H A N D B O O K S C L A S S E S B I B L E US D ODS, D. D. RE V. AN D M. A. AND ER 7 H YT E, R EV. E D I N B U R G H

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2 H A N D B O O K S B I B L E C L A S S E S ED IED BY RE V MARC US D ODS D D AN D R EV ALEX AND ER 7 H Y E M A E D I N B U R G H C LARK 3 8 G EORG E SREE

3 LO N DO N H A M I L O N A D A M S A ND C O P R I N ED B Y MO R R I S ON A ND G I B B FO R s; C L A R K E D I N B U R G H D UB LI N RO B E R SON A N D C O N E W YO R K S C R I B N E R A ND \VELFORD

4 H E BO O KS O F C H RO NIC LES J A M E S G M U R P H Y LL D C D P ROFESSOR O F H EBREW B ELFAS E D I N B U R G H C LA R K 3 8 G E O R G E S R E E

5 And these are ancient thin g s C H RON I V 22 We have heard with our ears O G od our fathers have t old u s what work hou didst in their da y s in the times of old P s X LI V I

6 H E BO O KS O F C H RO NI C LES I N R O D U C I O N O F the nine b ook s i ncluded in the Kethubim or H a gi o grapha the followin g a re re g ard ed as hist ori cal E sther D ani el C hroni cles and E zra and N ehem iah he second of these is p artl y hist ori cal and p artl y propheti cal and b elon g s t o the period of the captivit y he first is a m ono graph standin g b y itself and referrin g t o a sin g ul ar in stance of the protecti on vouch safed b y D ivine Providence t o the J ews of the disp ersi on under the P ersian Empire he other three form reall y and desi g nedl y a continuous hi stor y from the b e ginnin g oftime and m ore full y from the accessi on of D avid to the adminis t ration of Nehem i ah he b ook s of Chroni cles are the onl y proper antecedent t o the histor y ofthe times after the captivit y he Occasion - he b ook s of Ezra and N eh em i ah contain a narra tive of event s occurrin g aft er the return of the J ews from the exile of sevent y y e ars the former h avin g f or its central event the reb uildin g of the temple the latter the orati rest on of the w alls of J erusalem he grand difference in the conditi on ofthi s p eopl after e the captivit y w thi as s that the civil and reli i g ous affairs of the n ation w ere no l on g er g over ned b y a common principle or as we sh ould sa that y the state and the church w ere no lon g e r the erp count arts of one common p olit y he mini st ers of reli i g on still continued t o acknow led g e the supremac y of G od and profess ob edience t o H is law B ut the rulers ofthe st at e had become subj ect t o the p aramount authori t y of a forei g n and h eathen p ower I t is true that a descendant of D avid was for some y e ars the civil head of the communit y B ut thi s w as a sh ort - lived and evanescent shadow of the kin gdom that w as t o h ave no end Zerubb ab el son of Shealti el w as the leader of the returnin g c olon y B ut w e read of no descendant of his h oldin g swa y over J udah I t is true that the p osterit y o f J udah continued t o b e a nati on havin g a civil p olit y in cert ain resp ects peculi ar to itself B ut in other resp ects it w as m odified and controlled b y the arbitrar y will of an external p ower H ence we h ave Ezra a pri est and a A

7 2 H E BOOKS OF CHRON ICLES /Ie Occasion scrib e b y the favour of the soverei g n p ossessin g t he influence and performin g t he part of a g over After nor him Neh em i ah son of H achaliah wh om Eusebius and J erome naturall y conclude t o b e ofthe trib e ofj udah thou gh not of the ro y al lin e acts in the administration of civil affairs simpl y as the deput y and repres entative ofthe Persian m onarch I n accordance w ith this J osephus ( A m xi 4 8) states that the y m ade use of a form of g overnment that w as ari stocratica b ut mixed with an oli g arch y ; for the hi g h pri ests w ere at the head of affairs until the p osterit y of th e Asm oneans set u p a kin g l y g over nm ent I n the i ntervenin g p eri od here noticed the civil rul er was controlled in all imp ortant m atters b y the suprem e authorit y of the forei g n p otentate H ence it is pl ai n that the g ov ernm ent so far could a s it b e the th em e of an i nspired record w as of necessit y sacerdotal Levitical or ecclesiastical ; while the civil dep artm ent w virtuall under as y the control of the P ersian monarch y the second of the four world great - powers s y mb oli zed in the dream of Neb uchad nezz ar his state of thin g s forc ed up on the J ewi sh mind some rude con ce p t ion of the di stinction b etween church and state he D avidic soverei g nt y bec am e henceforth in their thou g h t s m ore a spiritual than a secular kin gdom And the b ooks of E zra and N ehemiah depi ct the sacerdotal ormore exactl y the spiritual p olit y o fthe nati on as alone accordant with the prin cipl es of the anci ent econom y he state of thin g s r ecorded in these b ooks is therefore in so far out of harmon y with t he th eocratic s y st em of the p eri od b efore the captivit y he thread of narrative recountin g t he ancient uni t y of chur ch and state under the heavenl y Kin g was broken off at the end of the S econd B ook of Kin g s A new conditi on of thin g s ca me in b efore the histor y w as resum ed and Ezra and Nehemiah w ant the prop er connection with the anteced ent histor y ofthe p eople of G od H ence the necessit y of th e b ooks of Chroni cles R ecapitulati n g the histor y ofm an b efore the tim es of D avid the y present the hi g her asp ect of that kin g d om whi ch t ook its ori g in from his famil y h ad the promi se of a perp etual durati on and w as t o culminate in the M essi ah he histor y of D avid and his line is therefore traced t o the exclusi on of that of the t en trib es whi ch b ecame b y their ap ostas y stran g ers t o the covenant of promise and wi th constant reference t o the l oftier destin y of his throne a s the kin gdom of G od that cannot b e moved H ence the reli g i ous not the civil under

