2 The turbulent boundary layer In turbulent flow, the boundary layer is defined as the thin region on the surface of a body in which viscous effects are important. The boundary layer allows the fluid to transition from the free stream velocity U to a velocity of zero at the wall. The velocity component normal to the surface is much smaller than the velocity parallel to the surface: v << u. The gradients of the flow across the layer are much greater than the gradients in the flow direction. The boundary layer thickness δ is defined as the distance away from the surface where the velocity reaches 99% of the free-stream velocity. δ = y, where u U = 0.99
3 Drag on a smooth circular cylinder The drag coefficient is defined as follows: no separation steady separation unsteady vortex shedding laminar BL wide turbulent wake turbulent BL narrow turbulent wake Turbulent flow reduced drag
4 The turbulent boundary layer
5 The turbulent boundary layer Important variables: Distance from the wall: y. Wall shear stress: τ w. The force exerted on a flat plate is the area times the wall shear stress. Density: ρ. Dynamic viscosity: µ. Kinematic viscosity: ν. Velocity at y: U. The friction velocity: u τ = (τ w /ρ) 1/2. We can define a Reynolds number based on the distance to the wall using the friction velocity: y + = yu τ /ν. We can also make the velocity at y dimensionless using the friction velocity: u + = U/ u τ.
6 Boundary layer structure u+=y+ y+=1
7 Standard wall functions The experimental boundary layer profile can be used to calculate τ w. However, this requires y+ for the cell adjacent to the wall to be calculated iteratively. In order to save calculation time, the following explicit set of correlations is usually solved instead: Here: U p is the velocity in the center of the cell adjacent to the wall. y p is the distance between the wall and the cell center. k p is the turbulent kinetic energy in the cell center. κ is the von Karman constant (0.42). E is an empirical constant that depends on the roughness of the walls (9.8 for smooth surfaces).
8 Near-wall treatment - momentum equations The objective is to take the effects of the boundary layer correctly into account without having to use a mesh that is so fine that the flow pattern in the layer can be calculated explicitly. Using the no-slip boundary condition at wall, velocities at the nodes at the wall equal those of the wall. The shear stress in the cell adjacent to the wall is calculated using the correlations shown in the previous slide. This allows the first grid point to be placed away from the wall, typically at 50 < y + < 500, and the flow in the viscous sublayer and buffer layer does not have to be resolved. This approach is called the standard wall function approach. The correlations shown in the previous slide are for steady state ( equilibrium ) flow conditions. Improvements, non-equilibrium wall functions, are available that can give improved predictions for flows with strong separation and large adverse pressure gradients.
9 Two-layer zonal model A disadvantage of the wallfunction approach is that it relies on empirical correlations. The two-layer zonal model does not. It is used for low-re flows or flows with complex near-wall phenomena. Zones distinguished by a walldistance-based turbulent ρ k y Reynolds number: Re y µ Rey >200 The flow pattern in the boundary layer is calculated explicitly. Regular turbulence models are used in the turbulent core region. Only k equation is solved in the viscosity-affected region. ε is computed using a correlation for the turbulent length scale. Zoning is dynamic and solution adaptive. Rey < 200
10 Near-wall treatment - turbulence The turbulence structure in the boundary layer is highly anisotropic. ε and k require special treatment at the walls. Furthermore, special turbulence models are available for the low Reynolds number region in the boundary layer. These are aptly called low Reynolds number models. This is still a very active area of research 35
11 Computational grid guidelines Wall Function Approach Two-Layer Zonal Model Approach First grid point in log-law region: 50 y Gradual expansion in cell size away from the wall. Better to use stretched quad/hex cells for economy. First grid point at y+ 1. At least ten grid points within buffer and sublayers. Better to use stretched quad/hex cells for economy.
