Don Robbins, Andrew Morrison, Rick Dalgarno Autodesk, Inc., Laramie, Wyoming. Abstract


 Lenard Hawkins
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 PROGRESSIVE FAILURE SIMULATION OF ASMANUFACTURED SHORT FIBER FILLED INJECTION MOLDED PARTS: VALIDATION FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES AND COMBINED LOAD CONDITIONS Don Robbins, Andrew Morrison, Rick Dalgarno Autodesk, Inc., Laramie, Wyoming Abstract Short fiber filled injection molded plastic parts are widely used in industrial applications due to their enhanced stiffnesstoweight and strengthtoweight ratios compared to homogeneous plastics and metals. Injection molding simulation software packages can be used to predict the asmanufactured configuration for such parts which includes the distribution of the fiber orientation tensor and fiber volume fraction throughout the part, in addition to the warped shape of the ejected, roomtemperature part. In order to facilitate subsequent nonlinear (progressive failure) structural simulation of the asmanufactured, short fiber filled part, Autodesk has developed new software to seamlessly link the results of injection molding simulation with nonlinear structural response simulation that features a multiscale progressive failure model for short fiber filled plastics and explicitly accounts for the spatial distribution of fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction. The theoretical foundations and capabilities of the new software are described in a companion paper. The present paper describes the process of validating the computation methodology against novel biaxial tensile data obtained with cruciform specimens. Introduction The use of short fiber reinforcing fillers has become common place in an effort to achieve higher stiffnesstoweight and higher strengthtoweight ratios for injection molded plastic parts. Modern software tools such as Moldflow efficiently and accurately predict the orientation of the reinforcing fibers throughout the molded part, in addition to predicting the warped shape of the room temperature part after ejection from the mold. However, to produce optimal designs for injection molded parts, the designer must often consider the inservice thermomechanical performance characteristics of the part. For injection molded plastic parts that contain short fiber reinforcing fillers, prediction of the mechanical response is complicated by the fact that the elastic, plastic, and rupture responses of the composite material are highly anisotropic due to the local orientation of the reinforcing fibers [1], and these local fiber directions can vary throughout the injection molded part due to spatial variation of flow conditions during the injection molding process [2]. Thus an accurate simulation of the mechanical response of a fiberfilled, injection molded part requires a model that can 1) accurately represent the anisotropic elastic, plastic and rupture response of the composite material as influenced by the local fiber direction, and 2) accurately account for the variation of local fiber direction throughout the part [1]. To facilitate nonlinear structural analysis of the asmanufactured configuration of short fiber filled injection molded parts, Autodesk is currently developing software that provides a seamless transition from Moldflow s injection molding simulation to the nonlinear structural response simulation provided by Autodesk Helius PFA (Progressive Failure Analysis). The key features of this simulation methodology include: Page 1
2 1. Automated mapping of the injection molding simulation predicted fiber orientation distribution and fiber volume fraction distribution onto the finite element mesh that will be used for the nonlinear structural response simulation, 2. Enhancement of the structural response simulation with a multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model for short fiber filled plastic materials that accounts for plasticity and rupture of the matrix constituent material, resulting in a composite material that exhibits an anisotropic, nonlinear response, and 3. A robust material characterization process that uses relatively simple, measured experimental data of the short fiber filled plastic material to fit the parameters of the multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model. The capabilities, limitations and theoretical foundations of the new software are fully described in a companion paper by Kenik et al. [3] along with a discussion of the method required to use the software. The present paper describes the process of validating the methodology against novel biaxial tension data obtained with cruciform specimens that are machined from short fiber filled injection molded plaques. Sequence for Simulating the AsManufactured Configuration The Moldflow software package is used to simulate the injection molding process for the short fiber filled plastic part of interest. In particular, the injection molding simulation is used to predict the spatial distribution of the fiber orientation tensor in the short fiber filled plastic part. The 2 nd order fiber orientation tensor at a point essentially provides a statistical description (in the continuum sense) of the orientation of fibers that lie in the immediate neighborhood of the point in question [4] and thus exerts a profound influence on the structural properties of the composite material. After simulating the actual injection molding process for a particular specimen, the predicted fiber orientation tensor distribution is mapped onto the finite element mesh that will be used to simulate the mechanical response of the specimen. During the structural response simulation, the fiber orientation tensor is used to operate on the constitutive matrix of a comparable idealized composite material that contains perfectly aligned fibers in order to compute the anisotropic stiffness matrix of the actual composite material with the specified fiber orientation distribution (a process referred to as fiber orientation averaging [2]), and this process has been validated by Gustev et al. [5]. Multiscale Plasticity and Rupture of the Short Fiber Filled Plastic Material Under mechanical loading, short fiber filled injection molded plastic parts typically exhibit a significant amount of plasticity prior to final rupture. However, both the degree of plasticity exhibited by the material and the final rupture load become strongly directionally dependent as the degree of fiber alignment increases from a random fiber orientation [6]. In this case, the term directionally dependent refers to the fact that the material response depends on the direction of the loading relative to the average direction of the reinforcing fibers. Furthermore, since the reinforcing fibers are short, the filled plastic material is able to rupture without actually breaking any of the reinforcing fibers; i.e., rupture occurs primarily by tearing of the plastic matrix material with some degree of short fiber pullout [7,8]. Based on the preceding description of the response characteristics of the short fiber filled plastic material, a multiscale material model was developed. The companion paper by Kenik et al. [3] provides a complete mathematical description of the material model which will not be repeated here for brevity sake. However, it is useful to list the assumptions and constraints that were employed in developing the model: Page 2