8 estam ent INRODUCION 3 lze S p e cial s érm ce o f 26 Wark t akin g s of its kin g s a re dwel up t on wi th sp eci al attention And the n arrative is carried on be y ond the burnin g of the t emple and b e y on d the life of J ehoi achin to the proclamati on of C y rus authori zin g an d i nvitin g t he bani sh ed p eople t o return to J e r u salem and rebuild the templ e and the cit y hi s furni sh es the fittin g link t o which m a y b e attached the b ook s of Ezra and Nehemiah containin g t he histor y of the remnant who returned on thi s invitation until it vani sh es in the i nert and obscure interval b et ween the Old and the New he S p ecial Difference of the Work h e di stin g u i shin g c haracter istics of the book s of Chroni cles m a y b e g a th ered from these facts he w ork is reall y one and is manifestl y due t o one compiler I t called is in the M ' asoretic recen sion D z ére fia yy a m z m Act s of the D a y s freel y rendered Chi / m ica b y J erome whi ch has come to us in our Cfirozzz cles throu gh the Latin Vul g ate hi s means a record ofthe leadin g incident s of the tim es somewhat in the form of annals I t d is esi nated g b y the S ep ' tua gint P aralez fi omm a thin g s l eft aside or unnoticed his m arks a second p eculiarit y o f the b ook I t fur ni shes a suppl ement t o the form er series ofhistori cal b ooks brin g i n g t o li g ht man y i nterestin g p arti culars which w ere there omi tted B ut neither ofthese com es u p t o the l eadin g c haract eri sti c ofthe b ook I ts main scop e is to rai se into con spicuou s promi nence the reli g i ous and eternal aspect of the kin gdom of G od as contradi stin g uished from the civil and t emp oral form of g overnment und er which the p eople of G od w ere then constrained t o live and so t o exhibit such a view of the former course of event s as would fitl y introduce the state of thin g s pres ented in the n arrative of Ezra and N ehemiah he stat e p aramount in this p eri od of the affairs of the chosen p eople w as the second h eathen m onarch y he kin g d om of G od had then no vi sible reali t y u nless in the sacerdotal or ecclesiasti cal department I t remained in the back g round durin g t he P ersi an the G reci an and the R oman monarchies and onl y comes i nto conspi cuous p ower and pro gress when the last of these kin g d om s is ab out t o decline and fall C ivil g o vernment und r e these m undane p owers is a p art of the g e neral scheme of Providence and h ence has a primar y place in a universal hi stor y o f the w orld B ut in a record of the common wealth of g race and salvati on it can com e in onl y for i ncidental noti ce H ence it is plain that the main t opic of the present course ofhistor y is d etermined not b y the p ersonal l eanin g s of the writers

9 4 H E BOOKS OF CHRONICLES ' z me o f ' Com p o sz ' z z on lze A ut/zor as has b een frequentl y asserted b ut b y the real situati on of affairs he civil administrati on had ceased t o b e sacred at its fountai n head ; the ecclesiasti cal alone b elon g e d t o the sphere of sacred thin g s he wri ters are consci ous of thi s fact and wri te and speak accordi n g l y And the author of Chronicles d evi ses and comp oses a summ ar y ofancient thin g s a dapted t o the new situati on im e of Com p osition I t follows from the ab ove considerations that the comp osi ti on of C hronicles w as coeval with that of Ezra hi s al one brin g s o ut the reason for its existence I t present s that asp ect ofform er sacred thin g s o fwhich E zra and N ehem iah are the l e g i timate conti nuation I t p oi nts out this hi g her asp ect as havin g an undoub ted existence and formi n g t he p erp etual elem ent in the anci ent econom y I t accounts for the p eculiar charact er of these b ooks and li nks them b y a conti nuous chain with the b e ginnin g o f thin g s M an y c ircum stances corrob orate thi s obvi ou s conclu sion he cl ose of the b ook whi ch record s the proclam ation of C y rus p ermittin g t he J ew s to return is the openin g p assa g e of Ezra H ow thi actuall happened s y m a y b e at present hid from our view B ut it g oe s t o prove the i nseparable connecti on of the b ook s in p oint of t im e A nd at several antecedent p oints the b ook all udes to the end of the captivit y I n the third chapter the g r andsons of Zerubb ab el are m entioned and in the ninth the captivit y i s noti ced as a thi n g ofthe p ast hese latest event s i ndicated in the b ook are pri or t o the activit y ofe zra he b ooks of Ezra and Neh emiah are reckoned b y the J ewi sh doctors as one b ut merel y for the purpose of g roupin g all the pieces ofthe Old estam ent in tw ent y - two b ooks he y m a y notwithstandin g b e fairl y ascrib ed to different authors h ere is an interval of ten or twent y y e ars from the last event recorded in Ezra t o the first in Nehemi ah and w e find Ezra still abl e t o p erform the functi on ofa scrib e and therefore a reader in the time of Nehemiah here is n o reason therefore wh y he should not have b een the author of the b ook whi ch b ears his nam e he existence and character of thi s b ook as w ell as the state of thin g s after the return demand a reconstructi on of the antecedent hi stor y such as w e h ave in C hroni cles And to serve th ese p urp oses this work must have b een prepared as a compani on t o Ezra ; at an y sub s equent p eri od it w ould have b een t oo late he Author he almud in B aba b athra xv I ascribes thi s work to Ezra ; and most of the Rabbins and after them the earl y

10 INRODUCION A ux/0 7 Fath e rs h old the same vi ew Ezra is the m an in ever y resp ect q u alified t o accompli sh thi s task under the D ivine g uida nce: he i nt erval of t en or tw elve y e ars from his return t o the arrival of N ehemi ah is suffi cient and suitable for the p urp ose he onl y plau sible obj ection t o thi s vi ew of the an ci ent Church is that the b ooks of C hroni cles cont ai n account s of events l ater th an the tim e of Ezra hi s if proved on the sm all scale prop osed is not a fatal obj e cti on I t app ears t o b e a sound er as w ell as a safer course t o accept E zra as an adequate source of the b ook s in question hand ed d own t o u s b earlier traditi y on and to ascrib e if needful a few i nter p o lations t o a sub r or sequent edact than t o assi g n the whole w ork later t o a unknown author b ecau se a few circum st ances or n ames m enti oned are presumed t o b elon g t after o the times Ezra hi s is m or e in keepin g w i th the custom s and exi enci g es of the anci ent scribes and hi stori ans he y wrot e as wi tnesses of the present and record ers of the p ast at a tim e when th ere w as no printin g he y Constituted a successive ord er of m en h avi n g c har g e of publi c r ecords and auth orit y t o add t o th em fr om time t o time as occasi on hus sub a sequ continuator added ent the l ast ch apter t o required D euteronom y and m a y h ave i nserted a few explanator y clauses in other p arts of the P entateu ch I t has not y e t b een proved h owever th at there are names or events rep orted in Chroni cles that w ere sub sequent t o the times of Ezra I n I Chron iii 7-2 Pelatiah and J esai ah the grandsons of Zerubb ab el the grandson or gr eat - g r and son of J ec honiah are m enti oned N ow as J ec honiah or J ehoiachi n had w ives ( 2 Kin g s xxiv I 5) at the date ofhis cap tivit y a bout 597 B C hi s son Shealtiel m a y h ave b ee n b o rn not far from that date sa y in 59 6 B C and t herefore ab out sixt y y ea rs b efore the return from the captivit y akin g t he avera g e of a g e nerati on in the r o y al lin e at twent y - four y e ars thou g h i t is somew hat l ess w e should have Z erubbabel b orn ab out thirt y ~ six y ears and H ananiah ab out tw elve y ears b efore the sam e event Pelatiah and J esai ah w ere thus prob abl y b orn twelve and fourteen y ea rs after the return and therefore b oth ab out 5 22 DC and con sequentl y sixt y - three y e ars b efore the return of Ezra in 4 59 ) C he y w ere b orn som e tim e b efore the d eath of their g randfather Zerubb ab el who thou gh active in com m encin g th e b uildin g o f the t emple in the time of C y ru s and in resumin g t he w ork in the rei g n of D ari us H y stas p i s seem s not t o have lived l on g aft er it s com

