P\X asn- n. XpS v ]e I n- Isf A[n-Im-c-Øn-te n ]co- n p. _n.sp.]n \bn ap -Wn v c p-x-hw Ah-kcw e`n p. ho pw tim {Kkv ap -Wn-bn-tebv v P\w amdn. C{]-Im-c-sa mw amdn-bxv ]W-i- n-sim- msw v thww AÆm lkmsc ]d-bp- Xv hnizkn- m Icp-Xm. CXn-\ w cmjv{so-b- m-sc mw hnip- tcm Agn-a-Xn-c-ln-Xtcm BsW-. Ah-cpsS Agna-Xnbpw XS-bWw. {]k- -amb Imcyw Cu cmpyøv CXns\ mw \nb-a-ß-fp-s - -XmWv. AXv D]-tbm- Kn- m Bƒ m D m-hp-i-bmwv th Xv. ]pxnb kwhn-[m\w hcp-tºmƒ Bi Dbcp- -Xn\v as mcp Imc-Whpw IqSn-bp v Ifn PUvPn-am-cpsS \nb-a-\-øn ImWp cmjv{sob ] -]mxw Gsd hna in- -s - n-cp p. kp{]ow-tim-s-xn-bnepw a pw `c- W-I- n v A\p-Iq-e-amb hn[n-sb-gp-xp- -hsc am{xw {]tam v snøp kml-n-cyhpw D mbn. CtXmsS PUvPn \nb-a\w cmjv{sob hnap- -am- -W-sa v Bh-iy-ap-b p. kp{]ow-tim-s-xn-bpss Xs Nne hn[n-i-fn-eqss PUvPn\nb-a-\-Ønse Kh sa ns ] v C m-xm n. PUvPn-am-cpsS simfo- Pnbw Fs m- p- m n. Ah-cmbn sslt m-sxn, kp{]ow-tim-sxn PUvPn-amcpsS \nb-a\ta[m-hn-iƒ. XpS n-tßm- p h j-ß-fnse PpUo-jy-dnbpsS A]-Nbw Fhn-sS-sb-Øn-sb- Xv CubnsS F m-hcpw Adn Imcy-ß-fmWv. Ct mƒ temiv]m _n IΩn- n-bn h n- p im n- `q-jwpw ai {]im v `qjwpw (Ccp-hcpw IΩn- n-bn-ep v) CtX kw_- n v Hcp tikv \S-Øp- p-ap v. F mwv kw`-hn- Xv? ]n osv BtcmSpw kam-[m\w ]d-tb- mø Bƒ m \nb-a-\m-[n-imcw ssih-i-s -SpØn. AXv hf-sc-thkw Zpjn hyh-ÿn-xn-bmbn. P\-ß-tfmSv kam-[m\w ]d-tb P\-{]-Xn-\n- [n v C{X-tbsd hj-fm-hm ] n. Abmsf ]m e-sa pw \nb-a-k-`bpw A v sim w IqSptºmƒ P\hpw hnnm-cw snøpw. B P\- IobhnNm-cW H pw ] -]m-x-an- m-ø-xm-sw v \Ωƒ ]e-h w I -XmWv. AXns\ adn-i-s- mwv ]pxnb kwhn-[m\w sim p-h-cp- Xv. Bi-b-X-e-Øn hfsc \ sx v txm p-sa- nepw PUvPn\nb-a-\-Im-cy-Ønte-Xp-t]mse Atß-b w A]-I-S-Im-cn-bmb \o am-wxv. AXn-\mWv AÆm lkm-sc-bpss kxy- {Klw hgn-xp-d- p- Xv.

14 14 a kq {]h-n\w XpW-bm-bn aq v ësfí Iƒ ( C ^vtf-j, C U-kv{Sn-b s{]mu-ivj, C t^m-kn-kv) Ign GXm\pw BgvN-I-fmbn C y Hmlcn hn]wnsb h msx De-bv p-i-bm-bncp- p, F m G{]n aq mw hmc- Øn FØnb \mem-asø sfbpss (C y ao n-dn-tbm-f-pn- Un m v sa v) se a kq {]h-n\w A -cm -Øn hn]-wn v XpW-bmbn. s\k- o-hn-tebv v \oßnsb XncsI sim p-h-cp-hm \S- p-h jw km[m-c-w-t]mse a kq {]Xo- n- p sf Fw UnbpsS {]N-h-\- Øn\v Ign- p. XpS -bmb c mw h jhpw a kq e`n- p- Xv Im jni taj-esb ]pjvsn-s -Sp-Øp kml-n-cy-øn hn]wn Du P-sa-Sp- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. Nne Izm ^eßfpw hn]-wnsb XpW- p. GXm-bmepw sk skivkv a q- - º-tXm-fhpw \n^v n \qtdm-fhpw t]mbn p-iƒ G{]n amk-øn t\sn. hfsc td v _u mbn \o - Øn h\y-amb hyxn-bm-\-߃s msphn-emwv Cu t\ -ap- m- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. BtKm-f-X-e-Ønepw A`y- -c-x-e- Øepw Ht sd {]iv\-߃ n-s-bn-emwv hn]-wnbpw kº-zvl-s-\-bpw. t\csø kqnn- n- -Xp-t]mse \mwy-s -c- -amwv apjy Bi- -fn-sem- v. am n \mwys -cp w 8.98 ix-am-\-am-bn.- s^{_p-hcn-bn-enxv 8.31 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. C \w, am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv DXv]- ߃ F n-h-bn-ep- mb hne h [-\- bmwv \mwy-s -cp- -ap-b Øn-b-Xv. P\ph-cn-bnse ]pxp- nb \mwy-s -cp w 9.35 ix-am-\amwv. dnk hv _m nt bpw Kh-s n-t bpw IW- p- -e- \p-k-cn v 8 ix-am\w \mwy-s -cp- amwv am n {]Xo- n- n-cp- -Xv. G{]n Hº-Xn\v Ah-km-\n hmc- Øn ` y-\m-wy-s -cp w 8.74 ixam-\amwv. G{]n apx \mwy-s cp w Xmgp-sa {]Xo- -bp-b n- p- v am v apx dnk hv _m v ]en-i-\n-c- p-iƒ ]e XhW h [n- n- n pw \mwy-s -cp w XmgmsX \nev p- Xv F p-sim- m-sw v tnmzyw Ah-ti-jn- p-i-bm-wv. \S- p-h jw 8 9 ix-am\w \mwy-s -cp w Hcp bmym y-ambn cmpy-øns apºn \nev p-i-bm-sw- -XmWv hkvxp-x. `t y-xc am\p-^m-ivtnuv DXv]- ß-fpsS hne h [\ am n 7.1 ixam-\-ambn Db n- p- v. s^{_p-h-cn-bnenxv 6.1 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. Unam Uv h [-\-bmwv Cu hne h [-\bv p Imc-W-ambn Nq n- m- p- -Xv. Unam v Ipd-bv p- -Xn-\p-ff {ia-߃ hymhkmb hf sb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n- pw. CXns ^ew Ign c p-amk-ambn hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z-\-øn {]Xn-^-en- p- p- v. Ct m-gsø kml-n-cy-øn C kº-zvl-\-sb-\-bpss hf C -gn kmº- ØnI h j-øn 8.6 ix-am-\-øn\p Xmtgbv v \oßp-sa v \s mcp ] v C -twm-aniv A\-en-kv p-iƒ A`n-{]mb-s -Sp- p. \mwy-s -cp w Db p \nev p kml-n-cy-øn tabv aq nse dnk hv _m ns ASpØ h j-tø-bv p-ff ]W-\-b-Øn Hcn- IqSne ]en-i- \n-c- p-iƒ h [n- n-t - p-sa- mwv hn]-wnbpw A\-en-Ãp-Ifpw {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Db p \nev p \mwys -cp amwv apjy Bi- -sb pw CXns\ ssiimcy snøp- -Xn-\p-ff \S-]-Sn-Iƒ tabv aq nse hm jni ]W-\-b-Øn-ep- m- Ip-sa pw dnk hv _m v Kh W Un kp -dmhp hy - am- n. ani Im jn-ih-f -bpss ] m- Ø-e-Øn Cu h jm-h-km-\- tømss \mwy-s cp w 6 ix-am-\-øntebv v Xmgp-sa- mwv {][m-\-a-{ nbpss C -twmaniv AssUz-kdn Iu kn A`n- {]m-b-s -Sp- -Xv. \mwy-s -cp w am n 8.9 ix-am- \-Øn-tebv v Db n-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. dnk hv _m v IW- m- n-bn-cp- Xv 8 ix-am-\-am-bncp- p F m 5 6 ix-am-\-amwv kl- \o-b- \ne-bmbn dnk hv _m v IWp - Xv. F m a kq sa -s -Spsa C y ao n-dn-tbm-f-pn- Un m vsa ns BZy-{]-h-N\w hn]- Wn v s]mxpth DW hv \evin-bn- p- v. Zo L-Im-e-i-cm-i-cn-bpsS 98 ixam\w ag In p-sa- mwv hne-bn-cp-ø. XpS -bmbn c m-asø h j-amwv km[m-c-w-t]mse a kq {]h-nn- p- -Xv a kq ]ng- -Xns\-Øp-S