Don Robbins, Andrew Morrison, Rick Dalgarno Autodesk, Inc., Laramie, Wyoming. Abstract


 Lenard Hawkins
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 PROGRESSIVE FAILURE SIMULATION OF ASMANUFACTURED SHORT FIBER FILLED INJECTION MOLDED PARTS: VALIDATION FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES AND COMBINED LOAD CONDITIONS Don Robbins, Andrew Morrison, Rick Dalgarno Autodesk, Inc., Laramie, Wyoming Abstract Short fiber filled injection molded plastic parts are widely used in industrial applications due to their enhanced stiffnesstoweight and strengthtoweight ratios compared to homogeneous plastics and metals. Injection molding simulation software packages can be used to predict the asmanufactured configuration for such parts which includes the distribution of the fiber orientation tensor and fiber volume fraction throughout the part, in addition to the warped shape of the ejected, roomtemperature part. In order to facilitate subsequent nonlinear (progressive failure) structural simulation of the asmanufactured, short fiber filled part, Autodesk has developed new software to seamlessly link the results of injection molding simulation with nonlinear structural response simulation that features a multiscale progressive failure model for short fiber filled plastics and explicitly accounts for the spatial distribution of fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction. The theoretical foundations and capabilities of the new software are described in a companion paper. The present paper describes the process of validating the computation methodology against novel biaxial tensile data obtained with cruciform specimens. Introduction The use of short fiber reinforcing fillers has become common place in an effort to achieve higher stiffnesstoweight and higher strengthtoweight ratios for injection molded plastic parts. Modern software tools such as Moldflow efficiently and accurately predict the orientation of the reinforcing fibers throughout the molded part, in addition to predicting the warped shape of the room temperature part after ejection from the mold. However, to produce optimal designs for injection molded parts, the designer must often consider the inservice thermomechanical performance characteristics of the part. For injection molded plastic parts that contain short fiber reinforcing fillers, prediction of the mechanical response is complicated by the fact that the elastic, plastic, and rupture responses of the composite material are highly anisotropic due to the local orientation of the reinforcing fibers [1], and these local fiber directions can vary throughout the injection molded part due to spatial variation of flow conditions during the injection molding process [2]. Thus an accurate simulation of the mechanical response of a fiberfilled, injection molded part requires a model that can 1) accurately represent the anisotropic elastic, plastic and rupture response of the composite material as influenced by the local fiber direction, and 2) accurately account for the variation of local fiber direction throughout the part [1]. To facilitate nonlinear structural analysis of the asmanufactured configuration of short fiber filled injection molded parts, Autodesk is currently developing software that provides a seamless transition from Moldflow s injection molding simulation to the nonlinear structural response simulation provided by Autodesk Helius PFA (Progressive Failure Analysis). The key features of this simulation methodology include: Page 1
2 1. Automated mapping of the injection molding simulation predicted fiber orientation distribution and fiber volume fraction distribution onto the finite element mesh that will be used for the nonlinear structural response simulation, 2. Enhancement of the structural response simulation with a multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model for short fiber filled plastic materials that accounts for plasticity and rupture of the matrix constituent material, resulting in a composite material that exhibits an anisotropic, nonlinear response, and 3. A robust material characterization process that uses relatively simple, measured experimental data of the short fiber filled plastic material to fit the parameters of the multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model. The capabilities, limitations and theoretical foundations of the new software are fully described in a companion paper by Kenik et al. [3] along with a discussion of the method required to use the software. The present paper describes the process of validating the methodology against novel biaxial tension data obtained with cruciform specimens that are machined from short fiber filled injection molded plaques. Sequence for Simulating the AsManufactured Configuration The Moldflow software package is used to simulate the injection molding process for the short fiber filled plastic part of interest. In particular, the injection molding simulation is used to predict the spatial distribution of the fiber orientation tensor in the short fiber filled plastic part. The 2 nd order fiber orientation tensor at a point essentially provides a statistical description (in the continuum sense) of the orientation of fibers that lie in the immediate neighborhood of the point in question [4] and thus exerts a profound influence on the structural properties of the composite material. After simulating the actual injection molding process for a particular specimen, the predicted fiber orientation tensor distribution is mapped onto the finite element mesh that will be used to simulate the mechanical response of the specimen. During the structural response simulation, the fiber orientation tensor is used to operate on the constitutive matrix of a comparable idealized composite material that contains perfectly aligned fibers in order to compute the anisotropic stiffness matrix of the actual composite material with the specified fiber orientation distribution (a process referred to as fiber orientation averaging [2]), and this process has been validated by Gustev et al. [5]. Multiscale Plasticity and Rupture of the Short Fiber Filled Plastic Material Under mechanical loading, short fiber filled injection molded plastic parts typically exhibit a significant amount of plasticity prior to final rupture. However, both the degree of plasticity exhibited by the material and the final rupture load become strongly directionally dependent as the degree of fiber alignment increases from a random fiber orientation [6]. In this case, the term directionally dependent refers to the fact that the material response depends on the direction of the loading relative to the average direction of the reinforcing fibers. Furthermore, since the reinforcing fibers are short, the filled plastic material is able to rupture without actually breaking any of the reinforcing fibers; i.e., rupture occurs primarily by tearing of the plastic matrix material with some degree of short fiber pullout [7,8]. Based on the preceding description of the response characteristics of the short fiber filled plastic material, a multiscale material model was developed. The companion paper by Kenik et al. [3] provides a complete mathematical description of the material model which will not be repeated here for brevity sake. However, it is useful to list the assumptions and constraints that were employed in developing the model: Page 2
3 The short reinforcing fibers do not exhibit any plasticity or rupture, rather the fibers exhibit a simple linear elastic response, The plastic matrix constituent exhibits both plasticity and rupture, The idealized model s matrix plasticity and matrix rupture are intended to also account for any fiber/matrix debonding that occurs in the real material, All nonlinearity exhibited by the composite material is due to nonlinearity (plasticity and rupture) in the plastic matrix material, Plasticity and rupture of the plastic matrix constituent are driven by stress in the plastic matrix constituent as opposed to being driven by the homogenized stress in the composite material. Material Characterization In order to use the multiscale material model that was discussed in the previous section, we must first determine the value of the model s coefficients by fitting the model to a collection of experimental data for the material in question. Ideally, to allow for a robust, definitive fitting of the model s coefficients, the collection of experimental data should cover the full range of behaviors that can be exhibited by the material. However, from a practical point of view, it is highly desirable to limit both the number of different test types that have to be conducted and the complexity of the tests that have to be conducted. For the present model, good fits can be obtained by using uniaxial tensile tests that are conducted to complete rupture. The tensile tests are performed using ASTM Type I tensile specimens that are cut from rectangular injection molded plaques. In order to obtain a sufficiently