3 The short reinforcing fibers do not exhibit any plasticity or rupture, rather the fibers exhibit a simple linear elastic response, The plastic matrix constituent exhibits both plasticity and rupture, The idealized model s matrix plasticity and matrix rupture are intended to also account for any fiber/matrix debonding that occurs in the real material, All nonlinearity exhibited by the composite material is due to nonlinearity (plasticity and rupture) in the plastic matrix material, Plasticity and rupture of the plastic matrix constituent are driven by stress in the plastic matrix constituent as opposed to being driven by the homogenized stress in the composite material. Material Characterization In order to use the multiscale material model that was discussed in the previous section, we must first determine the value of the model s coefficients by fitting the model to a collection of experimental data for the material in question. Ideally, to allow for a robust, definitive fitting of the model s coefficients, the collection of experimental data should cover the full range of behaviors that can be exhibited by the material. However, from a practical point of view, it is highly desirable to limit both the number of different test types that have to be conducted and the complexity of the tests that have to be conducted. For the present model, good fits can be obtained by using uniaxial tensile tests that are conducted to complete rupture. The tensile tests are performed using ASTM Type I tensile specimens that are cut from rectangular injection molded plaques. In order to obtain a sufficiently broad range of material response, uniaxial tensile tests are performed on specimens that are cut at three different orientations relative to the flow direction in the injection molded plaque, namely, 0 (flow direction), 90 (crossflow direction), and 45 relative to the flow and crossflow directions. Figure 1 shows measured uniaxial tensile testtofailure data for the Extron 3019 HS material (30% glass fiber filled) that is used in this study. ASTM Type I tensile test specimens were cut from rectangular injection molded plaques that are 3mm thick and exhibit a well defined flow direction and crossflow direction that governs the orientation of the short glass fibers in the plaque. The tensile test coupons are cut at three different orientations relative to the injection flow direction, namely, 0 (flow direction), 90 (crossflow direction), and 45 relative to the flow and crossflow directions. The tensile test data in Figure 1 was taken at an imposed uniaxial strain rate of 0.05 (mm/mm)/min and the last data point in each curve was taken just prior to rupture of the specimen. Note that all three load directions show significant levels of plastic response prior to final rupture. Figure 1 also shows that the stiffness and strength of the fiber filled material are highly dependent on the direction of loading relative to the dominant fiber direction. Further, it should be emphasized that this particular short fiber filled plastic is somewhat unusual in that the strain to failure for loading in the flow (0 ) direction is actually larger than the strain to failure for loading in the crossflow (90 ) direction. Page 3
4 flow direction crossflow direction Uniaxial Stress (Mpa) degree  Measured 45 degree  Measured 90 degree  Measured Uniaxial Strain (mm/mm) Figure 1. Collection of measured tensile testtofailure data that is used to fit the coefficients of the multiscale material model. The material characterization process is carried out in three steps. The first step is to determine the elastic coefficients of the fiber and matrix constituent materials. Specifically, we determine the matrix and fiber moduli (denoted E m and E f respectively) and the matrix and fiber Poisson ratios (denoted µ m and µ f respectively) that cause the material model to accurately match the first few data points of all three measured material response curves (0, 45 and 90 ). Once the elastic coefficients are determined, the second step is to determine the matrix constituent s four plasticity coefficients (σ o, n, α, β, see Eqs. 18 in the companion paper [3]) that cause the multiscale material model to accurately represent the full response history of all three tensile tests (0, 45 and 90 ). The final phase of the material characterization process is to determine the effective strength S eff of the matrix constituent material (see Eq. 9 in the companion paper [3]) that causes the matrix rupture criterion to be triggered at the rupture loads that were measured in the three tensile tests. Page 4
5 Figure 2 shows the results of fitting the multiscale material model to the 0, 90, and 45 tensile test data for the Extron 3019 HS (30% glass filled) material. As seen in Figure 2, the fitted material model closely matches the elastoplastic response and the rupture load for all three load orientations (0, 90, and 45 ). Table 1 lists the fitted coefficients for the Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) material. As seen in Table 1, the fiber modulus of 22 GPa is rather low compared to the expected modulus of glass fibers which typically fall in the range of GPa. However, the constituent properties shown in Table 1 are in situ properties that cause the micromechanical model to reproduce the measured properties of the composite material. It should be noted that the micromechanical model always represents certain simplifications of the real composite material, e.g., the current micromechanical model assumes perfect bonding between the short fibers and the plastic matrix material. Consequently, the in situ constituent properties must be different from bulk constituent properties in order to compensate for any simplifications or inaccuracies that are inherent in the micromechanical model degree  Measured 0 degree  Predicted 45 degree  Measured 45 degree  Predicted 90 degree  Measured 90 degree  Predicted 70 Uniaxial Stress (Mpa) Uniaxial Strain (mm/mm) Figure 2. Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) Comparison of measured and predicted responses for tensile tests to failure at three different load orientations. Page 5
6 Table 1. Fitted material model coefficients for Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) Elasticity coefficients for the matrix constituent material: E m = 3251 MPa, µ m = Elasticity coefficients for the fiber constituent material: E f = MPa, µ f = Plasticity coefficients for the matrix constituent material: n = 8.24, σ o = 38.2 MPa, α = 1.43, β = 1.03 λ m,i = 0.85 Effective strength of the matrix constituent material: S eff = 43.8 MPa After the multiscale material model s coefficients have been determined by fitting the model to the simple 0, 90, and 45 uniaxial tensile test data, the resulting material model is validated by using it to simulate the failure of more complex cruciform specimens that are loaded in biaxial tension. Figure 3 shows the inplane geometry of the biaxial cruciform specimen and the applied loading. The inplane loads Fx and Fy can be applied at different ratios to create an entire range of biaxial tensile load scenarios. Figure 4 shows the thickness dimension of the biaxial cruciform specimen. Note that the gauge section thickness is 1 mm, while the thickness of the load arms is 3mm. Each biaxial cruciform specimen is cut from a 3mm thick, rectangular plaque that is injection molded. The central gauge section of the biaxial cruciform specimen is then machined down to a thickness of 1mm by removing equal amounts of material from the top and bottom surfaces of the injection molded plaque. Figure 5 shows the finite element mesh used to simulate the progressive failure of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen. In this study, 8node, 3D hexahedral elements are used throughout the model. The finite element model is used to simulate six different Fx/Fy load ratios in order to define the biaxial failure surface of the Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) material. Note that during the injection molding process, the orientation of the short glass fibers will vary through the thickness of the plaque. Near the surface of the plaque, the fibers tend to be strongly aligned in the flow direction, while the inner core of the part tends to exhibit less fiber alignment (i.e., a more random distribution of fiber orientation). Consequently, it is critical to accurately map the predicted fiber orientation tensor from the injection molding simulation mesh of the rectangular plaque to the structural response simulation mesh of the cruciform specimen. Page 6
7 F y Y X L G = 24mm L = 109mm F x L = 109mm Figure 3. Geometry of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen, showing the overall specimen length, gauge section length, tensile load arms, fillet regions and coordinate system. Z 3 mm 1 mm X Closeup of mesh density in the tapered region L G = 24mm L = 109mm Figure 4. Thickness geometry of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen, showing the 1mm thick gauge section and 3mm thick load arms. Page 7
