Multilayer Perceptron


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1 Outline Hong Chang Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Machine Learning Methods (Fall 2012)
2 Outline Outline I 1 Introduction 2 Single Perceptron 3 Boolean Function Learning 4
3 Artificial Neural Networ Cognitive scientists and neuroscientists: the aim is to understand the functioning of the brain by building models of the natural neural networs. Machine learning researchers: the aim (more pragmatic) is to build better computer systems based on inspirations from studying the brain. A human brain has: Large number (10 11 ) of neurons as processing units Large number (10 4 ) of synapses per neuron as memory units Parallel processing capabilities Distributed computation/memory High robustness to noise and failure Artificial neural networs (ANN) mimic some characteristics of the human brain, especially with regard to the computational aspects.
4 Perceptron The output f is weighted sum of the inputs x = (x 0, x 1,..., x d ) T : f = d w j x j + w 0 = w T x j=1 where x 0 is a special bias unit with x 0 = 1 and w = (w 0, w 1,..., w d ) T are called the connection weights.
5 What a Perceptron Does Regression vs. classification: To implement a linear discriminant function, we need the threshold function { 1 if a > 0 s(a) = 0 otherwise to define the following decision rule: { C1 if s(w Choose T x) = 1 otherwise C 2
6 Sigmoid Function Instead of using the threshold function to give a discrete output in {0, 1}, we may use the sigmoid function sigmoid(a) = to give a continuous output in (0, 1): exp( a) f = sigmoid(w T x) The output may be interpreted as the posterior probability that the input x belongs to C 1. Perceptron is cosmetically similar to logistic regression and least squares linear regression.
7 K > 2 Outputs K perceptrons, each with a weight vector w : f = d w j x j + w 0 = w T x or j=1 f = Wx where w j is the weight from input x j to output y, and each row of the K (d + 1) matrix W is the weight vector of one perceptron. W performs a linear transformation from a ddimensional space to a K dimensional space.
8 Classification Classification: Choose C if f = max l f l If we need the posterior probabilities as well, we can use softmax to define f as: exp(w T f = x) K l=1 exp(wt l x)
9 Perceptron Learning Learning mode: Online learning: instances seen one by one. Batch learning: whole sample seen all at once. Advantages of online learning: No need to store the whole sample. Can adapt to changes in sample distribution over time. Can adapt to physical changes in system components. The error function is not defined over the whole sample but on individual instances. Starting from randomly initialized weights, the parameters are adjusted a little bit at each iteration to reduce the error without forgetting what was learned previously.
10 Stochastic Gradient Descent If the error function is differentiable, gradient descent may be applied at each iteration to reduce the error. Gradient descent for online learning is also nown as stochastic gradient descent. For regression, the error on a single instance (x (i), y (i) ): E(w x (i), y (i) ) = 1 2 (y (i) f (i) ) 2 = 1 2 (y (i) (w T x (i) )) 2 which gives the following online update rule: w (i) j = η(y (i) f (i) )x (i) j where η is a step size parameter which is decreased gradually in time for convergence.
11 Binary Classification Logistic discrimination for a single instance (x (i), y (i) ), where y (i) = 1 if x (i) C 1 and y (i) = 0 if x (i) C 2, gives the output: f (i) = sigmoid(w T x (i) ) Lielihood: L = (f (i) ) y (i) (1 f (i) (i) 1 y ) Crossentropy error function: E(w x (i), y (i) ) = log L = y (i) log f (i) (1 y (i) ) log(1 f (i) ) Online update rule: w (i) j = η(y (i) f (i) )x (i) j
12 K > 2 Classes Softmax for a single instance (x (i), y (i) ), where y (i) = 1 if x (i) C and 0 otherwise, gives the outputs: = exp(wt x(i) ) l exp(wt l x (i) ) f (i) Lielihood: L = (f (i) (i) )y Crossentropy error function: E({w } x (i), y (i) ) = log L = y (i) log f (i) Online update rule: w (i) j = η(y (i) f (i) (i) )x j
13 Perceptron Learning Algorithm For = 1,..., K For j = 0,..., d w j rand( 0.01, 0.01) Repeat For all (x t, y t ) X in random order For = 1,..., K o 0 For j = 0,..., d Until convergence o o + w j x t j For = 1,..., K f exp(o )/ l exp(o l) For = 1,..., K For j = 0,..., d w j w j + η(y t f )x t j Update=Learning Factor (Desired Output  Actual Output) Input
14 Online Learning Error of Perceptron Theorem (Bloc, 1962, and Novioff, 1962) Let a sequence of examples (x (1), y (1) ),..., (x (N), y (N) ) be given. Suppose that x (i) M for all i, and further that there exists a unitlength vector u ( u 2 = 1) such that y (i) (u T x (i) ) γ for all examples in the sequence (i.e., u T x (i) γ if y (i) = 1 and u T x (i) γ if y (i) = 1, so that u separates the data with a margin of at least γ). Then the total number of mistaes that the perceptron algorithm maes on this sequence is at most (M/γ) 2. Given a training example (x, y) (y { 1, 1}), the perceptron learning rule updates the parameters as follows: If f θ (x) = y, then it maes no change to the parameters. Otherwise, θ θ + yx. Note that bound on the number of errors does not have an explicit dependence on the number of examples N in the sequence, or on the dimension d of the inputs.