12 Obtaining accurate solutions When very accurate (say 2%) drag, lift, or torque predictions are required, the boundary layer and flow separation require accurate modeling. The following practices will improve prediction accuracy: Use boundary layer meshes consisting of quads, hexes, or prisms. Avoid using pyramid or tetrahedral cells immediately adjacent to the wall. After converging the solution, use the surface integral reporting option to check if y+ is in the right range, and if not refine the grid using adaption. For best predictions use the two-layer zonal model and completely resolve the flow in the whole boundary layer. tetrahedral volume mesh is generated automatically prism layer efficiently resolves boundary layer triangular surface mesh on car body is quick and easy to create
13 Summary Boundary layers require special treatment in the CFD model. The influence of pressure gradient on boundary layer attachment showed that an adverse pressure gradient gives rise to flow separation. For accurate drag, lift, and torque predictions, the boundary layer and flow separation need to be modeled accurately. This requires the use of: A suitable grid. A suitable turbulence model. Higher order discretization. Deep convergence using the force to be predicted as a convergence monitor.
14 Turbulence models
15 Turbulence models A turbulence model is a computational procedure to close the system of mean flow equations. For most engineering applications it is unnecessary to resolve the details of the turbulent fluctuations. Turbulence models allow the calculation of the mean flow without first calculating the full time-dependent flow field. We only need to know how turbulence affected the mean flow. In particular we need expressions for the Reynolds stresses. For a turbulence model to be useful it: must have wide applicability, be accurate, simple, and economical to run.
16 Common turbulence models Classical models. Based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (time averaged): 1. Zero equation model: mixing length model. 2. One equation model: Spalart-Almaras. 3. Two equation models: k-ε style models (standard, RNG, realizable), k-ω model, and ASM. 4. Seven equation model: Reynolds stress model. The number of equations denotes the number of additional PDEs that are being solved. Large eddy simulation. Based on space-filtered equations. Time dependent calculations are performed. Large eddies are explicitly calculated. For small eddies, their effect on the flow pattern is taken into account with a subgrid model of which many styles are available.
17 Prediction Methods
18 Boussinesq hypothesis Many turbulence models are based upon the Boussinesq hypothesis. It was experimentally observed that turbulence decays unless there is shear in isothermal incompressible flows. Turbulence was found to increase as the mean rate of deformation increases. Boussinesq proposed in 1877 that the Reynolds stresses could be linked to the mean rate of deformation. Using the suffix notation where i, j, and k denote the x-, y-, and z- directions respectively, viscous stresses are given by: Similarly, link Reynolds stresses to the mean rate of deformation:
19 Turbulent viscosity A new quantity appears: the turbulent viscosity µt. Its unit is the same as that of the molecular viscosity: Pa.s. It is also called the eddy viscosity. We can also define a kinematic turbulent viscosity: ν t = µ t /ρ. Its unit is m 2 /s. The turbulent viscosity is not homogeneous, i.e. it varies in space. It is, however, assumed to be isotropic. It is the same in all directions. This assumption is valid for many flows, but not for all (e.g. flows with strong separation or swirl).
20 Turbulent Schmidt number The turbulent viscosity is used to close the momentum equations. We can use a similar assumption for the turbulent fluctuation terms that appear in the scalar transport equations. For a scalar property φ(t) = Φ + ϕ (t): Here Γt is the turbulent diffusivity. The turbulent diffusivity is calculated from the turbulent viscosity, using a model constant called the turbulent Schmidt number Experiments have shown that the turbulent Schmidt number is nearly constant with typical values between 0.7 and 1.
21 Predicting the turbulent viscosity The following models can be used to predict the turbulent viscosity: Mixing length model. Spalart-Allmaras model. Standard k-ε model. k-ε RNG model. Realizable k-ε model. k-ω model. We will discuss some of these models
22 Mixing length model Further reading On dimensional grounds one can express the kinematic turbulent viscosity as the product of a velocity scale and a length scale: If we then assume that the velocity scale is proportional to the length scale and the gradients in the velocity (shear rate, which has dimension 1/s): we can derive Prandtl s (1925) mixing length model: Algebraic expressions exist for the mixing length for simple 2-D flows, such as pipe and channel flow.
