Outline. Chapter 6 The Basic Interactions between Photons and Charged Particles with Matter. Photon interactions. Photoelectric effect


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1 Chapter 6 The Basic Interactions between Photons and Charged Particles with Matter Radiation Dosimetry I Text: H.E Johns and J.R. Cunningham, The physics of radiology, 4 th ed. Outline Photon interactions Photoelectric effect Compton scattering Pair productions Coherent scattering Charged particle interactions Stopping power and range Bremsstrahlung interaction Bragg peak Photon interactions With energy deposition Photoelectric effect Compton scattering No energy deposition in classical Thomson treatment Pair production (above the threshold of. MeV) Photonuclear interactions for higher energies (above MeV) Without energy deposition Coherent scattering Photoelectric mass attenuation coefficients of lead and soft tissue as a function of photon energy. K and Labsorption edges are shown for lead Photoelectric effect Collision between a photon and an atom results in ejection of a bound electron The photon disappears and is replaced by an electron ejected from the atom with kinetic energy KE = hν E b Highest probability if the photon energy is just above the binding energy of the electron (absorption edge) Additional energy may be deposited locally by Auger electrons and/or fluorescence photons Photoelectric effect Electron tends to be ejected at 9 o for low energy photons, and approaching o with increase in energy Kinetic energy given to electron KE=hvE b, independent of scattering angle Interaction probability ~Z 3 /(hv) 3 No universal analytical expression for crosssection Thomson scattering (classical treatment) Elastic scattering of photon (EM wave) on free electron Electron is accelerated by EM wave and radiates a wave No energy is given to the electron; wavelength of the scattered photon does not change Classical scattering coefficient per electron per unit solid angle: m d r cos d e max at ½ max at, 9 8 r  classical radius of electron c o o
2 Thomson scattering (classical treatment) 3 No energy dependence, total 66.5 m electron Works for low photon energies, << m c Overestimates for photon energies >.MeV (factor of for.4mev) d sin d d r d cos sin Coherent scattering Photon is scattered by combined action of the whole atom Photons do not lose energy, just get redirected through a small angle No charged particles receive energy, no excitation produced Scattering coefficient (F  atomic form factor, tabulated): d coh x d r sin / / cos F ( x, Z ) sin Typical ratios of coherent to total attenuation coefficient Example A 5keV photon undergoing coherent or classical scatter would be most likely to lose % of its energy in the process. A. B. C. 5 D. 9 E. Compton scattering kinematics Incoherent scattering energy is transferred to electron (inelastic scattering) Energy and momentum are conserved hv hv ' E hv ' m c p II hv hv ' cos c c hv ' p sin c v / c m v v / c m v v / c cos sin Compton scattering kinematics Introducing parameter hv / m c ( cos ) E hv ( cos ) hv ' hv Energy of scattered photon ( cos ) The maximum energy that electron can acquire in a direct hit ( = 8 o ): E hv ; photon energy : hv ' hv. 55 MeV max min For highenergy photon In a grazing hit ( ~ o ) E=, and for the scattered photon hv ' hv Energy of electron Compton scattering probability KleinNishina coefficient: Compton scattering on free electron, but includes Dirac s quantum relativistic theory d d F KN d d r cos F KN, F KN ( cos ) Factor F KN describes the deviation from classical scattering F KN < for higher energies; F KN = for small (low energy) or = where ( cos ) ( cos ) ( cos )
3 Energy distribution of Compton electrons Lower energy and high energy electrons are more likely to be produced Higher energy photons are more likely to transfer more energy to Compton electrons Effect of binding energy (bound electron) (free electron) (free electron) In real situation electrons are bound and in motion Additional factor S(x, Z) is introduced d inc d x=sin(/)/ d S ( x, Z ) d Makes the scattering coefficient Zdependent Example Compton scattered electrons can be emitted at: A. Any angle. B. o 9 o with respect to the direction of the incident photon C. 3 o  o with respect to the direction of the incident photon. D. 9 o 8 o with respect to the direction of the incident photon. Example 3 In Compton scattering original photon has energy.5 MeV, scattered at 3. Calculate the energy of scattered photon. A.. MeV B.. MeV C..94 MeV D..83 MeV hv m c hv ' hv ( cos ).5.45 ( cos 3 ).94 MeV Pair production Photon is absorbed giving rise to electron and positron Occurs in Coulomb force field  usually near atomic nucleus; threshold energy. MeV Sometimes occurs in a field of atomic electron (triplet production); threshold energy.44 MeV For MeV photons in soft tissue, for example, about % The ratio of triplet to pair production increases with E of incident photons and decreases with Z Pair production Energy in excess of. MeV is released as kinetic energy of the electron and positron hv m c T T. MeV T T Differential cross section: d Z r 4 m c F pair d 37 F pair is a function of momentum, energy and angle of positron projection 3