8 closeup of fillet region Figure 5. Finite element mesh of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimen showing a closeup view of the fillet region. 8node, 3D hexahedral elements are used throughout the mesh. The characterized multiscale material model is used in a progressive failure finite element simulation of the cruciform specimen for six different biaxial load ratios. In each case, the tensile loads were applied as imposed displacement increments at the ends of the load arms. The load increment size was chosen so that the specimen could sustain approximately fifty load increments before global fracture of the specimen occurred. Qualitatively speaking, the predicted response of each of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimens was quite similar. In each simulation, the matrix constituent material undergoes considerable plastic deformation within those regions of the specimen that are most highly stressed (e.g., the filleted corners and the thin square gauge section). As local plastic deformation evolves, the stiffness of the matrix constituent decreases, and consequently the stiffness of the composite material decreases, causing localized load redistribution to occur in the finite element model. As the applied loads continue to increase, the stress state in the matrix constituent will eventually satisfy the matrix rupture criterion at some location within the model, at which time the stiffness of the ruptured composite material is reduced to a very low level. For the biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the predicted fracture process is quite sudden, i.e., once local rupture occurs, the continuing fracture process is unstable and the fracture surface very rapidly spans the specimen resulting in complete global failure. This agrees with the actual experimental specimens where the fracture process appeared to be instantaneous. Page 8
9 It should be emphasized that the set of six biaxially loaded cruciform specimens exhibit several challenging characteristics for progressive failure simulation validation. First, the biaxial cruciform specimens are subjected to an entire range of different global (Fx/Fy) load ratios that lead to complex local stress states dominated by various combinations of inplane stress components σ xx, σ yy and σ xy. Second, the biaxial cruciform specimens are geometrically complex. Specifically, the biaxial cruciform specimens contain both inplane and outofplane fillet regions that produce a nonhomogeneous stress and strain field with moderate stress concentrations, regardless whether the loading on the specimen is uniaxial or biaxial. To illustrate the nonhomogeneous stress field exhibited by the cruciform specimen, Figure 6 shows the distribution of von Mises stress predicted in a cruciform specimen when subjected to a simple uniaxial load case (Fy>0, Fx=0). As seen in Figure 6, the stress field is quite complex, and there are nine different local maxima that are clearly identifiable. Figure 6. Distribution of von Mises stress predicted in cruciform specimen when subjected to the simple load case Fy>0, Fx=0. Nine different local maxima are clearly identifiable. Figure 7 shows the predicted rupture loads for the biaxial cruciform models computed at six different biaxial (Fx/Fy) load ratios. Also shown in Figure 6 are the measured rupture loads for the actual biaxial cruciform specimens at five different biaxial (Fx/Fy) load ratios labeled A through E. Note that the measured results contain two or three replicates at each load ratio to show the amount of scatter inherent in the test data. As seen in Figure 7, the predicted biaxial failure surface very closely matches both the size and shape of the measured biaxial failure surface. In particular, note that the model captures the strengthening effect that is observed when some level of flow direction (Y) loading accompanies a high level of crossflow direction (X) loading. Page 9
10 Flow Stress  Sy (MPa) E Measured Predicted CrossFlow Stress  Sx (MPa) Figure 7. Comparison of predicted and measured biaxial rupture loads for cruciform specimens made from Extron 3019 HS (30% glass fiber filled) injection molded plaques. D C A B Figure 8 shows the predicted net load vs. imposed displacement for specimen A (biaxial load ratio Fx>0, Fy=0). The nonlinear response seen in Figure 7 is typical of all six simulated specimens and clearly shows significant and continual softening of the specimen prior to final rupture. The specimen softening that occurs prior to final rupture is caused by plasticity in the matrix constituent material which is fairly localized in the most highly stressed regions of the specimen (e.g., the filleted corners and the thin square gauge section). Figure 9 contains closeup views of the gauge section of specimen A (biaxial load ratio Fx>0, Fy=0) showing the predicted evolution of effective plastic strain in the matrix constituent at points 16 labeled on the load/displacement curve in Figure 8. As seen in Figure 9, the effective plastic strain exceeds 3% in the filleted corners prior to specimen rupture, while an extensive portion of the thin square gauge section exceeds 2% effective plastic strain prior to specimen rupture. Page 10
11 Net Specimen Load (N) specimen rupture Imposed Axial Elongation (mm) Figure 8. Predicted net load vs. imposed displacement for specimen A (Fx>0, Fy=0) showing nonlinear response due to localized plasticity and global rupture of the specimen. 1 4 effective plastic strain Figure 9. Closeup views of the gauge section of specimen A (Fx>0, Fy=0) showing the predicted evolution of effective plastic strain in the matrix constituent at points 16 labeled on the load/displacement curve in Figure 7. Page 11
12 As seen earlier in Figure 7, the rupture loads were predicted quite accurately across the entire range of biaxial load ratios. As mentioned earlier, the actual specimen rupture process (or fracture process) is unstable; once localized tearing initiates within the specimen, it immediately proceeds to grow across the specimen, resulting in global fracture. Consequently, the entire fracture process is predicted to occur within a single load increment. Figures 10 through 14 show a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for the cruciform specimens at five different biaxial load ratios that were labelled in Figure 7 as points A,B,C,D,E respectively. Figure 10 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectory (fracture surface) for biaxial load ratio A (i.e., the case Fx>0, Fy=0, or loading only in the crossflow direction). In the image of the finite element model seen in Figure 10, the red region indicates the location of ruptured material, while the blue region indicates unruptured material. Note that the model correctly predicts that the fracture surface runs from fillet to fillet, effectively tearing one of the load arms off at the attachment point. Figure 11 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio B (i.e., the case Fx/Fy = 2.3). Again, the model correctly identifies the fracture surface observed in the experimental specimens, namely, the fracture surface runs from fillet to fillet, effectively tearing the crossflow direction load arm off at the attachment point. Figure 12 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio C (i.e., the case Fx/Fy = 0.8). Note that for load ratio C, the two experimental specimens shown in Figure 12 exhibit different fracture trajectories, possibly suggesting that the load ratio Fx/Fy=1.2 is near the transition between a diagonal fracture and a fracture that simply tears one of the horizontal load arms off. The finite element model predicts that the dominant fracture trajectory simply tears one of the horizontal load arms off (similar to the fracture shown in the experimental specimen in the upper left corner of Figure 12); however, notice that the finite element model also shows very localized, isolated zones of rupture at three of the four fillets, suggesting that the model senses that the specimen also has a tendency toward a diagonal fracture. Figure 13 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio D (i.e., the case Fx/Fy = 1.7). Note that for load ratio D, the two experimental specimens shown in Figure 13 exhibit different fracture trajectories, possibly suggesting that the load ratio Fx/Fy=0.6 is near the transition between a diagonal fracture and a fracture that simply tears one of the vertical load arms off. The finite element model predicts that the dominant fracture trajectory simply tears one of the vertical load arms off (similar to the fracture shown in the experimental specimen in the upper right corner of Figure 13); however, notice that the finite element model also shows two very small diagonal fractures (one from each of the lower fillets), suggesting that the model senses that the specimen also has a tendency toward a diagonal fracture. Page 12
