# Chapter 8: Introduction to Evolutionary Computation

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1 Computational Intelligence: Second Edition

2 Contents

3 Some Theories about Evolution Evolution is an optimization process: the aim is to improve the ability of an organism to survive in dynamically changing and competitive environments Two main theories on biological evolution: Lamarckian ( ) view Darwinian ( ) view

4 Lamarckian Evolution Heredity, i.e. the inheritance of acquired traits Individuals adapt during their lifetimes, and transmit their traits to their offspring Offspring continue to adapt Method of adaptation rests on the concept of use and disuse Over time individuals lose characteristics they do not require and develop those which are useful by exercising them

5 Darwinian Evolution Theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest In a world with limited resources and stable populations, each individual competes with others for survival Those individuals with the best characteristics (traits) are more likely to survive and to reproduce, and those characteristics will be passed on to their offspring These desirable characteristics are inherited by the following generations, and (over time) become dominant among the population During production of a child organism, random events cause random changes to the child organism s characteristics What about Alfred Wallace?

6 Evolutionary Computation Evolutionary computation (EC) refers to computer-based problem solving systems that use computational models of evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, survival of the fittest, and reproduction, as the fundamental components of such computational systems

7 Main Components of an Evolutionary Algorithm Evolution via natural selection of a randomly chosen population of individuals can be thought of as a search through the space of possible chromosome values In this sense, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a stochastic search for an optimal solution to a given problem Main components of an EA: an encoding of solutions to the problem as a chromosome; a function to evaluate the fitness, or survival strength of individuals; initialization of the initial population; selection operators; and reproduction operators.

8 : Algorithm 8.1 Let t = 0 be the generation counter; Create and initialize an n x -dimensional population, C(0), to consist of n s individuals; while stopping condition(s) not true do Evaluate the fitness, f (x i (t)), of each individual, x i (t); Perform reproduction to create offspring; Select the new population, C(t + 1); Advance to the new generation, i.e. t = t + 1; end

9 Evolutionary Computation Paradigms Genetic algorithms model genetic evolution. Genetic programming, based on genetic algorithms, but individuals are programs. Evolutionary programming, derived from the simulation of adaptive behavior in evolution (i.e. phenotypic evolution). Evolution strategies, geared toward modeling the strategic parameters that control variation in evolution, i.e. the evolution of evolution. Differential evolution, similar to genetic algorithms, differing in the reproduction mechanism used. Cultural evolution, which models the evolution of culture Co-evolution, in competition or cooperation

10 The Chromosome Characteristics of individuals are represented by long strings of information contained in the chromosomes of the organism Chromosomes are structures of compact intertwined molecules of DNA, found in the nucleus of organic cells Each chromosome contains a large number of genes, where a gene is the unit of heredity An alternative form of a gene is referred to as an allele

11 The Artificial Chromosome In the context of EC, the following notation is used: Chromosome (genome) Gene Allelle Candidate solution A single variable to be optimized Assignment of a value to a variable Two classes of evolutionary information: A genotype describes the genetic composition of an individual, as inherited from its parents A phenotype is the expressed behavioral traits of an individual in a specific environment

12 Binary Binary-valued variables: x i {0, 1} nx, i.e. each x ij {0, 1} Nominal-valued variables: each nominal value can be encoded as an n d -dimensional bit vector where 2 n d is the total number of discrete nominal values for that variable Continuous-valued variables: map the continuous search space to a binary-valued search space: Each continuous-valued variable is mapped to an n d -dimensional bit vector φ : R (0, 1) n d

13 Binary (cont) Transform each individual x = (x 1,..., x j,..., x nx ) with x j R to the binary-valued individual, b = (b 1,..., b j,..., b nx ) where b j = (b (j 1)nd +1,..., b jnd ) with b l {0, 1} and the total number of bits, n b = n x n d