v Db ` y-hne Ct mgpw Ipd-bmsX \nev p-i-bm-wv. a kq km[m-c-w-t]mse e`n- m Im jni taje hf-cp-ibpw \mwy cp kω ±-Øn\v Abhv hcp-ibpw snøpw. {]txy-in pw ` y-\m-wy-s cp- -Øn-\v. bp Fkns [\-IΩn sh n- p-dbv p-hm {ian- p- n-s - n Ct mgsø {Sn nƒ F td nwkv sh n- p-dbv p-sa BtKmf td nwkv GP kn Ãm Um Uv B Uv ]ph-dns ap dn-bn v hn]-wn-bn CSn-hp- m- n-sb- nepw AXn \n v thkw Xncn p h amkhpw IqSn-bm-Wv. ASpØ c p h j- m-eøv IΩn sh n- p-d-bv p \nc-t±-i-ß-tfmsv bq Fkv tbmpn- m- Ø-Xn-s\-Øp-S v Fkv B Uv ]n Hu v ep v tã_n-fn \n v s\k- Hmlcn hn]wn tpmbn ^nen v ohm n-bxv ASpØ c p h j-tøbvs - nepw tumf-dn-s\-xntc Db-cv ph-cp-hm as mcp Id kn-bn- m-ø-xp- X-s -bmwv Fkv B Uv ]nbpss ap -dn-bn- ns\ Ah-K-Wn- p-hm hn]- Wnsb t{]cn- n- -Xv. bqtdm BIs bqtdm-]y cmpy-ß-fnse su v {]iv\- ß-fn Dg-ep-I-bm-Wv. ]{ mw ] -h- -c- meøv ( ) C y ix-am\w hf bmwv e y-an-sp- -Xv. ]Øp ix-am\w hf t\sp-i-sb- Xv ZpjvI-c-amsW pw Bkq-{X-W- -Ωo-j D]m-[y- samt Iv knwkv Ah-ep-hmenb A-dn-bn- p. BtKm-f-km-º-ZvL-S- \-bnse A\n- n- XXzw XpS-cp- Xpw IpXn- p-b-cp C -\-hn-ebpw Dbcp \mwy-s -cp- hp-amwv 10 ix-am\w hf bv v hnlm-xambn \nev p- sx pw AXn-\m ix-am\w hf -bn Dd p \nev p-hm-\mwv Bkq-{X-W- -Ωojs Xocp-am-\w. HºXp ix-am\w hf -bmwv bym -am-bn- p-f-f- Xv. kml-n-cy-߃ sa -s - m AXv 9.5 ix-am-\-øntebv v Db-cmw. Ncn-{X-Øn Hcn- am{x-amwv ( ) C y Pn Un ]n ]Øp ix-am-\w-øn\p api-fn hf t\sn-b-xv. B h jsø hf 10.2 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. \S p Zi-I-Øn C y 7 ixam\w icm-icn kmº-øn-i-h-f t\spsa v Ãm Um Uv Nm t Uv dnt m ]d-bp- p. C y hf m\n-c- n ka ±-ap- m- p- Xv Id v A u v IΩn-bnse Db -bm- Wv. Ct mƒ Pn Un ]nbpss aq p ixam-\-amwv CXv. \mwy-s -cp- -amwv as mcp Bi bmbn Ãm Um Uv Nm t Uv ImWp- -Xv. Ct m-gsø kml-n-cy-øn ix-am\w Pn Un ]n hf t\spi _p n-ap- m-sw v Bkq-{XW IΩo-j D]m-[y- samt -knwkv Aep-hm-enb A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. \mwys -cp w 6 ix-am\w hsc Xmßm-hp \ne-bn-em-sw-m-a-inepw AXn-\- p-dtøbv v kl-\o-b-a-. \S- p-h jw Im jni hf 3 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- psa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. F nepw ix-am-\-øn-\n-s-bnemipw \S- p-h jsø hf -sb pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. AtX-k-abw C y Pn Un ]n hf 8.25 ix-am\w hf t\sn-tb- p-sa- mwv C \m-j-w tamwn- dn ^ ns G -hp-sam-sp-hnesø hne-bn-cp-ø-en ]d-bp- -Xv ix-am\w hf bpw {]Xo- n- p- p. C y hf -bn G hpw IqSp-X kw`m-h\ \evip- Xv ASn-ÿm\ kui-cy-ta-j-e-bmsw pw sf Fw F^v thƒuv C twm-aniv Hu vep- n ]d-bp- p. C ybn \mwy-s -cp w 7.5 ix-am-\-am-bncn- p-sa- mwv sf Fw F^v hne-bncp-ø. tkh-\-ta-j-e-bpss i -amb hf -bpss ]n _-e-øn C y kº-zvl-s\ \S- p-h jw 8.8 ix-am\w hf t\sp-sa- mwv BtKmf A u- nwkv ÿm]-\-amb U B Uv {_muvjo v dnt m n ]dbp- -Xv. C -gn kmº-øn-i-h j- Ønse hf tkh-\-ta-je \S- ph jhpw XpS-cp-sa- mwv Un B Uv _n hn-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. C -gn h jw 10.5 ix-am\w hf t\sn-bn- p- v. Fjy suh-ev]-sa v _m v 8.2 ixam-\hpw BtKmf td nwkv GP kn Ãm Um Uv B Uv ]ph 8.3 ixam-\hpw hf -bmwv C y kº-zvl-s-\-bn {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Hcp h j-ambn dnk hv _m v ]eni-\n-c- p-iƒ h [n- n- p-i-bm-sw- nepw C y-bpss hf Dd- -XmsW v BtKmf td nwkv GP knbmb aquo-kv A\-en- nivkv ko\n-b C -twm-anãv am v tdm_n k hnebn-cp-øp- p s BZy ]Ip-Xnbnse XpS Im-e-b-f-hnepw hymh-kmbn-tim-xv]m-z\w Ipd p Xs \nev p-sa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. ASpØ Ht m ct m amkw IqSn hyhm-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\w Ipd p \nev p-sa- mwv {Inkn-ens No^v C -twm-anãv Un si tpmjn-bp-tsbpw A`n-{]m-bw ix-am\w hyh-kmb hf -bmwv tpmjn IW- m- p- -Xv. Db {IqtUm-bn hne C y kº-zvl-s-\-bpss hf sb 8.2 ixam-\-øn-tebv v XmgvØp-sa v Gjy hni-k\ _m v hne-bn-cp-øp- p. Gjy hf 7.8 ix-am-\-am-ipsa pw F Un _n IW- m- p- p. BtKm-f-{Iq-tUm-bn hne-bnse h [\ krjvsn- p A\n- n-x-xz-øn- \n-s-bnepw [\-Imcy A -S- -Øn\v k m ap Xq w \evip-sa v [\- Imcy sk{i- dn kpja \myv hy - am- n. [\IΩn e y-an- n-cn- p- -Xpt]mse Xs 4.6 ix-am-\-øn FØn- p-hm Ign-bp-sa- mwv Khs ns {]Xo-. \S- p-h jw {]Xy- - -]-tcm- -\n-ip-xn-i-fn-eqss 9 e w timsn cq]- hcp-am-\-amwv Khs v e y-an-sp- -Xv. Ign kmº- Øn-I-h j-øn t\sn-bxv 7.85 e w timsn cq]-bmwv C y Ib- p-axn 37.5 ix-am\w hf -tbmss timsn tumf-dn-se-øn-b-xmbn hmwn-py-a{ n B\µv i a Adn-bn- p timsn tumf-dmwv e y-an- n-cp- -Xv. F Pn- \o-b-dnwkv taj-e-bmwv Ib- p-axn Db Øp-hm kmlm-bn- -Xv. am n Ib- p-axn 2910 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p.