13 Figure 14 shows a comparison of the predicted and observed rupture trajectories (fracture surfaces) for biaxial load ratio E (i.e., the case of loading only in the flow direction, or Y direction). The single experimental specimen shown in Figure 14 is representative of the fracture observed in all three replicates of this load ratio where one of the vertical load arms is simply torn off at the attachment point. However, the finite element model for specimen E incorrectly predicted a diagonal fracture (as shown in the upper right hand corner of Figure 14). The relatively coarse load incrementation scheme was suspected to be the cause of the incorrect fracture trajectory predicted by the model, so the specimen was simulated a second time using a more refined load incrementation scheme (i.e., the new load increment size was 1/10 the original load increment size). As seen in the lower right corner of Figure 14, reducing the load increment size resulted in the correct fracture path being predicted, without any significant change to the predicted fracture load level. This result prompted the authors to retest several of the biaxial load ratios using smaller load increments. In all cases tested, the reduced load increment size did not significantly change the rupture load level or the fracture trajectory. A Y X Figure 10. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point A in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 13
14 B Figure 11. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point B in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 14
15 C Figure 12. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point C in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction D Figure 13. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point D in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 15
16 E Y X Original coarse load incrementation F y > 0 F x = 0 Correct rupture trajectory via refined load incrementation Figure 14. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point E in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Finally, let us consider the change in fracture trajectory that is observed in the actual cruciform test specimens as the biaxial load ratio is changed. The lower half of Figure 15 shows the complete collection of measured rupture loads and simulated rupture loads. Based solely on the fracture trajectories observed in the actual test specimens, one can divide the biaxial load spectrum into five different fracture trajectory sections shown in red in the lower half of Figure 15. Notice that none of the experimentally tested load ratios produced a consistent diagonal fracture pattern, thus the middle section (labeled diagonal fracture ) is void of any experimental data points. However, one of the simulated load ratios does fall clearly in the middle of the diagonal fracture region. The upper half of Figure 15 shows the fracture trajectory predicted in the finite element model that was biaxially loaded at a ratio of Fx/Fy=1.2, and the predicted fracture process is dominated by a diagonal fracture path consistent with expectation. Thus it can be concluded that the finite element model is successful in discerning the change in final fracture path as a function of biaxial load ratio. Page 16
17 vertical arm torn off E D C A B horizontal arm torn off Figure 15. Comparison of predicted and observed rupture trajectories at the biaxial load ratio identified as point E in Figure 7. Flow direction is parallel with the global Y direction Page 17
18 Conclusions Autodesk has developed software for short fiber filled, injection molded plastic parts that provides a seamless transition from the injection molding simulation to the nonlinear structural response simulation. Specifically, the software provides a seamless link between Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) and Autodesk Helius PFA. The key features of this software include: Automated mapping of the Moldflowpredicted fiber orientation distribution and fiber volume fraction distribution onto the finite element mesh that will be used for the Helius PFA nonlinear structural response simulation, Enhancement of Helius PFA with a multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model for short fiber filled plastic materials that accounts for plasticity and rupture of the matrix constituent material, resulting in a composite material that exhibits an anisotropic, nonlinear response, and A robust material characterization process that requires only relatively simple, measured uniaxial tensile data of the short fiber filled plastic material to fit the parameters of the multiscale, progressive failure, constitutive model. The multiscale, progressive failure, elastoplastic material model was characterized for Extron 3019 HS material (30% glass fiber filled) using uniaxial tensile test data that was taken at three different orientations relative to the flow direction. The characterized material model was then used to predict the progressive failure response of biaxially loaded cruciform specimens that were made from the same Extron 3019 HS material. The finite element simulation of the biaxially loaded cruciform specimens was shown to accurately predict the rupture loads and fracture trajectories for an entire range of biaxial load ratios. Bibliography 1. Nguyen, B.N, Bapanapalli, S.K., Holbery, J.D., Smith, M.T., V. Kunc, V., Frame, B.J., Phelps, J.H., and Tucker, C.L. III, (2008) Fiber Length and Orientation Distributions in LongFiber InjectionMolded Thermoplastics Part I: Modeling of Microstructure and Elastic Properties, Journal of Composite Materials, 42: (1994) Flow and Rheology in Polymer Manufacturing, Ed: S.G. Advani, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 3. Kenik, D., Robbins, D., Morrison, A., and Gies, J., Bridging The Gap: AsManufactured Structural Simulation Of Injection Molded Plastics, Society of Plastics Engineers, Automotive Composites Conference, Sept. 911, 2015, Novi, MI. 4. Advani, S. and Tucker, C.L. III, (1987) The Use of Tensors to Describe and Predict Fiber Orientation in ShortFiber Composites, Journal of Rheology, 31: Gusev, A., Heggli, M., Lusti, H.R. and Hine, P.J. (2002) Orientation Averaging for Stiffness and Thermal Expansion of Short Fiber Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 4, No. 12, pp Yang, Q.S. and Qin, Q.H. (2001) Fiber Interactions and Effective ElasticPlastic Properties of Short Fiber Composites, Composite Structures, 54: Meraghni, F. and Benzeggagh, M.L. (1995) Micromechanical modeling of matrix degradation in randomly discontinuousfibre composites. Composite Science and Technology, 55: Meraghni, F., Blakeman, C.J., Benzeggagh, M.L. (1996) Effect of interfacial decohesion on stiffness reduction in a random discontinuousfibre composite containing matrix microcracks. Comp. Sci. and Tech., 56: Page 18
3D Compression Molding
Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 3D Compression Molding Executive summary In this work, the simulation results from a program developed for the threedimensional analysis of compression molding
More informationMECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Third E CHAPTER 2 Stress MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University and Strain Axial Loading Contents Stress & Strain:
More informationBIAXIAL STRENGTH INVESTIGATION OF CFRP COMPOSITE LAMINATES BY USING CRUCIFORM SPECIMENS
BIAXIAL STRENGTH INVESTIGATION OF CFRP COMPOSITE LAMINATES BY USING CRUCIFORM SPECIMENS H. Kumazawa and T. Takatoya Airframes and Structures Group, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 6131, Ohsawa, Mitaka,
More informationEnhancing Prediction Accuracy In Sift Theory
18 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS Enhancing Prediction Accuracy In Sift Theory J. Wang 1 *, W. K. Chiu 1 Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Fishermans Bend, Australia, Department
More informationAnisotropic modeling of short fibers reinforced thermoplastics materials with LSDYNA
Anisotropic modeling of short fibers reinforced thermoplastics materials with LSDYNA Alexandre Hatt 1 1 Faurecia Automotive Seating, Simplified Limited Liability Company 1 Abstract / Summary Polymer thermoplastics
More informationModule 4: Behaviour of a LaminaeII. Learning Unit 1: M1. M4.1 Mechanics of Composites. M4.1.1 Introduction to Mechanics of Composites
Module 4: Behaviour of a LaminaeII Learning Unit 1: M1 M4.1 Mechanics of Composites M4.1.1 Introduction to Mechanics of Composites The relation between ply uniaxial strengths and constituent properties