14 Binary (cont) Decoding each b j back to a floating-point representation: Φ j (b) = x min,j + x max,j x min,j 2 n d 1 That is, use the mapping, ( nd 1 l=1 Φ j : {0, 1} n d [x min,j, x max,j ] b j(nd l)2 l )

15 Binary (cont) Problems with using a binary representation: Conversion form a floating-point value to a bitstring of n d bits has the maximum attainable accuracy x max,j x min,j 2 n d 1 for each vector component, j = 1,..., n x Binary coding introduces Hamming cliffs: Hamming cliff is formed when two numerically adjacent values have bit representations that are far apart 7 10 = vs 8 10 = Large change in solution is needed for small change in fitness

16 Gray Coding In Gray coding, the Hamming distance between the representation of successive numerical values is one For 3-bit representations: Converting binary strings to Gray bit Binary Gray strings: g 1 = b g l = b l 1 b l + b l 1 b l where b l is bit l of the binary number b 1 b 2 b nb Computational Intelligence: Second Edition b is the most significant bit

17 Gray Coding (cont) A Gray code representation, b j can be converted to a floating-point representation using Φ j (b) = x min,j + x n max,j x min,j d 1 n d l 2 n b d 1 (j 1)nd +q mod 2 2 l l=1 q=1

18 Other s Other representations: Real-valued representations, where x ij R Integer-valued representations, where x ij Z Discrete-valued representations, where x ij dom(x j ) Tree-based representations as used in Genetic Programming Mixed representations

19 Initialization A population of candidate solutions is maintained Values are randomly assigned to each gene from the domain of the corresponding variable Uniform random initialization is used to ensure that the initial population is a uniform representation of the entire search space What are the consequences of the size of the initial population? Computational complexity per generation Number of generations to converge Quality of solutions obtained Exploration ability

20 Survival of the Fittest Based on the Darwinian model, individuals with the best characteristics have the best chance to survive and to reproduce A fitness function is used to determine the ability of an individual of an EA to survive The fitness function, f, maps a chromosome representation into a scalar value: f : Γ nx R where Γ represents the data type of the elements of an n x -dimensional chromosome

21 Objective Function The fitness function represents the objective function, Ψ, which represents the optimization problem Sometimes the chromosome representation does not correspond to the representation expected by the objective function, in which case f : S C Φ SX Ψ R Υ R+ S C represents the search space of the objective function Φ represents the chromosome decoding function Ψ represents the objective function Υ represents a scaling function For example: f : {0, 1} n b Φ R n x Ψ R Υ R+

22 Objective Function Types Types of objective functions, resulting in different problem types: Unconstrained objective functions, but still subject to boundary constraints Constrained objective functions Multi-objective functions, where more than one objective has to be optimized Dynamic or noisy objective functions

23 Operators Relates directly to the concept of survival of the fittest The main objective of selection operators is to emphasize better solutions steps in an EA: of the new population of parents during reproduction Selective pressure: Takeover time Relates to the time it requires to produce a uniform population Defined as the speed at which the best solution will occupy the entire population by repeated application of the selection operator alone High selective pressure reduces population diversity

24 Random Each individual has a probability of 1 n s to be selected n s is the size of the population No fitness information is used Random selection has the lowest selective pressure

25 Proportional Biases selection towards the most-fit individuals A probability distribution proportional to the fitness is created, and individuals are selected by sampling the distribution, ϕ s (x i (t)) = f Υ (x i (t)) ns l=1 f Υ(x l (t)) n s is the total number of individuals in the population ϕ s (x i ) is the probability that x i will be selected f Υ (x i ) is the scaled fitness of x i, to produce a positive floating-point value

26 Proportional : Sampling Methods Roulette wheel selection: Assuming maximization and normalized fitness values (Algorithm 8.2): Let i = 1, where i denotes the chromosome index; Calculate ϕ s (x i ); sum = ϕ s (x i ); Choose r U(0, 1); while sum < r do i = i + 1, i.e. advance to the next chromosome; sum = sum + ϕ s (x i ); end Return x i as the selected individual; High selective pressure