15 15 ]W-sa e yw (t]p-v 11 \n v) m {KmaoW taj-e-bpss hcpam\w Db Øpw. CXv ` y-hnesb Ipdbv p- -Xn-s\m w hyhm-km-bn-tim-xv]m- Z-\-߃ p-ff Unam v Db Øpw. F n\v kz W hnev]-\sb hsc CXp _m[n- pw. C v C y-bn hmßp kz W-Øns 70 ix-am-\hpw {KmaoW taj-e-bm-sw- mwv IW- p-iƒ kqnn- n- p- -Xv. ag Ipd- m {KmaoWv taje-bn \n- p-ff Unam v Ipd-bpw. Im,tamt m ssk nƒ, I kyq-a KpUvkv XpS-ßnb F m-hbptsbpw hnev]-\sb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n- pw. a kq hnhn[ tkh-\- ߃ pw DXv]- -߃ p-ap-ff A`y- c Unam v h [n- n- p- Xp hgn hen-sbmcp [\n-i Hcn- h -Øn k -cn- p-i-b-bn-cp- p. h w \Zn-bpsS a y`mk-sø-øm-dm-b-t mƒ [\- m-c\v h mø `bw txm n. h w De-bp-Itbm at m snbvxm Xs ka-\ne sx p- Ibpw XpS v h w adn v Xm sh - Øn howp t]mip-ibpw snøp-sa v Abmƒ `b-s - p. h - m-s kma yøn F{X-tØmfw hniz-kn- m- \m-ipw? AYhm h w adn-bp-i-bm-sw- ntem, h - m-c \o n c -s]sp-ibnt? F{X-bm-bmepw kz w Poh c n- m-\t Abmƒ apxncq? Cßs\ Hcp \qdp-iq w Aip-`-Nn -Iƒ Abm-fpsS a\- n-eqss IS p t]mbn. Abmƒ ]cn-{`m- ntbmss h - m-c-t\msp ]d- p. h - m-cm, Fs XncnsI \mw ]pds - n-søp sim p sn m- q. F\n p h mø t]sn txm p- p. h - m-c Nncn- p. \nß-sf p hnuvvn-ø-amwv ]d-bp- Xv? \n߃ v A -cbv v t]mtit? th. th. F\n v A sc t]mti-. [\n-i `b- m-tsmss ]d- p. \man-t mƒ \Zn-bpsS a y-øn-se-øn- -gn- p. C\n- Xn-cn p t]mip- -Xn-s\- mƒ \ Xv adp-i-c-bv p bm{x XpS-cp- Xp Xs -bt? c pw Htc Zqc-a-t? ]ns - n-\mwv \n߃ `b-s Sp- -Xv? AXn\p adp-]-sn-bmbn [\ni ]d p. A. Zqcw am{x-a `b-øns ASnÿm-\w. ]cn-n-b-ap ]Øp \mgn-i-sb- mƒ `-b-p-\iw ]cn-nn-x-a mø Hcp \mgn- I-bmWv. AXp-sIm v C\n \n߃ apt m p \oßp-i-bm-sw- n Rm `b p NmIpw. \n߃ ss[cy-am-bn-cn- q. Hcp Imcyw tnmzn- -s. \n߃ v sszh-øn hnizmk-apt m? h - m-c tnmzn- p. D v. [\n-is adp-]sn ti v h - m-c tnmzn- p. \n߃ hniz-kn- p sszhw \nßsf c n- ptam? Xo -bm-bpw. F n Cßs\ hniz-kn- q, Cu \ZnbpsS ]Ip-Xntbmfw Zqcw sszhw \nß-sfmssm- -ap- m-bn-cp- p. Ct? C\n-bp ]IpXn Zqchpw sszhw \nß-tfmssm ap m-iqw. h - m-c Aßs\ ]d- -t mƒ [\n-i\v Ft m Hcm-fl-hn-izmkw txm n. Abmƒ ]d p. icn, F n, A -cbv p Xs Xpgt m-fq. h - m-c adp-i-c-bn-te p h w Xpg- p. Hcm-]Øpw IqSmsX kpc- n-xcmbn Ah A -sc-sb-øp-ibpw snbvxp. A sc sn p Ign- -t mƒ h - m-c Xs Iqen- mbn ssi \o n Ime-b-f-hnse a kq At mƒ [\n-i ]d p. Rms\- n\v \n߃ v ]Ww \ I- Ww? \nßsf kpc- n-x-ambn \Zn IS-Ønb-Xn-\v. Aø-tøm, Fs kpc- n-x-ambn Cu \Zn IS-Øn-bXv Rm hniz-kn- p sszh-am-wv. \n߃ h w Xpg-s -t bp- p. ]Ww ssibn-ep- -h-sc mw Cu IYbnse [\n-i-s\-t m-se-bmwv s]cp-am-dp-i. Xs [\-ÿnxn v BtcmSpw IS- m-sn- mø s]cp-am- w. kz -amb A zm\w sim p- m- n-b-xmwv F mw F p ta\n \Sn- p-sa- nepw Ah -dnbmw F m t\ ߃ pw ]n n Bscm-s tbm D mbn-cp- p-sh- v. Ah v Nhn- n- -b-dm GsXm-s tbm GWn- -Sn-Iƒ D m-bn-cp- psh- v. _nkn-\kv snbvxm-bmepw {]^j-\n Atß-b w Bflm -ambn ]cn- {i-an- n- m-bmepw ]c-k-lmbw sim p IqSntb B pw Pohn-X-Øn hnp-bn- m-\m- Iq. ImcWw hnpbsa Xv ASn-ÿm-\-]- c-ambn kmaq-ln-i-x-bpss ^ew Xs -bm- Wv. kmaq-lnipohnxøn-se Xmc-X-ay-s - Sp-Ø-ep-I-fmWv hnp-b-øns Af-hptIm. cmas _m n n-s- p ]Øp e w cq]bv v cmas\ Hcm-]-Øn \n v c -s]-sp-øm Ign- n-s - n AXns\ p aqeyw? adn v IrjvWs t]m - n InS- p \qdp cq-]bv v Nne-t mƒ cma\p kw`-hn- -Xns\ mƒ hen-sbm-cm- ]-Øn \n v Abmsf c -s]-sp-øm-\mtb- pw. thsdmcp Xc-Øn Nn n- m a\pjys {]Xo- -bmwv ]WØn\v aqeyw \n W-bn- p- -sx p ImWmw. {]Xo- sb- Xv A\n- n-xøzhpambn _ -s H m-wv. an -t m-gpw {]Xo hn[ym-fl- I-am-bn-cn- p-sa- nepw Nne-t m-sgms AXv Aip-`-I-c-hp-ambn-cn- pw. KpUv Sp t{k v F ]pkvx-i-øn Pnw timfn kv Pn m-k-bpss khnti-jx Nq n- m- p- p- v. \nß-sf- n\mwv Ct mƒ Cu ]T\w \S-Øp- -sx v tnmzn- m Pq H n-\mbn ImØn-cn mw h jw e`n ag `t ym-xv]m-z\w sk n ao Zi-e w S Pn mk sim m-swt Rm ]dbq F v timfn kv ]d-bp- p. F p ]d- m H n-s\- p-dn pw th {X [mc- W-bn-s - w. Cu [mc-w-bn- mbvabmwv \sω-s m v ]expw snøn- p- -Xv. ]pxn-b-xmbn ]expw Adn-bm- \p BImw- -bmwv Pnhn-XsØ apt m p \bn- p- -Xv. apt m v F - ]ZØn Øs CXv A ln-x-am-wv. ]n n-ep- Xv \ap v Adn-bm-hp- -Xm-Wv. F m ap n-ep- -Xn-s\- p-dn v Duln- mt\ Ignbq. Dul-Øns i n-bv - \p-k-cn v \ΩpsS bm{x XpS-cp- p. F m-h-cp-ssbpw Pohn-X-Øn hyxykvx-amb Af-hn ]Ww Ib-dp-Ibpw Cdßp-Ibpw snøp- p- v. ]Ww \ -hæw Ibdp- Xv F m-h pw CjvS-ap Imcy-am- Wv. ]t AsX-ßs\ km y-amipw F v B p-a-dn-bn-. {]Xn-am-k-i-º-f-ap k m-cp-tzymkÿs ssibn ]cn-an-xamb txmxn-se- nepw Ft mgpw ]Ww D mbn-cn- pwsa p Nne ]d-bm-dp- v. icn-bm- Wv. ]Ømw XobXn Ign v Hc-Xym-h-iy- m-cy-ap- m-bm, ASpØ amksø iºf-øns Pmay-Øn Abmƒ v Bsc-sS- nepw ]Ww ISw hmßm Ign-bpw. ]t s]mfn p XpS-ßp _nkn-\-kn ho p-an-d- m ]Ww txsp _nkn-\-kp- Im-ct\m? Abmƒ p ]Ww \ Im ASpØ _ p- ƒ t]mepw Nne-t mƒ c -p- h w Btem-Nn- pw. F mwv Cu sshcp- y-øn\p Imc-Ww. _nkn-\-k-p- Imcs A p e -sø- mƒ k m-cptzym-k-ÿs ]Xn-\-øm-bncw cq]bv v hnebp- m-ip kµ -`-am-wn-xv. hosp-i-fn \n v kz Whpw a pw tamjww \SØn kpj-po-hnxw \bn- p Hcp I -s\- p-dn v CubnsS ]{X-Øn hmbn- p. tamjvsn- p kz Ww hn v In p ]Ww sim v Abmƒ ss^hv Ãm tlm -ep-i-fn Xma-kn- p- p. azyhpw azn-cm- n-bp-ambn PohnXw X n \o p- p. \mfsø Pohn-X-sØ- p-dn v Abmƒ Nn n- p- -tx-bn-. AXn-\mbn H pw IcpXn hbv p- n-. Abmƒ p th ]Ww Bsc- n-ep-sams kz W- Øn-s cq]-øn Icp-Xn-hbv p- ps v Abmƒ -dn-bmw. AXv I p-]n-snt tpmentb D p. ]W-Øns hnesb- p-dn v Abmƒ H p-a-dn-bp- n-. kz W-Øn\v ]h\v Aøm-bncw cq]-bmbmepw ]Xn-\m-dm-bncw cq]bm-bmepw I \v H p-t]m-se-bm-wv. hne IqSn-b- Xp-sIm v, tamj-w-øn\p Ib-dp- ho n \n v c p ]h Ipd-s -Sp-Øm axn F v I Hcn- epw Icp-Xp- n. CsXms Btem-Nn- p-tºmƒ Hcp Imcyw kv]jvs-am-ip- p. ]Ww Aap-ey-amWv Nne-t mƒ. a p Nne-t mƒ ssht m Øpcp-ºn-s\- mƒ hne-bn- m-ø-xpw. kmº-øn-i-h-f sb Xzcn-X-s -Sp-Øp- p. tamiw a kq C ysb cmpym- c hn]-wn-bn ssi \o n-sb-øp-hm \n _- n-x-am- p- p AXmWv kw`-hn- -Xv. Pq H n\v tic-f-xo-cøv FØp a kq ]Øn\v apwss_- bnepw sim s m-ø-bnepw FØpw. Pq 29- \v su ln-bn FØn Pqsse 15- -HmsS cmpy-søm- msi ag s]mgn- p XmWv a kq {]Xn- `mkøns km[m-c-w-bp-ff sjuyqƒ.

