# LESSON 1 FLUID MECHANICS

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1 LESSON FLUID MECHNICS Session Duration: hr Fundamental Concepts: Mechanics : Deals with action of forces on bodies at rest or in motion. State of rest and Motion: They are relative and depend on the frame of reference. If the position with reference to frame of reference is fixed with time, then the body is said to be in a state of rest. Otherwise, it is said to be in a state of motion. Scalar and heater quantities: Quantities which require only magnitude to represent them are called scalar quantities. Quantities which acquire magnitudes and direction to represent them are called vector quantities. Eg: Mass, time internal, Distance traveled Scalars Weight, Displacement, Velocity Vectors Displacement and Distance B Distance Unit: m Velocity and Speed: Rate of displacement is called velocity and Rate and distance traveled is called Speed. Unit: m/s cceleration: Rate of change of velocity is called acceleration. Negative acceleration is called retardation.

2 Momentum: The capacity of a body to impart motion to other bodies is called momentum. The momentum of a moving body is measured by the product of mass and velocity the moving body Momentum Mass x Velocity Unit: Kg m/s Newton s first law of motion: Every body continues to be in its state of rest or uniform motion unless compelled by an external agency. Inertia: It is the inherent property the body to retain its state of rest or uniform motion. Force: It is an external agency which overcomes or tends to overcome the inertia of a body. Newton s second law of motion: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the magnitudes of the applied force and takes place in the direction of the applied force. Measurement of force: F m u m V Time interval t Change in momentum in time t mv mu Rate of change of momentum mv mu F α t v u F α m t F α ma F K ma If F When m and u mv mu t

3 then K F ma. Unit: newton (N) Mass: Measure of amount of matter contained by the body it is a scale of quantity. Unit: Kg. Weight: Gravitational force on the body. It is a vector quantity. F ma W mg Unit: newton (N) g 9.8 m/s Volume: Measure of space occupied by the body. Unit: m 3 m litres Work: Work done Force x Displacement Linear motion. Work done Torques x ngular displacement Rotatory motion. Unit: Nm or J Energy: Capacity of doing work is called energy. Unit: Nm or J Potential energy mgh m h Kinetic energy ½ mv or ½ mrw Power: Rate of doing work is called Power. Force x displacement Power: time Force x Velocity Linear Motion. Π N T P Rotatory Motion. 60

4 Session LESSON FLUID MECHNICS Duration: hr Matter: nything which possess mass and requires space to occupy is called matter. States of matter: Matter can exist in the following states Solid state. Fluid state. Solid state: In case of solids intermolecular force is very large and hence molecules are not free to move. Solids exhibit definite shape and volume. Solids undergo certain amount of deformation and then attain state of equilibrium when subjected to tensile, compressive and shear forces. Fluid State: Liquids and gases together are called fluids. Incase of liquids Intermolecular force is comparatively small. Therefore liquids exhibit definite volume. But they assume the shape of the container Liquids offer very little resistance against tensile force. Liquids offer maximum resistance against compressive forces. Therefore, liquids are also called incompressible fluids. Liquids undergo continuous or prolonged angular deformation or shear strain when subjected to tangential force or shear force. This property of the liquid is called flow of liquid. ny substance which exhibits the property of flow is called fluid. Therefore liquids are considered as fluids. In case of gases intermolecular force is very small. Therefore the molecules are free to move along any direction. Therefore gases will occupy or assume the shape as well as the volume of the container. Gases offer little resistance against compressive forces. Therefore gases are called compressible fluids. When subjected to shear force gases undergo continuous or prolonged angular deformation or shear strain. This property of gas is called flow of gases. ny substance which exhibits the property of flow is called fluid. Therefore gases are considered as fluids.

5 Branches of Mechanics: Mechanics Solid Mech. Fluid Mech. Rigid Body Mech. Mech. of Deformable Bodies Fluid Statics Fluid Kinematics Fluid Dynamics Statics Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Fluid Statics deals with action of forces on fluids at rest or in equilibrium. Fluid Kinematics deals with geometry of motion of fluids without considering the cause of motion. Fluid dynamics deals with the motion of fluids considering the cause of motion. Properties of fluids:. Mass density or Specific mass (ρ): Mass density or specific mass is the mass per unit volume of the fluid. Mass ρ Volume M ρ or V Unit: kg/m 3 or kgm 3 dm dv

6 With the increase in temperature volume of fluid increases and hence mass density decreases. In case of fluids as the pressure increases volume decreases and hence mass density increases.. Weight density or Specific weight (γ): Weight density or Specific weight of a fluid is the weight per unit volume. Weight γ Volume γ W V or dw dv Unit: N/m 3 or Nm -3. decreases. With increase in temperature volume increases and hence specific weight With increases in pressure volume decreases and hence specific weight increases. Note: Relationship between mass density and weight density: Weight We have γ Volume γ mass x g Volume γ ρ x g 3. Specific gravity or Relative density (S): It is the ratio of specific weight of the fluid to the specific weight of a standard fluid. S γ γ of fluid of s tan dard fluid Unit: It is a dimensionless quantity and has no unit. Note: We have In case of liquids water at 4 o C is considered as standard liquid. γ (specific weight) of water at 4 o kn C (standard liquid) is or 9.8 x 0 3 m kn 3 m. S γ γ s tan dard

7 . S γ S γ x γ s tan dard γ s tan dard S S ρ x g ρ s tan dard x ρ g ρ s tan dard Specific gravity or relative density of a fluid can also be defined as the ratio of mass density of the fluid to mass density of the standard fluid. Mass density of standard water is 000 kg/m 3. ρ S x γ s tan dard 4. Specific volume ( ): It is the volume per unit mass of the fluid. Volume mass V M or dv dm Unit: m 3 /kg s the temperature increases volume increases and hence specific volume increases. s the pressure increases volume decreases and hence specific volume decreases.