11 b ook s of C hroni cles as the proper antecedent t o the b ooks of E zra 6 H E BOOKS O F CHRON ICLES p l etion he Chronist appears therefore t o h ave traced the ro y a l l in e n o f a r t h e r than th ose who had th emselves returned from exile or who w er e b orn t o such as had returned H ence it is that these t w o g r and so ns of Zerubbab el are m entioned he sons of Rephai ah the sons of Arnan the sons of Ob adiah the sons of Shechaniah m enti one d in the followin g verses b el on g ed we conceive t o the tim e of the captivit y O ne of these Shechani ah who m a y have b p ar een a ll e l with J ehoiachin has his line traced t o the fourth g ene r a tion and farth er therefore not than that of J ehoiachin S o far as w e know then no line is continued farther than the reb uildin g of the t empl e sevent y y ea rs after its destruction b y N eb uzaradan or at the v e r y most a g e neration farther he obvi ous reason for st oppin g w ith the grand sons ofzerubb ab el is that he w as the last ruler of the line of D avid and his immedi ate p osterit y retired int o the ob scurit y ofprivate life As the t emple w as fini shed in the sixth y ear of D ari us 5 6 B C and E zra was still an active m an in the twent y - first y e ar of Artaxerxes Lon g im an us 445 B C s event y - one y e ar s after th at event even thou g h m ore than one g e neration had t o b e added there is ever y reason t o a ssent t o the tradition that Ezra w as the com piler of the Nehemiah and the sin g ul ar epi sode of E sther Contents h ese b ooks are naturall y divided into four p arts Par t I i ncludin g ni ne chapt ers consi st s of a seri es of g eneal o g i es or a b are summ ar y of the anci ent hist or y of m an in the line of I srael t o the tim e of D avid he first chapter bri n g s d own the g en eal o gy from Adam t o I srael he followin g e i g ht ch ap ters trace the p edi g ree of most of the trib es of I srael g enerall y t o the cap tivi t y in which they were removed from their countr y he p edi g r ee of D avid in parti cular is continued d own t o the b uildi n g of th e second temple And that of Aaron is ex tended t o J ozadak w ho was carri e d i nto capti vit y b y N eb uchadnezzar Par t I com pl I etin g t he first b ook contains the hist or y ofd avid P art I I I i n nine chapters com pri ses the rei g n of S olomon And P art IV b e in g the rem aind e r of the second b ook hi continues the stor y of the line of D avid and the kin gdom of J udah t o the procl amati on of C y rus authorizin g t he return of the p eopl e and the reb uildin g of the empl t e from Apart the sp eci al aim of the b ook t o promi give nence t o the spiritual and p ual character erpet of the kin g d om of G od there is a sin g ul ar i nterest awakened b y the thi n g s whi ch w ere omitted in the

12 w orks quoted m ust b e different from the hi st orical b ooks of S cripture INRODUCION 7 older summar y and are h ere rescued from oblivi on and recounted for our instructi on he followin g p assa g e s in th ese b ook s are amon g the thi n g s l eft out in the earlier record I Chron ii 8 55 iii iv ix xi 4 47 xi i xv - 26 xv xx xxix 2 C hron vi xi 5 53 xii 4 8 xiii 3 2 xiv 3 5 xv 5 xvi 7 0 xv xix 9 xxiv 5 22 xxv xxvi 5 20 xx I 3 o xxi 2 4 xxvii 4 6 xxviii xxix xxx xxxi xxxii xxxiii 9 xxxiv 3 7 xxxv xxxvi 2 3 H ence it app ears that twent whol y e chapters and tw ent y - four parts of ch apters are occupi ed w ith matter n ot t o b e found in the other b ooks of S hese b ooks are therefore hi hl imp cripture g y ortant on account of the new m aterial as well as the new asp ect of thin g s whi ch th e y present Sources h e compil er of these b ooks makes r eference t o the Chroni cles of Ki n g D avid the w ords of Samuel the seer of Nathan the prophet and of G ad the seer forthe rei g n of D avid ; to the w ord s of Nath an the proph ec y o f Ahij ah the Shil onite and the visi ons of J edi or I dd o the seer for the r ei g n of S ol omon and for the rem ain in g rei g ns t o thewri ti n g s of Shemaiah the prophet of I ddo of J ehu son of H anani of I saiah son of Am oz of' the seers or of H oz ai and a g ai n and a g ai n t o the b ook of the Kin g s of I srael and J udah whi ch is quot ed with some vari et y of desi g nation As n one of these w orks are extant or el sewhere describ ed w e could offer nothin g b u t con j ec ture resp ectin g th eir n at ure or content s We simpl y learn th at the nati on was ver y w ell provided with cont emp orar y publi c r ecord s as w ell as private memoirs of it s pri ncipal tran saction s and that the as the y con t ai ned i nformation not t o b e found in the latter B esides these he had b efore him the five b ooks of M oses and the ei g ht b ooks of the prophets w ith the ex ception of M alachi M oreover he mu st have had access t o some ver y old re g i s t ers or annal s from whi ch he compiled m ost of the first nine chapters of his w ork E zra b ein g a pri est and a scrib e w ould hav e the b est opp ortunities of access t o such ancient d ocument s Credibilit y h e least that is due t o an author is to assume his veracit y a nd comp etence until the contrar y is proved A th orou g h ex aminati on and fair exp osition of thi s w ork will w e have no d oub t establi sh the honest y of the com piler on unassailable g ro unds M ak in g du e allowance for errors of transcripti on w e shall find him in