More informationMaterials and Structures. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Introduction to Composite Materials and Structures Nachiketa Tiwari Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture 16 Behavior of Unidirectional Composites Lecture Overview Mt Material ilaxes in unidirectional
More informationAn investigation of the mechanical behaviour of carbon epoxy cross ply cruciform specimens under biaxial loading
An investigation of the mechanical behaviour of carbon epoxy cross ply cruciform specimens under biaxial loading A. Makris, C. Ramault, D. Van Hemelrijck Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions,
More informationEMA 3702 Mechanics & Materials Science (Mechanics of Materials) Chapter 2 Stress & Strain  Axial Loading
MA 3702 Mechanics & Materials Science (Mechanics of Materials) Chapter 2 Stress & Strain  Axial Loading MA 3702 Mechanics & Materials Science Zhe Cheng (2018) 2 Stress & Strain  Axial Loading Statics
More informationFiniteElement Analysis of Stress Concentration in ASTM D 638 Tension Specimens
Monika G. Garrell, 1 Albert J. Shih, 2 Edgar LaraCurzio, 3 and Ronald O. Scattergood 4 Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 31, No. 1 Paper ID JTE11402_311 Available online at: www.astm.org FiniteElement
More informationFracture Mechanics of Composites with Residual Thermal Stresses
J. A. Nairn Material Science & Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84 Fracture Mechanics of Composites with Residual Thermal Stresses The problem of calculating the energy release rate
More informationFinite element analysis of diagonal tension failure in RC beams
Finite element analysis of diagonal tension failure in RC beams T. Hasegawa Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT: Finite element analysis of diagonal tension failure in a
More informationMechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials
MME131: Lecture 13 Mechanical properties 1 Elastic behaviour of materials A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUET, Dhaka Today s Topics Deformation of material under the action of a mechanical
More informationElastic parameters prediction under dynamic loading based on the. unit cell of composites considering end constraint effect
Elastic parameters prediction under dynamic loading based on the unit cell of composites considering end constraint effect Wang Meng 1,, Fei Qingguo 1,, Zhang Peiwei 1, (1. Institute of Aerospace Machinery
More informationStressStrain Behavior
StressStrain Behavior 6.3 A specimen of aluminum having a rectangular cross section 10 mm 1.7 mm (0.4 in. 0.5 in.) is pulled in tension with 35,500 N (8000 lb f ) force, producing only elastic deformation.
More informationQUESTION BANK Composite Materials
QUESTION BANK Composite Materials 1. Define composite material. 2. What is the need for composite material? 3. Mention important characterits of composite material 4. Give examples for fiber material 5.
More informationModule 7: Micromechanics Lecture 29: Background of Concentric Cylinder Assemblage Model. Introduction. The Lecture Contains
Introduction In this lecture we are going to introduce a new micromechanics model to determine the fibrous composite effective properties in terms of properties of its individual phases. In this model
More information4.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
4.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS The diagram representing the relation between stress and strain in a given material is an important characteristic of the material. To obtain the stressstrain diagram
More informationA CRITERION OF TENSILE FAILURE FOR HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS AND ITS APPLICATION TO VISCOELASTICVISCOPLASTIC MATERIALS
MTS ADHESIVES PROGRAMME 19961999 PERFORMANCE OF ADHESIVE JOINTS Project: PAJ1; Failure Criteria and their Application to ViscoElastic/ViscoPlastic Materials Report 2 A CRITERION OF TENSILE FAILURE FOR
More informationA FINITE ELEMENT MODEL TO PREDICT MULTI AXIAL STRESSSTRAIN RESPONSE OF CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES WITH STRAIN INDUCED DAMAGE
A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL TO PREDICT MULTI AXIAL STRESSSTRAIN RESPONSE OF CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES WITH STRAIN INDUCED DAMAGE Daxu Zhang and D. R. Hayhurst School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
More informationSTRAIN ASSESSMENT USFOS
1 STRAIN ASSESSMENT IN USFOS 2 CONTENTS: 1 Introduction...3 2 Revised strain calculation model...3 3 Strain predictions for various characteristic cases...4 3.1 Beam with concentrated load at mid span...
More informationChapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals. Dr. Feras Fraige
Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals Dr. Feras Fraige Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility Toughness
More informationTHREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE T BOLT JOINT
THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE T BOLT JOINT Víctor Martínez 1, Alfredo Güemes 2, Norbert Blanco 1, Josep Costa 1 1 Escola Politècnica Superior. Universitat de Girona. Girona, Spain (17071) 2
More informationStrainBased Design Model for FRPConfined Concrete Columns
SP230 57 StrainBased Design Model for FRPConfined Concrete Columns by N. Saenz and C.P. Pantelides Synopsis: A constitutive strainbased confinement model is developed herein for circular concrete columns
More informationSize Effects In the Crushing of Honeycomb Structures
45th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference 1922 April 2004, Palm Springs, California AIAA 20041640 Size Effects In the Crushing of Honeycomb Structures Erik C.
More information*Corresponding author: Keywords: Finiteelement analysis; Multiscale modelling; Onset theory; Dilatational strain invariant.
18 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS MICROMECHANICAL MODELLING OF TEST SPECIMENS FOR ONSET OF DILATATIONAL DAMAGE OF POLYMER MATRIX IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS T. D. Tran 1, D. Kelly 1*, G.
More informationChapter 7. Highlights:
Chapter 7 Highlights: 1. Understand the basic concepts of engineering stress and strain, yield strength, tensile strength, Young's(elastic) modulus, ductility, toughness, resilience, true stress and true
More informationCalculation of Energy Release Rate in Mode I Delamination of Angle Ply Laminated Composites
Copyright c 2007 ICCES ICCES, vol.1, no.2, pp.6167, 2007 Calculation of Energy Release Rate in Mode I Delamination of Angle Ply Laminated Composites K. Gordnian 1, H. Hadavinia 1, G. Simpson 1 and A.
More informationMECE 3321 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS CHAPTER 3
MECE 3321 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS CHAPTER 3 Samantha Ramirez TENSION AND COMPRESSION TESTS Tension and compression tests are used primarily to determine the relationship between σ avg and ε avg in any material.
More informationCrash and Impact Simulation of Composite Structures by Using CAE Process Chain
Crash and Impact Simulation of Composite Structures by Using CAE Process Chain Madhukar Chatiri 1, Thorsten Schütz 2, Anton Matzenmiller 3, Ulrich Stelzmann 1 1 CADFEM GmbH, Grafing/Munich, Germany, mchatiri@cadfem.de
More informationAE3610 Experiments in Fluid and Solid Mechanics TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS OF HOOP STRESSES FOR A THINWALL PRESSURE VESSEL
Objective AE3610 Experiments in Fluid and Solid Mechanics TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS OF OOP STRESSES FOR A TINWA PRESSURE VESSE This experiment will allow you to investigate hoop and axial stress/strain relations
More informationPRELIMINARY PREDICTION OF SPECIMEN PROPERTIES CLT and 1 st order FEM analyses
OPTIMAT BLADES Page 1 of 24 PRELIMINARY PREDICTION OF SPECIMEN PROPERTIES CLT and 1 st order FEM analyses first issue Peter Joosse CHANGE RECORD Issue/revision date pages Summary of changes draft 241002
More informationContinuum Mechanics. Continuum Mechanics and Constitutive Equations
Continuum Mechanics Continuum Mechanics and Constitutive Equations Continuum mechanics pertains to the description of mechanical behavior of materials under the assumption that the material is a uniform
More informationDesign of a fastener based on negative Poisson's ratio foam adapted from
1 Design of a fastener based on negative Poisson's ratio foam adapted from Choi, J. B. and Lakes, R. S., "Design of a fastener based on negative Poisson's ratio foam", Cellular Polymers, 10, 205212 (1991).