23 Mixing length model discussion Advantages: Easy to implement. Fast calculation times. Good predictions for simple flows where experimental correlations for the mixing length exist. Disadvantages: Completely incapable of describing flows where the turbulent length scale varies: anything with separation or circulation. Only calculates mean flow properties and turbulent shear stress. Use: Sometimes used for simple external aero flows. Pretty much completely ignored in commercial CFD programs today. Much better models are available.
24 Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model Solves a single conservation equation (PDE) for the turbulent viscosity: This conservation equation contains convective and diffusive transport terms, as well as expressions for the production and dissipation of ν t. Developed for use in unstructured codes in the aerospace industry. Economical and accurate for: Attached wall-bounded flows. Flows with mild separation and recirculation. Weak for: Massively separated flows. Free shear flows. Decaying turbulence. Because of its relatively narrow use we will not discuss this model in detail.
25 The k-ε model The k-ε model focuses on the mechanisms that affect the turbulent kinetic energy (per unit mass) k. The instantaneous kinetic energy k(t) of a turbulent flow is the sum of mean kinetic energy K and turbulent kinetic energy k: ε is the dissipation rate of k. If k and ε are known, we can model the turbulent viscosity as: We now need equations for k and ε.
26 Mean flow kinetic energy K The equation for the mean kinetic energy is obtained my multiplying U, V and W to the Reynolds equation and it is as follows: Here Eij is the mean rate of deformation tensor. This equation can be read as: (I) the rate of change of K, plus (II) transport of K by convection, equals (III) transport of K by pressure, plus (IV) transport of K by viscous stresses, plus (V) transport of K by Reynolds stresses, minus (VI) rate of dissipation of K, minus (VII) turbulence production.
27 Turbulent kinetic energy k The equation for the turbulent kinetic energy k is as follows: Here eij is fluctuating component of rate of deformation tensor. This equation can be read as: (I) the rate of change of k, plus (II) transport of k by convection, equals (III) transport of k by pressure, plus (IV) transport of k by viscous stresses, plus (V) transport of k by Reynolds stresses, minus (VI) rate of dissipation of k, plus (VII) turbulence production.
28 Model equation for k The equation for k contains additional turbulent fluctuation terms, that are unknown. Again using the Boussinesq assumption, these fluctuation terms can be linked to the mean flow. The following (simplified) model equation for k is commonly used. The Prandtl number σ k connects the diffusivity of k to the eddy viscosity. Typically a value of 1.0 is used.
29 Turbulent dissipation The equations look quite similar. However, the k equation mainly contains primed quantities, indicating that changes in k are mainly governed by turbulent interactions. Furthermore, term (VII) is equal in both equations. But it is actually negative in the K equation (destruction) and positive in the k equation: energy transfers from the mean flow to the turbulence. The viscous dissipation term (VI) in the k equation 2µeij'.eij' describes the dissipation of k because of the work done by the smallest eddies against the viscous stresses. We can now define the rate of dissipation per unit mass ε as: ε = 2ν eij'.eij'
30 Model equation for ε A model equation for ε is derived by multiplying the k equation by (ε/k) and introducing model constants. The following (simplified) model equation for ε is commonly used. The Prandtl number σε connects the diffusivity of ε to the eddy viscosity. Typically a value of 1.30 is used. Typically values for the model constants C1ε and C2ε of 1.44 and 1.92 are used.
31 k-ε model discussion Advantages: Relatively simple to implement. Leads to stable calculations that converge relatively easily. Reasonable predictions for many flows. Disadvantages: Poor predictions for: swirling and rotating flows, flows with strong separation, axisymmetric jets, certain unconfined flows, and fully developed flows in non-circular ducts. Valid only for fully turbulent flows. Simplistic ε equation.