4 Charged particle interactions All charged particles lose kinetic energy through Coulomb field interactions with charged particles (electrons or nuclei) of the medium In each interaction typically only a small amount of particle s kinetic energy is lost ( continuous slowingdown approximation CSDA) Typically undergo very large number of interactions, therefore can be roughly characterized by a common path length in a specific medium (range) Heavy charged particle interactions Energy transferred to the electron of the medium z r m c M E b E Parameters: E kinetic energy of the particle; ze its charge; M mass b is the impact parameter Slower moving particle (lower KE) transfers more energy 4 Interactions of electrons In any given collision with another electron, one emerging with higher energy is assumed to be primary (max energy exchange is limited to half of its original energy) Due to small mass Relativistic effects are important Interactions with nucleus: rapid deceleration results in bremsstrahlung (breaking) radiation Bremsstrahlung interactions Fast moving charged particle of mass M, and charge ze, passing close to a nucleus of mass M N >>M and charge Ze will experience electric force, corresponding to accelerations: F kzze a M r M Accelerated charge radiates energy at a rate ~a The rate of energy loss is negligible for particles other than electrons (even protons) due to /M Stopping power Mass stopping power energy loss per unit track length in producing ionization in the absorbing medium z m c S 4 r N... ion dx Parameters: N e number of electrons per gram; [ ] is a slowly increasing function of the particle energy For electrons [ ] term is more complex Radiation stopping power energy loss due to bremsstrahlung N ZE e for electrons S 4 r... rad dx 37 e Stopping power Energy loss by radiation increases with atomic number of medium and electron energy 4
5 Halfvalue depth Practical range Range of electrons Charge particles are characterized by a range a finite distance Can be calculated from stopping power in continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) R E S ( E ) Rule of thumb: for electron energies >.5 MeV, the range in unit density material ( in g/cm 3 ) is, in cm, about half the energy in MeV Example 4 A 6 MeV electron beam passes through cm of tissue, overlying lung (density.5 g/cm3). The approximate range in the patient is cm. A. B. 3 C. 6 D. 9 E. R tissue ~3 cm R tissue+lung ~ cm (=) + cm (=.5) = cm + 4 cm = 6 cm Example 5 A Cerrobend cutout for a MeV electron beam should be approximately cm thick, to stop all the electrons and transmit only the bremsstrahlung. (Hint: Cerrobend requires % more thickness than lead.) A. 7 B. 4 C..5 D..7 E..4 lead = g/cm 3 R lead ~.5x/=.55 cm R Cerrobend ~.55x(+.)=.66 cm Mean stopping power If electron beam is not monoenergetic need to average over all electron energies S ( E ) i E d F ( E ) S E d F ( E ) ( E ) Similarly, if electrons are produced by polyenergetic photon beam with fluence F(E) ion Restricted stopping power In slowing down an electron may suffer a large energy loss in producing deltaray: introduce a cutoff energy allowing to not account for escaping deltarays Restricted stopping power (or LET linear energy transfer) L  only energy exchanges less than are accounted for Example 6 A 6 MeV electron travels through 3 m of air. By how much is its average energy reduced? A..6 MeV B. MeV C. MeV D. 3 MeV Need to remember air ~. g/cm 3 R air ~.5xE/ 3 =3x 3 cm=3 m Assuming linear decrease in energy: LET=6MeV/3 m=. MeV/m.MeV/m x 3m=.6 MeV 5
6 Example 7 Bragg peak A 6 MeV alpha particle produces, ion pairs per cm. What is the range of the alpha particle? A.. mm B.. mm C.. mm D.. mm E.. mm In air the energy to produce one ion pair is W~34 ev/pair 4 pair ev 5 ev LET 34 6 cm pair cm Since heavy particles move along a straightline path E R LET 6 MeV MeV.6 cm cm mm Never observed Slower moving charged particle (lower KE) transfers more energy, resulting in Bragg peak at the end of its track Never observed for electrons: due to their low mass, electrons constantly change direction as they slow down Summary Photon interactions Photoelectric effect Compton scattering Pair productions Coherent scattering Charged particle interactions Stopping power and range Bremsstrahlung interaction Bragg peak 6
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