15 Convergence of Perceptron Perceptron convergence theorem: If there exists an exact solution (i.e., if the training data set is linearly separable), then the perceptron learning algorithm is guaranteed to find an exact solution in finite number of steps. The number of steps required to achieve convergence could still be substantial. For linearly separable data set, there may be many solutions. For linearly nonseparable data set, the perceptron algorithm will never converge.
16 Illustration of Convergence of Perceptron
17 Learning Boolean AND Learning a Boolean function is a twoclass classification problem. AND function with 2 inputs and 1 output: x 1 x 2 y Perceptron for AND and its geometric interpretation:
18 Learning Boolean XOR A simple perceptron can only learn linearly separable Boolean functions such as AND and OR but not linearly nonseparable functions such as XOR. XOR function with 2 inputs and 1 output: x 1 x 2 y
19 Learning Boolean XOR (2) There do not exist w 0, w 1, w 2 that satisfy the following inequalities: w 0 0 w 2 + w 0 > 0 w 1 + w 0 > 0 w 1 + w 2 + w 0 0 The VC dimension of a line in 2D is 3. With 2 binary inputs there are 4 cases, so there exist problems with 2 inputs that are not solvable using a line.
20 s A multilayer perceptron (MLP) has a hidden layer between the input and output layers. MLP can implement nonlinear discriminants (for classification) and nonlinear regression functions (for regression). We call this a twolayer networ because the input layer performs no computation.
21 Illustration of the capability of a MLP Four functions: (a) f (x) = x 2 ; (b) f (x) = sin(x); (c) f (x) = x ; (d) step function. N = 50 uniformly sampled. 3 hidden units with tahn activation functions, linear output units.
22 Forward Propagation Inputtohidden: z h = sigmoid(w T h x) = exp[ ( d j=1 w hjx j + w h0 )] The hidden units must implement a nonlinear function (e.g., sigmoid or hyperbolic tangent) or else it is equivalent to a simple perceptron. Sigmoid can be seen as a continuous, differentiable version of thresholding. Hiddentooutput: H f = v T z = v h z h + v 0 h=1 Regression: linear output units. Classification: a sigmoid unit (for K = 2) or K output units with softmax (for K > 2).
23 Forward Propagation (2) The hidden units mae a nonlinear transformation from the ddimensional input space to the Hdimensional space spanned by the hidden units. In the new Hdimensional space, the output layer implements a linear function. Multiple hidden layers may be used for implementing more complex functions of the inputs, but learning the networ weights in such deep networs will be more complicated.
24 MLP for XOR Any Boolean function can be represented as a disjunction of conjunctions, e.g., x 1 XOR x 2 = (x 1 AND x 2 ) OR ( x 1 AND x 2 ) which can be implemented by an MLP with one hidden layer.
25 MLP as a Universal Approximator The result for arbitrary Boolean functions can be extended to the continuous case. Universal approximation: An MLP with one hidden layer can approximate any nonlinear function of the input given sufficiently many hidden units.
26 Bacpropagation Learning Algorithm Extension of the perceptron learning algorithm to multiple layers by error bacpropagation from the outputs bac to the inputs: Learning of hiddentooutput weights: lie perceptron learning by treating the hidden units as inputs. Learning of the inputtohidden weights: applying the chain rule to calculate the gradient: E w hj = E f f z h z h w hj
27 MLP Learning for Nonlinear Regression Assuming a single output: f (i) = f (x (i) ) = where z (i) h = sigmoid(w T h x(i) ). Error function over entire sample: H h=1 v h z (i) h + v 0 E(W, v X ) = 1 (y (i) f (i) ) 2 2 Update rule for secondlayer weights: i v h = η i (y (i) f (i) )z (i) h
28 MLP Learning for Nonlinear Regression (2) Update rule for firstlayer weights: w hj = η E w hj = η E f (i) z (i) h f (i) i z (i) w hj h = η (y (i) f (i) )v h z (i) h (1 z(i) h i (i) )x j (y (i) f (i) )v h acts lie the error term for hidden unit h, which is bacpropagated from the output to the hidden unit with the weight v h reflecting the responsibility of the hidden unit. Either batch learning or online learning may be carried out.
29 Example Evolution of regression function and error over time
30 MLP Learning for Nonlinear MultipleOutput Regression Outputs: Error function: f (i) = H h=1 E(W, V X ) = 1 2 v h z (i) h i + v 0 (y (i) f (i) )2 Update rule for secondlayer weights: v h = η i (y (i) f (i) )z(i) h Update rule for firstlayer weights: [ w hj = η i (y (i) f (i) )v h ] z (i) h (1 z(i) h (i) )x j
31 Algorithm Initialize all v h and w hj to rand( 0.01, 0.01) Repeat For all (x t, y t ) X in random order For h = 1,..., H z h sigmoid(w T h xt ) For = 1,..., K f = v T z For = 1,..., K v = η(y t f t )z For h = 1,..., H w h = η( (y t f t )v h)z h (1 z h )x t For = 1,..., K v v + v For h = 1,..., H w h w h + w h Until convergence
32 MLP Learning for Nonlinear MultiClass Discrimination Outputs: o (i) f (i) ) = f (x (i) ) = exp(o(i) l exp(o(i) which approximate the posterior probabilities P(C x (i) ), where = H h=1 v hz (i) h + v 0. Error function: E(W, V X ) = i l ) y (i) log f (i) Update rules: v h = η i w hj = η i (y (i) [ f (i) )z(i) h (y (i) f (i) )v h ] z (i) h (1 z(i) h (i) )x j
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