8 Problems:. Calculate specific weight, mass density, specific volume and specific gravity of a liquid having a volume of 4m 3 and weighing 9.43 kn. ssume missing data suitably. W γ V X0 4 γ To findρ - Method : W mg N/m 3 γ? ρ?? S? V 4 m W 9.43 kn x0 3 N 9.43 x 0 3 m x9.8 Method : m 3000 kg γ ρ g ρ m v ρ 9.8 ρ kg / m ρ 750 kg / m 3

9 i) V M x 0 3 m 3 / kg ρ M V V M ρ X0 3 m 3 / kg S γ γ Stan dard S ρ ρ Stan daard or S S 0.75 S Calculate specific weight, density, specific volume and specific gravity and if one liter of Petrol weighs 6.867N. γ W V V Litre γ 6867N / m 3 V 0 3 m 3 W 6.867N

10 S γ S 0.7 γ S tan dard ρ s g 6867 ρx 9.8 ρ 700kg / 3 m V M x0 3 3 m / kg M M 0.7 kg 3. Specific gravity of a liquid is 0.7 Find i) Mass density ii) specific weight. lso find the mass and weight of 0 Liters of liquid. S γ γ S tan dard γ γ 6867N / m 3 γ ρg 6867 ρ x 9.8 ρ kg / m S 0.7 V? ρ? M? W? V 0 litre 0x0 3 m 3

11 S ρ γ W V ρ ρ ρ M V 700 ρ Stan dard 700kg / m M 7kg M 0x0 3 3 W W N or W m g 7 x 9.8 W N 4. Vapour Pressure: The process by which the molecules of the liquid go out of its surface in the form of vapour is called Vapourisation. There are two ways of causing Vapourisation. a) By increasing the temperature of the liquid to its boiling points. b) By reducing the pressure above the surface of the liquid to a value less than Vapour pressure of the liquid. To vacuum pump Closed ir Liquid Vapours of Liquid Liquid Vapours of Pressure s the pressure above the surface of the liquid is reduced, at some point, there will be vapourisation of the liquid. If the reduction in pressure is continued vapourisation will also continue. If the reduction in pressure is stopped, vapourisation continues until

12 vapours of the liquid exert certain pressure which will just stop the vapourisation. This minimum partial pressure exerted by the vapours of the liquid just to stop vapourisation is called Vapour Pressure of the liquid. If the pressure over the surface goes below the vapour pressure, then, there will be vapourisation. But if the pressure above the surface is more than the vapour pressure there will not be vapourisation unless there is heating. Importance of Vapour Pressure:. In case of Hydraulic turbines sometimes pressure goes below the vapour pressure of the liquid. This leads to vapourisation and formation of bubbles of liquid. When bubbles are carried to high Pressure zone they get busted leaving partial vacuum. Surrounding liquid enters this space with very high velocity exerting large force on the part of the machinery. This process is called cavitation. Turbines are designed such that there is no cavitation.. In Carburetors and sprayers vapours of liquid are created by reducing the pressure below vapour pressure of the liquid. Unit of Vapour Pressure: N/m (Pascal - Pa) Vapour Pressure of a fluid increases with increase in temperature. Problem. vertical cylinder 300mm in diameter is fitted at the top with a tight but frictionless piston and filled with water at 70 0 C. The outer portion of the piston is exposed to atmospheric Pressure of 0.3 kpa. Calculate the minimum force applied on the piston that will cause water to boil at 70 0 C. Take Vapour Pressure of water at 70 0 C as 3k Pa. F 0.3 kpa Water at 70 0 C

13 D 300 mm 0.3 m F Should be applied such that the Pressure is reduced from 0.3kPa to 3kPa. There fore reduction in Pressure required kpa 69.3 x 0 3 N/m F / rea 69.3 x 0 3 Π F / x ( 0.3) 69.3 x F 4.9 x 0 3 N F 4.9 kn 6. Viscosity: Viscosity is the property by virtue of which fluid offers resistance against the flow or shear deformation. In other words, it is the reluctance of the fluid to flow. Viscous force is that force of resistance offered by a layer of fluid for the motion of another layer over it. In case of liquids, viscosity is due to cohesive force between the molecules of adjacent layers of liquid. In case of gases, molecular activity between adjacent layers is the cause of viscosity. Newton s law of viscosity: Let us consider a liquid between the fixed plate and the movable plate at a distance Y apart, is the contact area (Wetted area ) of the movable plate, F is the force required to move the plate with a velocity U ccording to Newton

14 rea of contact F Movable Plate U U Y Liquid Fixed Plate Linear Non-linear Velocity distribution or velocity profile Fα Fα Y Fα U U Fα Y F µ. U Y µ is the constant of proportionality called Dynamic Viscosity or bsolute Viscosity or Coefficient of Viscosity or Viscosity of the fluid. F U µ. Y U τ µ Y τ is the force required; Per Unit area called Shear Stress. The above equation is called Newton s law of viscosity.

15 Velocity gradient or rate of shear strain: It is the difference in velocity per unit distance between any two layers. If the velocity profile is linear then velocity gradient is given by Y U. If the velocity profile du is non linear then it is given by. dy Unit of force (F): N. Unit of distance between the twp plates (Y): m Unit of velocity (U): m/s Unit of velocity gradient : U Y m / s m Unit of dynamic viscosity (τ): τ µ. y u / s s τ y µ U N / m. m m / s NS µ or µ m P S NOTE: dyne. In CGS system unit of dynamic viscosity is Cm a S and is called poise (P). NS If the value of µ is given in poise, multiply it by 0. to get it in. m Centipoises 0 - Poise.

16 Session 3 LESSON 3 FLUID MECHNICS Duration: hr Effect of Pressure on Viscosity of fluids: Pressure has very little or no effect on the viscosity of fluids. Effect of Temperature on Viscosity of fluids:. Effect of temperature on viscosity of liquids: Viscosity of liquids is due to cohesive force between the molecules of adjacent layers. s the temperature increases cohesive force decreases and hence viscosity decreases.. Effect of temperature on viscosity of gases: Viscosity of gases is due to molecular activity between adjacent layers. s the temperature increases molecular activity increases and hence viscosity increases. Kinematics Viscosity: It is the ratio of dynamic viscosity of the fluid to its mass density. KinematicV Unit of KV: KV µ ρ is cosity µ ρ NS/ m kg / m 3 3 NS m x m kg kg m s x s m 3 m x kg m / s F ma N Kg.m / s KinematicVis cos ity m / s NOTE: Unit of kinematics Viscosity in CGS system is cm /s and is called stoke (S) If the value of KV is given in stoke, multiply it by 0-4 to convert it into m /s.

