# 8 th Grade Math. Units of Study. Overview

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1 8 th Grade Math Overview Course Description: In this class students will learn the rest of the essentials necessary for them to move forward into Algebra at the High School level. The class will teach students how to solve one and two step equations and inequalities. Students will be introduced to quadratic, exponential, and step functions and have an understanding of how these functions are used outside of school. Students will learn about rational and irrational numbers and how to solve each kind of number using their order of operations. Students will take a better look at linear functions using graphs and solving word problems. Finally, students will learn about polynomials and probability. Prerequisite Class/Skill: Successful completion of 7th grade math curriculum with the common core as a foundation is required to take this class. Other: 3 Trimesters Units of Study Unit Title The Number System Expression and Equations Functions Geometry Statistics and Probability Length of Study 2 Weeks 12 Weeks 9 Weeks 12 Weeks 4 Weeks

2 Course Title: 8th Grade Math Unit Title: _The Number System Length of Unit 2 weeks Grade Level: 8 th grade Unit 1 of 7 What do you want students to know, do, and be like? What possible instructional resources could be used? 8.NS.A.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number 8.NS.A.2 Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π2). identify rational and irrational numbers write rational numbers as fractions approximate the value of irrational numbers to the nearest thousandths compare irrational and rational numbers. Rational numbers Irrational numbers Square roots Perfect Square Radicand Radical sign Common Core Clinics Grade 8 The Number System by Triumph Learning Common Core Coach Grade 8 by Triumph Learning Crosswalk Coach Grade 8 Mathematics by Triumph Learning

3 Course Title: 8 th Grade Math Unit Title: Expressions and Equations Length of Unit 12 weeks Grade Level: 8 th grade Unit 2 of _7 What do you want students to know, do, and be like? What possible instructional resources could be used? 8.EE.A.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. 8.EE.A.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that 2 is irrational. 8.EE.A.3 Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. 8.EE.A.4 Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology. 8.EE.B.5 Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. 8.EE.B.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b. use square roots and cube roots apply the properties of exponents solve one variable equations using one, two, and multiple steps solve system of linear equations graphically and algebraically use linear model to make predicts about future outcomes find the unit rate, rate of change, and slope using graphs, coordinates, tables, and equations find the initial value and y-intercept using graphs, coordinates, tables, and equations write equations in y=mx+b form graph and understand proportional relationships identify similarities and differences between proportional relationships and linear relationships. Constant of proportionality Rise Run Slope y-intercept Unit rate Rate of change Initial Value Coefficient Variable Substitution Method Elimination Method Graphing Method Linear equation Parallel Solution Slope-intercept form Proportional relationship System of linear equations Scientific Notation Exponents Standard Notation Cube Root Origin Ratio Intersection Infinitely many solutions 8. Check and sign activity Common Core Clinics Grade 8 Expression and Equations by Triumph Learning Common Core Coach Grade 8 by Triumph Learning Crosswalk Coach Grade 8 Mathematics by Triumph Learning Guidelines for solving equations (a.k.a. Mr. V s Holy Grail ) 8.EE.C.7 Solve linear equations in one variable. a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

4 different numbers). b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. 8.EE.C.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables.

5 Course Title: 8 th Grade Unit Title: Functions Length of Unit 9 weeks Grade Level: 8 th grade Unit 4 of _7 What do you want students to know, do, and be like? What possible instructional resources could be used? 8.F.A.1 Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. 8.F.A.2 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). 8.F.A.3 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. 8.F.B.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. 8.F.B.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. identify functions from graphs, coordinates, tables, and equations graph linear functions graph nonlinear functions use y=mx+b to graph functions compare two functions find the slope and y-intercept of a function identify functions as increasing, decreasing, linear, or nonlinear model functions graph functions being modeled verbally. Function Slope Vertical line test Rise Run y-intercept Linear functions Nonlinear functions Relation Input value Output value Coordinates Exponential function Inverse function Quadratic function Increasing function Decreasing function Common Core Clinics Grade 8 Functions, Statistics, and Probability by Triumph Learning Common Core Coach Grade 8 by Triumph Learning Crosswalk Coach Grade 8 Mathematics by Triumph Learning Piecewise function Domain Range

6 Course Title: 8 th Grade Unit Title: Geometry Length of Unit 12 weeks Grade Level: 8 th grade Page _5 of _7 What do you want students to know, do, and be like? What possible instructional resources could be used? 8.G.A.1 Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length. b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure. c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines. 8.G.A.2 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. 8.G.A.3 Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates. 8.G.A.4 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. 8.G.A.5 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. 8.G.B.6 Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. 8.G.B.7 Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. use transformations/rigid motions identify transformations/rigid motions perform a sequence of transformations/rigid motions understand that a figure is still congruent after multiple transformations/rigid motions have been performed identify angles from two parallel lines with a transversal prove the Pythagorean Theorem use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve realistic problems find the interior and exterior angles of a triangle knowing two other angles of the triangle use the Pythagorean Theorem on a coordinate system to find the distance between two points find the volume of a sphere, cone, and cylinder use the volume formulas for a sphere, cone, and cylinder to solve realistic problems. use the transformations/rigid motions Transformations Rotation Reflection Translation Counter clockwise Clockwise Exterior angles Interior angles Alternate exterior angles Alternate interior angles Congruent Dilation Distance formula Corresponding angles Vertical angles Volume Transversal Supplementary Complementary Similar Scale Factor Radius Diameter Pythagorean theorem Legs Hypotenuse Sphere Cone Cylinder Image Rigid motion Parallel Lines Coordinate system 8. Right triangle floor activity 9. Tessellation Common Core Clinics Grade 8 Geometry by Triumph Learning Common Core Coach Grade 8 by Triumph Learning Crosswalk Coach Grade 8 Mathematics by Triumph Learning Trace paper worksheets

7 8.G.B.8 Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. 8.G.C.9 Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. to design a tessellation dilate a figure using the scale factor and understand the effects it has on a coordinate system.

8 Course Title: 8 th Grade Math Unit Title: Statistics and Probability Length of Unit 4 weeks Grade Level: 8 th grade Unit 7 of _7 What do you want students to know, do, and be like? What possible instructional resources could be used? 8.SP.A.1 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 8.SP.A.2 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 8.SP.A.3 Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. 8.SP.A.4 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. represent bivariate data graphically identify patterns and trends on scatter plots draw a trend line (line of best fit) to represent a positive/negative association identify clusters and find outliers within a scatter plot make predictions about future events using the trend line write an equation in y=mx+b form using the trend line collect data using a two-way frequency table convert data from a frequency table to a relative frequency table Cluster Frequency Linear association Nonlinear association Negative association Positive association Outlier Relative frequency Scatter plot Trend line Two-way table Bivariate data Line of best fit Slope Initial value y-intercept Common Core Clinics Grade 8 Functions, Statistics, and Probability by Triumph Learning Common Core Coach Grade 8 by Triumph Learning Crosswalk Coach Grade 8 Mathematics by Triumph Learning make educated observations from a two-way frequency table. construct a two-way frequency table. Rate of change Unit Rate

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