# Chapter 12 Plate Bending Elements. Chapter 12 Plate Bending Elements

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1 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 1/34 Chapter 12 Plate Bending Elements Learning Objectives To introduce basic concepts of plate bending. To derive a common plate bending element stiffness matrix. To present some plate element numerical comparisons. To demonstrate some computer solutions for plate bending problems. Chapter 12 Plate Bending Elements Learning Objectives To introduce basic concepts of plate bending. To derive a common plate bending element stiffness matrix. To present some plate element numerical comparisons. To demonstrate some computer solutions for plate bending problems.

2 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 2/34 Chapter 12 Plate Bending Elements Learning Objectives To introduce basic concepts of plate bending. To derive a common plate bending element stiffness matrix. To present some plate element numerical comparisons. To demonstrate some computer solutions for plate bending problems. Introduction In this section we will begin by describing elementary concepts of plate bending behavior and theory. The plate element is one of the more important structural elements and is used to model and analyze such structures as pressure vessels, chimney stacks, and automobile parts. A large number of plate bending element formulations exist that would require lengthy chapter to cover.

3 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 3/34 Introduction The purpose in this chapter is to present the derivation of the stiffness matrix for one of the most common plate bending finite elements and then to compare solutions to some classical problems for a variety of bending elements in the literature. Basic Concepts of Plate Bending A plate can be considered the two-dimensional extension of a beam in simple bending. Both plates and beams support loads transverse or perpendicular to their plane and through bending action. A plate is flat (if it were curved, it would be a shell). A beam has a single bending moment resistance, while a plate resists bending about two axes and has a twisting moment. We will consider the classical thin-plate theory or Kirchhoff plate theory.

4 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 4/34 Basic Behavior of Geometry and Deformation Consider the thin plate in the x-y plane of thickness t measured in the z direction shown in the figure below: The plate surfaces are at z = ±t/2, and its midsurface is at z = 0. 1.The plate thickness is much smaller than its inplane dimensions b and c (that is, t << b or c) Basic Behavior of Geometry and Deformation Consider the thin plate in the x-y plane of thickness t measured in the z direction shown in the figure below: If t is more than about one-tenth the span of the plate, then transverse shear deformation must be accounted for and the plate is then said to be thick.

5 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 5/34 Basic Behavior of Geometry and Deformation Consider the thin plate in the x-y plane of thickness t measured in the z direction shown in the figure below: 2. The deflection w is much less than the thickness t (than is, w/t << 1). Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: Loading q causes the plate to deform laterally or upward in the z direction and, the defection w of point P is assumed to be a function of x and y only; that is w = w(x, y) and the plate does not stretch in the z direction.

6 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 6/34 Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: The line a-b drawn perpendicular to the plate surface before loading remains perpendicular to the surface after loading. Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: 1. Normals remain normal. This implies that transverse shears strains yz = 0 and xz = 0. However xy does not equal to zero. Right angles in the plane of the plate may not remain right angles after loading. The plate may twist in the plane.

7 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 7/34 Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: 2. Thickness changes can be neglected and normals undergo no extension. This means that z = 0. Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: 3. Normal stress z has no effect on in-plane strains x and y in the stress-strain equations and is considered negligible.

8 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 8/34 Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: 4. Membrane or in-plane forces are neglected here, and the plane stress resistance can be superimposed later (that is, the constant-strain triangle behavior of Chapter 6 can be superimposed with the basic plate bending element resistance). Kirchhoff Assumptions Consider the differential slice cut from the plate by planes perpendicular to the x axis as show in the figure below: 4. Therefore, the in-plane deflections in the x and y directions at the midsurface, z = 0, are assumed to be zero; u(x, y, 0) = 0 and v(x, y, 0) = 0.

9 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 9/34 Kirchhoff Assumptions Based on Kirchhoff assumptions, at any point P the displacement in the x direction due to a small rotation is: w u z z x At the same point, the displacement in the y direction is: w v z z y The curvatures of the plate are then given as the rate of change of the angular displacements of the normals and defined as: w w 2 w x 2 y 2 xy x y xy Kirchhoff Assumptions Using the definitions for in-plane strains, along with the curvature relationships, the in-plane strain/displacement equations are: w w w x z 2 2 y z 2 xy z x y xy The first of the above equations is used in beam theory. The remaining two equations are new to plate theory.