13 c y c lop edi as and dictionari es 8 H E BOOKS OF CHRON ICLES accord wi th the coll ateral b ook s of histor y and w ith him self And it is imp ossibl e on the one hand t o su gg e st a m otive for devi atin g fr om the truth and on the other t o g iv e an y c olour for a char g e of f a l s e hood in those p art s of the w ork for whi ch w e have no l on g e r a n y parallel vouchers St yle he author havin g t o g o over th e whole of the anci e nt histor y of m an in a narrow space is consciou s of the n ecessit y of brevi t y H e therefore t ou ches on the head s ofthin g s a nd som et im es g iv es a mere strin g o f names without indicatin g f ull y their r e l a ti o n t o one another when it can b e learned from antecedent S crip tu r e or is unimportant in itself Wh en he comes dow n t o D avid he is g e ner a ll y cl ear in his suppl em ent s t o the older hi stori cal b ook s of S crip tu r e and eloquent in his descripti on of events that are of m o m en t in the reli g i ous pro gress of the chosen p eople H is st yle resembl e s th at of Ezra Nehem iah and Esther and b el on g s t o the silver a g e of H ebr e w when it b e g an to approach t o the Aramai c and t o admi t a g r eater number offorei g n word s he literature of the b ook m a y b e fo und in Zockler on Chr on icles in Lan g e s 'sc/z lzeolo g z B zéelw er/e tr or the an sl ti a o n of thi s ork w published b M y essrs Clark and in v the a ri o bi us b li l c a

14 H E G ENEALO G Y O F H E WHOLE RACE O F ADAM he reader is ex p ected to have the Authoriz ed V ersion b efore him when he PAR I H E PERI OD B EFORE DAV I D C HAP ER a z g I I N the fir s t p ara g r aph w e have the line of descent from Adam to N oah s three son s and in the other thr ee the prin cipal descendants of ea ch of these sons of Adam accordin g t o the H ebrew he D elu g e w as 65 6 y e ars from the creation 4 he names in these four verses t ake u s over G en i ix he Chroni st presumes his reader t o b e acquainted with G enesis and therefore add s Shem H am and J apheth w ithout i ndicatin g t hat the y are the sons of N oah the t enth inclusive from Adam his is to b e noted furni a s shin g a pri nciple of int erpretation in som e other p arts of thi s b I t ook is t o b e ob served that in the En glish Versi on the or translat of this b ook adheres m closel ore y t o the ori inal g in the nam es Sheth Enosh Kenan J ered H enoch than the or translat of G enesis hi s is an abbreviation of G en x Vers 5 7 D escendants of J apheth the eldest son of N oah V er 6 Rip / mmis th e readin g in G en x 3 t hou g h D i p hath appears in some copies h ere the d and r of the ori g inal b ein g sim ilar in form V er 7 I n like manner D odam'm is in some copies Rodanim he former readin g s are p r o b abl y correct 8 6 Descendants of H am the y o un g est son hi s passa g e as far a s it g oes coincides w i th G enesis m ore exactl y in the ori g inal than the versions do V app ears in the tran slation of G en esi s er 2 fie st and s for Philistim which I t is t o b e n oted that the Phili stines are traced t o Mi zraim or E g y p t C anaan has eleven d escendant s 7 23 Descendants of Shem the second son We learn th at H am w as the y oun g est from G en ix 2 4 A s Shem was a hundred y ears old tw o y e ars aft er the fl ood ( G en xi he must have b een b orn in the 5 o z d or 5 o 3 d y ear of N oah s life and therefore two y e ars after J apheth ( G e n v Uz and H ul and G ether and M eshech are son s not immediatel y of Shem b ut of Aram ( G en x hi s is a second case of the p ri ncipl e exemplifi ed in ver 4 M es/ writ here stand s for the M ash of G enesi s where indeed there is M osoch in the S eptua g i nt as here I t app ears to b e the sam e with M eshech in P s cxx 5 w here it is p arallel with the t ents of Kedar he remainin g verses coincide with the corresp ondin g p arts o f G enesi s consults these not es

15 I O H E FIRS BOOK O F CHRONICLES C H AP /ze Collateral B rancnes o f M e P ed ig ree o f I srael C HAP ER I H E COLLAERAL BRANCHES O F H E PEDIGREE O F ISRAEL H E passa g e now b efore us contains three notable para graphs de scendant s of Shem vers and kin g s and dukes of Edom vers 43 from the eleventh t o the thirt y - sixth chapter - 33 descendant s of E sau and S eir v ers 54 I t covers G enesi s Descendants of Shem Vers he b are from line xvii Shem t o Abram that is Abraham ext end s over G en xi Abraham is the t enth from N oah and the t wentieth from Adam H e w as b orn A M ( 99 2 B C ) and c alled when sevent y y ears of a g e t o g o i nto the land of C anaan After sp endin g five y e ars in H aran where his father died he proceeded int o the Land of Promi se G en Vers 28 xvi 3 he 3 collat erals of I saac his p ara graph r eaches from t o xxv I saac and [snnzael I saac is p u t first as the child of promi se thou g h b orn fourteen y e ars after I shm ael ( G en xvii 2 5 a nd xxi S o Shem is p u t first th ou gh he w as the second son his p oint is t o b e kept in m ind in the exam i nation of lists From the call ofabraham t o the birth of I saac w ere thirt y y ear s Vers his p assa g e is taken from G en xxv 2 6 /zese ' a re t/zez r g enerations his is a new startin g - point I t is m odifi ed from G en xxv 2 t o include I saac as w ell as I shmael H arlaa is H adar in G enesis thou g h some editi ons there al so g iv e H adad l l adad seems the correct readin g Vers his is abrid g ed from G en xxv D edan are omitted 4 he sons of Descendants of Esau and Seir his and the next p ar a graph correspond w ith G en xxxvi Ver s D escendant s of Esau O n comp ari n g t hi s with G en xxxvi 5 w e find that z ' nzna here placed in the list after the sons of Eliphaz w as his concubine and t hat Amalek w as another son he had b y her H ence w e l ea r n th at these nam es are l oosel y added without an y n o te oftheir r e lation t o those b efore or to one another C ver w ith G enesis 7 ompare with this ver 4 a nd he w rit er plainl y supp oses his reader t o b e acquainted We m ust suppose a col on after Kenaz Z e / Jl ' n her e is Z epho in G enesis b y a chan g e in the l ast letter which is n ot unusual Vers D escendants of S eir hi s S eir w as probabl y a Shemite thou gh his relationship unrecord is e C d om p arin g t h is para graph with G en xxxvi w e fi nd H onzam for H em an A l y an for Al w an S fie fi lzz ' for Shepho b y the exchan g e o f y for w and 772 for n 4 Aholibam ah dau ght er ofanah is om itted A mram stands for H emdan which ap p ears t o b e correct V 4 for Akan of G enesi s he l er tr att is the ue r e adin g er 2 y a /can stand s he k in g s a nd duk es in Edom ( G en xxxvi ' z n g 3 c ' ore an l his S impl y m eans b I srael yo efore b ecam h e a nation avin g an Inde p en dent cm l ma g i strate and overnm g ent Lord he G od

