# Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

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1 Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 8: TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS This lecture will help you understand: Temperature Absolute Zero Internal Energy Heat Quantity of Heat The Laws of Thermodynamics Entropy Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Expansion Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics The rapid progress true Science now makes occasions my regretting sometimes that I was born so soon. It is impossible to imagine the heights to which may be carried, in a thousand years, the power of man over matter. Benjamin Franklin 1

2 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature Temperature is proportional to the average translational kinetic energy per particle in a substance. gas how fast the gas particles are bouncing to and fro liquid how fast particles slide and jiggle past one another solid how fast particles move as they vibrate and jiggle in place Temperature Thermometer measures temperature by expansion or contraction of a liquid (mercury or colored alcohol) reading occurs when the thermometer and the object reach thermal equilibrium (having the same average kinetic energy per particle) infrared thermometers operate by sensing IR radiation 2

3 Temperature Temperature Scale Celsius scale named after Anders Celsius ( ) zero C for freezing point of water to 100 C for boiling point of water Fahrenheit scale named after G. D. Fahrenheit ( ) 32 F for freezing point of water to 212 F for boiling point of water Kelvin scale named after Lord Kelvin ( ) 0 K for freezing point of water to 373 K for boiling point of water zero at absolute zero, same size degrees as Celsius scale Kelvins, rather than degrees are used Temperature There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be the same for both? A. temperature B. thermal energy C. both A and B D. neither A nor B Temperature There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be the same for both? A. temperature B. thermal energy C. both A and B D. neither A nor B Explanation: Average kinetic energy of molecules is the same, which means temperature is the same for both. 3

4 Temperature To say that body A has a higher temperature than body B is to say that body A has more A. thermal energy. B. mass. C. kinetic energy per particle. D. potential energy. Temperature To say that body A has a higher temperature than body B is to say that body A has more A. thermal energy. B. mass. C. kinetic energy per particle. D. potential energy. Absolute Zero As temperature of a gas changes, volume of a gas changes. at zero degrees with pressure constant, volume changes by 1/273 for each degree Celsius Absolute Zero lowest limit of temperature molecules have lost all available kinetic energy 4

5 Internal Energy Internal Energy grand total of energies in a substance, including kinetic and potential energies Heat Heat internal energy transferred from one thing to another due to a temperature difference internal energy in transit Flow of Internal Energy from a high-temperature substance to a low-temperature substance until thermal equilibrium is reached internal energy never flows unassisted from a lowtemperature to a high-temperature substance Heat If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the direction of heat flow will be from the A. warm water to the red hot thumbtack. B. red hot thumbtack to the warm water. C. no heat flow D. not enough information 5

6 Heat If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the direction of heat flow will be from the A. warm water to the red hot thumbtack. B. red hot thumbtack to the warm water. C. no heat flow D. not enough information Quantity of Heat Quantity of Heat measured in joules or calories 4.18 joules of heat are required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree 4.18 joules = 1 calorie Quantity of Heat Energy ratings of foods and fuels are determined from energy released when they are burned. Unit of energy, the Calorie, is common for foods. Heat unit for labeling food kilocalorie or 1000 calories called a Calorie heat needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 C 6

7 Quantity of Heat The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the smaller amount of water A. decreases more. B. increases more. C. does not change. D. not enough information Quantity of Heat The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the smaller amount of water A. decreases more. B. increases more. C. does not change. D. not enough information Quantity of Heat You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4 C. How much will the temperature rise if you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea? A. 0 C B. 2 C C. 4 C D. 8 C 7

8 Quantity of Heat You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4 C. How much will the temperature rise if you add the same amount of heat to a full cup of tea? A. 0 C B. 2 C C. 4 C D. 8 C The Laws of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics movement of heat First law of thermodynamics states that the heat added to a system transforms to an equal amount of some other form of energy more specifically, heat added = increase internal energy + external work done by the system Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The Laws of Thermodynamics Second law of thermodynamics restates direction of heat flow states that heat never spontaneously flows from a cold substance to a hot substance example: in summer, heat flows from the hot air outside into the cooler interior in winter, heat flows from the warm inside to the cold exterior heat can flow from cold to hot only when work is done on the system or by adding energy from another source example: heat pumps, air conditioners 8

9 The Laws of Thermodynamics Third law of thermodynamics No system can reach absolute zero The Laws of Thermodynamics When work is done on a system, for example, compressing air in a tire pump, the temperature of the system A. increases. B. decreases. C. remains unchanged. D. is no longer evident. The Laws of Thermodynamics When work is done on a system, for example, compressing air in a tire pump, the temperature of the system A. increases. B. decreases. C. remains unchanged. D. is no longer evident. Explanation: In accord with the first law of thermodynamics, work input increases the energy of the system. 9

10 The Laws of Thermodynamics Order tends to disorder Restatement of the second law of thermodynamics as in natural processes, highquality energy tends to transform into lowerquality energy order tends to disorder. Processes in nature moving from disorder to order do not occur without external assistance. Entropy Entropy measure of the amount of disorder in a system if disorder increases, then entropy increases can decrease if work is put into the system example: living organisms take in food or extract energy from their surroundings and become more organized Entropy Your locker gets messier each week. In this case, the entropy of your locker is A. increasing. B. decreasing. C. hanging steady. D. nonexistent. 10