broad range of material response, uniaxial tensile tests are performed on specimens that are cut at three different orientations relative to the flow direction in the injection molded plaque, namely, 0 (flow direction), 90 (crossflow direction), and 45 relative to the flow and crossflow directions. Figure 1 shows measured uniaxial tensile testtofailure data for the Extron 3019 HS material (30% glass fiber filled) that is used in this study. ASTM Type I tensile test specimens were cut from rectangular injection molded plaques that are 3mm thick and exhibit a well defined flow direction and crossflow direction that governs the orientation of the short glass fibers in the plaque. The tensile test coupons are cut at three different orientations relative to the injection flow direction, namely, 0 (flow direction), 90 (crossflow direction), and 45 relative to the flow and crossflow directions. The tensile test data in Figure 1 was taken at an imposed uniaxial strain rate of 0.05 (mm/mm)/min and the last data point in each curve was taken just prior to rupture of the specimen. Note that all three load directions show significant levels of plastic response prior to final rupture. Figure 1 also shows that the stiffness and strength of the fiber filled material are highly dependent on the direction of loading relative to the dominant fiber direction. Further, it should be emphasized that this particular short fiber filled plastic is somewhat unusual in that the strain to failure for loading in the flow (0 ) direction is actually larger than the strain to failure for loading in the crossflow (90 ) direction. Page 3
4 flow direction crossflow direction Uniaxial Stress (Mpa) degree  Measured 45 degree  Measured 90 degree  Measured Uniaxial Strain (mm/mm) Figure 1. Collection of measured tensile testtofailure data that is used to fit the coefficients of the multiscale material model. The material characterization process is carried out in three steps. The first step is to determine the elastic coefficients of the fiber and matrix constituent materials. Specifically, we determine the matrix and fiber moduli (denoted E m and E f respectively) and the matrix and fiber Poisson ratios (denoted µ m and µ f respectively) that cause the material model to accurately match the first few data points of all three measured material response curves (0, 45 and 90 ). Once the elastic coefficients are determined, the second step is to determine the matrix constituent s four plasticity coefficients (σ o, n, α, β, see Eqs. 18 in the companion paper [3]) that cause the multiscale material model to accurately represent the full response history of all three tensile tests (0, 45 and 90 ). The final phase of the material characterization process is to determine the effective strength S eff of the matrix constituent material (see Eq. 9 in the companion paper [3]) that causes the matrix rupture criterion to be triggered at the rupture loads that were measured in the three tensile tests. Page 4
5 Figure 2 shows the results of fitting the multiscale material model to the 0, 90, and 45 tensile test data for the Extron 3019 HS (30% glass filled) material. As seen in Figure 2, the fitted material model closely matches the elastoplastic response and the rupture load for all three load orientations (0, 90, and 45 ). Table 1 lists the fitted coefficients for the Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) material. As seen in Table 1, the fiber modulus of 22 GPa is rather low compared to the expected modulus of glass fibers which typically fall in the range of GPa. However, the constituent properties shown in Table 1 are in situ properties that cause the micromechanical model to reproduce the measured properties of the composite material. It should be noted that the micromechanical model always represents certain simplifications of the real composite material, e.g., the current micromechanical model assumes perfect bonding between the short fibers and the plastic matrix material. Consequently, the in situ constituent properties must be different from bulk constituent properties in order to compensate for any simplifications or inaccuracies that are inherent in the micromechanical model degree  Measured 0 degree  Predicted 45 degree  Measured 45 degree  Predicted 90 degree  Measured 90 degree  Predicted 70 Uniaxial Stress (Mpa) Uniaxial Strain (mm/mm) Figure 2. Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) Comparison of measured and predicted responses for tensile tests to failure at three different load orientations. Page 5
6 Table 1. Fitted material model coefficients for Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) Elasticity coefficients for the matrix constituent material: E m = 3251 MPa, µ m = Elasticity coefficients for the fiber constituent material: E f = MPa, µ f = Plasticity coefficients for the matrix constituent material: n = 8.24, σ o = 38.2 MPa, α = 1.43, β = 1.03 λ m,i = 0.85 Effective strength of the matrix constituent material: S eff = 43.8 MPa After the multiscale material model s coefficients have been determined by fitting the model to the simple 0, 90, and 45 uniaxial tensile test data, the resulting material model is validated by using it to simulate the failure of more complex cruciform specimens that are loaded in biaxial tension. Figure 3 shows the inplane geometry of the biaxial cruciform specimen and the applied loading. The inplane loads Fx and Fy can be applied at different ratios to create an entire range of biaxial tensile load scenarios. Figure 4 shows the thickness dimension of the biaxial cruciform specimen. Note that the gauge section thickness is 1 mm, while the thickness of the load arms is 3mm. Each biaxial cruciform specimen is cut from a 3mm thick, rectangular plaque that is injection molded. The central gauge section of the biaxial cruciform specimen is then machined down to a thickness of 1mm by removing equal amounts of material from the top and bottom surfaces of the injection molded plaque. Figure 5 shows the finite element mesh used to simulate the progressive failure of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen. In this study, 8node, 3D hexahedral elements are used throughout the model. The finite element model is used to simulate six different Fx/Fy load ratios in order to define the biaxial failure surface of the Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) material. Note that during the injection molding process, the orientation of the short glass fibers will vary through the thickness of the plaque. Near the surface of the plaque, the fibers tend to be strongly aligned in the flow direction, while the inner core of the part tends to exhibit less fiber alignment (i.e., a more random distribution of fiber orientation). Consequently, it is critical to accurately map the predicted fiber orientation tensor from the injection molding simulation mesh of the rectangular plaque to the structural response simulation mesh of the cruciform specimen. Page 6
7 F y Y X L G = 24mm L = 109mm F x L = 109mm Figure 3. Geometry of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen, showing the overall specimen length, gauge section length, tensile load arms, fillet regions and coordinate system. Z 3 mm 1 mm X Closeup of mesh density in the tapered region L G = 24mm L = 109mm Figure 4. Thickness geometry of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen, showing the 1mm thick gauge section and 3mm thick load arms. Page 7
8 closeup of fillet region Figure 5. Finite element mesh of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen showing a closeup view of the fillet region. 8node, 3D hexahedral elements are used throughout the mesh. The characterized multiscale material model is used in a progressive failure finite element simulation of the cruciform specimen for six different biaxial load ratios. In each case, the tensile loads were applied as imposed displacement increments at the ends of the load arms. The load increment size was chosen so that the specimen could sustain approximately fifty load increments before global fracture of the specimen occurred. Qualitatively speaking, the predicted response of each of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimens was quite similar. In each simulation, the matrix constituent material undergoes considerable plastic deformation within those regions of the specimen that are most highly stressed (e.g., the filleted corners and the thin square gauge section). As local plastic deformation evolves, the stiffness of the matrix constituent decreases, and consequently the stiffness of the composite material decreases, causing localized load redistribution to occur in the finite element model. As the applied loads continue to increase, the stress state in the matrix constituent will eventually satisfy the matrix rupture criterion at some location within the model, at which time the stiffness of the ruptured composite material is reduced to a very low level. For the biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the predicted fracture process is quite sudden, i.e., once local rupture occurs, the continuing fracture process is unstable and the fracture surface very rapidly spans the specimen resulting in complete global failure. This agrees with the actual experimental specimens where the fracture process appeared to be instantaneous. Page 8