More informationOutline. TensileTest Specimen and Machine. StressStrain Curve. Review of Mechanical Properties. Mechanical Behaviour
TensileTest Specimen and Machine Review of Mechanical Properties Outline Tensile test True stress  true strain (flow curve) mechanical properties:  Resilience  Ductility  Toughness  Hardness A standard
More informationSANDWICH COMPOSITE BEAMS for STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
SANDWICH COMPOSITE BEAMS for STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS de Aguiar, José M., josemaguiar@gmail.com Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo, FATECSP Centro Estadual de Educação Tecnológica Paula Souza. CEETEPS
More informationA Constitutive Framework for the Numerical Analysis of Organic Soils and Directionally Dependent Materials
Dublin, October 2010 A Constitutive Framework for the Numerical Analysis of Organic Soils and Directionally Dependent Materials FracMan Technology Group Dr Mark Cottrell Presentation Outline Some Physical
More informationU.S. South America Workshop. Mechanics and Advanced Materials Research and Education. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. August 2 6, Steven L.
Computational Modeling of Composite and Functionally Graded Materials U.S. South America Workshop Mechanics and Advanced Materials Research and Education Rio de Janeiro, Brazil August 2 6, 2002 Steven
More informationTesting and Analysis
Testing and Analysis Testing Elastomers for Hyperelastic Material Models in Finite Element Analysis 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 Biaxial Extension Simple Tension Figure 1, A Typical Final Data Set for Input
More informationChapter 12. Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
Chapter 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity Static Equilibrium Equilibrium implies that the object moves with both constant velocity and constant angular velocity relative to an observer in an inertial
More informationDEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUUM PLASTICITY MODEL FOR THE COMMERCIAL FINITE ELEMENT CODE ABAQUS
DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUUM PLASTICITY MODEL FOR THE COMMERCIAL FINITE ELEMENT CODE ABAQUS Mohsen Safaei, Wim De Waele Ghent University, Laboratory Soete, Belgium Abstract The present work relates to the
More information6. NONLINEAR PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS OF ADOBE WALLS
6. NONLINEAR PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS OF ADOBE WALLS Blondet et al. [25] carried out a cyclic test on an adobe wall to reproduce its seismic response and damage pattern under inplane loads. The displacement
More informationTensile behaviour of antisymmetric CFRP composite
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 1 (211) 1865 187 ICM11 Tensile behaviour of antisymmetric CFRP composite K. J. Wong a,b, *, X. J. Gong a, S. Aivazzadeh a, M. N. Tamin b
More informationTRESS  STRAIN RELATIONS
TRESS  STRAIN RELATIONS Stress Strain Relations: Hook's law, states that within the elastic limits the stress is proportional to t is impossible to describe the entire stress strain curve with simple
More informationMultiscale modeling of failure in ABS materials
Institute of Mechanics Multiscale modeling of failure in ABS materials Martin Helbig, Thomas Seelig 15. International Conference on Deformation, Yield and Fracture of Polymers Kerkrade, April 2012 Institute
More informationDynamic Analysis of a Reinforced Concrete Structure Using Plasticity and Interface Damage Models
Dynamic Analysis of a Reinforced Concrete Structure Using Plasticity and Interface Damage Models I. Rhee, K.J. Willam, B.P. Shing, University of Colorado at Boulder ABSTRACT: This paper examines the global
More informationUniversity of Bristol  Explore Bristol Research. Early version, also known as preprint
Hallett, S. R., & Wisnom, M. R. (2006). Numerical investigation of progressive damage and the effect of layup in notched tensile tests. Journal of Composite Materials, 40 (14), 12291245. DOI: 10.1177/0021998305057432
More information6.4 A cylindrical specimen of a titanium alloy having an elastic modulus of 107 GPa ( psi) and
6.4 A cylindrical specimen of a titanium alloy having an elastic modulus of 107 GPa (15.5 10 6 psi) and an original diameter of 3.8 mm (0.15 in.) will experience only elastic deformation when a tensile
More informationInterlaminar fracture characterization in composite materials by using acoustic emission
5th International Symposium on NDT in Aerospace, 1315th November 2013, Singapore Interlaminar fracture characterization in composite materials by using acoustic emission Ian SILVERSIDES 1, Ahmed MASLOUHI
More informationAPPLICATION OF A SCALAR STRAINBASED DAMAGE ONSET THEORY TO THE FAILURE OF A COMPLEX COMPOSITE SPECIMEN
28 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES APPLICATION OF A SCALAR STRAINBASED DAMAGE ONSET THEORY TO THE FAILURE OF A COMPLEX COMPOSITE SPECIMEN Tuyen Tran*, Dan Simkins**, Shen Hin Lim*,
More informationTask 1  Material Testing of Bionax Pipe and Joints
Task 1  Material Testing of Bionax Pipe and Joints Submitted to: Jeff Phillips Western Regional Engineer IPEX Management, Inc. 20460 Duncan Way Langley, BC, Canada V3A 7A3 Ph: 6045348631 Fax: 6045347616
More informationLAMINATION THEORY FOR THE STRENGTH OF FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS
XXII. LAMINATION THEORY FOR THE STRENGTH OF FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS Introduction The lamination theory for the elastic stiffness of fiber composite materials is the backbone of the entire field, it holds
More informationTransactions on Engineering Sciences vol 6, 1994 WIT Press, ISSN
Significance of the characteristic length for micromechanical modelling of ductile fracture D.Z. Sun, A. Honig FraunhoferInstitut fur Werkstoffmechanik, Wohlerstr. 11, D79108 Freiburg, Germany ABSTRACT
More informationUNIT I SIMPLE STRESSES AND STRAINS
Subject with Code : SM1(15A01303) Year & Sem: IIB.Tech & ISem SIDDHARTH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS :: PUTTUR Siddharth Nagar, Narayanavanam Road 517583 QUESTION BANK (DESCRIPTIVE) UNIT I SIMPLE STRESSES
More informationPlane Strain Test for Metal Sheet Characterization
Plane Strain Test for Metal Sheet Characterization Paulo Flores 1, Felix Bonnet 2 and AnneMarie Habraken 3 1 DIM, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción, Chile 2 ENS  Cachan, Avenue
More informationStrength of Material. Shear Strain. Dr. Attaullah Shah
Strength of Material Shear Strain Dr. Attaullah Shah Shear Strain TRIAXIAL DEFORMATION Poisson's Ratio Relationship Between E, G, and ν BIAXIAL DEFORMATION Bulk Modulus of Elasticity or Modulus of Volume
More informationA synergistic damage mechanics approach to mechanical response of composite laminates with ply cracks
Article A synergistic damage mechanics approach to mechanical response of composite laminates with ply cracks JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Journal of Composite Materials 0(0) 7! The Author(s) 0 Reprints
More informationREPRESENTING MATRIX CRACKS THROUGH DECOMPOSITION OF THE DEFORMATION GRADIENT TENSOR IN CONTINUUM DAMAGE MECHANICS METHODS
20 th International Conference on Composite Materials Copenhagen, 1924 th July 2015 REPRESENTING MATRIX CRACKS THROUGH DECOMPOSITION OF THE DEFORMATION GRADIENT TENSOR IN CONTINUUM DAMAGE MECHANICS METHODS
More informationPullout Tests of Geogrids Embedded in Noncohesive Soil
Archives of HydroEngineering and Environmental Mechanics Vol. 51 (2004), No. 2, pp. 135 147 Pullout Tests of Geogrids Embedded in Noncohesive Soil Angelika Duszyńska, Adam F. Bolt Gdansk University of
More informationDRAPING SIMULATION. Recent achievements and future trends. Dr. Sylvain Bel LGCIE University Lyon 1
DRAPING SIMULATION Recent achievements and future trends 1 Dr. Sylvain Bel LGCIE University Lyon 1 2 DRAPING SIMULATION Why? How? What? DRAPING SIMULATION WHY? Clamps Punch Fabric Die 1 2 Resin 3 4 Fig.