16 4 PAR I -H E PERIOD BEFORE DAVID I I C HAP I I /ze S ons o f ]srael I 7 zca a/z w as their Kin g a nd M oses w as H is first representative ( Ex xv 8 iv 6 xviii 9 Num xxvii D eut xxxiii H ence the line of kin g s is t raced down no farther than the time of M V 5 oses er H adad h stand ere s for H adar and P ai for Pau b y a chan g e of sim ilar o letters whi ch is of frequent occurren ce old er record t o the and H adad died V 5 er H ere it is added he event m ust have t aken place duri n g the lifetim e of M oses after he had p enn ed G en xxxvi 39 We have no intimation here of a su ccessor B ut from Num xx 4 w e l earn that there w as still a kin g of E d om thou g h hi s n ame is not g i ven he int erval from the call of Abraham to the Ex odus w as 43 0 y e ars Vers 5 5 he duk es of Edom hese are the dukes in the time of H adad i m na and Aholibamah appear here as prop er n am es of m en A li a/ c stands for Alvah hi s first chapter w e see is simpl y a g en eal o g y c onnectin g I srael who is nam ed in ver 34 wi th Adam and wi th t he collat eral branches of the race I W/zat is Me clzic f ena f or sonic /z t/ze B ool e o f C/zron icles w as w ritten 2 Wb at is t/ze mean in g r of file name i t [fears in ou r version 3 W/zat is m ea n t o y t/ze n am e it lzears in t/ze S e p t ua g int 4 H ow m c /z of file tw o oooles is su pp l emental to t/ze p r ecedin g books is t/ze p r esent c/za p ter s o bri e f? 6 PV/zat is t/ze in tervalj ro m tlze D elu g e to tlze call o f A lra/zam 7 LV/zat is tlze date o f t /ze E xoa us 8 Construct a c/zronolo g z 'cal mole ; containin g tn e creation o f A dam t/ze D elu g e inc call of A bra/2am and t/ze E xodus 9 [Mention a rule of int er p r etation re q uisit e f or t/zese g e nealo g ica lc/za p t ers C H AP ER I I H E SONS O F I SRAEL I JUDAH H E Chroni st now b ecomes m ore copi ous in names th an G enesi s and grow s in interest from the supplies whi ch he m akes for the om i ssi on s of the form er account he tribe of J udah ( ) t akes u p ii iv 2 3 ; S imeon iv R eub en v I I o ; G ad 7 v R eub en G ad and half - M anasseh v 8 26 Levi vi I ssach ar vii 5 ; B enj amin vii 6 2 N aphtali vii I 3 ; M anasseh V I I 4 9 ; Ephraim ( I o) vii ; A sher vii ; B en j amin a g a i n vi ii I n thi s enum erati on the trib es ofz eb ulun and D an are omitted and J ose ph counted as two 2 I n this list of the sons of I srael the sons of Leah st and first J oseph and B enj amin the sons of R achel are placed b etw een D an and Na p h tali the sons of her handm aid ; and the sons of Leah s h andm aid come last h ese t w o verses cover G en xxix xxxv 3 8 he descendants of Judah to the third g eneration J udah is placed first b ecause he came t o h ave the p re- eminence ( G en xlix Vers 3 and 4 co nt ain a bri ef record of his five son s abrid g ed from G en xxxviii and ver 5 is fou nd in G en xlvi hese three verses

17 I 2 H E FIRS BOOK O F CHRON ICLES C H AP I I ua alz S ons o f H ezron ther e fore ran g e o ver G en xxxvii descendant s of Z O erah 6 l Vers 8 rec ord som e of the f his five sons Zim ri seem s t o b e id entical w ith Zabdi in J osh vii he rem ainin g four Ethan H em an C al col and D ara appear t o b e Ethan the E zrahite H eman C al co l and D arda ( a m ere variation of D ara ) m entioned in Kin g s iv 3 he desi g nation Ezrahite m eans of the fam il y of Ezrah or Z erah and p oi nts t o thi s ancient record he y a re said t o b e sons of M a cho] ' or t/ze clzoz A r s the sons of the E ast in the ver y context ( I K in g s iv 3 0 ) are the E asterns so the sons of the Ch oir are the choristers his implies a k n owled g e ofm usic and it s kindred art s p oetr y s in g in g and dancin g I n accordan ce with this P s lxxxviii is ascrib ed t o H em an the Ezrahite and P s lxxxix t o Ethan the Ezrahi te the l atter at least b ein g a desce ndant of the Ethan in our text he y w ere distin g u ished however for other m ental qualities of a hi g h order for it is said that S olom on w as w iser than these four m en H ence it appears that the y w ere em inent am on g t he sons of the East and of E g ypt ( Kin g s i 3 v 0 ) for their w isdom I n E g ypt the y d w el t w hen J oseph w as in authorit y and h is fam il y w a s still in hi g h esteem and in E g ypt accordin gl y t heir n atural t alent s for the fine arts and for social Wisdom w ere develop ed and cultivat ed hese q ua l ities of the Zarhit es descended I n the trib e of J u dah and attained their hi g hest lustre in D avid and S olom on 7 7 7msons o f C arm i he plural form is occasionall y u sed w hen onl y one son is m entioned his is a hint that the C hronist is extractin g from a pedi g ree which contains other sons or descendant s ; and that he select s onl y a s m uch as serves his purp ose C arm i a ccordin g t o J osh vii is the son of Zabdi or a s w e m a y a ssum e Zimri A c/zar ( tr oubler) i s a variation ofachan ( b ender t wi ster) t he n am e in J osh vii prob abl y arisin g from the sad histor y which is there g ive n of his crime lze t/zin g a ccu rsea is that which is shu t u p d eb arred from comm on use and devoted t o G od under a b an or curse up on an y one w ho attempts t o appropriate it t o him self 8 lze sons of E t/zan Azariah who al one is nam ed is other wi se unknown he descendants of H ezron he phrase the sons of H ezron sta nd s as a headin g t o wh ich is then appended t o whom w ere b orn e tc here is new ground here his J erahmeel occurs onl y in this chapter Ram is in the S ept and M att i 3 Aram Kelub ai has the appearance of a G entile or class name includin g several of the name of C aleb If not it is simpl y a vari ant for C aleb which app ears here in the S ept he rem ainder of thi s chapter consists of the descendant s of the sons of H ezron amon g whom C aleb is a conspicuous and recurri n g nam e Vers 0-7 ancest or of D avid he descendant s of Ram H pl aced e is first as the he line is g iv en in Ruth iv 8 N 22 ahshon is g ive n as the prince of J udah in N um i 7 A s H ezron was b orn