17 Problems:. Viscosity of water is 0.0 poise. Find its kinematics viscosity if specific gravity is Kinematics viscosity? µ 0.0P S ρ S ρ s tan drad 0.0x0. NS µ 0.00 m µ KV ρ ρ KV x 0 6 m /s 3 ρ 998 kg / m. Plate at a distance 0.054mm from a fixed plate moves at 0.6m/s and requires a force of.96n/m area of plate. Determine dynamic viscosity of liquid between the plates. U 0.6 m/s Y mm x 0-3 m τ.96 N / m µ? ssuming linear velocity distribution τ µ U Y

18 .96 µ x x 0 3 µ 8.7 x 0 5 NS m 3. plate having an area of m is dragged down an inclined plane at 45 0 to horizontal with a velocity of 0.5m/s due to its own weight. Three is a cushion of liquid mm thick between the inclined plane and the plate. If viscosity of oil is 0. PaS find the weight of the plate. y mm x 0-3 m Plate U 0.5 m/s 45 0 W 45 0 m U 0.5m/s Y x0-3 m µ 0.NS/m W? F W x cos 45 0 W x F 0.707W τ τ τ F 0.707W 0.707WN / m ssuming linear velocity distribution,

19 U τ µ. Y W 0. x x 0 3 W 70.7 N 4. shaft of φ 0mm and mass 5kg slides vertically in a sleeve with a velocity of 5 m/s. The gap between the shaft and the sleeve is 0.mm and is filled with oil. Calculate the viscosity of oil if the length of the shaft is 500mm. 0. mm 0 0. mm 500 mm 500 mm 5 m/s 5 m/s D 0mm 0x0-3 m M 5 kg W 5x 9.8 W 47.5N y 0.mm y 0. x 0-3 mm U 5m/s F W F 47.5N

20 µ? Π D L Π x 0 x 0-3 x m U τ µ. Y µ x 0.x0 3 µ τ F NS m τ N / m 5. If the equation of velocity profile over plate is V y /3. in which V is the velocity in m/s and y is the distance in m. Determine shear stress at (i) y 0 (ii) y 75mm. Take µ 8.35P. (i) at y 0 (ii) at y 75mm 75 x 0-3 m τ 8.35 P NS 8.35 x 0. m NS m

21 V y /3 dv dy x 3 y / y / 3 at, y dv 0, dy at, y 75x0 3 m, dv dy x0 3 3 dv dy 3.6 / s dv τ µ. dy at, y 0, τ 0.835x τ at, y 75 x0 3 m, τ x 3.6 τ.64 N / m 6. circular disc of 0.3m dia and weight 50 N is kept on an inclined surface with a slope of The space between the disc and the surface is mm and is filled with oil NS of dynamics viscosity. What force will be required to pull the disk up the m inclined plane with a velocity of 0.5m/s.

22 P Motion mm x 0-3 m y W 50 N D 0.3m x 0.3m m W 50N NS µ m 3 y x0 m U 0.5m / s F P 50cos 45 F ( P 35,35) ( P 35.35) υ N / m 0.07 U τ µ. Y P 35,35 x x0 3 P 5.85N 7. Dynamic viscosity of oil used for lubrication between a shaft and a sleeve is 6 P. The shaft is of diameter 0.4 m and rotates at 90 rpm. Calculate the power lost in the bearing for a sleeve length of 0.09 m.thickness of oil is.5 mm.

23 0.4 m µ 6P NS 0.6 m N 90 rpm Power lost? Π D L Π x 0.4 x m Y.5x0-3 m 0.09 m

24 ΠDN U 60 Π x 0.4 x U m /s U τ µ. Y x.5 x τ.59 x 0 N / m F.59 x F.59x 0 x 0. F 75.0 N T Fx R 75.0x0. T 35Nm ΠNT P 60,000 P KW P W

25 Session 4 LESSON 4 FLUID MECHNICS Duration: hr 8. Two large surfaces are.5 cm apart. This space is filled with glycerin of absolute viscosity 0.8 NS/m. Find what force is required to drag a plate of area 0.5m between the two surfaces at a speed of 0.6m/s. (i) When the plate is equidistant from the surfaces, (ii) when the plate is at cm from one of the surfaces. Case (i).5 cm.5 cm.5 cm 0.6 m/s Let F be the force required to overcome viscosity resistance of liquid above the plate and F be the force required to overcome viscous resistance of liquid below the plate. In this case F F. Since the liquid is same on either side or the plate is equidistant from the surfaces. τ τ µ U Y 0.8x τ 39.36N / m F F 9.68N Tatal force required to drag the plate F +F F 39.36N

26 Case (ii).5 cm cm F 0.6 m/s.5 cm F Here F F

27 τ µ U y x x 0 τ 49. N / m τ µ U y x.5 x 0 τ 3.8 F 49. N / m F 49.x0.5 F 4.6N F 3.8 F 3.8x0.5 F 6.4N Total Force F F + F F 4N

28 9. Through a very narrow gap of ht a thin plate of large extent is pulled at a velocity `V. On one side of the plate is oil of viscosity µ and on the other side there is oil of viscosity µ. Determine the position of the plate for the following conditions. i. Shear stress on the two sides of the plate is equal. ii. The pull required, to drag the plate is minimum. Conditions h µ F F Velocity V µ y?for F F τ µ. F U Y µ. F µ. U Y U Y F F (h y) µ µ y V V

29 F F µ V µ V h y y µ y µ (h y) µ y +µ y µ h µ y h ory µ +µ h µ + µ Conditions : h y µ µ F F V y? if, F + F is to be minimum µ F V h y µ F V y Total drag forced required

30 ( ) ( ) ( ) h y y h y y h y y) (h y y h y y h y V y h V Vy y h V 0 dy df 0 dy df min. be to F For y V y h V F F F F µ µ + µ µ + + µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ + µ + µ +

31 (7) Surface Tension (σ) ir Surface tension is due to cohesion between the molecules of liquid and weak adhesion between the molecules on the exposed surface of the liquid and molecules of air. molecule inside the surface gets attracted by equal forces from the surrounding molecules whereas a molecule on the surface gets attracted by the molecule below it. Since there are no molecules above it, if experiences an unbalanced vertically downward force. Due to this entire surface of the liquid expose to air will have a tendency to move in ward and hence the surface will be under tension. The property of the liquid surface to offer resistance against tension is called surface tension. Consequences of Surface tension: Liquid surface supports small loads. Formation of spherical droplets of liquid Formation of spherical bubbles of liquid Formation of cylindrical jet of liquids.