16 16 (t]p-v 14 \n v) \S- p-h j-øn Ipd- Xv 25 ixam\w hf -bmwv e y-an-sp- -Xv. \S- p-h jw Im jn-ita-j-e-bn 4 ix-am\w hf {]Xo- n- p- -Xmbn Irjn a{ n iczv ]hm Adn-bn- p. C y Ime-hÿ hip v km[m-c-wt]me a kq In p-sa v {]h-nn- - Xns ] m-ø-e-øn-emwv 4 ix-am\w hf {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Ign h jw e`n ani ag-bpss ] m-øe-øn [mt\ym-xv]m-z-\-øn 5.6 ixam\w hf t\sn-bn- p- v. ASpØ Jmcn^v hnxbv v I j-i Xbm-dm-b- Xmbn ]h ]d-bp- p. A\p-Iq-em- co- -Øn Ign h jw Im jni hmbv] s^{_p-hcn hsc 3.72 e w timsn cq]-bm-bn- p- v. e yw 3.75 e w timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. ]{ mw ] -h- -c-]- -Xn-bn ( ) Pn Un ]n hf ]Øp ixam-\-øn-se-øn- p-hm Im jn-i-ta-je-bn 4.5 ix-am-\hpw am\p-^m-ivndnwkv taj-e-bn 12.4 ixam-\hpw hf -bp- m-iww. Cu taj-e-iƒ v Du \evip kao-]\tcj {][m- \-a{ n A[y- -\m-bp-ff Bkq-{X-W- -Ωo-j Xbm-dm- p-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Pn Un ]nbn am\p-^m- IvN-dnw-Kns ] m-fnøw 26 ix-am-\- Øn\p api-fn-tebv v Db Øp- -Xn- \mbn ]pxnb \bw ASpØ amkw Ahkm-\-tØmsS ]pd-øn-d- p-hm Xocpam-\n- n- p- v. Db-cp \mwy-s -cp- w, Ipd-bp am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv hf F ÿnxn-bn-eqss IS- p-t]m-hp-ibmwv cmpy-an-t mƒ. am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv hf G{] s^_p-hcn Ime-b-fhn ap h jw CtX Ime-b-f-hnse 10.4 ix-am-\-øn \n v 8.1 ix-am-\- ambn Xmgv n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. AtX-kabw \mwy-s -cp w 8.98 ix-am-\-ønseøn \nev p-i-bm-wv. Cu kml-ncy-øn \S]- p-h jw 9 ix-am\w hf m-{]-xo AkvX-an- n-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. Ign 4 5 amk-ambn hymh-kmbn-tim-xv]m-z\ hf Ipd-bp- Xv Bi- -bp-w Øp- -Xm-sW- n t]mepw BtKm-f-k-º-ZvL-S-\-bn Hcp tjm v D m-ip- n-s - n C y kº-zvl- S\ \S- p-h jw 9 ix-am\w hf t\sp-sa- mwv [\-Im-cy-a-{ mebøns kmº-øni D]-tZ-i-I IuinIv _mkp-hns hne-bn-cp-ø. \mwy-s -cp w 3 4 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v FØn- p-hm e yw h p-ff \S-]- Sn-Iƒ thw-sa- m-wv Iuin- ns A`n-{]m-bw. CXn-\mbn Kh-s pw B _n sfbpw ssitim Øp ]nsn v \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ssis m-fpw. Ct mƒ Bdp ix-am\w \mwy-s -cp w km[mc-w-\n-e-bmbn Icp-Xm-sa pw At±lw ]d-bp- p. t\cn- p-ff hntz-i-\n-t ]w G{]n s^{_p-h-cn-bn 25.6 ixam\w CSn-thmsS 1830 timsn tumf-dmbn. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv 2462 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. F nepw hcpw amk-ß-fn Cu s{s Uv Xncn- m-ipsa- mwv Kh-s v {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. dne-b kv _n ]n UoenemWv {]Xo-. _n ]n 720 timsn tumf-dmwv dneb kns FÆ ]cy-th- W _vtfm p-i-fn \nt -]n- p- -Xv. s^{_p-h-cn-bn F^v Un sf 30 ixam\w Ipd-thmsS 120 timsn tumf-dmbn. ap h jw s^{_p-h-cn-bn-enxv 170 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. Akw-kvIr-X-h-kvXp- -fpss hne Db n pw C y am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv Iº-\n-Iƒ C -gn kmº-øn-ih j-øn ani hf t\sn-b-xmbn tim s^u-td-j Hm^v C y C Ukv{Sn ( kn sf sf) \S-Ønb k th-bn ]d-bp- p. k th \S-Ønb 121 taj-e-i-fn 41 FÆw 20 ix-am-\- Øn-e-[nIw hf t\sn-b-xmbn ]T\w ]d-bp- p. Fb I o-j-w, {SmIvS, hfw, I kv{s-ivj D]-I-c-W-߃, Sb,h hml-\-߃ XpS-ßnb taj-e- Iƒ 20 ix-am-\-øn-e-[niw hf t\snb taj-e-i-fn-epƒs -Sp- p. GXm v 49 taj-e-iƒ ix-am\w hf t\sn-bn- p- v. ss\]p-wy-ap-ff tpmen- m-cpss Zu e-`yw, hmbv] e`n- p-hm-\p-ff {]bm-kw, ]cn-ÿnxn Nn v In m-\p-ff Xmakw XpS-ßn-bh hf sb _m[n- p apjy {]iv\-ßfm-sw v k th ]d-bp- p. \nt -]-e- y-sa \ne-bn C y-bn IqSp-X {i ti{µo-in-cn- p-i-bmwv thƒuv _m ns \nt ] hn`m-k-amb sf F^v kn sf F^v kn hnhn[ taj-e- I-fn-embn 25 \nt -]-bvxv\-ß-fn apx aps- n-bn- p- v. aq p-h jambn sf F^v kn C y-bn Hmtcm h jhpw 100 timsn tumf-dns \nt - ]-amwv \S-Øn-bn- p- v. \S- p-h jhpw 100 timsn tumf-dn-e-[niw \nt -]- Øn\v Ah Xbm-sd-Sp- p-i-bm-wv. ASnÿm\ kui-cy-ta-j-e, F\ Pn XpSßnb taj-e-i-fn-emwv \nt -]-Øn-e- [n-i-hpw. \S- p-h jw sk skivkv kqnni td n \oßp-sa- mwv F hn-j Im n- amt\-pnwkv Ubd-IvS \ntejv jmbpss hne-bn-cp-ø td n KpW-\n-e-hm-c-apff Hml-cn-Iƒ hmßn- q- m-sa- mwv At±-l-Øns A`n-{]m-bw. ssivt\mf-pn, _m v, Hmt m taj-e-iƒ ani {]I-S\w ImgvN hbv p-sa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. C y Hmlcn hn]wn ASpØ 12 amk- m-eøv a v Fa PnwKv hn]-wn- I-tf- mƒ sa -s {]I-S\w ImgvN hbv p-sa- mwv sp ]n tam Ks amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvSdpw No^v Fa PnwKv am v kv{sm -Pn-Ãp-amb A{U-bn samhm- ns A`n-{]m-bw. Ct m-gsø hmtez-j-\n \n v 15 ixam-\-tømfw Db -bmwv At±lw {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. BtKmf kº-zvl-s-\-bnse A\n- n-xxzw Fa PnwKv hn]-wn-i-fntebv v \nt -]-Isc ho pw BI jn p XpS-ßn BZy-ambn am n hntz-i-\n-t -]I ÿm]-\- ߃ Fa PnwKv hn]-wn-in-fn 200 timsn tumf \nt ]w \S-Øn. P\ph-cn, s^{_p-hcn amk-ß-fn s\ v hnev]-\- m-cm-bn-cp hntz-i-\n-t -]-Iÿm-\-߃ am nepw G{]nenepw s\ v hmß-ep-im-cm-wv. G{]n-en 18 hsc timsn cq]-bpss s\ v hmß \S-Øn-bn- p- v. am nse s\ v hmß timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. Npcp- - Øn CXp-h-sc-bp-ff s\ v hmß timsn cq]-bp-ts-xm-wv. tkmh-dn sh Øv ^ p-iƒ v btyjvsw 20 ix-am\w hsc C y Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hml-cn-I-fn \nt -]n- phm A-\p-h-Zn- Xv IqSp-X hntz-i-\nt ]w C y Hml-cn-bn-tebv v sim p-h-cpw. CXp-hsc Cu ]cn[n 10 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. 15 ix-am-\-am-bm Hm Hm^ \evi-w-am-bn-cp- p. CXnem-Wv am w hcp-øn-bn- p-f-f-xv. BtKm-f, A`y- c {]iv\-߃ \ne- \n-ev p-tºmgpw C y Iº-\n-I-fnse ss{]h n CIzn n C sh-ãvsa v, eb- \-ßfpw Gs -Sp- epw ani hf bmwv t\sp- -Xv P\p-h-cn- -am Ime-b-f-hn 2900 timsn tumf-dns G m-sp-i-fmwv {]Jym-]n- n- p-f-f-xv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv 2400 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. Db \mwy-s -cp- w, Ipd-bp hcpw hmc-ß-fn FØ Iº-\n-I-fpsS \memw Izm ^e-ßfpw Ah-cpsS ASpØ h j-tøbv p-ff ssku kpw hne-bn-cpøn ani Hmlcn-I-fn Hmtcm XmgvN-bnepw {]th-in- mw. tabv aq n\v FØp dnk hv _m ns ]W-\-bhpw IW- n-se-sp- -Ww. Zo L-Jm-e-Øn ani dnt {]Xo- n- mw. XmevIm-en-I-am-bp- m- Ip CSn-hp-Isf Ah-K-Wn- p-itbm hn]-wnbn {]th-in- p-hm-\p-ff Ah-k-c-amtbm D]- tbm-kn- p-i. hyh-kmtbmxv]m-z-\-h-f, Db-cp Itam-Un n hne XpS-ßn-b-h-bv n-sbnepw ASpØ am t mss sk skivkv kqnni t]mbn n-\- p-d-sø-øp-sa v [\-Imcy skmeq-j s{]mssh-u-dmb Fkv Fw kn Kvtfm_ skiyq-cn- okv snb am\pw amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS-dpamb kp`mjv AK hmƒ A`n-{]m-bs p. C\n t]mbn n\v Xmtgbv p \oßp-hm-\p-ff km[y-xbpw Ipd-hm-Wv. hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\- ߃ C y hf m-i-y-bn hfsc _p ojv BWv. C y kº-zvl-s- \-bnse t]mko- ohv LS-I-߃ s\k- ohv LS-I-ß-tf- mƒ i -am-sw- pw At±lw ]d-bp- p. Ct m-gsø kml-n-cy-øn ASpØ 2 3 amk- m-eøv sk sk- Ivkn 5 7 ix-am\w Db -bmwv {]`p-zmkv eoem-[ t{_m -tdpv luknse A]q h jm {]Xo n- p- -Xv. {IqtUm-bn hne ÿncx t\snbxpw hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\-ßfn \n- p-ff ]W-sam-gp v sa -s - Xpw C y hn]-wn v Du Pw \evip-sa- mwv At±-l-Øns hne-bn-cp-ø. ]pxnb kmº-øni h j-øn Hmlcn hn]-wn-bn \n v Uok v dnt {]Xo- n- m-sa v dne-b kv ayqnz ^ ns CIzn- okv Xe-h kp\n knwkm-\nb ]d-bp- p. GXm\pw Znh-k-ß-fm-bp-ff hn]-wnbpss \o w Btcbpw AXn-i-bn- n- p- -Xm-Wv. Cu h jm-h-km-\- tømss t]mko- ohv dnt t\sm-\mhp-sa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. F m hfsc sh p-hnfn \nd h j-hpw-iq-sn-bm-bn-cn pw CXv. \mwys -cp- hpw cmjv{sob Aÿn-c-Xbpw t\c-ts n hcpw. Iº-\nIfpsS am Pn kω ±w XpS-cp-sa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. ASpØ h jsø hcp-am-\-øn sk sk-ivkns ]n C 15 \v Np -fhn-em-wv. AXv A{X FIvkvs] kohv A msb- Xpw hntz-i-\n-t -]-Isc C y Hml-cn-bn-tebv v BI jn- p- psh v AknXv kn taø C ao-un-b-dokv A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. F m XevIm-e-tØbv v sk skivkv t]mbn v td n \o-ßp-sa pw Ah hne-bncp-øp- p C y hn]wn 15 ix-am\w dnt \evip-sa v BtKmf \nt ] Kpcp am v sam_n-bqkv A`n-{]m-b-s - Sp- p. Ign h jw \n^v n, sk skivkv kqnn-i-iƒ 15 ix-am\w dnt \evin-bn-cp- p. C y-bpƒs -ssbp-ff Fa PnwKv hn]-wn-bn-tebv v \S- p-h j-ønepw hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm- ]-\-ß-fpsS ]W-sam-gp v XpS-cp-sa pw ssºnƒ-s Fa PnwKv am vkv {Kq v FIvkn-Iyq- ohv snb am IqSn-bmb At±lw Iq n-t p- p. hn]-wn-bpss {lkz-im-e-\o w {]h-nn- pi _p n-ap- m-sw- nepw Zo L-Im-e-Øn C y hn]-wnbpss apt - -sø- p-dn v B pw kwi-b-an-. hni-knx cmpy-ß-fnse kmº-øn-i-h-f m-xn-cn- p-h-c-hns thkw {]Xo- n- p- -Xp-t]mse Db-cm- ØXpw AhnsS Db-cp \mwy-s -cp- hpw AtX-Øp-S {]Xo- n- p I -i-am-ip ]W-\-bhpw Fa PnwKv hn]-wn-i-fn-tebv v \nt - ]-Isc ho pw BI jn- p-i-bm-wv. C y Hmlcn hnebnt mƒ bym aqey-øn-em-sw hne-bn-cp- Øepw hntz-i-\n-t -]-Isc BI jn- p- p- v. Nne anuvim-]v, kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-Iƒ sa -s -Sp-I-bm-Wv. \mwy-s -cp w Ipd-bp {]h-w-x- ImWn- -Xn-s\-Øp-S v BtKmf \nt -]-I-ÿm-]-\ßfmb sp ]n tam K\pw F v Fkv _n knbpw C y Hml-cn-I-fnse \nt ]Øn s t{kuv Db Øn. C- y-bn _nkn- \kv snøp- -Xv IqSp-X Ffp- am p -Xn-\p-ff \nb-a-\n amw {]h Ø-\-ßfpw C ysb BI j-iam- p-sa v Ch A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. BtKmf \nt -]-I ho pw Fa PnwKv cmpy-ß-fn-tebv v Xncn- Xpw C ybv v A\p-Iq-e-am-b ÿnxn krjvsn- p-i-bm-wv. hntz-i-\n-t -]I ÿm]-\-߃ G{]n amk-ønepw s\ v hmß-ep-imcm-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. G{]n 19 hsc Ah timsn cq]-bpss s\ v hmß \S-Øn-bn- p- v.-am n timsn cq]-bpss s\ v hmß \S-Ønbn-cp- p s BZy c v amk-ß-fn h hnev]-\- m-cm-bn-cp Ah Ct mƒ s\ v hmß-ep-im-cm-bn- p- v. G{]n 19 hsc Cu Ie- h j- Ønse Ah-cpsS s\ v hmß timsn cq]-bm-bn- p- v. hcpw hmc-ß-fn FØ Iº-\n-I-fpsS \memw Izm ^e-ßfpw Ah-cpsS ASpØ h jtø-bv p-ff ssku kpw hne-bn-cpøn ani Hml-cn-I-fn Hmtcm XmgvN-bnepw {]th-in- mw. tabv aq n\v FØp dnk hv _m ns ]W-\-bhpw IW- nse-sp- -Ww. Zo L-Jm-e-Øn ani dnt {]Xo- n- mw. XmevIm-en-I-ambp- m-ip CSn-hp-Isf Ah-K-Wn- p- Itbm hn]-wn-bn {]th-in- p-hm-\p-ff Ah-k-c-amtbm D]-tbm-Kn- p-i.