18

19 4 H E FIRS BOOK O F CH RONICLES C H AP I I 6 9 S o ns offil e zron 6 7 J he n ame ofthe husb and ofz erui ah nowh is ere menti oned ether otherwi called I se thra is here said t o b e the I shm aelite b ut in 2 S am xvii 2 5 the I sraelite ; for which the S ep t there g iv es the J ezreelite he l ast is likel y t o b e correct ; b ecause D avid s first w ife was Ahinoam the J ezreelit ess whi ch indicates a con n ection with that t own wh ether it b e in Ephraim or J udah ( C hron iv H e mi g ht in that case b e an I shm aelite b y race at the same t im e Vers he descend ants ofc aleb v 8 he t ext as it stands can onl y b e rend ered as in the En glish Versi on C aleb is called the son of H ezron t o distin g u ish him from the other C aleb s ofhis famil y m enti oned in this chapt er B e g at o f A z uoan a w if e and o f 7 e riotlz latter further m he is no entioned For a wife w e should exp ect his w ife A nd Ma c are her sons Azubah as her death is afterwards m entioned he reference app ears t o b e to O fher son s we know nothin g further I 9 E p lzrat /z called also E p hrathah in ver s 2 4 a nd 5 0 his Ephrath appears t o hav e b een nam ed after her who g ave nam e t o the t own Ephrath whi ch is B ethl ehem where B enj am in w as b orn and R achel died We here b e g in t o learn the in ter estin g and un expected fact that the i ntercourse of I srael with the l ocalities in Pal estine where their ancest ors had acquired propert y w as kept u p s o lon g as the y w ere a free and honoured p eopl e in E g y p t his condition of thin g s m ust have lasted im a considerable t B e efore the new kin g arose in E gy pt that knew n ot J oseph this p atri arch had died and all that g e neration As he was thirt y - nine y e ars of a g e when J acob cam e t o E gy pt his death at the a g e of one hundred and t en y e ars t ook place sevent y - one y e ars after the d escent he d eath of all that g e nera t ion w ould considerabl y extend thi s p eriod M oreover the new kin g s m otive for oppressin g I srael w as that the y w ere m ore and mi g htier than we An obvious i nference from this is that the new kin g w as the head of a d y nast y whi ch held onl y a part of the countr y while contemp orar y soverei g ns held swa y i n other p art s B ut an equall y plain consequence is that the I sraelites m ust b e allowed as lon g a time as p ossible t o b ecom e form idable b their y numb ers even t o a p ettykin We shall not b e far astra gdom y t hen in allowin g 20 y e ars t o have ela p sed fro m the d escent into E gy pt t o the rise of the new d y nast I y f accordin g t o Wilkinson Am osis 575 B C were the new kin g the p eriod of g row th w ould b e at least 26 y ears and that of b onda g e less than ni net y y e ars D uri n g t his i nterval of freedom and unwonted i I ncrease the srael ites app ear t o have kept u p a c on stant connecti on with the ancient scenes of their fathers We know t hat Abraham dwelt in the pl ain of M amre whi ch is in H ebron and in the south countr y when he made a lea g u e with the kin g of G erar and p urchased the fi eld of M achpelah in perp etui t y from the sons of H eth I saac du g t he wells of Rehoboth and B eersheba and made a

20 whi ch in the tim e ofabrah am w as p ossessed b y the R ephaim ( G en PAR I PERIOD BEFORE DAVID 5 C I I AP S ons of [f esron ~ covenant with Abimelech the Phili sti ne b y whi ch he w as reco g n i sed as a sheik holdi n g a t erritor y b y acknowled g ed ri g ht ; and J acob b ou g h t a p arcel ofa fi eld n ear Shechem and acquired a piece ofl and b y sw ord and b ow ( G en xxxiii 9 xlviii Accordin gl y in the earl y time of prosp erit y a nd freedom C al eb form ed a m atrimonial alliance with Ephrath which' b y he prob abl b y ecame m aster of E p h rathah or B ethleh em 20 H ur app ears t o b e the comp ani on of Aaron in h oldin g u p the hands of M oses in the b at tl e with Am alek ( G en xvii B eza leel m m hi 2 ) s grandson is the fam ous construct or of the tabernacle ( Ex Vers O th er descendants of H ezron As the author has p ut R am the ancestor ofthe ro y al lin e first he di sp oses ofth ese collateral b ranches after and under C aleb that he m a y reserve the l ast pl ace for J erahm eel the fi rst - b orn A nd a f terw ards after the birth of his sons alread y menti oned k c da n g /t ier of Al ac/n r son of M anasseh and g rand son ofj oseph his M achir is called the father of G ilead who w as b orn b efore the death ofj oseph ( G en G ilead w as a m em orable p oint in the histor y of J acob and the scene transact ed there had t aken hold of the m em or y ofj oseph who w as an ob servant y outh at the time ofthe p artin g c ovenant b etw een Lab an and J acob I f J acob est ablished an y title t o th e m ount at that tim e thi s w ould b e an additional reason for callin g a son of M achir after thi s cele b rat ed sp ot he Amori t es m a y n ot y et have entered the Peraea xiv Whether M achir had vi sited thi s re gi on durin g t he period when I srael w as a free p eople in E g ypt w e have n o mean s of kn ow in g ; but in the time of C aleb s i ntercourse with the land of B ethlehem it is not impossible he name of this dau g h ter of M achir is not given h ere or el sewhere V J air er 22 was th erefore the Son of M anasseh ( Num xxxii b ecau se he w as the grand son of his grand - dau ght er hou g h he b e l on g e d t o J udah b y the father s side he attached himself t o the house of M achir H is wife w as an h eiress and her inheritance was t o follow her tribe ( N um xxvii and here is a trace m ore over ofhis descent b y the father from J udah in J osh xix 34 wh ere J udah on the J ord an t oward the sunri sin g m ark s the re gion i nherited b y J air he three - and - t went y c ities in the l and of G ilead were p art ofthe H avoth - j air livin g s o r t owns of J air ( Num xxxii hese w ere t aken b J air y and called after his name a name whi ch w as recurrent in the trib e ( J ud B pushed ut g x he his conquest s into the land of Ar g ob ( D eut the threescore citi es of whi ch seem iii also t o have b een included in the H avoth - j air xiii (Josh 2 3 ook G esk ur a na A ram that is from G eshur and Aram he ori g inal mi g ht b e rendered A nd G eshur and Aram t ook H av oth - j air B ut the combination of th ese two as a g ents is not ver y