32 Measurement of surface tension: L F Surface tension is measured as the force exerted by the film on a line of unit length on the surface of the liquid. It can also be defined as the force required maintaining unit length of film in equilibrium. Unit: N/m F σ F σl L Force due to surface tension σ x length of film NOTE: Force experienced by a curved surface due to radial pressure is given by the product of intensity of pressure and projected area of the curved surface. Projected area πd 4 p

33 D Projected rea D p To derive an expression for the pressure inside the droplet of a liquid. Projected area πd 4 ir Surface tensile force Let us consider droplet of liquid of surface tension σ. D is the diameter of the droplet. Let p be the pressure inside the droplet in excess of outside pressure (p p inside p outside ).

34 For the equilibrium of the part of the droplet, Force due to surface tension Force due to pressure σ x ΠD σ x ΠD p p x projected area ΠD p x 4 4σ D s the diameter increases pressure decreases. To derive an expression for the pressure inside the bubble of liquid: `D is the diameter of bubble of liquid of surface tension σ. Let p be the pressure inside the bubble which is in excess of outside pressure. In case of bubble the liquid layer will be in contact with air both inside and outside. Projected area πd 4 ir ir Surface tensile force For the equilibrium of the part of the bubble, Force due to surface tension Force due to pressure (σ x Π D ) p x projected area [ σx ΠD] 8σ p D ΠD p x 4

35 To derive an expression for the pressure inside the jet of liquid: D Surface tensile force p L ir Let us consider a jet of diameter D of liquid of surface tension σ and p is the intensity of pressure inside the jet in excess of outside atmospheric pressure. For the equilibrium of the part of the jet shown in fig, Force due to Radial pressure Force due to surface tension p x Projected area p x D x L σ P D σ x Length σ x L Effect of temperature on surface tension of liquids: In case of liquids, surface tension decreases with increase in temperature. Pressure has no or very little effect on surface tension of liquids.

36 Session 5 LESSON 5 FLUID MECHNICS Duration: hr Problems:. What is the pressure inside the droplet of water 0.05mm in diameter at 0 0 C, if the pressure outside the droplet is 03 kpa Take σ N/m at 0 0 C 4σ p D 4x x0 p 5.888x0 p p p p inside inside inside p 3 N / m outside ( ) x0 3 3 Pa 3 p D 0.05x0 p inside outside? 3 m 03kPa 3 03x0 N / m σ N / m. liquid bubble cm in radius has an internal pressure of 3Pa. Calculate the surface tension of liquid film. 8σ p D 3x4x0 σ 8 σ 0.065N / m R cm D 4cm 4x0 m p 3Pa(N / m )

37 8. Capillarity: Miniscus Miniscus Cohesion < dhesion Eg: Water Cohesion > dhesion Eg: Mercury ny liquid between contact surfaces attains curved shaped surface as shown in figure. The curved surface of the liquid is called Meniscus. If adhesion is more than cohesion then the meniscus will be concave. If cohesion is greater than adhesion meniscus will be convex. Capacity rise Capillary fall Cohesion < dhesion Eg: Water Cohesion > dhesion Eg: Mercury Surface tension Surface tension Surface tension Surface tension

38 Capillarity is the phenomena by which liquids will rise or fall in a tube of small diameter dipped in them. Capillarity is due to cohesion adhesion and surface tension of liquids. If adhesion is more than cohesion then there will be capillary rise. If cohesion is greater than adhesion then will be capillary fall or depression. The surface tensile force supports capillary rise or depression. Note: ngle of contact: Surface tension Surface tension θ θ Surface tension Surface tension θ ngle of contact cute θ ngle of contact Obtuse The angle between surface tensile force and the vertical is called angle of contact. If adhesion is more than cohesion then angle of contact is obtuse. To derive an expression for the capillary rise of a liquid in small tube dipped in it: Let us consider a small tube of diameter D dipped in a liquid of specific weight γ. h is the capillary rise. For the equilibrium, Vertical force due to surface tension Weight of column of liquid BCD

39 σ θ σ B C D Dia D [ σ( ΠD) ] cosθ γ x volume [ σ( ΠD) ] cosθγ x ΠD 4 x h 4σ cosθ h γ D It can be observed that the capillary rise is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tube. Note: The same equation can be used to calculate capillary depression. In such cases θ will be obtuse h works out to be ve.

40 Problems:. Capillary tube having an inside diameter 5mm is dipped in water at 0 0. Determine the heat of water which will rise in tube. Take σ N/m at 0 0 C. 4σcosθ h γ D 4 x x cosθ x 5 x 0 θ 0 γ 0 (assumed) 980N / m 3 h 6 x 0 3 m. Calculate capillary rise in a glass tube when immersed in Hg at 0 0 c. ssume σ for Hg at 0 0 c as 0.5N/m. The diameter of the tube is 5mm. θ 30 0 c. γ S γs tan dard 4σcos θ h γd γ h.965 x0 m -ve sign indicates capillary depression. 3 3 γ x 0 N / m 3. Determine the minimum size of the glass tubing that can be used to measure water level if capillary rise is not to exceed.5mm. Take σ N/m.