17 17 kw-jy-im-kv-{x-sa-s m-cp- im-kv-{x-ap- v.- Nn-e- {]-txy-i- A- -߃- v- F-s m-s -tbm- Nn-e- {]-txy-i-x-i-fp-s - - hn-izm-k-am-wv- kw-jym-imkv-{x-øn m-[m-cw.- \-Ωp-sS- \m- n - X-s - hm-l-\-߃- v- Nn-e- {]-txy- I- \-º - e-`n- m-\m-bn- B-fp-Iƒ- s\-t m- -tam-sp- -Xv- I- n- n-t?- C-Øcw- \-º-dp-I-fp-sS- U-n-am -\p-k-cn- v- A-Xv- e-`n- m-\p- - te-e-øp-i-bpw- D-b-cp- p.- Hm-l-cn-hn-]-Wn-bpw- kw-jym-im-kv-{x-hpw- X-Ωn - F-s - n-epw- _- -ap-t m- F- v- tnm-zn- m - D- v- F- p-x-s -bm-hpw- D-Ø-cw.- \-ΩpsS- t]-dn-se- A-Y-hm- P-\-\-Øo-b-Xn-bn-se- A- -c-߃-t m,- A- -߃-t m- k-a-am-bn- H-cp- kw-jy- I-s -Øp-I-bpw,- B- kw-jy- v- A-\p-kr- X-am-bn- Nn-e- Im-cy-߃- {]-h-nn- m-\p-am-wv- C- q- - {i-an- p- -Xv.- en-bm-\m -tum- ^-n-t_m-\m- n- F - K-Wn-X-im-kv-{X -\m-wv- Nn-ekw-Jy-Iƒ- v- Nn-e- k-am-\-x-iƒ- D-s - v- I-s -Øn-b-Xv.- A-h-bp-sS- B-h -Ø-\-hpw- a- pw- H-cp- ]-cn-[n- - p-dw- H-tc-X-c-Øn-em-bn-cn- p-sa- pw- A-t±-lw- I-s -Øn.- 1,- 2,- 3,- 5,- 8,- 13, C-ß-s\- \o-fp- p- ^n-t_m- \m- n- koiz kv!- Cu- kw-jy-iƒ- H- v- kq- n- p-t\-m- q.- H-c-p- {]-txy- I- _- w- Cu- kw-jy-iƒ- X-Ωn-ep-s - v- Im-Wm-\m-Ipw.q-sXm- p-ap -]p- - c- v- kw-jy-i-fp-ss- Xp-I-bm-bn-cn- pw- A-Sp-Ø- kw-jy.- (1,- 2)- -Iq- nbm - e-`n- p- - 3 B-Wv- aq- -m-a-sø- kw-j-y.- A-tXm-t]m-se- (-2,- 3)- Iq- n-bm - e-`n- p- - 5 B-Wv- \m-e-m-a-sø- kw-jy-!- Cu- {I-aw- Xp-S - pt]m-hp-i-bpw- snøp p!- Cu- kw-jy-iƒ- v- Hm-l-c-n- hn-]-wn-bn-se- m-wv- {]-m-[m\yw?- Hm-l-c-nhn-]-Wn-bn-se- Db - - Xm-gv-N-Iƒ- {]-h-nn- m-s\m-cp- {i-a-am-wv- ss-iv-\n- - A-\-en-kv- p-i-fp-ss- `m-k-øp-\n- p- m-ip- -sx- v- ]-d- p-i-gn- p-!- Nn-e- c-q-]-߃,- _nw-_-߃- C-h-sbm-s - Nm - p-i-fn - I-s -Øn-bm - C-\n- h-cp-hm - t]m-ip- - I-m-cy-߃- G-Xv- co-xn-bn-em-sw- v- ]-d-bp-hm- \m-wv- ss-iv-\n- - A-\-en-kv- p-iƒ- {i-an- p- -Xv.- kw-jym-im-kv-{x-øn-\v- Hm-l-cnhn-]-Wn-bn - F- p-im-cyw- hm -jn-ihcn-kw-jy- Iq- - Hcp h -jtø v- 100 cq-].- Un-Un-/sN v- Voice of Wealth F t]cn-em-bn-cn- Ww.- Un-Un- FdWm-Ip-fØv- am-dm-hp- Xm-bn-cn- Ww.- -Un-Un-/sN v- \º -... Name: Mr/Mrs... Address... District... State... Pin...Ph: Hcph -jsø hcn-kw-jy- 100/ cq-] Un-Un-/sN v- Bbn- Ab p- p.- Address Circulation Manager, Voice of Wealth, Muthoot Chambers, Opp. Saritha Theatre Complex, Banerji Road, Kochi Tel: , , Fax: Iq-Sp-X - hnhc߃- v-:- Circulation Manager Mobile No Hm-l-cn- hn-]-wn-bn - D-b - -bpw- Xm-gv-N-bpw- kz-m-`m-hn-iw.- F- m - F-t m-sgm-s -bm-wv- C-Xv- kw-`-hn- p-i- F- v- I-s -Øp- -h-cm-wv- hn-]- Wn-bn - hn-p-bn- p-i.- Ir-Xy-am-bn- Zn-im-am- w- {]-h-nn- p-i- F- -Xv- B- cm-epw- km-[y-a-s - v- A-dn-bp-tºm-gpw- Nn-e- {]-txy-i- A-dn-hp-Iƒ- H-cp- ]- cn-[n-h-sc- am - - v- G-Xv- Zn-i-bn-te- m-wv- t]m-ip- -sx- - kq-n-\-sb- nepw- e-`n- m - \n-t -]-I-s\-/sS-Iv-\n- - A-\-en-kv- n-s\- {]m-]v-x-\m- p- p.- km-[m-c-w- K-Xn-bn - H-cp- h - Ip-Xn- n-\p-ti-jw- am - - v- H- v- I tkm-fn-tu- v- sn-øm-dp- v.- A-Sp-Ø- Ip-Xn- n-\p- - Du -Pw- kw-`-cn- m-\m- Wn-Xv.- Np-cp-ßn-b- Im-e-b-f-hn - `o-a-am-b- D-b - - Xm- p- - am n-e-m- Wv- "I-d- '- F- - {]-Xn-`m-k-ap- m-ip-i.- C-Ø-c-Øn-sem-cp- I-d- ap -Iq- n- ImWm - km-[-n- p-s m-cmƒ- v- F- m-wv- t\- -w?- I-d- - ap -Iq- n- a-\- n-em- n-bm,- A-Xn-\p- ap -]v- D-b - - hn-ebv- p-x-s - Hm-l-cn-Iƒ- hn- v- e-m-`w- _p- v- sn-øm-sa- -Xm-Wv- H-cp- sa- w.- I-d- -\n - Ip-d- - hn-e-bv- v- Hm-l-cn-Iƒ- Xn-cn- p-hm-ßp-i-bp-amhmw.- A-Xp-sIm- v- X-s - am - - v- I -tkm-fn-tu-j-s -bpw- I-d- s - bp-sam-s - se-h-ep-iƒ- G-sX- -dn-bp- -Xv- \n-t -]-I-\v- Kp-Ww- sn-øpw.- Cu- se-h-ep-iƒ- A-dn-bp-hm-\m-Wv- H-cp- ]-cn-[n-h-sc- ^n-t_m-\m- n- \-º-cp- Iƒ- k-lm-b-i-c-am-ip- -Xv.- Xm-sg- sim-sp-øn-cn- p- - ts-_nƒ- {i- n- p-i.- 1/1 1/2 2/3 3/5 5/8 8/13 13/21 21/34 34/55 55/ B-Zy-L-S-Iß-fn-se- C-h-bp-sS- A-\p-]m-Xw- {i- n- p-i.- 1, , F- o- \n-c- n-ep- - A-\p-]m-Xw,- ]n- o-sv F-Øn-t -cp- p.- A-hn- Sp- -tßm- v- A-\p-]m-X-Øn - hy-xn-bm-\-ap- m-ip- n-.- ss-iv-\n- - A- \-en-kv- p-iƒ- am - - v- dn-t{s-u-v-sa n-s - A-f-hm-bn- am-\-z-fi-am- p- -Xv- ^n-t_m-\m- n- A-\p-]m-X-am-b- 1/1,- 1/2,- 2/3,- 3/5...- se-hp-iƒ- B-Wv.- am - - v- do-t{s-k-v-sa v- 20 i-x-am-\-øn-tem,- 67 i-x-am-\-øn-tem i-xam-\-øn-tem- B-bn-cn- pw- F- v- ss-iv-\n- - A-\-en-kv- p-iƒ- {]-h-n-n- p- p-s - n -,- A-Xn-s - B-[m-cw- C-Xp-X-s -!- Cu- sn-e-hp-iƒ- A-dn-bp- -Xv- H-cp- km-[m-c-w- \n-t -]-I-s\- G-ßs\-bm-hpw- k-lm-bn-i-ip-i?- X-s - ssi-h-i-ap- - Hm-l-cn-I-fp-sS- ]p-\x- {I-ao-I-c-W-Øn-\pw- em-`w- _p- v- sn-øp-hm-\pw- Cu- se-h-ep-i-sf- p-dn- p- - A-dn-hv- sn-dp-x- m-ø- co-xn-bn - \-n-t -]-I-s\- k-lm-bn- p- p.- kw-jym-im-kv-{x-øn-s - k-lm-b-hpw- ss-iv-\n- - A-\-en-kv- n-\v- e-`n- p- p- F- - A-dn-hv- Iu-Xp-I-I-cw- X-s.- Hm-l-cn- hn-]-wn-bp-ss- A- p-x mbn- h -Øn- m-dp- -Xv- ]-e-t m-gpw- H-cp- cm-py-øn-s - k-º-zv-l-s-\- X-s bm-wv.- k-º-zv-l-s-\-bp-ss- Nm-{In-I- kz-`m-hw- A-dn-bp- -Xn-\pw- ^n-t_m- \m- n- td-tjym- k-lm-bn- p- p F- n-s-øm-wv- C-Xns - {]-k- n!-