9 It should be emphasized that the set of six biaxially loaded cruciform specimens exhibit several challenging characteristics for progressive failure simulation validation. First, the biaxial cruciform specimens are subjected to an entire range of different global (Fx/Fy) load ratios that lead to complex local stress states dominated by various combinations of inplane stress components σ xx, σ yy and σ xy. Second, the biaxial cruciform specimens are geometrically complex. Specifically, the biaxial cruciform specimens contain both inplane and outofplane fillet regions that produce a nonhomogeneous stress and strain field with moderate stress concentrations, regardless whether the loading on the specimen is uniaxial or biaxial. To illustrate the nonhomogeneous stress field exhibited by the cruciform specimen, Figure 6 shows the distribution of von Mises stress predicted in a cruciform specimen when subjected to a simple uniaxial load case (Fy>0, Fx=0). As seen in Figure 6, the stress field is quite complex, and there are nine different local maxima that are clearly identifiable. Figure 6. Distribution of von Mises stress predicted in cruciform specimen when subjected to the simple load case Fy>0, Fx=0. Nine different local maxima are clearly identifiable. Figure 7 shows the predicted rupture loads for the biaxial cruciform models computed at six different biaxial (Fx/Fy) load ratios. Also shown in Figure 6 are the measured rupture loads for the actual biaxial cruciform specimens at five different biaxial (Fx/Fy) load ratios labeled A through E. Note that the measured results contain two or three replicates at each load ratio to show the amount of scatter inherent in the test data. As seen in Figure 7, the predicted biaxial failure surface very closely matches both the size and shape of the measured biaxial failure surface. In particular, note that the model captures the strengthening effect that is observed when some level of flow direction (Y) loading accompanies a high level of crossflow direction (X) loading. Page 9
10 Flow Stress  Sy (MPa) E Measured Predicted CrossFlow Stress  Sx (MPa) Figure 7. Comparison of predicted and measured biaxial rupture loads for cruciform specimens made from Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) injection molded plaques. D C A B Figure 8 shows the predicted net load vs. imposed displacement for specimen A (biaxial load ratio Fx>0, Fy=0). The nonlinear response seen in Figure 7 is typical of all six simulated specimens and clearly shows significant and continual softening of the specimen prior to final rupture. The specimen softening that occurs prior to final rupture is caused by plasticity in the matrix constituent material which is fairly localized in the most highly stressed regions of the specimen (e.g., the filleted corners and the thin square gauge section). Figure 9 contains closeup views of the gauge section of specimen A (biaxial load ratio Fx>0, Fy=0) showing the predicted evolution of effective plastic strain in the matrix constituent at points 16 labeled on the load/displacement curve in Figure 8. As seen in Figure 9, the effective plastic strain exceeds 3% in the filleted corners prior to specimen rupture, while an extensive portion of the thin square gauge section exceeds 2% effective plastic strain prior to specimen rupture. Page 10
11 Net Specimen Load (N) specimen rupture Imposed Axial Elongation (mm) Figure 8. Predicted net load vs. imposed displacement for specimen A (Fx>0, Fy=0) showing nonlinear response due to localized plasticity and global rupture of the specimen. 1 4 effective plastic strain Figure 9. Closeup views of the gauge section of specimen A (Fx>0, Fy=0) showing the predicted evolution of effective plastic strain in the matrix constituent at points 16 labeled on the load/displacement curve in Figure 7. Page 11
12 As seen earlier in Figure 7, the rupture loads were predicted quite accurately across the entire range of biaxial load ratios. As mentioned earlier, the actual specimen rupture process (or fracture process) is unstable; once localized tearing initiates within the specimen, it immediately proceeds to grow across the specimen, resulting in global fracture. Consequently, the entire fracture process is predicted to occur within a single load increment. Figures 10 through 14 show a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for the cruciform specimens at five different biaxial load ratios that were labelled in Figure 7 as points A,B,C,D,E respectively. Figure 10 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectory (fracture surface) for biaxial load ratio A (i.e., the case Fx>0, Fy=0, or loading only in the crossflow direction). In the image of the finite element model seen in Figure 10, the red region indicates the location of ruptured material, while the blue region indicates unruptured material. Note that the model correctly predicts that the fracture surface runs from fillet to fillet, effectively tearing one of the load arms off at the attachment point. Figure 11 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio B (i.e., the case Fx/Fy = 2.3). Again, the model correctly identifies the fracture surface observed in the experimental specimens, namely, the fracture surface runs from fillet to fillet, effectively tearing the crossflow direction load arm off at the attachment point. Figure 12 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio C (i.e., the case Fx/Fy = 0.8). Note that for load ratio C, the two experimental specimens shown in Figure 12 exhibit different fracture trajectories, possibly suggesting that the load ratio Fx/Fy=1.2 is near the transition between a diagonal fracture and a fracture that simply tears one of the horizontal load arms off. The finite element model predicts that the dominant fracture trajectory simply tears one of the horizontal load arms off (similar to the fracture shown in the experimental specimen in the upper left corner of Figure 12); however, notice that the finite element model also shows very localized, isolated zones of rupture at three of the four fillets, suggesting that the model senses that the specimen also has a tendency toward a diagonal fracture. Figure 13 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio D (i.e., the case Fx/Fy = 1.7). Note that for load ratio D, the two experimental specimens shown in Figure 13 exhibit different fracture trajectories, possibly suggesting that the load ratio Fx/Fy=0.6 is near the transition between a diagonal fracture and a fracture that simply tears one of the vertical load arms off. The finite element model predicts that the dominant fracture trajectory simply tears one of the vertical load arms off (similar to the fracture shown in the experimental specimen in the upper right corner of Figure 13); however, notice that the finite element model also shows two very small diagonal fractures (one from each of the lower fillets), suggesting that the model senses that the specimen also has a tendency toward a diagonal fracture. Page 12
13 Figure 14 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio E (i.e., the case of loading only in the flow direction, or Y direction). The single experimental specimen shown in Figure 14 is representative of the fracture observed in all three replicates of this load ratio where one of the vertical load arms is simply torn off at the attachment point. However, the finite element model for specimen E incorrectly predicted a diagonal fracture (as shown in the upper right hand corner of Figure 14). The relatively coarse load incrementation scheme was suspected to be the cause of the incorrect fracture trajectory predicted by the model, so the specimen was simulated a second time using a more refined load incrementation scheme (i.e., the new load increment size was 1/10 the original load increment size). As seen in the lower right corner of Figure 14, reducing the load increment size resulted in the correct fracture path being predicted, without any significant change to the predicted fracture load level. This result prompted the authors to retest several of the biaxial load ratios using smaller load increments. In all cases tested, the reduced load increment size did not significantly change the rupture load level or the fracture trajectory. A Y X Figure 10. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point A in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 13
14 B Figure 11. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point B in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 14
15 C Figure 12. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point C in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction D Figure 13. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point D in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 15