21 b e Kenath and it s dependencies com pri sin g t he sixt y c ities ofar g ob nam es of C al eb and his wife After the death of H ezron in thi s place the father ofam m inadab 6 H E FIRS BOOK OF CHRONICLES C I I A P S on s o f H ezron natural ; the context refers t o J air and w e exp ect a conti nuance of t he r eference w hile the st atem ent that the tw ent y - three cities w ere in the l and of G ilead prepares us for a conquest b e y on d that re g i on and there is n o other hint ofa conquest b y G eshur and Aram he p art t aken from th em is defined b y the followin g w o rds even J air s t ow ns from them his p art of J air s t owns is further explained t o N ob ah ( Num xxxii w ho t ook these cities seem s t o have b een a g e neral of J air prob abl y a k in sm an p ossibl y a son Kenath is t ak en to be Kanwat in the H auran and the name N ob ah g iven t o it seem s t o have faded int o ob scurit y as it is no further m entioned u nless it b e in J ud g viii A ll t/zese w ere t/ze sons I t is evident t hat the monum ent from which the previous p assa g e w as taken contained m ore n am es than S e g ub an d J air and b el on g ed t o the g e nealo gy o fm achir rather than H ezron 2 4 C aleb - E p hrathah appears to b e B ethlehem or the di strict t o which it b elon g e d havin g received thi s desi g nation from the u nit ed his w ife Ab iah b ore him a p osthum ous son A shur who b ecam e the founder of ek oa a t ow n two hours south of B ethlehem We see in all this a reason for placin g th ese descendant s of H ezron as a sequel t o the famil y of C aleb as the y dwelt in his t errit or y and w ere under his j urisdiction w ith the ex ception of J air who att ached him self t o the fam il y ofhis m other H ezron seem s t o have settled and died in the t erritor y of his son C al eb and the sons of his old a g e w ere con t em porar y with their n ephew s and t ook rank with them under C aleb Vers D escendant s of J erahmeel H e is the first - b orn oi H ezron H is fam il y settled in the south of J udah ( S am xxvii H is fi rst - b orn R am app ears t o have b een called after his uncle I is most prob able that onl y four sons are here enum erated ofwhom t the last is n ot O zem b ut U2 he fi t at the end of the last nam e should b elon g t o t he followin g w ord wh i ch m ust then b e rendered of or from Ahij ah his is a simpler chan g e t han that prop osed b y som e others n am el y tha t an m has fallen out as it involves n o amendm ent of the t ext hese n am es do not occur elsewhere 26 he n am in g of his se cond wife su gg est s a t least that the first has b een n amed H er son is otherwise u nknown 2 7 Ram is the father of M aaz J amin and Eker and there fore n ot t o b e identified with his uncle of the same name who was Vers he d escendant s of O nam are here traced t o the seventh g eneration i nclusive in the line of Shammai and t o the fourth in the line of J ada And the closin g s entence hese w er e the sons ofj erahmeel is ri g htl y placed as the followin g l ine in v e rs 34 4 i s traced from J arha the E gy ptian Ver 35 Ahlai ( v er 3 ) seem s t o have been a dau g h ter of Sh e shan

22 pursuin g t he investi g ation in a wide sense for kinsm an of the famil y one ofthe clan of C aleb PAR I HE PERIOD BEFORE DAVID I 7 I I CHAP S on s of H ez ron 4 Eli shama the last mentioned of thi s line was the ei g hteenth i nclusive from O nam and the twent y - second from J udah and mi g ht therefore b e contemp orar y with Uzziah or J otham or if we make allowance for omitted names with Rehob oam B ut as the memb ers ofthis line do not recur in histor y w e have no means of Vers he 9 offsp rin g of C aleb brother of Jerahmeel hi s C aleb is different from the C aleb ofvers as he fl ouri shed after the bonda g e in E gy pt and the latter who w as prob abl y his ancestor b efore it H e is called brother of J erahmeel plainl y t o di stin g ui sh him from the other C aleb s Either the word brother must b e t aken the brother of J erahmeel or this J erahmeel m ust b e an otherwi se unmenti oned descendant of H ezron hi s w ould b e quite in keepin g with the manner of our abbrevi ator M esha is the father of Ziph either the founder of the t own or the father of him who founded it M areshah seems t o have b een another son of C aleb H e is the father of H ebron who was probabl y called after the town H ebron or after the founder of it he cit y H ebron w as ver y an cient havi n g been built seven y e ars ' b efore l oan in E g ypt ( Num xiii 43 he g e nealo gy is t hen traced throu gh H ebron to M aon the sixth inclusive from C aleb Of the n ames of thi s list several w ere given t o t owns Ziph w as a t ow n a li ttle south - east of H ebron mentioned in J osh xv 5 5 and b ord erin g o n the wild erness of Ziph ( I S am xxxiii here w as h owever an other Ziph (Josh xv 2 4) at a distance from thi s t o the south - west M areshah now M arash la y in the lowland ( S he p h elah) appuah prob abl y t ook his nam e from the founder ofthe t own of that name or of B eth - t appuah b oth of whi ch w ere in J udah ( J osh xv 34 4 M 5 aon occurs as the n ame of a town now M ain in the hi g hland s south of H ebron B ethzur lies north of H ebron and m a y have owed its consequence t o M aon Vers w o concubines of C aleb are now introduced he three sons of Ephah are otherwi se unkn ow n called after his uncle he nephew G azez is as in the case of Ram ( v er 47 J ahdai is from the brevi t y of th e compiler unconnected Witli t he fore g oin g nam es b ut was prob abl y a son or grandson of E p ah Vers he second concubine was the mother offour or five sons and a dau ghter Ofthe first two sons nothi n g is recorded 49 he third is the founder of M admannah a cit y of J ud ah (J osh xv supp osed b y some to b e Minieh south of G aza he fourth Sheva is the founder apparentl y of two cities of which the former is otherwi not se known B ut the father of G i bea m a y be a fifth son whose name is not g iv en G ismentioned ibea in J osh xv 57 and is th ou g h t t o be J eba in the hills of J udah east of B ethleh em B