41 4σcosθ h γ D 4 x x cos0 D x.5x 0 D 0.0 m D mm D? h.5x0 σ 3 m N / m 4. glass tube 0.5mm in diameter contains Hg column with air above it. If σ 0.5N/m, what will be the capillary depression? Take θ or h 4σcosθ γ D D 0.5x0 3 m 4x0.5x cos x0 x0.5x0 3 σ θ N / m h 46.85x0 3 m γ x 0 3 N / m 5. If a tube is made so that one limb is 0mm in φ and the other mm in φ and water is poured in the tube, what is the difference in the level of surface of liquid in the two limbs. σ N/m for water. mm φ h h h

42 h 4σcosθ h γd 4 x x coso x (0 x0 ) m h 4 x 0.073x coso x (0 x0 ).488 x 0 h h h 3 m m h 3.39mm 6. Compressibility: It is the property by virtue of which there will be change in volume of fluid due to change in pressure. Let v be the original volume and dv be the change in volume due to change in pressure dp, v dv i.e., the ratio of change in volume to original volume is called volumetric strain or bulk strain. The ratio of change in pressure to the volumetric strain produced is called Bulk modulus of elasticity of the fluid and is denoted by K dp K. dv v

43 Sometimes K is written as K dp. ve sign indicates that as there is dv v increase in pressure, there is decrease in volume. Reciprocal of Bulk modulus of elasticity is called compressibility of the fluid. compressib ility K dv v dp Unit of Bulk modulus of elasticity is N/m or Pa. Unit of compressibility is m /N. Problem:. The change in volume of certain mass of liquids is observed to be th of original 500 volume when pressure on it is increased by 5Mpa. Determine the Bulk modulus and compressibility of the liquid. dv V 500 K dp dv v dv v x 0 9 Pa 6 dp 5 x 0 N / m K.5 GPa Compresibility 5 x 0 8 K 4 x 0 0 m / N

44 . Find the pressure that must be applied to water at atmospheric pressure to reduce its volume by %.Take K GPa. K dp dv v x 0 9 dp 00 dp 0 x 0 6 N / m dp 0MPa Rheological classification of fluids: (Rheology Study of stress strain behavior). du. Newtonian fluids: fluid which obeys Newton s law of viscosity i.e., τ µ. is dy called Newtonian fluid. In such fluids shear stress varies directly as shear strain. In this case the stress strain curve is a stress line passing through origin the slope of the line gives dynamic viscosity of the fluid. Eg: Water, Kerosene.

45 τ du dy. Non- Newtonian fluid: fluid which does not obey Newton s law of viscosity is called non-newton fluid. For such fluids, du τ µ. dy n τ du dy 3. Ideal Plastic fluids: In this case the strain starts after certain initial stress ( τ 0 ) and then the stressstrain relationship will be linear. τ 0 is called initial yield stress. Sometimes they are also called Bingham s Plastics:

46 Eg: Industrial sludge. τ τ du µ + dy τ 0 τ 0 du dy 4. Thixotropic fluids: These require certain amount of yield stress to initiate shear strain. fter wards stress-strain relationship will be non linear. Eg; Printers ink. τ τ 0 du dy 5. Ideal fluid: ny fluid for which viscosity is assumed to be zero is called Ideal fluid. For ideal du fluid τ 0 for all values of dy

47 τ Ideal fluid du dy 6. Real fluid : ny fluid which posses certain viscosity is called real fluid. It can be Newtonian or non Newtonian, thixotropic or ideal plastic. τ Ideal plastic Non-neutonian Newtonian Ideal fluid du dy

48 Session 6 LESSON 6 FLUID MECHNICS PRESSURE ND ITS MESUREMENTS Duration: hr Fluid is a state of matter which exhibits the property of flow. When a certain mass of fluids is held in static equilibrium by confining it within solid boundaries, it exerts force along direction perpendicular to the boundary in contact. This force is called fluid pressure. Pressure distribution: It is the variation of pressure over the boundary in contact with the fluid. There are two types of pressure distribution. a) Uniform Pressure distribution. b) Non-Uniform Pressure distribution. (a) Uniform Pressure distribution: If the force exerted by the fluid is same at all the points of contact boundary then the pressure distribution is said to be uniform.

49 (b) Non Uniform Pressure distribution: If the force exerted by the fluid is not same at all the points then the pressure distribution is said to be non-uniform. Intensity of pressure or unit pressure or Pressure: Intensity of pressure at a point is defined as the force exerted over unit area considered around that point. If the pressure distribution is uniform then intensity of pressure will be same at all the points. Calculation of Intensity of Pressure: When the pressure distribution is uniform, intensity of pressure at any points is given by the ratio of total force to the total area of the boundary in contact. F Intensity of Pressure p When the pressure distribution is non- uniform, then intensity of pressure at a df point is given by. d Unit of Intensity of Pressure: N/m or pascal (Pa). Note: MPa N/mm

50 To study the variation of intensity of pressure in a static mass of fluid: or derive hydrostatic law of pressure. p p, z dz dx.dy p + p, y dy dx.dz y x y z p p, x dx dz.dy dy p + p x x dx dz.dy dz z dx p p x y dy dx.dz p + p x z dz dx.dy Self weight γ x volume γ x dx dy dz Let us consider a point M at a depth y below the free surface of the liquid of specific weight γ. (dx dy dz) is the elemental volume of the fluid considered around the point M. Fig shows forces acting on the element including self weight. The element of fluid is in equilibrium and hence we can apply conditions of equilibrium.

51 Fx 0 p dx + p. dy x p dx dz P +. dy dz x 0 i,e p p x dx p. p x. dx 0 P.. x dx 0 P 0 x Rate of change of intensity of pressure along x direction is zero. In other words there is no change in intensity of pressure along x direction inside the fluid. Fz 0 p dz + p. dx z p dz dy p +. 0 z dx dy 0 p 0 z The Rate of change of intensity of pressure along z direction is zero. In other words there is no change in intensity of pressure along z direction.

52 Fy 0 p dy + p. dx y p dy dz p +. dx y dz γ dx dydz 0 p i.e. p. y dy P p. y dy γdy p i,e dy γdy y p γ y -ve sign indicates that the pressure increases in the downward direction i.e., as the depth below the surface increases intensity of pressure increases. p γ y p γ.oy integrating, p γy + C at y 0; p p tmospheric p atm γ x0 + C C p atm p γ y +p atm The above equation is called hydrostatic law of pressure.