16 E Y X Original coarse load incrementation F y > 0 F x = 0 Correct rupture trajectory via refined load incrementation Figure 14. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point E in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Finally, let us consider the change in fracture trajectory that is observed in the actual cruciform test specimens as the biaxial load ratio is changed. The lower half of Figure 15 shows the complete collection of measured rupture loads and simulated rupture loads. Based solely on the fracture trajectories observed in the actual test specimens, one can divide the biaxial load spectrum into five different fracture trajectory sections shown in red in the lower half of Figure 15. Notice that none of the experimentally tested load ratios produced a consistent diagonal fracture pattern, thus the middle section (labeled diagonal fracture ) is void of any experimental data points. However, one of the simulated load ratios does fall clearly in the middle of the diagonal fracture region. The upper half of Figure 15 shows the fracture trajectory predicted in the finite element model that was biaxially loaded at a ratio of Fx/Fy=1.2, and the predicted fracture process is dominated by a diagonal fracture path consistent with expectation. Thus it can be concluded that the finite element model is successful in discerning the change in final fracture path as a function of biaxial load ratio. Page 16
17 vertical arm torn off E D C A B horizontal arm torn off Figure 15. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point E in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 17
18 Conclusions Autodesk has developed software for short fiber filled, injection molded plastic parts that provides a seamless transition from the injection molding simulation to the nonlinear structural response simulation. Specifically, the software provides a seamless link between Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) and Autodesk Helius PFA. The key features of this software include: Automated mapping of the Moldflowpredicted fiber orientation distribution and fiber volume fraction distribution onto the finite element mesh that will be used for the Helius PFA nonlinear structural response simulation, Enhancement of Helius PFA with a multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model for short fiber filled plastic materials that accounts for plasticity and rupture of the matrix constituent material, resulting in a composite material that exhibits an anisotropic, nonlinear response, and A robust material characterization process that requires only relatively simple, measured uniaxial tensile data of the short fiber filled plastic material to fit the parameters of the multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model. The multiscale, progressive failure, elastoplastic material model was characterized for Extron 3019 HS material (30% glass fiber filled) using uniaxial tensile test data that was taken at three different orientations relative to the flow direction. The characterized material model was then used to predict the progressive failure response of biaxially loaded cruciform specimens that were made from the same Extron 3019 HS material. The finite element simulation of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimens was shown to accurately predict the rupture loads and fracture trajectories for an entire range of biaxial load ratios. Bibliography 1. Nguyen, B.N, Bapanapalli, S.K., Holbery, J.D., Smith, M.T., V. Kunc, V., Frame, B.J., Phelps, J.H., and Tucker, C.L. III, (2008) Fiber Length and Orientation Distributions in LongFiber InjectionMolded Thermoplastics Part I: Modeling of Microstructure and Elastic Properties, Journal of Composite Materials, 42: (1994) Flow and Rheology in Polymer Manufacturing, Ed: S.G. Advani, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 3. Kenik, D., Robbins, D., Morrison, A., and Gies, J., Bridging The Gap: AsManufactured Structural Simulation Of Injection Molded Plastics, Society of Plastics Engineers, Automotive Composites Conference, Sept. 911, 2015, Novi, MI. 4. Advani, S. and Tucker, C.L. III, (1987) The Use of Tensors to Describe and Predict Fiber Orientation in ShortFiber Composites, Journal of Rheology, 31: Gusev, A., Heggli, M., Lusti, H.R. and Hine, P.J. (2002) Orientation Averaging for Stiffness and Thermal Expansion of Short Fiber Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 4, No. 12, pp Yang, Q.S. and Qin, Q.H. (2001) Fiber Interactions and Effective ElasticPlastic Properties of Short Fiber Composites, Composite Structures, 54: Meraghni, F. and Benzeggagh, M.L. (1995) Micromechanical modeling of matrix degradation in randomly discontinuousfibre composites. Composite Science and Technology, 55: Meraghni, F., Blakeman, C.J., Benzeggagh, M.L. (1996) Effect of interfacial decohesion on stiffness reduction in a random discontinuousfibre composite containing matrix microcracks. Comp. Sci. and Tech., 56: Page 18
FROM PROCESS MODELING TO ELASTIC PROPERTY PREDICTION FOR LONGFIBER INJECTIONMOLDED THERMOPLASTICS 1
FROM PROCESS MODELING TO ELASTIC PROPERTY PREDICTION FOR LONGFIBER INJECTIONMOLDED THERMOPLASTICS 1 Ba Nghiep Nguyen 2 (a), Vlastimil Kunc (b), Barbara J. Frame (b), Jay H. Phelps (c), Charles L. Tucker
More information3D Compression Molding
Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 3D Compression Molding Executive summary In this work, the simulation results from a program developed for the threedimensional analysis of compression molding
More informationBIAXIAL STRENGTH INVESTIGATION OF CFRP COMPOSITE LAMINATES BY USING CRUCIFORM SPECIMENS
BIAXIAL STRENGTH INVESTIGATION OF CFRP COMPOSITE LAMINATES BY USING CRUCIFORM SPECIMENS H. Kumazawa and T. Takatoya Airframes and Structures Group, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 6131, Ohsawa, Mitaka,
More informationMECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Third E CHAPTER 2 Stress MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University and Strain Axial Loading Contents Stress & Strain:
More informationOpenhole compressive strength prediction of CFRP composite laminates
Openhole compressive strength prediction of CFRP composite laminates O. İnal 1, A. Ataş 2,* 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balikesir University, Balikesir, 10145, Turkey, inal@balikesir.edu.tr
More informationSchool of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Australia 2. School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Australia
2 st International Conference on Composite Materials Xi an, 2025 th August 207 PREDICTING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON MATRIX CRACKING IN THERMOSET COMPOSITES USING A STRAIN INVARIANT APPROACH Akhila
More informationAnisotropic modeling of short fibers reinforced thermoplastics materials with LSDYNA
Anisotropic modeling of short fibers reinforced thermoplastics materials with LSDYNA Alexandre Hatt 1 1 Faurecia Automotive Seating, Simplified Limited Liability Company 1 Abstract / Summary Polymer thermoplastics
More informationModelling the nonlinear shear stressstrain response of glass fibrereinforced composites. Part II: Model development and finite element simulations
Modelling the nonlinear shear stressstrain response of glass fibrereinforced composites. Part II: Model development and finite element simulations W. Van Paepegem *, I. De Baere and J. Degrieck Ghent
More informationEnhancing Prediction Accuracy In Sift Theory
18 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS Enhancing Prediction Accuracy In Sift Theory J. Wang 1 *, W. K. Chiu 1 Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Fishermans Bend, Australia, Department
More informationModule 4: Behaviour of a LaminaeII. Learning Unit 1: M1. M4.1 Mechanics of Composites. M4.1.1 Introduction to Mechanics of Composites
Module 4: Behaviour of a LaminaeII Learning Unit 1: M1 M4.1 Mechanics of Composites M4.1.1 Introduction to Mechanics of Composites The relation between ply uniaxial strengths and constituent properties
More informationMaterials and Structures. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Introduction to Composite Materials and Structures Nachiketa Tiwari Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture 16 Behavior of Unidirectional Composites Lecture Overview Mt Material ilaxes in unidirectional
More informationME 243. Mechanics of Solids
ME 243 Mechanics of Solids Lecture 2: Stress and Strain Ahmad Shahedi Shakil Lecturer, Dept. of Mechanical Engg, BUET Email: sshakil@me.buet.ac.bd, shakil6791@gmail.com Website: teacher.buet.ac.bd/sshakil
More informationAuthors: Correspondence: ABSTRACT:
MultiScale Modeling of the Impact and Failure of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structures using DIGIMAT to LSDYNA Interface Authors: L. Adam, R. Assaker & R. Ramaya exstream engineering S.A. 7, Rue du Bosquet.