18 18 Census and Fair Sex Im-t\-jp-am-cn-bpw- h -j-øn - 6 e- w- s] - {`q-w-l-xy-i-fpwsk -k-k-v- A-Y-hm- Im-t\-jv-am-cn- F- p-]-d-bp- - P-\-kw-Jym- I-W-s -Sp- vh-f-sc- Nn- -tbm-ss- G -s -Sp-Øn-b-Xv- A-K-kv- -kv- ko-k - F- - tdm-a - N-{I-h - Øn-bm-bn-cp- p.- 27 _n-kn- ap-x - 14 F-Un- h-sc- A-t±-lw- tdm-am- km-{am-pyw- `-cn- n-cp- p.- A-t±-l-Øn-s - Im-e-Øv- 14 h -jw- C-S-hn- v- (\m-an- v- C- y-bn - 10 h - jw- C-S-hn- m-wv- sk -k-kv- F-Sp- p- -Xv)- aq- p-x-h-w- X-s - km-{am-py-sø- {]- P-I-fp-sS- I-W- v- c-pn-kv- - sn-øn- p.- sk -k-kv- \n-b-a-{]-im-cw- F- m-h-cpw- kz- w- \-K-cn-bn-se-Øn- t\-cn- v- t]-sc-gp-xn- -Ww- F- m-bn-cp- p- \n-_- -\.- C-Xn - H- m-a-sø- Im-t\-jvam-cn-bm-Wv- G- -hp-w- {]-kn- w.- Cu- Im-t\-jv-am-cn- k-a-b-øm- Wv- {In-kv-Xp- P-\n- -Xv.- hn-ip- - eq- m-bp-ss- kp-hn-tj-iw- c- m-w- A-[ym-bw- hm- Iy-߃- H- p-ap-x - {In-kv-Xp-hn-s - P-\-\w- hn-h-cn- p-tºmƒ- Cu- sk -k-kns\- - n- km-µ -`n-i-am-bn- {]-Xn-]m-Zn- p- p.- ""tbm-tk-^v- K-eo-en-bm-bn-se- \-K-c-am-b- \-{k-øp-\n- v- bq-zm-bn-se- t_-xv-selw- F- p-t]-cp- - Zm-ho-Zn-s - \-K-c-Øn-te- v- K -`n-w-n-bm-b- a-dn-bm-an-t\m-sp-iq-snt]-sc-gp-xn- m - t]m-bn.- Im-c-Ww- A-bmƒ- Zm-ho-Zn-s - `-h-\-ønepw- hw-i-ønepw- s]- -h-\m-bn-cp- p.- A-hn-sS-h- v- A-hƒ- v- {]-k-h-k-a-b-am-bn.- A-hƒ- X-s - I-S-n- q - - ]p-{x-s\- {]-k-hn- p.- in-ip-hn-s\- io-e-i-fn - s]m-xn- v- H-cp- ]p sxm- n-bn - In-S-Øn.- k-{x-øn - A-h - v- ÿ-ew- In- n-bn-cp- n-.- A-K-kv- -kv- ko-k - F- n-\m-wv- C-Ø-c-Øn-ep- - hn-]p-e-hpw- k- o -W-hpw- Nn-e-th-dn-b-Xpw- h -j-ß-ƒ- \n- p-\n - p- -Xp-am-b- H-cp- kw-cw-`w,- A-Xpw- X-s - `-c-w-im-e-øv- aq- p-x-h-w- \-S-Øn-b-X-v.- F-{X- h-en-b- km-{am-py-am-wv- X-t -Xv-;- F- {X- `o-a-am-b- Cu- tim-sn-i-fp-ss- N-{I-h -Øn-bm-Wv- Xm - F-s m-s - A-dn-b-W-at m.- A-Xn-ep-]cn- tdm-an - h- v- Ip-an- p-i-q-ts- - k-º-øv- C- p- - F- m-h-cpss-bpw- I-cw- (Sm-Iv-kv)- ]n-cn- v- Np- - m - (Sm-Iv-kv-sa )- J-P-\m-hn - A-S- p- pt m- A-tXm- C- -tø-xp-t]m-se- A- pw- Np- - m - ]-Ip-Xn- A-s - n - kv-s]-{œwt]m-se- ap-gp-h - kz- -w Io-i-bn-te- v- \n-t -]n- p-i-bm-twm-.- (H-cp- cm-pm- a tam-l-s\- ]- n- -Xp-t]m-se- ]o-em-tøm-k-s -ap- - km-am- - m - ko-kdn-s\- ]- n- p- p-t msb- v- F-ß-s\-b-dn-bp-w).- i-cn-bm-b- sk -k-kv- D-s - n - C-Ø-cw- th-e-iƒ- \-S- n- -t m.- ]n - m-e-øv- tdm-a - Im-cy- -a-x- F- - {]-kn- -am-b- `-c-w-kw-hn-[m-\-øn-s - A-Sn-Ø-d- C-Ø-cw- h-kv-xp-\n-jv-t-am-b- I-W- p-i-fm-bn-cp- p.- F- m - C-Xn-sem-s - {]-[m-\-s - - a-s m-cp- Im-cyw- A-K-kv- -kv- N-{I-h -Ønbp-sS- a-\- n-s\- a-yn- n-cp- p-sh- v- F-gp-X-s - n-cn- p- p.- A-Xv X-s - km-{am-py- Øn - Ip-d- p-h- n-cp- - P-\-\-\n-c- m-bn-cp- p.- C-Xv- I- p-]n-sn- m-\m-bn-cp- - C-S-hn- - sk -k-kv.- Cu- {]-h-w-x Xn-cp-Ø-Ww.- km-{am-pyw- \n-e-\n - p-i-bpwhn-]p-e-am- p-i-bpw- th-ww.- A-Xp-sIm- v- bp-hm- ƒ- hn-hm-lw- I-gn- m-sx- txm- n-b-t]m-se- hn-l-cn- n-cp- -Xn-s\- hn-e- n.- Ip-Spw-_-Po-hn-X-Øn-\v- {]m-[m-\yw- \ - In.- Iq-Sp-X - k- m-\-߃- D- -h - p-am-{xw- kz-øn-\-v- ]n- p-s - m-h-im-iw- D-d- m- n.- Cu- \n-b-a-߃- ]m-en- -s -Sp- p- F- v- D-d- p-h-cp-øm - kz-x-{ -hpw- h- kv-xp-\n-jv-t-hp-am-b- P-\-kw-Jym- K-W-\-w- \n-iv-nn-x-im-e-b-f-hn - (14 sim- w- Iq-Sptºmƒ)- \-S-Øn.- 41 h -jw- \o- p-\n- - A-K-kv- -d-kv- H-tŒ-]n-b - N-{I-h -Øn-bpsS- 35 {]-[m-\-s - - `-c-w-t\- -ß-fn - 3 Im-t\-jv-am-cn-Iƒ- F- m-a-tø-xm-bn- A-t±lw- X-s - tc-j-s -Sp-Øn.- h-kv-xp-\n-jv-t-am-b- ÿn-xn-hn-h-c- -W- p-iƒ- Im-cy- -a-am-b- `-c-w-øn-s - A-Sn-Ø-d-sb- v- tdm-a - `-c-w-iq-sw- a-\- n-em- n-b-xn-s - sx-fn-hm-wn-xv-.- A-t\-Iw- \q- m- p-iƒ- A-P-ø-am-bn- ]p-cm-x-\- tdm-amkm-{am-pyw- \n-e-\n- [-\-im-kv-{xw- A-dn-bp-I- 24 tum.- ]n.-si.- G-{_-lmw -Xn-s - c-l-ky-hpw- Cu- "tdm-a - Im-cy- -a-x'-bm-bn-cp- p.- C-{X-bpw- B-ap-Jw.- C-\n- C- y-bn - ]-Ø-p-h -j-øn-sem-cn- - \-S-Øp- -Xpw- Ign- - am-kw- {]-kn- o-i-cn- -Xp-am-b- \-Ωp-sS- Im-t\-jv-am-cn-sb- - n.- A-Xn-se- H-cp- sr- n- p- - {]-Xn-`m-k-sØ- - n.