53 tmospheric pressure ir above the surface of liquids exerts pressure on the exposed surface of the liquid and normal to the surface. This pressure exerted by the atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure. tmospheric pressure at a place depends on the elevation of the place and the temperature. tmospheric pressure is measured using an instrument called Barometer and hence atmospheric pressure is also called Barometric pressure. Unit: kpa. bar is also a unit of atmospheric pressure bar 00 kpa. bsolute pressure and Gauge Pressure: bsolute pressure at Gauge pressure at p atm B Gauge pressure at B bsolute pressure at B bsolute zero pressure line bsolute pressure at a point is the intensity of pressure at that point measured with reference to absolute vacuum or absolute zero pressure.

54 bsolute pressure at a point can never be negative since there can be no pressure less than absolute zero pressure. If the intensity of pressure at a point is measurement with reference to atmosphere pressure, then it is called gauge pressure at that point. Gauge pressure at a point may be more than the atmospheric pressure or less than the atmospheric pressure. ccordingly gauge pressure at the point may be positive or negative. Negative gauge pressure is also called vacuum pressure. From the figure, It is evident that, bsolute pressure at a point tmospheric pressure ± Gauge pressure. NOTE: If we measure absolute pressure at a Point below the free surface of the liquid, then, p γ. Y + p atm then, If gauge pressure at a point is required, then atmospheric pressure is taken as zero, p γ. Y

55 LESSON 7 FLUID MECHNICS Session 7 Duration: hr Pressure Head It is the depth below the free surface of liquid at which the required pressure intensity is available. P γh h P γ For a given pressure intensity h will be different for different liquids since, γ will be different for different liquids. Whenever pressure head is given, liquid or the property of liquid like specify gravity, specify weight, mass density should be given. Eg: (i) 3m of water (ii) 0m of oil of S 0.8. (iii) 3m of liquid of γ 5 kn/m 3 (iv) 760mm of Mercury. (v) 0m not correct. NOTE:. To convert head of liquid to head of another liquid.

56 S γ γ Staandard p γh p γ h γ h γ h S γ S γ S γ Staandard γ γ S γ γ Staandard Staandard Staandard h S γ Staandard h S h S h. S water x h water S liquid x h liquid x h water S liquid x h liquid h water S liquid x h liquid Pressure head in meters of water is given by the product of pressure head in meters of liquid and specific gravity of the liquid. Eg: 0meters of oil of specific gravity 0.8 is equal to 0x0.8 8 meters of water. Eg: tm pressure is 760mm of Mercury. NOTE: P γ h kn kpa 3 m m

57 Problem:. Calculate intensity of pressure due to a column of 0.3m of (a) water (b) Mercury (c) Oil of specific gravity-0.8. a) h 0.3m of water γ p? kn.8 m 9 3 p γh p.943 kpa c) h 0.3 of Hg γ 3.6 x 9.8 γ kn/m 3 p γ h x 0.3 p kpa. Intensity of pressure required at a points is 40kPa. Find corresponding head in (a) water (b) Mercury (c) oil of specific gravity-0.9. (a) p 40 kpa kn γ m h? (b) p 40 kpa γ (3.6x9.8 N/m 3 p h γ h m of water

58 KN γ m p h γ h 0.99 m of Mercury (c) p 40 kpa p h γ h 4.53 m of oil S 0.9 γ 0.9 x 9.8 KN γ m 3. Standard atmospheric pressure is 0.3 kpa Find the pressure head in (i) Meters of water (ii) mm of mercury (iii) m of oil of specific gravity 0.8. (i) p γ h x h h 0.3 m of water (ii) p γ h 0.3 (3.6x9.8) x h h 0.76 m of mercury (iii) p γ h 0.3 (0.8 x 9.8 x h h.9 m of oil of S n open container has water to a depth of m and above this an oil of S 0.9 for a depth of m. Find the intensity of pressure at the interface of two liquids and at the bottom of the tank.

59 m m Oil x WTER B x p γ a h oil (0.9 x 9.8) x p 8.89 kpa p B γ oil xh oil + γ water + h water p 8.89 kpa x p B 8.45 kpa 5. Convert the following absolute pressure to gauge pressure (a) 0kPa (b) 3kPa (c) 5m of H o (d) 800mm of Hg. (a) p abs p atm + p gauge p gauge p abs p atm kpa (b) p gauge kpa p gauge 98.3 kpa (vacuum) ( c) h abs h atm + h gauge h gauge h gauge 4.7m of water (d) h abs h atm + h gauge h gauge h gauge 40 mm of mercury

60 PSCL S LW Statement: Intensity of pressure at a point in a static mass of fluid is same along the directions. Proof: dz ds p s θ dx dy p x p s dz ds 90 - θ (90 0 ) θ θ dx dy p x dy dz p y dx dz Let us consider three planes around a point as shown in figure. Figure shows intensity of pressure and force along different directions. The system of forces should be in equilibrium. Fx 0 - p x dy.dz + p s ds dz cos (90 0 ) 0 p s ds sinθ p x dy p s dy p x dy p s p x Fy 0 - p s ds.dz cos θ + p y dx dz 0 p y dx p s ds cosθ p y dx p s dx p y p s p x p y p z Intensity of pressure at a point is same along all the directions.

61 Measurement of Pressure Various devices used to measure fluid pressure can be classified into,. Manometers. Mechanical gauges. Manometers are the pressure measuring devices which are based on the principal of balancing the column of the liquids whose pressure is to be measured by the same liquid or another liquid. Mechanical gauges consist of an elastic element which deflects under the action of applied pressure and this movement will operate a pointer on a graduated scale. Classification of Manometers: Manometers are broadly classified into a) Simple Manometers b) Differential Manometers. a) Simple Manometers Simple monometers are used to measure intensity of pressure at a point. They are connected to the point at which the intensity of pressure is required. Such a point is called gauge point. b) Differential Manometers Differential manometers are used to measure the pressure difference between two points. They are connected to the two points between which the intensity of pressure is required.