More informationPROPERTY CALCULATION SYSTEM FOR INJECTION MOLDING AND COMPRESSION MOLDING OF FIBERFILLED POLYMER COMPOSITES
PROPERTY CALCULATION SYSTEM FOR INJECTION MOLDING AND COMPRESSION MOLDING OF FIBERFILLED POLYMER COMPOSITES X. Jin *, J. Wang, S. Han Autodesk Inc., 353 N. Triphammer Rd., Ithaca, NY, 485, U.S.A. Corning
More informationFig. 1. Circular fiber and interphase between the fiber and the matrix.
Finite element unit cell model based on ABAQUS for fiber reinforced composites Tian Tang Composites Manufacturing & Simulation Center, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47906 1. Problem Statement In
More informationME 207 Material Science I
ME 207 Material Science I Chapter 3 Properties in Tension and Compression Dr. İbrahim H. Yılmaz http://web.adanabtu.edu.tr/iyilmaz Automotive Engineering Adana Science and Technology University Introduction
More informationAn investigation of the mechanical behaviour of carbon epoxy cross ply cruciform specimens under biaxial loading
An investigation of the mechanical behaviour of carbon epoxy cross ply cruciform specimens under biaxial loading A. Makris, C. Ramault, D. Van Hemelrijck Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions,
More informationModule III  Macromechanics of Lamina. Lecture 23. MacroMechanics of Lamina
Module III  Macromechanics of Lamina Lecture 23 MacroMechanics of Lamina For better understanding of the macromechanics of lamina, the knowledge of the material properties in essential. Therefore, the
More informationTHE MUTUAL EFFECTS OF SHEAR AND TRANSVERSE DAMAGE IN POLYMERIC COMPOSITES
THE 19 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS THE MUTUAL EFFECTS OF SHEAR AND TRANSVERSE DAMAGE IN POLYMERIC COMPOSITES L.V. Smith 1 *, M. Salavatian 1 1 School of Mechanical and Materials
More informationModule 7: Micromechanics Lecture 34: Self Consistent, Mori Tanaka and Halpin Tsai Models. Introduction. The Lecture Contains. Self Consistent Method
Introduction In this lecture we will introduce some more micromechanical methods to predict the effective properties of the composite. Here we will introduce expressions for the effective properties without
More informationEMA 3702 Mechanics & Materials Science (Mechanics of Materials) Chapter 2 Stress & Strain  Axial Loading
MA 3702 Mechanics & Materials Science (Mechanics of Materials) Chapter 2 Stress & Strain  Axial Loading MA 3702 Mechanics & Materials Science Zhe Cheng (2018) 2 Stress & Strain  Axial Loading Statics
More informationFatigue Analysis of Wind Turbine Composites using MultiContinuum Theory and the Kinetic Theory of Fracture
Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbine Composites using MultiContinuum Theory and the Kinetic Theory of Fracture P. Greaves a, P. McKeever a, R. G. Dominy b, T. Koziara b a Narec, Offshore House, Albert Street,
More informationFig. 1. Different locus of failure and crack trajectories observed in mode I testing of adhesively bonded double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens.