11 Entropy Your locker gets messier each week. In this case, the entropy of your locker is A. increasing. B. decreasing. C. hanging steady. D. nonexistent. Comment: If your locker became more organized each week, then entropy would decrease in proportion to the effort expended. Specific Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity defined as the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of the substance by 1 degree Celsius like thermal inertia resistance of a substance to a change in temperature Specific Heat Capacity Different substances have different thermal capacities for storing energy example: takes about 2 minutes to raise the temperature of an iron pot of water to boiling temperature takes less than 1 minute to raise the temperature of the same quantity of water in a silver pot to boiling temperature 11

12 Specific Heat Capacity Equal masses of different materials required different quantities of heat to change their temperatures by a specified number of degrees 1 gram of water requires 1 calorie of energy to raise the temperature 1 degree Celsius 1 gram of iron requires 1/8 as much energy for the same temperature increase. Therefore, water absorbs more heat than iron for the same change in temperature. Water has a higher specific heat. Specific Heat Capacity The high specific heat capacity of water has higher capacity for storing energy than almost any other substance involves various ways that energy can be absorbed increase the jiggling motion of molecules, which raises the temperature increase the amount of internal vibration or rotation within the molecules, which becomes potential energy and doesn t raise temperature water molecules can absorb energy without increasing translational kinetic energy Specific Heat Capacity specific heat affects climate for Europeans, the Atlantic Ocean current carries warm water northeast from the Caribbean regions and retains much of its internal energy long enough to reach the North Atlantic Ocean. Energy released is carried by westerly winds over the European continent. 12

13 Specific Heat Capacity specific heat affects climate (continued) In the United States, winds in North America are mostly westerly. On the West Coast, air moves from the Pacific Ocean to the land. In winter months, the ocean water is warmer than the air. Air blows over the warm water and then moves over the coastal regions. This produces a warm climate. In the East Coast, air moves from the land to the Atlantic Ocean. Land with lower specific heat capacity gets hot in the summer and cool in the winter. Specific Heat Capacity Which has the higher specific heat capacity, water or land? A. Water. B. Land. C. both of the above are the same D. neither of the above Specific Heat Capacity Which has the higher specific heat capacity, water or land? A. Water. B. Land. C. both of the above are the same D. neither of the above Explanation: A substance with small temperature changes for large heat changes has a high specific heat capacity. Water takes much longer to heat up in the sunshine than does land. This difference is a major influence on climate. 13

14 Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion due to rise in temperature of a substance, molecules jiggle faster and move farther apart most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled railroad tracks laid on winter days expand and buckle in hot summer warming metal lids on glass jars under hot water loosens the lid by more expansion of the lid than the jar Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion (continued) plays a role in construction and devices example: use of reinforcing steel with the same rate of expansion as concrete expansion joints on bridges gaps on concrete roadways and sidewalks allow for concrete expansion in the summer and contraction in the winter Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion (continued) different substances expand at different rates example: when the temperature of a bimetallic strip of brass and iron is increased, greater expansion occurs for the brass strip that bends to turn a pointer, to regulate a valve, or to close a switch Bimetallic strips are used in heaters, oven thermometers, refrigerators, and electric toasters. 14

15 Thermal Expansion When stringing telephone lines between poles in the summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to A. sag. B. be taut. C. be close to the ground. D. allow ample space for birds. Thermal Expansion When stringing telephone lines between poles in the summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to A. sag. B. be taut. C. be close to the ground. D. allow ample space for birds. Explanation: Telephone lines are longer in a warmer summer and shorter in a cold winter. Hence, they sag more on hot summer days than in winter. If the lines are not strung with enough sag in summer, they might contract too much and snap during the winter especially when carrying ice. Thermal Expansion Increases in expansion are greater in liquids than in solids example: overflow of gasoline from a car s tank on a hot day reason: gasoline underground is cool, but when placed in the car s tank, it warms and expands 15

16 Thermal Expansion Expansion of water When water becomes ice, it expands. Ice has open-structured crystals resulting from strong bonds at certain angles that increase its volume. This make ice less dense than water. Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion of water As temperature of water at 0 C increases, more of the remaining ice crystals collapse. The melting of these ice crystals further decrease the volume of the water. Two opposite processes occur at the same time contraction and expansion. Volume decreases as ice crystals collapse, while volume increases due to greater molecular motion. The collapsing effect dominates until the temperature reaches 4 C. After that, expansion overrides contraction because most of the ice crystals have melted. Thermal Expansion Volume changes for a 1-gram sample of water. 16

17 Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion of water When ice freezes to become solid ice, its volume increases tremendously. As solid ice cools further, it contracts. Density of ice at any temperature is much lower than the density of water, which is why ice floats on water. Thermal Expansion When a sample of 0 C water is heated, it first A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information Thermal Expansion When a sample of 0 C water is heated, it first A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information Explanation: Water continues to contract until it reaches a temperature of 4 C. With further increase in temperature beyond 4 C, water then expands. 17

18 Thermal Expansion When a sample of 4 C water is cooled, it A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information Thermal Expansion When a sample of 4 C water is cooled, it A. expands. B. contracts. C. remains unchanged. D. not enough information Explanation: Parts of the water will crystallize and occupy more space. 18

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