More informationINFLUENCE OF WEB THICKNESS REDUCTION IN THE SHEAR RESISTANCE OF NONPRISMATIC TAPERED PLATE GIRDERS
INFLUENCE OF WEB THICKNESS REDUCTION IN THE SHEAR RESISTANCE OF NONPRISMATIC TAPERED PLATE GIRDERS Paulo J. S. Cruz 1, Lúcio Lourenço 1, Hélder Quintela 2 and Manuel F. Santos 2 1 Department of Civil
More informationASPECTS CONCERNING TO THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GLASS / FLAX / EPOXY COMPOSITE MATERIAL
5 th International Conference Advanced Composite Materials Engineering COMAT 2014 1617 October 2014, Braşov, Romania ASPECTS CONCERNING TO THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GLASS / FLAX / EPOXY COMPOSITE
More informationLaboratory 4 Bending Test of Materials
Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering Technology, Dhaka MME 222 Materials Testing Sessional.50 Credits Laboratory 4 Bending Test of Materials. Objective
More informationReference material Reference books: Y.C. Fung, "Foundations of Solid Mechanics", Prentice Hall R. Hill, "The mathematical theory of plasticity",
Reference material Reference books: Y.C. Fung, "Foundations of Solid Mechanics", Prentice Hall R. Hill, "The mathematical theory of plasticity", Oxford University Press, Oxford. J. Lubliner, "Plasticity
More informationDebonding process in composites using BEM
Boundary Elements XXVII 331 Debonding process in composites using BEM P. Prochazka & M. Valek Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract The paper deals with the debonding fibermatrix
More informationSeismic Pushover Analysis Using AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design
Seismic Pushover Analysis Using AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design Elmer E. Marx, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities Michael Keever, California Department
More informationStructural Metals Lab 1.2. Torsion Testing of Structural Metals. Standards ASTM E143: Shear Modulus at Room Temperature
Torsion Testing of Structural Metals Standards ASTM E143: Shear Modulus at Room Temperature Purpose To determine the shear modulus of structural metals Equipment TiniusOlsen LoTorq Torsion Machine (figure
More informationTHE DETERMINATION OF FRACTURE STRENGTH FROM ULTIMATE TENSILE AND TRANSVERSE RUPTURE STRESSES
Powder Metallurgy Progress, Vol.3 (003), No 3 119 THE DETERMINATION OF FRACTURE STRENGTH FROM ULTIMATE TENSILE AND TRANSVERSE RUPTURE STRESSES A.S. Wronski, A.Cias Abstract It is wellrecognized that the
More informationA PAPER ON DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL
A PAPER ON DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL P.Palanivelu 1, R.Siva Prasad 2, 1 PG Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gojan School of Business and Technology, Redhills, Chennai, India.
More information1. A pure shear deformation is shown. The volume is unchanged. What is the strain tensor.
Elasticity Homework Problems 2014 Section 1. The Strain Tensor. 1. A pure shear deformation is shown. The volume is unchanged. What is the strain tensor. 2. Given a steel bar compressed with a deformation
More informationA SELFINDICATING MODE I INTERLAMINAR TOUGHNESS TEST
A SELFINDICATING MODE I INTERLAMINAR TOUGHNESS TEST P. Robinson The Composites Centre, Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK p.robinson@imperial.ac.uk
More information3dimensional joint torque calculation of compression sportswear using 3DCG human model
3dimensional joint torque calculation of compression sportswear using 3DCG human model Akihiro Matsuda, University of Tsukuba Hirokazu Tanaka, University of Tsukuba Hitoshi Aoki, University of Tsukuba
More informationCHEMC2410: Materials Science from Microstructures to Properties Composites: basic principles
CHEMC2410: Materials Science from Microstructures to Properties Composites: basic principles Mark Hughes 14 th March 2017 Today s learning outcomes To understand the role of reinforcement, matrix and
More informationWheatstone Bridge Nonlinearity
Index: Nonlinearity Wheatstone Bridge Nonlinearity Introduction General Considerations The "Unbalanced" Circuit The Unbalanced Circuit Table of Contents Output & Nonlinearity with Various Bridge/Strain
More informationDerivation of minimum steel ratio: based on service applied stresses
MATEC Web of Conferences, () DOI:./ matecconf/ Derivation of minimum steel ratio: based on service applied stresses Humam AL Sebai,*, Salah Al Toubat University of Sharjah, Sharjah city, UAE Abstract.