a). Cohesive Failure b). Interfacial Failure c). Oscillatory Failure d). Alternating Failure Fig. 1. Different locus of failure and crack trajectories observed in mode I testing of adhesively bonded double
More informationMECHANICAL FAILURE OF A COMPOSITE HELICOPTER STRUCTURE UNDER STATIC LOADING
MECHANICAL FAILURE OF A COMPOSITE HELICOPTER STRUCTURE UNDER STATIC LOADING Steven Roy, Larry Lessard Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada ABSTRACT The design and
More informationMost of the material in this package is based on a recently published book. This is:
Mechanics of Composite Materials Version 2.1 Bill Clyne, University of Cambridge Boban Tanovic, MATTER Assumed Preknowledge It is assumed that the student is familiar with simple concepts of mechanical
More informationMECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Third CHTR Stress MCHNICS OF MTRIS Ferdinand. Beer. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf ecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University and Strain xial oading Contents Stress & Strain: xial oading Normal
More informationFracture Mechanics of Composites with Residual Thermal Stresses
J. A. Nairn Material Science & Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84 Fracture Mechanics of Composites with Residual Thermal Stresses The problem of calculating the energy release rate
More informationAn integrated approach to the design of high performance carbon fibre reinforced risers  from micro to macro  scale
An integrated approach to the design of high performance carbon fibre reinforced risers  from micro to macro  scale Angelos Mintzas 1, Steve Hatton 1, Sarinova Simandjuntak 2, Andrew Little 2, Zhongyi
More informationComputational Analysis for Composites
Computational Analysis for Composites Professor Johann Sienz and Dr. Tony Murmu Swansea University July, 011 The topics covered include: OUTLINE Overview of composites and their applications Micromechanics
More informationMICROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF FRP COMPOSITES SUBJECTED TO LONGITUDINAL LOADING
MICROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF FRP COMPOSITES SUBJECTED TO LONGITUDINAL LOADING N. Krishna Vihari 1, P. Phani Prasanthi 1, V. Bala Krishna Murthy 2* and A. Srihari Prasad 3 1 Mech. Engg. Dept., P. V. P. Siddhartha
More informationMECHANICS OF MATERIALS
CHATR Stress MCHANICS OF MATRIALS and Strain Axial Loading Stress & Strain: Axial Loading Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced
More informationFinite element analysis of diagonal tension failure in RC beams
Finite element analysis of diagonal tension failure in RC beams T. Hasegawa Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT: Finite element analysis of diagonal tension failure in a
More informationAn orthotropic damage model for crash simulation of composites
High Performance Structures and Materials III 511 An orthotropic damage model for crash simulation of composites W. Wang 1, F. H. M. Swartjes 1 & M. D. Gan 1 BU Automotive Centre of Lightweight Structures
More informationMechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials
MME131: Lecture 13 Mechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUET, Dhaka Today s Topics Deformation of material under the action of a mechanical
More informationFiniteElement Analysis of Stress Concentration in ASTM D 638 Tension Specimens
Monika G. Garrell, 1 Albert J. Shih, 2 Edgar LaraCurzio, 3 and Ronald O. Scattergood 4 Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 31, No. 1 Paper ID JTE11402_311 Available online at: www.astm.org FiniteElement
More informationLecture #8: Ductile Fracture (Theory & Experiments)
Lecture #8: Ductile Fracture (Theory & Experiments) by Dirk Mohr ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Chair of Computational Modeling of Materials in Manufacturing 2015 1 1 1 Ductile
More informationA CRITERION OF TENSILE FAILURE FOR HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS AND ITS APPLICATION TO VISCOELASTICVISCOPLASTIC MATERIALS
MTS ADHESIVES PROGRAMME 19961999 PERFORMANCE OF ADHESIVE JOINTS Project: PAJ1; Failure Criteria and their Application to ViscoElastic/ViscoPlastic Materials Report 2 A CRITERION OF TENSILE FAILURE FOR
More informationSSRG International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (SSRGIJME) volume1 issue5 September 2014
Finite Element Modeling for Delamination Analysis of Double Cantilever Beam Specimen Mohammed Waseem H.S. 1, Kiran Kumar N. 2 1 Post Graduate Student, 2 Asst. Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
More informationStrength of GRPlaminates with multiple fragment damages
Strength of GRPlaminates with multiple fragment damages S. Kazemahvazi, J. Kiele, D. Zenkert Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden sohrabk@kth.se SUMMARY The strength of glass fibre
More information20. Rheology & Linear Elasticity
I Main Topics A Rheology: Macroscopic deformation behavior B Linear elasticity for homogeneous isotropic materials 10/29/18 GG303 1 Viscous (fluid) Behavior http://manoa.hawaii.edu/graduate/content/slidelava
More informationMechanical Properties of Materials
Mechanical Properties of Materials Strains Material Model Stresses Learning objectives Understand the qualitative and quantitative description of mechanical properties of materials. Learn the logic of
More informationPrediction of Micromechanical Behaviour of Elliptical Frp Composites
Prediction of Micromechanical Behaviour of Elliptical Frp Composites Kiranmayee.Nerusu Dept. of Mechanical Engg. P. V. P. Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Vijayawada 520 007, A.P, India. P. Phani Prasanthi
More informationMODELLING THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SHORT FIBRE COMPOSITES
MODELLING THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SHORT FIBRE COMPOSITES F.W.J. van Hattum 1, C.A. Bernardo 1, F.J. Macedo 2, and J.A. Ferreira 2 1 Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho,
More information4.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
4.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS The diagram representing the relation between stress and strain in a given material is an important characteristic of the material. To obtain the stressstrain diagram
More informationEngineering Solid Mechanics
}} Engineering Solid Mechanics 1 (2013) 18 Contents lists available at GrowingScience Engineering Solid Mechanics homepage: www.growingscience.com/esm Impact damage simulation in elastic and viscoelastic
More informationElastic parameters prediction under dynamic loading based on the. unit cell of composites considering end constraint effect
Elastic parameters prediction under dynamic loading based on the unit cell of composites considering end constraint effect Wang Meng 1,, Fei Qingguo 1,, Zhang Peiwei 1, (1. Institute of Aerospace Machinery
More informationModule 5: Failure Criteria of Rock and Rock masses. Contents Hydrostatic compression Deviatoric compression
FAILURE CRITERIA OF ROCK AND ROCK MASSES Contents 5.1 Failure in rocks 5.1.1 Hydrostatic compression 5.1.2 Deviatoric compression 5.1.3 Effect of confining pressure 5.2 Failure modes in rocks 5.3 Complete
More informationModule4. Mechanical Properties of Metals
Module4 Mechanical Properties of Metals Contents ) Elastic deformation and Plastic deformation ) Interpretation of tensile stressstrain curves 3) Yielding under multiaxial stress, Yield criteria, Macroscopic
More informationQUESTION BANK Composite Materials
QUESTION BANK Composite Materials 1. Define composite material. 2. What is the need for composite material? 3. Mention important characterits of composite material 4. Give examples for fiber material 5.
More informationPrediction of Elastic Constants on 3D Fourdirectional Braided
Prediction of Elastic Constants on 3D Fourdirectional Braided Composites Prediction of Elastic Constants on 3D Fourdirectional Braided Composites Liang Dao Zhou 1,2,* and Zhuo Zhuang 1 1 School of Aerospace,
More informationExercise: concepts from chapter 8
Reading: Fundamentals of Structural Geology, Ch 8 1) The following exercises explore elementary concepts associated with a linear elastic material that is isotropic and homogeneous with respect to elastic
More informationUniversity of Sheffield The development of finite elements for 3D structural analysis in fire
The development of finite elements for 3D structural analysis in fire Chaoming Yu, I. W. Burgess, Z. Huang, R. J. Plank Department of Civil and Structural Engineering StiFF 05/09/2006 3D composite structures
More informationStressStrain Behavior
StressStrain Behavior 6.3 A specimen of aluminum having a rectangular cross section 10 mm 1.7 mm (0.4 in. 0.5 in.) is pulled in tension with 35,500 N (8000 lb f ) force, producing only elastic deformation.
More informationChapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals. Dr. Feras Fraige
Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals Dr. Feras Fraige Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility Toughness
More informationSTRAIN ASSESSMENT USFOS
1 STRAIN ASSESSMENT IN USFOS 2 CONTENTS: 1 Introduction...3 2 Revised strain calculation model...3 3 Strain predictions for various characteristic cases...4 3.1 Beam with concentrated load at mid span...