62 Session 8 LESSON 8 FLUID MECHNICS Types of Simple Manometers Common types of simple manometers are a) Piezometers b) U-tube manometers c) Single tube manometers d) Inclined tube manometers Duration: hr a) Piezometers rrangement for the measurement negative or vacuum or section pressure X X h X h Pipe h Pipe Piezometer consists of a glass tube inserted in the wall of the vessel or pipe at the level of point at which the intensity of pressure is to be measured. The other end of the piezometer is exposed to air. The height of the liquid in the piezometer gives the pressure head from which the intensity of pressure can be calculated. To minimize capillary rise effects the diameters of the tube is kept more than mm.

63 Merits Simple in construction Economical Demerits Not suitable for high pressure intensity. Pressure of gases cannot be measured. (b) U-tube Manometers: X Manometer reading Manometric liquid Pipe Tank X X Pipe U-tube manometers consists of a glass tube bent in U-Shape, one end of which is connected to gauge point and the other end is exposed to atmosphere. U-tube consists of a liquid of specific of gravity other than that of fluid whose pressure intensity is to be measured and is called monometric liquid.

64 Manometric liquids Manometric liquids should neither mix nor have any chemical reaction with the fluid whose pressure intensity is to be measured. It should not undergo any thermal variation. Manometric liquid should have very low vapour pressure. Manometric liquid should have pressure sensitivity depending upon the magnitude. Of pressure to be measured and accuracy requirement. Gauge equations are written for the system to solve for unknown quantities. To write the gauge equation for manometers Steps:. Convert all given pressure to meters of water and assume unknown pressure in meters of waters.. Starting from one end move towards the other keeping the following points in mind. ny horizontal movement inside the same liquid will not cause change in pressure. Vertically downward movement causes increase in pressure and upward motion cause decrease in pressure. Convert all vertical columns of liquids to meters of water by multiplying them by corresponding specify gravity. Take atmospheric pressure as zero (gauge pressure computation). 3. Solve for the unknown quantity and convert it into the required unit.

65 Problem:. Determine the pressure at for the U- tube manometer shown in fig. lso calculate the absolute pressure at in kpa. X 750mm 500mm Water Hg (S 3.6) X 750mm 500mm Water Hg (S 3.6) Let h be the pressure head at in meters of water. h x3.6 0 h 6.05m of water p γ h 9.8x 6.05 p kpa ( gauge pressure) p abs p atm + p gauge p abc kpa

66 . For the arrangement shown in figure, determine gauge and absolute pressure at the point M. 50mm X M 750 mm Oil (S 0.8) Mercury (3.6) Let h M be the pressure head at the point M in m of water, h M x x h M 4 m of water p γ h p 39.4 kpa pabs p abs kpa 3. If the pressure at t is 0 kpa (Vacuum) what is the value of x? 00mm x x Mercury Oil (S.) p 0 kpa (Vacuum) p - 0 kpa

67 p γ 0.09 m of 9.8 water h.09 m of water x. + x (3.6) 0 x m 4. The tank in the accompanying figure consists of oil of S Determine the kn pressure gauge reading in. m ir 5 cm 3.75 m S 0.75 Mercury Let the pressure gauge reading be h m of water h 3.75 x x h m of water p γ h p kpa p kpa (Vacuum) 5. closed tank is 8m high. It is filled with Glycerine up to a depth of 3.5m and linseed oil to another.5m. The remaining space is filled with air under a pressure of 50 kpa. If a pressure gauge is fixed at the bottom of the tank what will be its reading. lso calculate absolute pressure. Take relative density of Glycerine and Linseed oil as.5 and 0.93 respectively.

68 ir 50 kpa M X Linseed oil m.5 m N Glycerin S m P h h H M M 50 kpa m of water Let h N be the pressure gauge reading in m of water. h N -3.5 x x h N.99 m of water p 9.8 x.99 p 5.7 kpa (gauge) p abs 37.0 kpa 6. vertical pipe line attached with a gauge and a manometer contains oil and Mercury as shown in figure. The manometer is opened to atmosphere. What is the gauge reading at? ssume no flow in the pipe. h -3 x x x h.065 m of water p γ x h 9.8 x.99

69 S m 37.5 cm S 3.6 p 0.3 kpa (gauge) p abs p abs.53 kpa

70 Session 9 LESSON 9 FLUID MECHNICS Duration: hr DIFFERENTIL MNOMETERS Differential manometers are used to measure pressure difference between any two points. Common varieties of differential manometers are: (a) Two piezometers. (b) Inverted U-tube manometer. (c) U-tube differential manometers. (d) Micromanometers. (a) Two Pizometers I h h x x B h B The arrangement consists of two pizometers at the two points between which the pressure difference is required. The liquid will rise in both the piezometers. The difference in elevation of liquid levels can be recorded and the pressure difference can be calculated. It has all the merits and demerits of piezometer.

71 (b) Inverted U-tube manometers S M y X x y S x Inverted U-tube manometer is used to measure small difference in pressure between any two points. It consists of an inverted U-tube connecting the two points between which the pressure difference is required. In between there will be a lighter sensitive manometric liquid. Pressure difference between the two points can be calculated by writing the gauge equations for the system. Let h and h B be the pr head at and B in meters of water h (Y S ) + (x S M ) + (y S ) h B. h h B S y S M x S y, p p B γ (h h B ) (c) U-tube Differential manometers x S y x y x B S S M differential U-tube manometer is used to measure pressure difference between any two points. It consists of a U-tube containing heavier manometric liquid, the two

72 limbs of which are connected to the gauge points between which the pressure difference is required. U-tube differential manometers can also be used for gases. By writing the gauge equation for the system pressure difference can be determined. Let h and h B be the pressure head of and B in meters of water h + S Y + x S M Y S h B h h B Y S Y S x S M Problems () n inverted U-tube manometer is shown in figure. Determine the pressure difference between and B in N/M. Let h and h B be the pressure heads at and B in meters of water. 30 cm S cm 0 cm Water x B Water x h (90 x 0 - ) + (0.3 x 0.9) + (0.4) 0.9 h B h h B.3 meters of water p p B γ (h h B ) 9.8 x.3 p p B.06 kpa p p B.06 x 0 3 N/m