More informationSTRENGTH AND STIFFNESS REDUCTION OF LARGE NOTCHED BEAMS
STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS REDUCTION OF LARGE NOTCHED BEAMS By Joseph F. Murphy 1 ABSTRACT: Four large glulam beams with notches on the tension side were tested for strength and stiffness. Using either bending
More informationImproved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components
Improved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components J. de Vreugd 1a, M.J.A. te Voert a, J.R. Nijenhuis a, J.A.C.M. Pijnenburg a, E. Tabak a a TNO optomechatronics, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK,
More informationBE Semester I ( ) Question Bank (MECHANICS OF SOLIDS)
BE Semester I ( ) Question Bank (MECHANICS OF SOLIDS) All questions carry equal marks(10 marks) Q.1 (a) Write the SI units of following quantities and also mention whether it is scalar or vector: (i)
More informationA Critical Planeenergy Model for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction. of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Materials. Haoyang Wei
A Critical Planeenergy Model for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Materials by Haoyang Wei A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
More informationCrack Tip Plastic Zone under Mode I Loading and the Nonsingular T zz stress
Crack Tip Plastic Zone under Mode Loading and the Nonsingular T stress Yu.G. Matvienko Mechanical Engineering Research nstitute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Email: ygmatvienko@gmail.com Abstract:
More informationFailure from static loading
Failure from static loading Topics Quiz /1/07 Failures from static loading Reading Chapter 5 Homework HW 3 due /1 HW 4 due /8 What is Failure? Failure any change in a machine part which makes it unable
More informationAnálisis Computacional del Comportamiento de Falla de Hormigón Reforzado con Fibras Metálicas
San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina September 14 th, 2011 Seminary on Análisis Computacional del Comportamiento de Falla de Hormigón Reforzado con Fibras Metálicas Antonio Caggiano 1, Guillermo Etse 2, Enzo
More informationAgnieszka Bondyra, Pawe Gotowicki
Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 17, No. 1 21 INFLUENCE OF A CROSSHEAD RATE AND A NUMBER OF STRESS CYCLES ON MEASUREMENT RESULTS IN THE INPLANE SHEAR TEST FOR A CROSSPLY VINYLESTERCARBON
More information3D Finite Element analysis of stud anchors with large head and embedment depth
3D Finite Element analysis of stud anchors with large head and embedment depth G. Periškić, J. Ožbolt & R. Eligehausen Institute for Construction Materials, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
More informationNE 125 L. Title Page
NE 125 L Title Page Name: Rajesh Swaminathan ID Number: 20194189 Partners Names: Clayton Szata 20193839 Sarvesh Varma 20203153 Experiment Number: 1 Experiment: Date Experiment was Started: Date Experiment
More informationPredicting Fatigue Life with ANSYS Workbench
Predicting Fatigue Life with ANSYS Workbench How To Design Products That Meet Their Intended Design Life Requirements Raymond L. Browell, P. E. Product Manager New Technologies ANSYS, Inc. Al Hancq Development
More informationMultiscale digital image correlation of strain localization
Multiscale digital image correlation of strain localization J. Marty a, J. Réthoré a, A. Combescure a a. Laboratoire de Mécanique des Contacts et des Strcutures, INSA Lyon / UMR CNRS 5259 2 Avenue des
More informationStress in FlipChip Solder Bumps due to Package Warpage  Matt Pharr
Stress in FlipChip Bumps due to Package Warpage  Matt Pharr Introduction As the size of microelectronic devices continues to decrease, interconnects in the devices are scaling down correspondingly.
More informationMechanics of Solids. Mechanics Of Solids. Suraj kr. Ray Department of Civil Engineering
Mechanics Of Solids Suraj kr. Ray (surajjj2445@gmail.com) Department of Civil Engineering 1 Mechanics of Solids is a branch of applied mechanics that deals with the behaviour of solid bodies subjected
More informationCHARACTERIZATION, ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION OF DELAMINATION IN COMPOSITES USING FRACTURE MECHANICS
Oral Reference Number: ICF100942OR CHARACTERIZATION, ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION OF DELAMINATION IN COMPOSITES USING FRACTURE MECHANICS T. Kevin O Brien U.S. Army Research Laboratory Vehicle Technology Directorate
More informationANSYS Mechanical Basic Structural Nonlinearities
Lecture 4 Rate Independent Plasticity ANSYS Mechanical Basic Structural Nonlinearities 1 Chapter Overview The following will be covered in this Chapter: A. Background Elasticity/Plasticity B. Yield Criteria
More information1. Demonstrate that the minimum cationtoanion radius ratio for a coordination number of 8 is
1. Demonstrate that the minimum cationtoanion radius ratio for a coordination number of 8 is 0.732. This problem asks us to show that the minimum cationtoanion radius ratio for a coordination number
More informationDetermination of Poisson s Ratio of Rock Material by Changing Axial Stress and Unloading Lateral Stress Test
Rock Mech Rock Eng DOI 10.1007/s0060301405869 TECHNICAL NOTE Determination of Poisson s Ratio of Rock Material by Changing Axial Stress and Unloading Lateral Stress Test Xiangtao Xu Runqiu Huang Hua
More informationFinal Design Project: Biodiesel Settling Tank Analysis
MESSIAH COLLEGE ENGR 495 Finite Element Methods Tuesday, December 16, 2003 : Biodiesel Settling Tank Analysis Brandon Apple Jon Bitterman Becky Gast Kyle McNamara ENGR 495 Finite Element Methods 1 Abstract
More informationPressure Vessels Stresses Under Combined Loads Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Criteria for Brittle Materials
Pressure Vessels Stresses Under Combined Loads Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Criteria for Brittle Materials Pressure Vessels: In the previous lectures we have discussed elements subjected
More informationSPECTRUM FATIGUE LIFETIME AND RESIDUAL STRENGTH FOR FIBERGLASS LAMINATES IN TENSION
AIAA225 SPECTRUM FATIGUE LIFETIME AND RESIDUAL STRENGTH FOR FIBERGLASS LAMINATES IN TENSION Neil Wahl Montana Tech of The University of Montana Butte, Montana 597 Daniel Samborsky John Mandell Douglas
More informationMODEL VALIDATION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A SMALL WIND TURBINE BLADE
8th International DAAAM Baltic Conference INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 1921 April 2012, Tallinn, Estonia MODEL VALIDATION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A SMALL WIND TURBINE BLADE Pabut, O.; Allikas, G.; Herranen,
More informationFlexure: Behavior and Nominal Strength of Beam Sections
4 5000 4000 (increased d ) (increased f (increased A s or f y ) c or b) Flexure: Behavior and Nominal Strength of Beam Sections Moment (kipin.) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 (basic) (A s 0.5A s ) 0.0005 0.001 0.0015
More informationSimulations of necking during plane strain tensile tests
J. Phys. IV France 134 (2006) 429 434 C EDP Sciences, Les Ulis DOI: 10.1051/jp4:2006134066 Simulations of necking during plane strain tensile tests F. Dalle 1 1 CEA/DAM Île de France, BP. 12, 91680 BruyèresleChâtel,
More informationNonlinear Analysis Of An EPDM Hydraulic Accumulator Bladder. Richard Kennison, RaceTec
Nonlinear Analysis Of An EPDM Hydraulic Accumulator Bladder Richard Kennison, RaceTec Agenda RaceTec Overview Accumulator Experimental Testing Material Testing Numerical Analysis: 1. Linear Buckling
More information