10 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 10/34 Stress/Strain Relationship Based on the third Kirchhoff assumption, the plane stress equations that relate in-plane stresses to in-plane strains for an isotropic material are: E x 1 2 x y E y 1 2 y x xy G xy Stress/Strain Relationship The in-plane normal stresses and shear stress are shown acting on the edges of the plate shown in figure below: Similar to the stress variation in a beam, the stresses vary linearly in the z direction from the midsurface of the plate.

11 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 11/34 Stress/Strain Relationship The in-plane normal stresses and shear stress are shown acting on the edges of the plate shown in figure below: The transverse shear stresses yz and xz are also present, even though transverse shear deformation is neglected. These stresses vary quadratically through the plate thickness. Stress/Strain Relationship The bending moments acting along the edge of the plate can be related to the stresses by: t/2 t/2 t/2 M z dz M z dz M z dz x x y y xy xy t/2 t/2 t/2

12 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 12/34 Stress/Strain Relationship Substituting strains for stresses gives: t /2 E M z dz x 2 x y /2 1 t t /2 E M z dz y 2 y x /2 1 t t /2 Mxy zg xydz t /2 Stress/Strain Relationship Using the strain/curvature relationships, the moment expression become: D Mx Dx y My Dy x (1 M ) xy xy 2 where D = Et 3 /[12(1-2 )] is called the bending rigidity of the plate. The maximum magnitude of the normal stress on each edge of the plate are located at the top or bottom at z = t/2. 6M For example, it can be shown that: x x 2 t

13 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 13/34 Stress/Strain Relationship The equilibrium equations for plate bending are important in selecting the element displacement fields. The governing differential equations are: Q x Q y q 0 x y M M x xy Qx 0 x y My Mxy Qy 0 y x where q is the transverse distributed loading and Q x and Q y are the transverse shear line loads. Stress/Strain Relationship The transverse distributed loading q and the transverse shear line loads Q x and Q y are the shown below: Q x Q y q 0 x y M x M x y y Mxy Qx y 0 Mxy Qy x 0

14 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 14/34 Stress/Strain Relationship Substituting the moment/curvature expressions in the last two differential equations list above, solving for Q x and Q y, and substituting the results into the first equation listed above, the governing partial differential equation for isotropic, thin-plate bending may be derived as: w 2 w w D q x x y y where the solution to the thin-plate bending is a function of the transverse displacement w. Stress/Strain Relationship Substituting the moment/curvature expressions in the last two differential equations list above, solving for Q x and Q y, and substituting the results into the first equation listed above, the governing partial differential equation for isotropic, thin-plate bending may be derived as: w 2 w w D q x x y y If we neglect the differentiation with respect to the y direction, the above equation simplifies to the equation for a beam and the flexural rigidity D of the plate reduces to the EI of the beam when the Poisson effect is set to zero.

15 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 15/34 Potential Energy of a Plate The total potential energy of a plate is given as: 1 U 2 V x x y y xy xy The potential energy can be expressed in terms of moments and curvatures as: dv 1 U Mxx Myy Mxyxy da 2 A Derivation of a Plate Bending Element Stiffness Numerous finite elements for plates bending have been developed over the years, references cite 88 different elements. In this section, we will introduce the basic12-degree-of-freedom rectangular element shown below. The formulation will be developed consistently with the stiffness matrix and equations for the bar, beam, plane stress/strain elements of previous chapters.

16 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 16/34 Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types Consider the 12-degree-of-freedom plate element shown in the figure below. Each node has 3 degrees of freedom a transverse displacement w in the z direction, a rotation x about the x axis, and a rotation y about the y axis. Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types w i The nodal displacements at node i are: d xi yi where the rotations are related to the transverse displacements by: w w x y y x The negative sign on y is due to the fact that a negative displacement w is required to produce a positive rotation about the y axis. di d j The total element displacement matrix is: d dm d n

17 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 17/34 Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions Since the plate element has 12 degrees of freedom, we select a 12-term polynomial in x and y as: wxy (, ) a1ax 2 ay 3 ax 4 axy 5 ay 6 ax 7 a x y a xy a y a x y a xy The function given above is an incomplete quartic polynomial; however, it is complete up to the third order (first ten terms), and the choice of the two more terms from the remaining five terms of the complete quartic must be made. The choice of x 3 y and y 3 x ensure that we will have continuity in the displacement among the interelement boundaries. Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions Since the plate element has 12 degrees of freedom, we select a 12-term polynomial in x and y as: wxy (, ) a1ax 2 ay 3 ax 4 axy 5 ay 6 ax 7 a x y a xy a y a x y a xy The terms x 4 and y 4 would yield discontinuities along the interelement boundaries. The final term x 2 y 2 cannot be paired with any other term so it is also rejected.