More informationINTRODUCTION TO STRAIN
SIMPLE STRAIN INTRODUCTION TO STRAIN In general terms, Strain is a geometric quantity that measures the deformation of a body. There are two types of strain: normal strain: characterizes dimensional changes,
More informationRole of Force Resultant Interaction on UltraHigh Performance Concrete
First International Interactive Symposium on UHPC 216 Role of Force Resultant Interaction on UltraHigh Performance Concrete Author(s) & Affiliation: Titchenda Chan (1), Kevin R. Mackie (1), and Jun Xia
More informationSIZE EFFECTS IN THE COMPRESSIVE CRUSHING OF HONEYCOMBS
43rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Con 2225 April 2002, Denver, Colorado SIZE EFFECTS IN THE COMPRESSIVE CRUSHING OF HONEYCOMBS Erik C. Mellquistand Anthony M.
More informationFatigue Damage Development in a Steel Based MMC
Fatigue Damage Development in a Steel Based MMC V. Tvergaard 1,T.O/ rts Pedersen 1 Abstract: The development of fatigue damage in a toolsteel metal matrix discontinuously reinforced with TiC particulates
More informationModule 7: Micromechanics Lecture 29: Background of Concentric Cylinder Assemblage Model. Introduction. The Lecture Contains
Introduction In this lecture we are going to introduce a new micromechanics model to determine the fibrous composite effective properties in terms of properties of its individual phases. In this model
More informationThe University of Melbourne Engineering Mechanics
The University of Melbourne 436291 Engineering Mechanics Tutorial Four Poisson s Ratio and Axial Loading Part A (Introductory) 1. (Problem 922 from Hibbeler  Statics and Mechanics of Materials) A short
More informationNORMAL STRESS. The simplest form of stress is normal stress/direct stress, which is the stress perpendicular to the surface on which it acts.
NORMAL STRESS The simplest form of stress is normal stress/direct stress, which is the stress perpendicular to the surface on which it acts. σ = force/area = P/A where σ = the normal stress P = the centric
More informationSize Effects In the Crushing of Honeycomb Structures
45th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference 1922 April 2004, Palm Springs, California AIAA 20041640 Size Effects In the Crushing of Honeycomb Structures Erik C.
More informationPillar strength estimates for foliated and inclined pillars in schistose material
Pillar strength estimates for foliated and inclined pillars in schistose material L.J. Lorig Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA A. Cabrera Itasca S.A., Santiago, Chile ABSTRACT: Pillar
More informationModeling the Dynamic Propagation of Shear Bands in Bulk Metallic Glasses
Modeling the Dynamic Propagation of Shear Bands in Bulk Metallic Glasses B.J. Edwards, K. Feigl, M.L. Morrison*, B. Yang*, P.K. Liaw*, and R.A. Buchanan* Dept. of Chemical Engineering, The University of
More informationChapter 7. Highlights:
Chapter 7 Highlights: 1. Understand the basic concepts of engineering stress and strain, yield strength, tensile strength, Young's(elastic) modulus, ductility, toughness, resilience, true stress and true
More informationMultiscale analyses of the behaviour and damage of composite materials
Multiscale analyses of the behaviour and damage of composite materials Presented by Didier BAPTISTE ENSAM, LIM, UMR CNRS 8006 151 boulevard de l hôpital l 75013 PARIS, France Research works from: K.Derrien,
More informationStrain Measurement Techniques for Composite Coupon Testing
Strain Measurement Techniques for Composite Coupon Testing Introduction Characterization of the properties of anisotropic and inhomogeneous composite materials for use in demanding structural applications
More informationA FINITE ELEMENT MODEL TO PREDICT MULTI AXIAL STRESSSTRAIN RESPONSE OF CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES WITH STRAIN INDUCED DAMAGE
A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL TO PREDICT MULTI AXIAL STRESSSTRAIN RESPONSE OF CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES WITH STRAIN INDUCED DAMAGE Daxu Zhang and D. R. Hayhurst School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
More information5 ADVANCED FRACTURE MODELS
Essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful George E.P. Box, (Box and Draper, 1987) 5 ADVANCED FRACTURE MODELS In the previous chapter it was shown that the MOR parameter cannot be relied upon
More informationTHERMOMECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A THERMOPLASTIC REINFORCED WITH DISCONTINUOUS GLASS FIBERS
21 st International Conference on Composite Materials Xi an, 2025 th August 2017 THERMOMECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A THERMOPLASTIC REINFORCED WITH DISCONTINUOUS GLASS FIBERS Delphine Lopez 1, Sandrine Thuillier
More informationMulti Disciplinary Delamination Studies In Frp Composites Using 3d Finite Element Analysis Mohan Rentala
Multi Disciplinary Delamination Studies In Frp Composites Using 3d Finite Element Analysis Mohan Rentala Abstract: FRP laminated composites have been extensively used in Aerospace and allied industries
More informationTHREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE T BOLT JOINT
THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE T BOLT JOINT Víctor Martínez 1, Alfredo Güemes 2, Norbert Blanco 1, Josep Costa 1 1 Escola Politècnica Superior. Universitat de Girona. Girona, Spain (17071) 2
More informationINTERFACIAL STRENGTH EVALUATION IN A GLASS FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE USING CRUCIFORM SPECIMEN METHOD
INTERFACIAL STRENGTH EVALUATION IN A GLASS FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE USING CRUCIFORM SPECIMEN METHOD Shinji Ogihara, oriaki Sakamoto 2, Hajime Kato 2, Satoshi Kobayashi 3 and Ichiro Ueno Dept. of Mechanical
More informationPRELIMINARY PREDICTION OF SPECIMEN PROPERTIES CLT and 1 st order FEM analyses
OPTIMAT BLADES Page 1 of 24 PRELIMINARY PREDICTION OF SPECIMEN PROPERTIES CLT and 1 st order FEM analyses first issue Peter Joosse CHANGE RECORD Issue/revision date pages Summary of changes draft 241002
More informationMECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 4.2
Sample Problem 4. SOLUTON: Based on the cross section geometry, calculate the location of the section centroid and moment of inertia. ya ( + Y Ad ) A A castiron machine part is acted upon by a knm couple.
More informationEffect of Specimen Dimensions on Flexural Modulus in a 3Point Bending Test
Effect of Specimen Dimensions on Flexural Modulus in a 3Point Bending Test M. Praveen Kumar 1 and V. Balakrishna Murthy 2* 1 Mechanical Engineering Department, P.V.P. Siddhartha Institute of Technology,
More informationStrainBased Design Model for FRPConfined Concrete Columns
SP230 57 StrainBased Design Model for FRPConfined Concrete Columns by N. Saenz and C.P. Pantelides Synopsis: A constitutive strainbased confinement model is developed herein for circular concrete columns
More informationFinite Element Analysis of FRP Debonding Failure at the Tip of Flexural/Shear Crack in Concrete Beam
Marquette University epublications@marquette Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research and Publications Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of 1212013 Finite Element Analysis
More informationMECE 3321 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS CHAPTER 3
MECE 3321 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS CHAPTER 3 Samantha Ramirez TENSION AND COMPRESSION TESTS Tension and compression tests are used primarily to determine the relationship between σ avg and ε avg in any material.