73 . In the arrangements shown in figure. Determine the ho h. N /cm IR IR 5 cm of Mercury (Vacuum) x m of water.5 m 4 m Water h KERO S 0.8 N/cm x 00 N/m 0 kpa h h.038 meters of water S (4 +.5 h) h 3.6 m

74 3. In the figure given, the air pressure in the left tank is 30 mm of Mercury (Vacuum). Determine the elevation of gauge liquid in the right limb at. If the liquid in the right tank is water. kpa m ir x B C (5 m) Oil 0.00 m S 0.8 Water ( m) m y S.6 h c Pc γ h B 30mm of Hg 0.3 x 3.6 h B m of water x y x.6 (y + ) x y x.6 y.4 y m Elevation of Elevation of m 9.8 h.4mof c water

75 4. Compute the pressure different between M and N for the system shown in figure. M 0. m S m S.5 N Let h M and h N be the pressure heads at M and N in m of water. hm + y x.5 0. x (0.3 y + 0.).5 hn hm +.5 y x.5.5 y + 0. x.5 hn hm hn hn hm 0.39meters of water p n p m γ (h N h m ) 9.8 x 0.39 p n p m kpa

76 5. Petrol of specify gravity 0.8 flows up through a vertical pipe. and B are the two points in the pipe, B being 0.3 m higher than. Connection are led from and B to a U tube containing Mercury. If the pressure difference between and B is 8 kpa, find the reading of manometer. R x 0.3 m S 0.8 x (y) x Hg p p B 8kPa h h B P P B γ h hb. 835m of water h + y x 0.8 x 3.6 (0.3 + y x) 0.8 h B h h B 0.8y x y 0.8 x h h B.8 x x x 0.46 m

77 6. cylindrical tank contains water to a height of 50mm. Inside is a small open cylindrical tank containing kerosene at a height specify gravity 0.8. The following pressures are known from indicated gauges. p B 3.8 kpa (gauge) p C 3.8 kpa (gauge) Determine the gauge pressure p and height h. ssume that kerosene is prevented from moving to the top of the tank. ir p h Water Kerosene 50 mm S 0.8 p B p C p C 3.8 kpa h C.409 m of water p B 3.8 kpa h B.407 meters of water h h.359 meters of water p.359 x 9.8 p 3.33 kpa h B h x 0.8 (0.05 h) h h h h h 0.00 h 0.0 m

78 LESSON 0 FLUID MECHNICS Session 0 Duration: hr 7. Find the pressure different between and B if d 300mm, d 50mm,d 3 460mm, d 4 00mm and 3.6. d 4 0. m C Water B Water d m d 0.3 m d 0.5 m Let h and h B be the pressure head at and B in m of water. h ( Sin 45) 3.6 h B h - h B 7.88m of water p p B (7.88 ) (9.8) p p B 77.9 kpa

79 8. What is the pressure p in the fig given below? Take specific gravity of oil as 0.8. p ir Oil S m Water 4.6 m 0.3 m Hg h + (3 x 0.8) + ( ) (3.6) 0 h.4 m of oil p 9.8 x.4 p.97 kpa

80 9. Find d in the system shown in fig. If p.7 kpa Oil S 0.6 ir 0.05 m.0 mm p.7 kpa 0 mm S.4 d 300 mm Hg h p γ h 0.75 m of water h + (0.05 x 0.6) + ( )0.6 + (0.0x3.6) (0.03 x3.6) d x.4) d 0 d m or d 49.4 mm

81 0. Determine the absolute pressure at for the system shown in fig. ir S Water Oil x S 0.8 h - (0.5 x 0.8) + (0.5 x 0.7) + (0.3 x 0.8)-(0.6) 0 h m of water p h x 9.8 p kpa p abs p abs kpa SINGLE COLUMN MNOMETER: Single column manometer is used to measure small pressure intensities. S y B B B B C C U tube h (reaa) C h Sm single column manometer consists of a shallow reservoir having large cross sectional area when compared to cross sectional area of U tube connected to it. For any

82 change in pressure, change in the level of manometeric liquid in the reservoir is small and change in level of manometric liquid in the U- tube is large. To derive expression for pressure head at : BB and CC are the levels of manometric liquid in the reservoir and U-tube before connecting the point to the manometer, writing gauge equation for the system we have, + y x S h x S m 0 Sy S m h Let the point be connected to the manometer. B B and C C are the levels of manometeric liquid. Volume of liquid between BBB B Volume of liquid between CCC C a h ah Let h be the pressure head at in m of water. h + (y + ) S ( + h +h ) Sm 0 h ( + h +h ) Sm (y + ) S Sm + h Sm + h Sm ys S h (Sm S) + h Sm h ah (Sm S) + h Sm It is enough if we take one reading to get h If a is made very small (by increasing ) then the I term on the RHS will be negligible. Then h h Sm

83 INCLINED TUBE SINGLE COLUMN MNOMETER: x h C C y B B B B C C h θ 8 m Inclined tube SCM is used to measure small intensity pressure. It consists of a large reservoir to which an inclined U tube is connected as shown in fig. For small changes in pressure the reading h in the inclined tube is more than that of SCM. Knowing the inclination of the tube the pressure intensity at the gauge point can be determined. h a h sinθ ( Sm S) + h sinθ. Sm If a is very small then h (h Sinθ) Sm. MECHNICL GUGES: Pressure gauges are the devices used to measure pressure at a point. They are used to measure high intensity pressures where accuracy requirement is less. Pressure gauges are separate for positive pressure measurement and negative pressure measurement. Negative pressure gauges are called Vacuum gauges.

84 BSIC PRINCIPLE: Elastic Element (Phosphor Bronze) Link Sector Pinion Graduated Dial Togauge Point Mechanical gauge consists of an elastic element which deflects under the action of applied pressure and this deflection will move a pointer on a graduated dial leading to the measurement of pressure. Most popular pressure gauge used is Bordon pressure gauge. The arrangement consists of a pressure responsive element made up of phosphor bronze or special steel having elliptical cross section. The element is curved into a circular arc, one end of the tube is closed and free to move and the other end is connected to gauge point. The changes in pressure cause change in section leading to the movement. The movement is transferred to a needle using sector pinion mechanism. The needle moves over a graduated dial.

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