Lesson 17: Synchronous Machines

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1 Lesson 17: Synchronous Machines ET 332b Ac Motors, Generators and Power Systems Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 1 Learning Objectives After this presentation you will be able to: Explain how synchronous machines operate. Draw the per phase circuit model of a synchronous machine. Write and utilize the power equations for synchronous machines. Use machine equations to determine a machines operation point and power Compute motor torques Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 2 1

2 Synchronous Machines Synchronous Motors Convert electrical power into mechanical power. They operate at a constant speed Synchronous generator (Alternator) - Convert mechanical power into electrical power (3-phase). Constant speed of mechanical drive gives constant frequency ac Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 3 Basic Construction of Synchronous Machines Stationary part of machine called the armature. Similar to induction motor stator Rotating part of machine is electromagnet energized by a dc source and called the field Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 4 2

3 Operational Theory for Synchronous Machines Motor Operation 1.) Armature is connected to 3-phase source - rotating magnetic field formed in armature windings 2.) Rotor (field) is energized by dc source. Creates a magnetic dipole 3.) Motor has no starting torque, must be started as induction motor. Damper windings engaged (induction motor action). Motor accelerates to almost synchronous speed. 4.) Damper winding disengaged, motor stays locked to rotating magnetic field and produces torque Synchronous motors operate at constant speed regardless of load applied Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 5 Operational Theory for Synchronous Machines Alternator Operation 1.) Prime mover attached to machine shaft. 2.) Dc supply applied to rotor to make magnetic dipole 3.) Prime mover accelerates machine to operating speed. Speed and number of poles determine frequency 4.) Armature (stationary winding) generate 3-phase voltages Note: mechanical power input determines electrical power output exciter voltage level determines alternator terminal voltage Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 6 3

4 Synchronous Motor Operation Motor speed constant at synchronous speed, n s n s 120 f P Where f = power system frequency (Hz) P = number of motor poles Speed can only be changed by changing system f or number of poles in machine Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 7 Motor Reaction to Application Load Application 1.) Motor rotor is in phase with rotating armature (stator) field 2.) Mechanical load is applied, rotor slows instantaneously then returns to n s. 3.) Instantaneous speed reduction causes rotor to lag rotating field by an angle (phase shift) Angular shift called power angle (d). 5.) Torque and power developed is related to angular shift High values of d will cause rotor to slip out of synchronization with rotating magnetic field. Condition called out-of-step operation or pole slipping (Causes current pulses in armature windings) Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 8 4

5 Synchronous Motor Operation Torque Angle d Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 9 Counter-EMF Components in Synchronous Machines Field flux induces voltage into armature (stator) due to rotation (E f ). E f depends on I f (dc field current) and n s The parameter E f, called excitation voltage. Rotating magnetic field in armature (stator) induces voltage in armature called armature reaction voltage. (E ar ) This voltage depends on the speed of the rotating magnetic field produced by the applied voltage Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 10 5

6 Per Phase Circuit Model Motor Operation VT Ia R j X X Ef a l ar Where: V T = applied V /phase (phasor) I a = armature current (phasor) X l = armature leakage reactance ohms/phase X ar = armature-reaction reactance ohms/phase R a = armature resistance ohms/phase Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 11 Simplified Synchronous Machine Model + Let X s = X l + X ar = synchronous reactance R a << X s so it is usually ignored I a + E f also called voltage behind synchronous reactance. dc field is implied in this drawing For alternator operation, reverse the direction of I a VT Ef Ia jx s Where V T = per phase terminal voltage (phasor) E f = voltage behind synchronous reactance I a = armature current (phasor) X s = synchronous reactance Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 12 6

7 Power Transfer in Synchronous Machines d E f sin( d) I a X E f q i From phasor diagram above E sin( d) I X cos( q ) f a s I X cos( q ) i a s i Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 13 Power Transfer In Synchronous Machines Multiplying the equation from the phasor diagram by V T and dividing both sides by X s gives power/phase. V T E X s f sin( d) V I cos( q ) T a i Where: q i = machine power factor. Total 3-phase power is P P in in 3VT X E 3V I cos( q ) T s a f In terms of machine quantities sin( d) i In terms of input quantities Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 14 7

8 Maximum Power Transfer in Synchronous Machines There is a maximum power that a synchronous machine can develop before it loses synchronism P max Generator action (+90 degrees) P d 0 90 Lagging angle-motor action 90 Leading angle-generator action d 180 deg P max Motor action (-90 degrees) Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 15 Example 17-1: A 100 hp 460 volt 60 Hz 4-pole synchronous motor is operating at rated conditions and a power factor of 80% leading. The motor efficiency is 96% and the synchronous reactance is 2.72 ohms/phase. Find: a.) developed torque; b.) armature current; c.) excitation voltage (E f ); d.) power angle; e.) the maximum torque the motor can develop without loss of synchronization. (pull-out torque). Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 16 8

9 Example 17-1 Solution (1) Find the input power No losses in Armature so Motor operates at synchronous speed Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 17 Example 17-1 Solution (2) No losses in armature so P in = P mech Now find the phase angle from the F p. Combine magnitude and phase angle Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 18 9

10 Example 17-1 Solution (3) Find voltage behind synchronous reactance Assume that V T is the reference phasor d.) Torque angle is the same as the angle on E f Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 19 Example 17-1 Solution (4) Now find the pullout torque Compute the torque from P max and synchronous speed Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 20 10

11 ET 332b Ac Motors, Generators and Power Systems END LESSON 17 Lesson 17_et332b.pptx 21 11

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