- B-bp -ssz- -Lyw- Iq-Sp- p-;- km- -c-x- h-f-cp- p,- {]-Xn-io- -j-h-cp-am-\w- D-b-cp- p, bp-h-p-\-߃- \n -Wm-b-I-i- n-bm-ip- p,- F- n-ß-s\-bp- - D- m-z-øn - kv-{x-o-im- n-i-hm-zn-i,- k-p-k-x-ip-am-cn- So- -d-s- w- C-Xv- {i- n- n-s - p- txm- p- p sk -k-kv- {]-Im-cw- C- y-bn - ]p-cp-j- m - A-[n-I-hpw- kv-{xo-iƒ- Ip-d-hp-am- Wv.- ti-c-fw- am-{x-am-wv- hn-`n- w.- 6 h-b- n - Xm-sg-b-p- - Ip- n-i-fp-ss- Im-cy-Øn - Cuhy-Xym-kw- cq- -hpw- `-bm-\-i-hp-am-wv.- Cu- h-b-kn s] -Ip- n-ifm-wv B -Ip- n-iƒ- p- -Xv.- C-Xn-\v- H-cp- Im-c-W-ta-bp- q.- h-f-sc- hym-]-i-am-b- txm-xn s] -{`q-w-ß-sf- Xn-c- p-]n-sn- v- am-xm-]n-xm- ƒ- K -`-Øn - X-s - sim- p-i-f-bp- p.- X-an-gv-\m- nepw- a- pw- t\-c-sø- s] - in-ip- -sf- ]n-d-hn- p-ti-jw- hym-]-i-am-bnsim- p-i-f- n-cp- p.- im-kv-{xw- ]p-tcm-k-an- -Xn-\m - C- -Xn-s - B-h-iy-an-.- km-º-øn-i-am-wv- C-Xn-\v- Im-c-W-sa- -hm-zw- i-cn-b-.- C-Xv- G- -hpw- tzm-j-i-c-am-bn- D- -Xv- km-º-øn-i-am-bn- ap- n - \n - p- - ]- m-_v,- l-cn-bm-\,- Kp-P-dm-Øv- F- oÿ-e-ß-fn-em-wv.- K -`-Øn - enwk-\n -W-bw- \-S-Øn- s] - {`q-w-l-xy-iƒ- \-S-Øp- -Xv- Ip- -I-c-sa- n-epw,- ]m-c-º-cy-hpw,- Np- p-]m-sp-i-fpw,- I-]-S-hn-izm-k-ß-fpw- C-Xn-\-hsc- t{]-cn- n- p- p.- kv-{xo-[-\-hpw- an- - Pm-Xn-bn-ep-ap- - ]n -Xp-S - m-h-im-i-hpw- Bƒa- ƒ- -\p-iq-e-am-wv.- G-Xm- v (B-dv-e- w-)- s] - {`q-w-ß-sf-bm-wv- H-cp- h - jw- \-Ωp-sS- a-m-xm-]n-xm- ƒ- C-ß-s\- si-m- p-i-f-bp- -Xv.- Nn-e Po-hn-I-fn - Ip- pß-f-p-ss- F-Æw- \n-b-{ n- m - A-h-bn - Nn-e-Xn-s\- X- -X- -am - (D-Zm.- ]q-,- Nn-e- ]- n-iƒ)- Xn- m-dp- v.- F- m-e-xv- enw-k-\n -W-bw- \-S-Øn-b-.- F- m - C-hn-sS- B-Wn- \v- A-\p-Iq-e-am-b- H-cp- sk-e-œo-hv- {_o-un-ßv'- B-Wv- \-S- p- -Xv.- Xn-cp-Øn-bn-s - n - \n-b-{ -Wm-Xo-X-am-b- H-cp- hn-]-co-x-^-e-am-wv- C-Xp-sIm- v- C- y- v- 20 sim- w- I-gn-bp-tºmƒ- D- m-im - t]m-ip- -Xv.- B-Wn-t\- mƒ- F- p-sim- pw- ap -]- n-bn - \n - p- - s] -h -K-sØ- p-d p-sim- p-h-cp-tºmƒ- Kp-W-]-cam-b-n- \-Ωp-sS- P-\-X- A-tß-b- w- -bn- pw.- {`m- p-]n-sn- v- s]-æn-\p-th- n- Hm-Sn-\-S- p- - B-Wp-ß-fp-sS- H-cp- \m-sm-bn- C- y- A-[-]-Xn- pw.- A-Xv- H-gn-hm- -W-sa- n - am- Xm-]nXm- -fp-ss- C- -sø- a- - ho- -Ww- am- n-sb-sp- -Ww.- kv-{xo-iƒ- v- ]n -Xp- S - m-h-im-iw- \ -Ip- - ]-g-b- ""\m-b ''- k-{º-zm-bw- C- y- ap-gp-h - \-S- m- p-i. B - ]n-t - tpm-en- sn-bv-xv- Po-hn- -s.- ayqnz ^ v BkvXnbn 3 ix-am\w h [\ P\p-h-cn am v Izm -dn ayqnz ^ p-i-fpss BkvXn 2 ix-am\w CSnhv ImWn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. CtXmsS am v 31- \v C y ayqnz ^ v Iº-\n-Iƒ amt\pv snøp BkvXn-bpsS hep w e w timsn cq]-bn-se-øn Unkw-_-dn-e-h-km-\n Izm -dn-enxv e w timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. \mev]-øn-sbm v ^ p-iƒ \evinb IW- p-i-fpss ASn-ÿm-\-Øn Atkmkn-tb-j Hm^v ayqnz ^ vkv C y ( Bw^n) Izm dnt m n-emwv C mcyw Adn-bn- n- p-f-f-xv. CXn 4 ^ p-i-fpss BkvXn-bn 40 ix-am\w hf -bp- m-b-t mƒ ]Øp ^ p-i-fpss BkvXn ix-am\w hf t\sn. 18 ayqnz ^ p-i-fpss BkvX-bn CSn-hp- m-bn. klmd ayqnz ^ ns BkvXn-bn ixam-\hpw F sf kn s\mapc ^ ns BkvXn-bn ix-am-\hpw sp ]n tam K ayqnz ^ ns BkvXn-bn ix-am-\hpw CSn-hp- m-bn. dne-b kv ayqnz ^ ns H mw ÿm\-øn\v CXp-h-scbpw Cf w X nbn- n-. {Sney Ivf n dne-b kv ayqnz ^ v X\n p XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv. dneb kv ^ v amt\pv snøp BkvXn 1.01 e w timsn cq]-bm-wv. Cu Izm dn 0.48 ix-am\w CSn-hp- m-bn- p- v. c mw ÿm\-øp-ff F v Un F^v knbpss BkvXn 1.82 ix-am\w h [-\- tbmss timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. aq mw ÿm\-øp-ff sf kn sf kn sf {]qu jy ^ ns BkvXn ix-am\w Db -tbmss timsn cq]- bm-b-t mƒ \memw ÿm\-øp-ff _n f k sse^v ayqnz ^ ns BkvXn ix-am\w hf -tbmss timsn cq]-bn-se-øn timsn cq] amt\pv snøp bp Sn sf ayqnz ^ mwv A mw ÿm\-øv. Cu A p ^ piƒ ssiimcyw snøp ^ v samøw ayqnz ^ v hyh-kmbw amt\pv snøp ^ ns ]Ip-Xn-bn-e-[nIw hcpw. Cu A v ^ v lukp-iƒ amt\pv snøp- Xv 3.92 e w timsn cq]-bm-wv. SmIvkv timuv hcp kml-n-cy- Øn CIzn n en vuv SmIvkv tkhnwkvkv ] -Xn-I-fpsS \nipxn _m[yx kw_- n v hy X ssih-cm-øn-s\-øp- S v CØcw ] -Xn-bn-te-bv p-ff \nt ]w C -gn kmº-øn-i-h j- Øn KWy-amb CSnhv ImWn- p. C F Fkv Fkn-te-bv p-ff ]W-samgp- n 58 ix-am\w CSn-hmWv D m-bn- p-f-f-xv. C F Fkv Fkv ^ p-iƒ Cu Ime-b-f-hn 606 timsn cq]-bmwv kzcq-]n- -Xv. ap h j-anxv 1437 timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p _pƒ am v ka-bøv C F Fkv Fkv ] -Xn-Iƒ F mw IqSn 5499 timsn cq] kzcq-]n- n-cp- p Ime-b-f-hn ayqnz ^ v hyh-kmbw amt\pv snøp ^ ns hep w ix-am-\w Ipd ncn- p-ibm-wv. ap h jw am 31- se 7.47 e w timsn cq]-bn \n v 6.59 e w timsn cq]-bmbn Ipd- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv.