32 More two-equation models The k-ε model was developed in the early 1970s. Its strengths as well as its shortcomings are well documented. Many attempts have been made to develop two-equation models that improve on the standard k-ε model. We will discuss some here: k-ε RNG model. k-ε realizable model. k-ω model. Algebraic stress model. Non-linear models.
33 Improvement: RNG k- ε k-ε equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations. Similar in form to the standard k-ε equations but includes: Additional term in ε equation for interaction between turbulence dissipation and mean shear. The effect of swirl on turbulence. Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number. Differential formula for effective viscosity. Improved predictions for: High streamline curvature and strain rate. Transitional flows. Wall heat and mass transfer. But still does not predict the spreading of a round jet correctly.
34 Improvement: realizable k-ε Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as the standard k-ε model. Improved equation for ε. Variable Cµ instead of constant. Improved performance for flows involving: Planar and round jets (predicts round jet spreading correctly). Boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients or separation. Rotation, recirculation. Strong streamline curvature. The realizable k-ε model is a relatively recent development and differs from the standard k-epsilon model in two important ways: The realizable k-ε model contains a new formulation for the turbulent viscosity. A new transport equation for the dissipation rate, ε, has been derived from an exact equation for the transport of the mean-square vorticity fluctuation. The term "realizable'' means that the model satisfies certain mathematical constraints on the Reynolds stresses, consistent with the physics of turbulent flows. Neither the standard k-ε model nor the RNG k-ε model is realizable.
35 k-ω model This is another two equation model. In this model ω is an inverse time scale that is associated with the turbulence. This model solves two additional PDEs: A modified version of the k equation used in the k-ε model. A transport equation for ω. The turbulent viscosity is then calculated as follows: k µt = ρ ω Its numerical behavior is similar to that of the k-ε models. It suffers from some of the same drawbacks, such as the assumption that µt is isotropic.
36 Algebraic stress model The same k and ε equations are solved as with the standard k-ε model. However, the Boussinesq assumption is not used. The full Reynolds stress equations are first derived, and then some simplifying assumptions are made that allow the derivation of algebraic equations for the Reynolds stresses. Thus fewer PDEs have to be solved than with the full RSM and it is much easier to implement. The algebraic equations themselves are not very stable, however, and computer time is significantly more than with the standard k-ε model. This model was used in the 1980s and early 1990s. Research continues but this model is rarely used in industry anymore now that most commercial CFD codes have full RSM implementations available. 38
37 Reynolds stress model RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving additional transport equations for the six independent Reynolds stresses. Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the momentum equations with a fluctuating property. Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation. Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided. Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled. RSM is good for accurately predicting complex flows. Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates. Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows. Rotating flow passages, secondary flows. Flows involving separation.
38 Setting boundary conditions Characterize turbulence at inlets and outlets (potential backflow). k-ε models require k and ε. Reynolds stress model requires Rij and ε. Other options: Turbulence intensity and length scale. Length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy. For boundary layer flows, 0.4 times boundary layer thickness: l 0.4δ99. For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l opening size. Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter. Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows. Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio. For external flows: 1 < µ t /µ < 10
39 Comparison of RANS turbulence models
40 Recommendation Start calculations by performing 100 iterations or so with standard k-ε model and first order upwind differencing. For very simple flows (no swirl or separation) converge with second order upwind and k-ε model. If the flow involves jets, separation, or moderate swirl, converge solution with the realizable k-ε model and second order differencing. If the flow is dominated by swirl (e.g. a cyclone or unbaffled stirred vessel) converge solution deeply using RSM and a second order differencing scheme. If the solution will not converge, use first order differencing instead. Ignore the existence of mixing length models and the algebraic stress model. Only use the other models if you know from other sources that somehow these are especially suitable for your particular problem (e.g. Spalart- Allmaras for certain external flows, k-ε RNG for certain transitional flows, or k-ω).
41 Tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA)
42 Consider a system of equations that has a tri-diagonal form In the above set of equations 1 and n+1 are known boundary values. The general form of any single equation is
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