# Irreversible Processes

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1 Irreversible Processes Examples: Block sliding on table comes to rest due to friction: KE converted to heat. Heat flows from hot object to cold object. Air flows into an evacuated chamber. Reverse process allowed by energy conservation, yet it does not occur. Why? arrow of time 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics (entropy)

2 Heat Engines Heat engine: a cyclic device designed to convert heat into work. Hot Reservoir, T H Q H Work, W Q C Cold Reservoir, T C 2 nd Law of TD (Kelvin form): It is impossible for a cyclic process to remove thermal energy from a system at a single temperature and convert it to mechanical work without changing the system or surroundings in some other way.

3 For a cyclic engine DU = 0, So work done is equal to heat in minus heat out: W = Q H - Q C Define the Efficiency of the engine: e = W/Q H = (Q H -Q C )/Q H = 1 - Q C /Q H Corollary of the 2 nd Law of TD: It is impossible to make a heat engine whose efficiency is 100%.

4 Refrigerators Refrigerator: a cyclic device which uses work to transfer heat from a cold reservoir to hot reservoir. Hot Reservoir, T H Q H Work, W Q C Cold Reservoir, T C 2 nd Law of TD (Clausius form): It is impossible for a cyclic process to have no other effect than to transfer thermal energy from a cold object to a hot object.

5 A measure of refrigerator performance is the ratio: K = Q C / W Coefficient of performance (The larger the better.) Corollary of the 2 nd Law of TD: It is impossible for the coefficient of performance to be infinite.

6 Equivalence of Kelvin and Clausius Statements For example: You could combine an ordinary refrigerator with a perfect engine (impossible)... Q H Q C W W Q Q H -Q Q C to obtain a perfect refrigerator (also impossible).

7 The Carnot Engine 2 nd Law of TD says: 100% efficient Heat Engine is impossible. What is the maximum possible efficiency? No engine working between 2 heat reservoirs can be more efficient than an ideal engine acting in a Carnot cycle. (Sadi Carnot, 1824) Properties of the Carnot cycle: 1. It is reversible: no friction or other dissipative forces. 2. Heat conduction only occurs isothermally at the temperatures of the two reservoirs.

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11 Derivation of Carnot Efficiency 1 Q in 2 P 4 3 T H Q out T C V 1-2: Isothermal (Q in at T H ) 2-3: Adiabatic expansion 3-4: Isothermal (Q out at T C ) 4-1: Adiabatic compression e = 1 - T C /T H

12 The Stirling Engine Invented by Robert Stirling in Its operating cycle is: 1 Q in Q 2 P 4 3 Q T H Q out T C V The two temperature-changing steps are performed at constant volume; A heat transfer occurs at these steps also. e Stirling < e Carnot

13 Entropy Consider a reversible process for an ideal gas: dq = du + dw = n C V dt + P dv = n C V dt + n R T (dv/v) We cannot write a general integral of this, because dw (and therefore dq) depends on the functional form of T(V) (i.e. the path). However, if we divide by T: dq/t = n C V (dt/t) + n R (dv/v) is integrable independent of path. This suggests a new state function, Entropy, defined by: f dq DS = S f - S i = i T (Valid for any system)

14 In general, the process may be too complicated to do the integral (particularly if irreversible process): i 1 P 2 f However, because entropy is a state function, we can choose any convenient path between i and f to integrate. For an ideal gas: DS = n C V ln(t f /T i ) + n R ln(v f /V i ) V This only depends on the initial state (V i,t i ) and final state (V f,t f ), but not the path.

15 Isothermal Expansion: T f =T i, V f >V i The amount of heat which leaves the reservoir and enters the gas is Q = n R T ln(v f /V i ). The entropy change of the gas is DS gas = + Q/T = n R ln(v f /V i ). The entropy change of the reservoir is DS reservoir = - Q/T. The net entropy change is DS universe = DS gas + DS reservoir = 0. This illustrates a general result: In a reversible process, the entropy change of the universe (system + surroundings) is zero.