18 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 18/34 Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions Since the plate element has 12 degrees of freedom, we select a 12-term polynomial in x and y as: wxy (, ) a1ax 2 ay 3 ax 4 axy 5 ay 6 ax 7 a x y a xy a y a x y a xy The displacement function approximation also satisfies the basic differential equation over the unloaded part of the plate. In addition, the function accounts for rigid-body motion and constant strain in the plate. However, interelement slope discontinuities along common boundaries of elements are not ensured. Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions To observe these discontinuities in slope, evaluate the polynomial and its slopes along a side or edge. For example, consider side i-j, the function gives: 2 3 w wxy (, ) a1ax 2 ax 4 ax 7 a 2 2 a 4 x 3 a 7 x x w a a 5 x a 8 x a 11 x y The displacement w is cubic while the slope w/x is the same as in beam bending. Based on the beam element, recall that the four constants a 1, a 2,a 4, and a 7 can be defined by invoking the endpoint conditions of w i, w j, yi, and yj. 2

19 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 19/34 Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions To observe these discontinuities in slope, evaluate the polynomial and its slopes along a side or edge. For example, consider side i-j, the function gives: 2 3 w wxy (, ) a1ax 2 ax 4 ax 7 a 2 2 a 4 x 3 a 7 x x w a a 5 x a 8 x a 11 x y Therefore, w and w/x are completely define along this edge. The normal slope w/y is cubic in x: however; only two degrees of freedom remain for definition of this slope while four constant exist a 3, a 5,a 8, and a Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions To observe these discontinuities in slope, evaluate the polynomial and its slopes along a side or edge. For example, consider side i-j, the function gives: 2 3 w wxy (, ) a1ax 2 ax 4 ax 7 a 2 2 a 4 x 3 a 7 x x w a a 5 x a 8 x a 11 x y The normal slope w/y is not uniquely defined and a slope discontinuity occurs. The solution obtained from the finite element analysis using this element will not be a minimum potential energy solution. However, this element has proven to give acceptable results. 2

20 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 20/34 Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions The constant a 1 through a 12 can be determined by expressing the 12 simultaneous equations linking the values of w and its slope at the nodes when the coordinates take their appropriate values. w a x y x xy y x x y xy y x y xy a 2 w x 2y 0 x 2xy 3y x 3xy a3 y x y 0 3x 2xy y 0 3x y y w a12 x or in matrix form as: Pa where [P] is the 3 x 12 first matrix on the right-hand side of the above equation. Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions Next, evaluate the matrix at each node point wi 1 x y x x y y x x y x y y x y x y i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i a xi x 2y 0 x 2x y 3y x 3x y a i i i i i i i i i yi x y 0 3x 2x y y 0 3x y y a i i i i i i i i i w j 1 x y x x y y x x y x y y x y x y j j j j j j j j j j j j j j a yn x y 0 3x n n n 2xy y 0 3x y y a n n n n n n 12 In compact matrix form the above equations are: d Ca 1 Therefore, the constants {a} can be solved for by: a C d

21 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 21/34 Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions Substituting the above expression into the general form of the matrix gives: 1 PC d or N d where [N] = [P][C] -1 is the shape function matrix. Step 3 - Define the Strain (Curvature)/Displacement and Stress (Moment)/Curvature Relationships Recall the general form of the curvatures: w w 2 w x 2 y 2 xy x y xy The curvature matrix can be written as: x 2a4 6a7x2a8y 6a11xy y 2a6 2a9 x6a10y 6a12xy 2 2 xy 2a5 4a8x 4a9y 6a11x 6a12y or in matrix form as: Qa