19 19 Ib- p-axnbn 37.1 ix-am\w hf e y-an-sp- Xv. cmpy-øns Ib- p-a-xn-bpss 40 ix-am-\hpw sndp-in-s CS-Øcw taj-ebn \n- m-wv. Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w skivs tumf hf (%) F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv Hmbn spw B Uv Pz dn sdun-sabvuv Km sa vkv bm, XpWn-Ø-c-߃ ssivssã kv Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv ^m a sian- kv ]vfmãnivkv sex Ccp-º-bncv assd t{]muivsvkv Im s d_ DXv]m-Z-\-Øn 3.7 ix-am\w hf cmpysø d_ DXv]m-Z\w 3.7 ix-am\w hf -tbmss SÆn-se-Øn-. ap h j-an-tx-im-e-b-f-hn-enxv SÆm-bn-cp- p. Unkw-_ apx am v hsc DXv]m-Z\w sa -s - p. d_ hne h [n- -Xn-s\-Øp-S IqSp-X txm -ß-fn sdbn Km Uv D]-tbm-Kn- -Xn-s\-Øp-S mwv DXv]m-Z\w h [n- - Xv.-Iq-SmsX 9000 slivs-dn ]pxn-b-xmbn Sm nwkv XpS-ßp-Ibpw snbvxp. DXv]m-Z\ h [-\-bvs m w D]-t`m-Khpw h [n- p-i-bm-wv D]- t`mkw c p ix-am\w h [-\-tbmss SÆm-bn. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnenXv SÆm-bn-cp- p. am n cmpysø d_ tãm v SÆm-b-Xmbn d_ t_m Uv Adn-bn- p- p am nse tãm v SÆm-bncp- p. Sb DXv]m-Z-\-Øn 23 ix-am\w hf -bp- m-bxv d_dn\v XpW-bm-bn- p- v. Sb Ib- p-axn 20 ix-am\w h [\ ImWn- n- p- v. Ib- p-axn hf e y-an- n-cp- -Xn-\p- pdømbn. dn m Uv \ne-bn-tebv v DbcpIbpw snbvxp. IrXy-ambn ]d- m timsn tumf t\sm-\m-bn. h [\ 37.5 ix-am-\w. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnse hcp-am\w timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. e y-an- n-cp- Xv Ccp-]-Xn-\m-bncw timsn tumfdpw Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w 3.6 ix-am\w CSnhp ImWn- n-cp- p. F Pn-\o-b-dnw-K (84.8 ix-am-\w), Hmbn (50.6 ix-am-\w), spw B Uv Pz -dn, Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv (35.5-i-X-am-\w), ssivssã vkv (15 ix-am-\w), ^m akyq- n- kv (15.1 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bn ani hf -bmwv t\sn-b-xv. -Ccp-º-bncv Ib- p-axn 25 ix-am\w CSn-hmWv ImWn- -Xv. ]pxn-b-xmbn Ib- p-axn Bcw-`n em n-\-ta-cn- -bn C y DXv]- -߃ v h Unam- mwv Df-f-Xv. {IqtUm-bn hne Db n pw samøw Cd- p-axnbn 21.5 ix-am\w hf sb D m-bp-f-fp. Cd- p-a-xn timsn tumf-dm-wv. AXm-bXv hym]- c-iωn timsn tumf-dmbn ap h j-anxv timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. Ib- p-a-xn-bnse hcp-am\ h [\ hmwnpy- -Ωn-sb- p-dn- p-ff Bi- bv v Abhp hcp-øn-bn- p- v team {_tz-gvkns XI -tbmss C y Ib- p-a-xn-bn Xf A\p-`-h-s p XpS-ßn-b-Xv. ]n osv 2009 \hw-_-dnemwv Ib- p-a-xn ho pw hf -bn-tebv v Xncn p h -Xv timsn tumf-dns hy]m-c-amwv C y \S-Øn-b-Xv. cmpy-øns Pn Un ]nbpss (1.2 e w timsn tumf ) ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw hcp-an-xv am n Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w 2910 timsn tumf-dn-se-øn. CXv dn m Um-Wv. 44 ix-am\w h [-\-bmwv hcp-am-\-øn-ep- m-b-xv. F m Cd- p-axn 17.3 ix-am\w h [-\-tbmss 3470 timsn tumf-dn-se-øn. \S- p-h jw 25 ix-am\w hf tbmss Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w timsn tumf-dn-se-øp-ip-i-bmwv e y-sa v hmwnpy sk{i- dn cmlp Jpf-f ]d-bp- p timsn tumfdpw e y-an-sp- p. bp Fkv, bqtdm- ]y cmpy-ß-fn-te-bv p-ff Ib- p-a-xn-bn t\cnb DW th D m-bn- p-f-fp. C y DXv]- -߃ v ssn\-bn h Unam v hf p hcp- p- v. \S- p-h jw ap -Xn-\m-bncw timsn tumf Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w t\sphm km[n- p-sa v Z s^u-td-j Hm^v C y FIvk-t]m v Atkm-kntb-j\pw A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Gjy, em n Ata-cn-, B{^n taj-e-ifmwv ani hf bv v Imc-W-am-Ip- -sx pw s^u-td-j ]d-bp- p HmsS Gjy cmpy-ß-fn-te-bv p-ff Ib- p-a-xn-bn 55 ix-am\w hf -bmwv hml\ Ib- p-a-xn-bn 30% hf bqtdm-]y hn]-wn-bn Unam v Ipd- n pw C y-bn \n- p-ff hml\ Ib- p-axn 30 ix-am\w hf t\sn. Ccp-N{I hml-\-߃, hmwnpy hml-\-߃ F n-h-bpss klm-btømssbmwv Ib- p-axn hf. Cu Ime-b-f-hn Ib n Ab hml-\-ß-fpss FÆw BsW v skmssk n Hm^v C y Hms m-samss_ am\p-^m-ivn-d-tdgvkv ( knbmw) dnt m n ]d-bp- p. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnse Ib- p-axn bqwn- m-bn-cp- p. F m ]mk- hml-\-ß-fpss Ib- p-axn 1.64 ix-am\w hf tb t\sn-bp-f-fp. Cu Ime-b-f-hn bqwn- mwv hn -Xv. ap h jsø hnev]\ bqwn- m-bn-cp- p. C -gn kmº-øni h j- Øn G hpw IqSp-X Im Ib n Ab- Xv lyq mbv BWv bqwn- v. ap h j-tø- mƒ ix-am\w hf. C y hn]-wn-bnse am v eou-dmb amcp-xn-bpss Ib- p-axn 6.93 ix-am\w CSnthmsS bqwn- mbn Xmgv p. C -gn kmº-øn-i-h j-øn Ccp-N-{I-hml-\-ß-fpsS Ib- p-axn ix-am\w Db -tbmss bqwn- n \n v bqwn- mbn Db p. _PmPv Hmt m, Sn hn Fkv tamt m XpS-ßnb I-\- \n-i-fmwv Cu cwkøv ap n. _PmPv Hmt m-bpss Ib- p-axn ix-am\w Db -tbmss bqwn- m-b-t mƒ Sn hn Fkv tamt m-dns Ib- p-axn ix-am\w hf v bqwn- m-bn. lotdm tlm bpss Ib- p-axn 36.2 ix-am\w hf -tbmss bqwn- n-tebv v Db p. hmwn-pyhml-\-ß-fpss Ib- p-axn ix-am\w Db v bqwn- n-se-øn. ap h j-anxv bqwn- m-bn-cp- p. {Xoho-e Ib- p-axn bqwn- n-tebv v Db p. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnse bqwn- n-t\- mƒ ix-am\w IqSp-X. am{x-hp-a-, C y temi-ønse G hpw thkw hf-cp A`y- c Im hn]-wn-bmbn amdp-i-bm-wv. C y Im hn]wn ix-am\w hf bmwv t\sn-b-xv. C y Unam pw ssn\okv Unam v Ipd-bp- -Xp-amWv C y hn]-wnsb ap \n-c-bn-se- Øn-s -Xv. ssn\okv hf 25 ix-am-\-ambn Ipd- ncn- p-i-bm-wv. ap h jw 40 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp p hf. temi-ønse G hpw henb c m-asø Im hn]- Wnbm bp Fkv Ign- h jw 14 ix-am\w hf tbmss Xncn p h n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. F m bq-tdm- nse G hpw henb Im hn]-wn-bmb P a-\n-bpss Im hnev]\ 16.6 ix-am\w CSn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. \S- p-h jw Im hnev]-\-bn ix-am\w hf {]Xo- n- p- -Xm-bmWv knbmw hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv Bh Øn- p-hm\pw km[y-x-tb-sd-bmsw pw knbmw A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p se kmº-øn-i-am-µy-sø-øp-s v ssn\bpw C ybpw Hmt m samss_ hyh-km-b-øns ap \nc-bn-tebv v FØp-I-bm-bn-cp- p. AtX-k-abw bqtdm- ]v, bp Fkv, P m F n-hn-s-ß-fn A\n- n-x-xzhpw \ne-\n-ev p-i-bm-wv HmsS C y Im hnev]\ {]Xn-h jw e w bqwn- n-tebv v Db-cp-sa- mwv amcpxn kpkp- n-bpss am - nwkv B Uv skbn kv amt\-pnwkv FIvkn-Iyq- ohv Hm^o-k abm v ]co-jns hne-bn-cp- Ø HmsS temi-ønse A p hml\ \n amw cmpy-ß-fn H p amdp-hm-\mwv C y e y-an-sp- -Xv. Ct mƒ temiøv G hpw IqSp-X thkw hf t\sp cmpy-ß-fn-sem- mbn C y amdn-bn-cn- p- p. sndp-im DXv]m-Z\ l mbn amdp-hm\pw C y e yan-sp- p. sndp-im-dp-i-fpss DXv]m-Z-\-Øn C y {_koens\ ]n n c mw ÿm\øv FØn-bn-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. ssn\-bmwv temi-ønse G hpw henb Im \n am-xm- ƒ HmsS temiøv G hpw IqSp-X ImdpIfpff cmpy-ambn C y amdp-sa- mwv BtKmf \nt -]- I-ÿm-]-\-ambn tkmƒuvam kmivkv dnt m v IW- m- p- -Xv. A v timsn Imdp-I-fp- m-ip-sa- mwv hne-bn-cp-ø. ssn\okv hml\ hnev]\ 2.3 timsn-bmipw ssn\-bpss hml-\-hn-ev]\ timsn bqwn- n-se-øp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -sx v ssn\okv C Ukv{Sn B Uv C t^m-ta-j- ssivt\m-fpn sshkv a{ n kp t_m Adn-bn- p se hnev]-\-tb- mƒ 27 ix-am\w hf -bmwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv timsn hml-\-ß-fmwv hn -Xv. Xte h j-tø- mƒ 32.4 ix-am\w IqSp-X. cmpyw hnev]\ bqwn v hf (%) e Øn & ssn\ C y bp Fkv P P a\n & se FÃn-ta v

20 20 VOICE OF WEALTH May 2011 Registered No. KL/EKM/672/ Licence No. KL/CR/EKM/WPP-30/ Reg. No. KERBIL/ 2006/ RN Owned, Printed and Published by George Alexander Muthoot, G343, Panampilly Nagar, Kochi-36 and Printed at Cherrys Printers, for Viani Printers, Kochi. Editor: T.C.Mathew (Responsible for story selection)

2 FUn-t m-dn-b 3 P\-d sk{i- -dn-bpss t]pv 5 sxmgn P-\y-k-Zm-Xp-cX. 21 DØ-c-] w Bbp thzw \ΩpsS ss]xr-i-kzøv. efn-xmw-_ni

2 FUn-t m-dn-b 3 P\-d sk{i- -dn-bpss t]pv 5 sxmgn P-\y-k-Zm-Xp-cX. 21 DØ-c-] w Bbp thzw \ΩpsS ss]xr-i-kzøv. efn-xmw-_ni B]vX Bbp th-z-am-kni Monthly Journal of Ayurveda Medical Association of India May 2012 Vol.19 Issue 5 EDITORIAL BOARD Chief Editor Dr. Sanil Kumar 09946986421 Managing Editor Dr. K.V.Syamlal 09349944767

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