27 Proportional : Stochastic Universal Sampling Uses a single random value to sample all of the solutions by choosing them at evenly spaced intervals Like roulette wheel sampling, construct a wheel with sections for each of the n s chromosomes Instead of one hand that is spun once for each sample, a multi-hand is spunt just once The hand has n s arms, equally spaced The number of times chromosome i is sampled is the number of arms that fall into the chromosomes section of the wheel

28 Tournament Selects a group of n ts individuals randomly from the population, where n ts < n s Select the best individual from this tournament For crossover with two parents, tournament selection is done twice Tournament selection limits the chance of the best individual to dominate Large n ts versus small n ts Selective pressure depends on the value of n ts

29 Rank-Based Uses the rank ordering of fitness values to determine the probability of selection is independent of absolute fitness Non-deterministic linear sampling: Selects an individual, x i, such that i U(0, U(0, n s 1)) The individuals are sorted in decreasing order of fitness value Rank 0 is the best individual Rank n s 1 is the worst individual

30 Rank-Based (cont) Linear ranking: Assumes that the best individual creates ˆλ offspring, and the worst individual λ 1 ˆλ 2 and λ = 2 ˆλ The selection probability of each individual is calculated as ϕ s (x i (t)) = λ + (f r (x i (t))/(n s 1))(ˆλ λ) n s where f r (x i (t)) is the rank of x i (t)

31 Rank-Based (cont) Nonlinear ranking: ϕ s (x i (t)) = 1 e fr (x i (t)) β ϕ s (x i ) = ν(1 ν) np 1 fr (x i ) f r (x i ) is the rank of x i β is a normalization constant ν indicates the probability of selecting the next individual Rank-based selection operators may use any sampling method to select individuals

32 Boltzmann Based on the thermodynamical principles of simulated annealing probability: ϕ(x i (t)) = e f (x i (t))/t (t) T (t) is the temperature parameter An initial large value ensures that all individuals have an equal probability of being selected As T (t) becomes smaller, selection focuses more on the good individuals Can use any sampling method

33 Boltzmann (cont) Boltzmann selection can be used to select between two individuals For example, if U(0, 1) > e (f (x i (t)) f (x i (t)))/t (t) then x i (t) is selected; otherwise, x i(t) is selected

34 (µ +, λ)- Deterministic rank-based selection methods used in evolutionary strategies µ indicates the number of parents λ is the number of offspring produced from each parent (µ, λ)-selection selects the best µ offspring for the next population (µ + λ)-selection selects the best µ individuals from both the parents and the offspring

35 Elitism Ensures that the best individuals of the current population survive to the next generation The best individuals are copied to the new population without being mutated The more individuals that survive to the next generation, the less the diversity of the new population

36 Hall of Fame Similar to the list of best players of an arcade game For each generation, the best individual is selected to be inserted into the hall of fame Contain an archive of the best individuals found from the first generation The hall of fame can be used as a parent pool for the crossover operator

37 Types of Operators Reproduction: process of producing offspring from selected parents by applying crossover and/or mutation operators Crossover is the process of creating one or more new individuals through the combination of genetic material randomly selected from two or more parents Mutation: The process of randomly changing the values of genes in a chromosome The main objective is to introduce new genetic material into the population, thereby increasing genetic diversity Mutation probability and step sizes should be small Proportional to the fitness of the individual? Start with large mutation probability, decreased over time?

38 When to Stop Limit the number of generations, or fitness evaluations Stop when population has converged: Terminate when no improvement is observed over a number of consecutive generations Terminate when there is no change in the population Terminate when an acceptable solution has been found Terminate when the objective function slope is approximately zero

39 EC vs CO The search process: CO uses deterministic rules to move from one point in the search space to the next point EC uses probabilistic transition rules EC applies a parallel search of the search space, while CO uses a sequential search Search surface information: CO uses derivative information, usually first-order or second-order, of the search space to guide the path to the optimum EC uses no derivative information, but fitness information

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