More informationModelling and numerical simulation of the wrinkling evolution for thermomechanical loading cases
Modelling and numerical simulation of the wrinkling evolution for thermomechanical loading cases Georg Haasemann Conrad Kloß 1 AIMCAL Conference 2016 MOTIVATION Wrinkles in web handling system Loss of
More information*Corresponding author: Keywords: Finiteelement analysis; Multiscale modelling; Onset theory; Dilatational strain invariant.
18 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS MICROMECHANICAL MODELLING OF TEST SPECIMENS FOR ONSET OF DILATATIONAL DAMAGE OF POLYMER MATRIX IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS T. D. Tran 1, D. Kelly 1*, G.
More informationINCREASING RUPTURE PREDICTABILITY FOR ALUMINUM
1 INCREASING RUPTURE PREDICTABILITY FOR ALUMINUM Influence of anisotropy Daniel Riemensperger, Adam Opel AG Paul Du Bois, PDB 2 www.opel.com CONTENT Introduction/motivation Isotropic & anisotropic material
More informationNonlinearities in mechanical behavior of textile composites
Composite Structures 71 (25) 61 67 www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct Nonlinearities in mechanical behavior of textile composites Enrico DÕAmato Energetics Departement, L Aquila University, 674 Monteluco
More informationFracture Mechanics, Damage and Fatigue: Composites
University of Liège Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Damage and Fatigue: Composites Ludovic Noels Computational & Multiscale Mechanics of Materials CM3 http://www.ltascm3.ulg.ac.be/
More informationEVALUATION OF GLASS FIBER/EPOXY INTERFACIAL STRENGTH USING A CRUCIFORM SPECIMEN
6 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS EVALUATION OF GLASS FIBER/EPOXY INTERFACIAL STRENGTH USING A CRUCIFORM SPECIMEN Shinji Ogihara*, Yoriaki Sakamoto ** and Hajime Kato ** *Department
More informationAE3610 Experiments in Fluid and Solid Mechanics TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS OF HOOP STRESSES FOR A THINWALL PRESSURE VESSEL
Objective AE3610 Experiments in Fluid and Solid Mechanics TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS OF OOP STRESSES FOR A TINWA PRESSURE VESSE This experiment will allow you to investigate hoop and axial stress/strain relations
More informationMSC Elastomers Seminar Some Things About Elastomers
MSC Elastomers Seminar Some Things About Elastomers Kurt Miller, Axel Products, Inc. www.axelproducts.com Visit us at: axelproducts.com 2 Your Presenter Kurt Miller Founded Axel Products 1994 Instron Corporation,
More informationSSNS106 Damage of a reinforced concrete plate under requests varied with model GLRC_DM
Titre : SSNS106  Endommagement d une plaque plane sous so[...] Date : 01/03/2013 Page : 1/67 SSNS106 Damage of a reinforced concrete plate under requests varied with model GLRC_DM Summarized: This test
More informationPREDICTING THE CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIAXIAL BRAIDED COMPOSITES USING BEAM UNIT CELLS
THE 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS PREDICTING THE CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIAXIAL 1 J. Cichosz1*, J. Bückle1, R. Hinterhölzl1, M. Wolfahrt2 Institute for Carbon Composites, Technische
More informationINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH, DINDIGUL Volume 2, No 1, 2011
Interlaminar failure analysis of FRP cross ply laminate with elliptical cutout Venkateswara Rao.S 1, Sd. Abdul Kalam 1, Srilakshmi.S 1, Bala Krishna Murthy.V 2 1 Mechanical Engineering Department, P. V.
More informationSEMM Mechanics PhD Preliminary Exam Spring Consider a twodimensional rigid motion, whose displacement field is given by
SEMM Mechanics PhD Preliminary Exam Spring 2014 1. Consider a twodimensional rigid motion, whose displacement field is given by u(x) = [cos(β)x 1 + sin(β)x 2 X 1 ]e 1 + [ sin(β)x 1 + cos(β)x 2 X 2 ]e
More informationKINK BAND FORMATION OF FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP)
KINK BAND FORMATION OF FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP) 1 University of Science & Technology Beijing, China, niukm@ustb.edu.cn 2 Tsinghua University, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing, China,
More information1 Static Plastic Behaviour of Beams
1 Static Plastic Behaviour of Beams 1.1 Introduction Many ductile materials which are used in engineering practice have a considerable reserve capacity beyond the initial yield condition. The uniaxial
More informationCalculation of Energy Release Rate in Mode I Delamination of Angle Ply Laminated Composites
Copyright c 2007 ICCES ICCES, vol.1, no.2, pp.6167, 2007 Calculation of Energy Release Rate in Mode I Delamination of Angle Ply Laminated Composites K. Gordnian 1, H. Hadavinia 1, G. Simpson 1 and A.
More informationOutline. TensileTest Specimen and Machine. StressStrain Curve. Review of Mechanical Properties. Mechanical Behaviour
TensileTest Specimen and Machine Review of Mechanical Properties Outline Tensile test True stress  true strain (flow curve) mechanical properties:  Resilience  Ductility  Toughness  Hardness A standard
More informationSTRENGTH OF MATERIALSI. Unit1. Simple stresses and strains
STRENGTH OF MATERIALSI Unit1 Simple stresses and strains 1. What is the Principle of surveying 2. Define Magnetic, True & Arbitrary Meridians. 3. Mention different types of chains 4. Differentiate between
More informationDiscrete Element Modelling of a Reinforced Concrete Structure
Discrete Element Modelling of a Reinforced Concrete Structure S. Hentz, L. Daudeville, F.V. Donzé Laboratoire Sols, Solides, Structures, Domaine Universitaire, BP 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 France sebastian.hentz@inpg.fr
More informationSANDWICH COMPOSITE BEAMS for STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
SANDWICH COMPOSITE BEAMS for STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS de Aguiar, José M., josemaguiar@gmail.com Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo, FATECSP Centro Estadual de Educação Tecnológica Paula Souza. CEETEPS
More informationPROGRESSIVE DAMAGE ANALYSES OF SKIN/STRINGER DEBONDING. C. G. Dávila, P. P. Camanho, and M. F. de Moura
PROGRESSIVE DAMAGE ANALYSES OF SKIN/STRINGER DEBONDING C. G. Dávila, P. P. Camanho, and M. F. de Moura Abstract The debonding of skin/stringer constructions is analyzed using a stepbystep simulation
More information