16 Adiabatic Free Expansion of an Ideal Gas Two containers connected by stopcock. They are thermally insulated so no heat can flow in or out. Initial: One container is evacuated. Gas is in volume V i at temperature T i. Final: Stopcock opened, gas rushes into second chamber. Gas does no work (nothing to push against) and there is no heat transfer. So internal energy does not change. Final volume V f >V i at temperature T f =T i.

17 Because there is no heat transfer, you might think DS = 0. WRONG! This is an irreversible process. We can t integrate dq. T But entropy is a state function, and we do know the initial and final conditions for the Free Expansion. They are exactly the same as for an Isothermal Expansion. So DS gas = n R ln(v f /V i ). just as for an isothermal expansion. However, since it is thermally isolated from its surroundings, DS surround = 0 and DS universe = DS gas + DS surround = n R ln(v f /V i ) > 0. In an irreversible process, the entropy of the universe increases.

18 Entropy and Heat Engines For a reversible cycle: ΔS=0 implies that dq cannot be strictly positive. There must also be heat released in the cycle. Carnot cycle: (Q in /T H ) + (-Q out /T C ) = 0. ==> ΔS = 0 2 nd Law of TD (Entropy form): ΔS universe 0. > for irreversible = for reversible

19 Entropy and Probability (A statistical view) Entropy ~ a measure of the disorder of a system. A state of high order = low probability A state of low order = high probability In an irreversible process, the universe moves from a state of low probability to a state of higher probability. We will illustrate the concepts by considering the free expansion of a gas from volume V i to volume V f. The gas always expands to fill the available space. It never spontaneously compresses itself back into the original volume.

20 First, two definitions: Microstate: a description of a system that specifies the properties (position and/or momentum, etc.) of each individual particle. Macrostate: a more generalized description of the system; it can be in terms of macroscopic quantities, such as P and V, or it can be in terms of the number of particles whose properties fall within a given range. In general, each macrostate contains a large number of microstates. An example: Imagine a gas consisting of just 2 molecules. We want to consider whether the molecules are in the left or right half of the container.

21 L R 1 2 There are 3 macrostates: both molecules on the left, both on the right, and one on each side. There are 4 microstates: LL, RR, LR, RL.

22 How about 4 molecules? Now there are 16 microstates and 5 macrostates (all L) (3L, 1R) (2L, 2R) (1L, 3R) (all R) number of microstates

23 In general: N W M N N+1 This table was generated using the formula for # of permutations for picking n items from N total: N! 6! W N,n = i.e. W 6,2 = = 15 N! (N-n)! 2! 4! multiplicity

24 Fundamental Assumption of Statistical Mechanics: All microstates are equally probable. Thus, we can calculate the likelihood of finding a given arrangement of molecules in the container. E.g. for 10 molecules:

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26 Conclusion: Events such as the spontaneous compression of a gas (or spontaneous conduction of heat from a cold body to a hot body) are not impossible, but they are so improbable that they never occur. improbable quantitatively: For large N, σ/µ --> 1/ N For N ~ N A, σ/µ --> 1.3 x ~70% of time within % of expected Probability of < to find more than 2.7 x 10-9 % from expected!

27 We can relate the # of microstates W of a system to its entropy S by considering the probability of a gas to spontaneously compress itself into a smaller volume. If the original volume is V i, then the probability of finding N molecules in a smaller volume V f is Probability = W f /W i = (V f /V i ) N ln(w f /W i ) = N ln(v f /V i ) = n N A ln(v f /V i ) We have seen for a free expansion that ΔS = n R ln(v f /V i ), so ΔS = (R/N A ) ln(w f /W i ) = k ln(w f /W i ) or S f - S i = k ln(w f ) - k ln(w i )

28 Thus, we arrive at an equation, first deduced by Ludwig Boltzmann, relating the entropy of a system to the number of microstates: S = k ln(w) He was so pleased with this relation that he asked for it to be engraved on his tombstone.

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