23 8 H E FIRS BOOK O F CHRONICLES C HAP I I urlak - S ons o f H ezron ( R obinson) he d au ghter is Achsa who w as promi sed b y C al eb to t he captor of Kiriath - se p h er and w on b y O thniel son of Kenaz C al eb s brother (J osh xv 6 his determ ines the tim e of C aleb and di stin g u ishes him from the son of H ezron H e was the son of J ephunneh and w as appointed one of the t w elve spies and one of the com mi ssioners for dividin g t land he ( Nu m Vers O xiii 6 xxxiv fs prin g of Cale b son of H ur his third C al eb is nearl y contemp orar y w ith the precedin g on e b ut of less imp ortan ce H ur is desi g nated the first - b orn of E p hrathah or Ephrath and there fore son of the first C aleb he present C aleb then is the g ra ndson or descendant of the first accordin g as w e t ake son of H ur in a strict or in a wide sense H e is the father of three sons Shob al is the (J osh ix coloniser of Kiriath - j earim the cit y of t he w oods a G ib eonite town otherwi se called Kiriath - b aal or B aalah (J osh which is identified with Kur y et el Enab cit y of the grap e o n the xv 9 w a from J erusalem y t o J oppa Shob al is m entioned once more in V V 5 er S the S alm a of ver alm a is the col oni ser of B ethlehem p erhap s named after the ancestor of B oaz a previous col onist or chief of the sam e t own which lies six m iles south of J erusalem and is celebrated as the birthplace of D avid and of Kin g D avid s greater son H areph is the colonist or head of B eth - g ad er his is iden ti fied b y ZO' ckler wi th G eder (J osh xii I 3) and G ed erah (J osh xv 5 2 As sons of Shob al are here m entioned H aroeh and the half of M enuhoth H aroeh app ears t o b e a variati on of R eaiah 2 the seer seer ofj ah half he of M enuhoth is the count er ) p art of half of the M anahthite in ver he t own M anahath 54 ( iv was coloni sed in p art b y descendants of Shob al 53 Am on g t he colonists of Kiriath - j earim descended from Shob al ( ve r 5 0 ) w ere the I thrite the Puthite the Shum athite and the Mishraite wo of D avid s heroes I ra and G areb w ere I thrites ( 2 S am xxiii From these fam ilies w ere col oni sed the t owns of Zorah and E sht aol Zorah w as the hom e ofs am son m idwa y b etween J erusalem and the w estern sea now S ura Zorathite and Z orit e differ onl y in form Eshtaol w as not far from it and is identified with Um - eshte y e h 54 he descendants of S alm a were settled in B ethlehem ( v er N etophah Atroth - b eth - J oab half M anahath and Z orah N etophah w as not far from B ethlehem ( N and eh vii g ave birth to t wo of D avid s heroes ( 2 S am xxiii rin g s or fences of the house of J oab 28 A tarot/z - oetkj oaé his m a y b e J oab son of Zeruiah ( v er 6) and g eneral of D avid H alf of M anahath was i nhab ited b y descendants of Shob al and half b y those of Salma Z orah al so w as coloni sed b y b oth 55 Amon g t he descendants of S alma are al so i ncluded the famili es of scrib es who dwelt at J abez his is a town 0 unknown

24 and dwellin g in t ent s PAR I HE PERIOD BEFORE DAVID 9 CHAP I 3 Line of D av id sit e in the south of J udah connected someh ow b y name wi th J ab ez of the fam il y of K oz and trib e of J udah ( iv he irathites Shim athit es and S uchathites are other fam ilies b esides those who d welt in J ab ez J erome renders these w ord s sin g in g B ut thi s is ver y doub tful resoundin g he three fam ilies are named from three i ndividuals who st ood at the head of them he y ar e h ere said t o b e Kinites the inhabitants of Kinah ( J osh xv 22 ) not the Kenites who did n ot b elon g t o I srael th ou gh the y w ere prob abl y Shem ites ( G en xv 9 ; Num xxiv Wk o cam e from H ammat/i of t/z e f a tk er o t ake H amm ath as the t own or fort of father the of the hou se of R echab suits b etter for the w ord came whi ch suall u y denotes m otion not From this H ammath cam descent e the three families who b uilt or settl ed in Kinah I n thi s w a y th e verse has a m eanin g wh i ch makes the auth or consistent with him self and with other p art s of S cripture We have no reason t o conclude from 2 Kin g s x 5 an d J e r xxxv that the R echabi tes w ere oth er than descendant s ofjud ah as th e y ar e here d escrib ed I W/zat w as t/ze condition o f I srael in E g yp t b ef ore tbc kin g a rose t/zat k new not 7 0 se p / i 2 H ow lon g p rob abl y did t/ze y re main in t/zis condition 3 IV/zat p r oo fs does t/zis c/za p ter afi ord t/zat I srael durin g tlii s p erio d at least ke p t u p an intercou rse w i tk tk e Land o f P romise? 4 o wkat p arts of tlz e land bad tkeir ancestors ac q u ired a claim b y law or con q ue st 5 H ow m an y C alebs w ere tkere and bow f ar w ere tk e y re lated? 6 PVk at arts or sciences were cultivated b y tbc sons of 7 uda/i B y w/zom in p art icular and w k ere 7 Wkat w as t/ze law o f keiress es in I srael? 8 Wb at exam p l e o f ' it a pp ears in t/ ns ck a p ter 9 I n w/zat sense n lzt D avid t/ze seventk and y oun g es t son o f 7 ess e be at t/ze same time an ez g /ztk son C HAP E R I I I LINE O F DAVID H IS chapter contains the sons of D avid the line of D avid t o the captivit y and s ome of his d escendants after the exile I t conti nues the narrative contai ned in ii 9 9 he sons of David Vers 7 First 3 those b orn in H ebron J e zreel the h ome ofahi noam and C armel that ofab i ail g w ere b oth he second son C hileab is here called D A aniel second in J udah name g i ven in commemoration of some i ncident in his life w as not unusual in ancient times as J acob and I srael Esau and Edom Reuel and J ethro hi s is one am on g t he man y proofs th at the Chroni st had other sources ofi nform ati on b esides the form er proph ets came t o the throne ab out 0 55 B C D avid 2 M aachah the mother ofab salom was dau g h ter of almai

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