22 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 22/34 Step 3 - Define the Strain (Curvature)/Displacement and Stress (Moment)/Curvature Relationships The [Q] matrix is the coefficient matrix multiplied by the a s in the curvature matrix equations. a x 2y 0 0 6xy 0 a x 6y 0 6xy a x 4y 0 6x 6y a 12 Therefore: 1 Q a Q C d or B d where: B QC 1 Step 3 - Define the Strain (Curvature)/Displacement and Stress (Moment)/Curvature Relationships The moment/curvature matrix for a plate is given by: M x x y y Mxy xy M M D DBd where the [D] matrix for isotropic materials is: Et [ D]

23 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 23/34 Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations The stiffness matrix is given by the usually form of the stiffness matrix as: T [ k] [ B] [ D][ B] dxdy The stiffness matrix for the four-node rectangular element is of a 12 x 12. The surface force due to distributed loading q acting per unit area in the z direction is: [ F ] [ N ] T q dxdy s s Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations For a uniform load q acting over the surface of an element of dimensions 2b x 2c the forces and moments at node i are: f wi 3 qcb f xi c 3 f yi b with similar expression at nodes j, m, and n.

24 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 24/34 Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations The element equations are given by: fwi k11 k12 k1,12 wi f xi k 21 k22 k2,12 xi f yi k31 k32 k 3,12 yi fwj k41 k42 k4,12 wj f yn k12,1 k12,2 k12,12 yn The remaining steps of assembling the global equations, applying boundary conditions, and solving the equations for nodal displacements and slopes follow the standard procedures introduced in previous chapters. Plate Element Numerical Comparisons The figure to the right shows a number of plate element formulations results for a square plate simply supported all around and subjected to a concentrated vertical load applied at the center of the plate.

25 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 25/34 Plate Element Numerical Comparisons The results show the upper and lower bound solutions behavior and demonstrate convergence of solution for various plate elements. Included in these results is the 12-term polynomial plate element introduced in this chapter. Plate Element Numerical Comparisons The figure on the right shows comparisons of triangular plate formulations for the same centrally loaded simply supported plate. From both figures, we can observe a number of different formulations with results that converge for above and below. Some of these elements produce better results than others.

26 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 26/34 Plate Element Numerical Comparisons The figure below shows results for some selected Mindlin plate theory elements. Mindlin plate elements account for bending deformations and for transverse shear deformation. Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem Consider the clamped plate show below subjected to a 100 lb load applied at the center (let E = 30 x 10 6 psi and = 0.3). The exact solution for the displacement at the center of the plate is w = PL 2 /D. Substituting the values for the variables gives a numerical value of w = in.

27 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 27/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem The table below shows the results of modeling this plate structure using SAP2000 (the educational version allows only 100 nodes) compares to the exact solution. Number of square elements Displacement at the center (in) % error , , Exact Solution Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem The figures below show non-node-averaged contour plot for the normal stress x and y.

28 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 28/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem The next set of plots shows the non-node-averaged moments M x and M y. Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem The next set of plots shows the shear stress xy and the nodeaverage shear stress xy.

29 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 29/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem The next set of plots shows the twisting moment M xy and the node-average twisting moment M xy. Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem Both sets of plots indicate interelement discontinuities for shear stress and twisting moment.

30 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 30/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem However, if the node-average plots are viewed, the discontinuities are smoothed out and not visible. Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem A C-channel section structural steel beam of 2-in. wide flanges, 3 in. depth and thickness of both flanges and web of 0.25 in. is loaded as shown with 100 lb. acting in the y-direction on the free end. Determine the free end deflection and angle of twist.

31 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 31/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem A C-channel section structural steel beam of 2-in. wide flanges, 3 in. depth and thickness of both flanges and web of 0.25 in. is loaded as shown with 100 lb. acting in the y-direction on the free end. Determine the free end deflection and angle of twist. Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem C-channel displacements are shown

32 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 32/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem Maximum stresses in the C-channel (no stress averaging): Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem Maximum stresses in the C-channel (stress averaging):

33 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 33/34 Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem Stresses in the x-direction is: Computer Solution for a Plate Bending Problem Shear stresses in the xy-direction is:

34 CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 12 - Plate Bending Elements 34/34 Problems 21. Do problems 12.1 and 12.5 on pages in your textbook A First Course in the Finite Element Method by D. Logan using SAP2000. End of Chapter 12

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