# General Physics 1 Lab - PHY 2048L Lab 2: Projectile Motion / Solar System Physics Motion PhET Lab Date. Part 1: Projectile Motion

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1 General Physics 1 Lab - PHY 2048L Name Lab 2: Projectile Motion / Solar System Physics Motion PhET Lab Date Author: Harsh Jain / PhET Source: Part 1: Projectile Motion Part 2: My Solar System Part 1: Projectile Motion Introduction: Projectiles travel with two components of motion, X any Y. The acceleration and velocity in the Y direction is independent of the acceleration (if any) and velocity in the X direction. In this module, you will investigate the motion of a simple projectile. Realize that while gravity (acceleration) acts on the projectile in the direction, it does not affect the velocity of the projectile in the direction. Procedure: (we will be ignoring air resistance during this lab) Run the PhET Simulations Play Motion Projectile Motion The cannon can be moved to add or remove initial Y position and X position. The cannon can be pivoted to change the firing angle, θ. The tape measure can be moved and dragged to measure range to target. To fire the cannon,. To erase the projectile s path,. Be sure air resistance is off and spend some time firing various projectiles. Set the initial speed to a value between 10-15m/s. Choose your favorite projectile. Find the range of the projectile at various angles. θ = _30 Range (dx) = m θ = _70 Range (dx) = m θ = _40 Range (dx) = m θ = _50 Range (dx) = m θ = _60 Range (dx) = m Add two more θ = _80 Range (dx) = m θ = Range (dx) = m θ = Range (dx) = m Measure the distance from the cannon to the target using the tape measure. Move the target to 21.0 m from the cannon. Attempt to hit the target with three different angles by changing the firing angle and initial velocity. Range (d x ) = 21.0m θ = Vi = Range (d x ) = 21.0m θ = Vi = V V V y Range (d x ) = 21.0m θ = VERY IMPORTANT Vi = A projectile s velocity (v) has an X component (v x ) and a Y component (v y ). The X component (v x ) is found by multiplying the magnitude of the velocity by the cosine of the angle, θ. Similarity, the Y component of velocity is found by multiplying the magnitude of the velocity by the sine of the angle, θ. θ θ V x v x vcos v y vsin

2 So, a projectile fired at 20 m/s at 65 o has an X-velocity of v 20cos 65 or 8.5 m/s. The projectile would have a Y-velocity of v 20sin 65 or 18 m/s. y So, the projectile would fire as far as one fired horizontally at 8.5 m/s and as high as one fired straight up at 18 m/s. A projectile fired at 30 degrees with a velocity of 15 m/s would have an x-velocity component of m/s and a y-velocity component of m/s. Calculate the components of the following projectile s velocities: 1. v = 35 m/s θ = 15 o v x = v y = 4. v = 35 m/s θ = 60 o v x = v y = 2. v = 35 m/s θ = 30 o v x = v y = 3. v = 35 m/s θ = 45 o v x = v y = x 5. v = 35 m/s θ = 75 o v x = v y = 6. v = 35 m/s θ = 90 o v x = v y = We can reverse the process and combine the two components of velocity back into one velocity fired at an angle. The magnitude of velocity is found using the Pythagorean Theorem with v x and v y as the legs of a right triangle. For instance, the velocity of a projectile with an x-component of 7.2 and a y-component of is m/s. The angle above the horizontal is found using the inverse tangent (tan -1 ) of the legs v y /v x. For instance, 4.8 the angle of the projectile described above would be tan 1 ( ) = 34 o. 7.2 Calculate the velocity magnitude and angle of the projectiles listed below: 7. v x = 5.6 v y = 6.4 v = θ = 8. v x = 2.8 v y = 4.9 v = θ = 9. v x = 8.1 v y = -7.2 v = θ = 10. v x = -1.3 v y = -5.2 v = θ =

3 Part 2: My Solar System Find the simulation "My Solar System and run it. You should see this: Virtual Lab Simulation: 1. Start What shape is the orbit of the planet? Why does the sun wobble? What is this principle called in Physics (Chap 6) 2. Stop Reset Complete the table at the right The SUN is body, the Planet is body Which variable is the planet s initial radius? Which variable is the planet s initial velocity? 3. Change the mass of the planet to 5 Start Explain what is different. 4. Stop Reset Change planet mass to 2 Start Does the mass of the planet affects it s own orbit? 5. Stop Reset Still with planet mass 2 change velocity and describe each orbit shape in the table. Body 1 - SUN 200 Body 2 - Planet mass Position Velocity X Y X Y 10 mass Position Velocity Describe orbit SHAPE X Y X Y for body 2 - planet body body body body body body Exploring Universal Gravitation The program was developed in Elbonia which is not on the metric system but it does follow Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation - G comes out a little different. *a. Write the equation for universal gravitation for a planet mass mp orbiting a sun ms at dist r

4 *b. body mass position velocity Describe orbit X Y X Y speed for body planet 2. Too fast /too slow Perfect circle Write the circular motion equation for the planet *c. Combine 1,2 and cancel to make an expression for G d. Use your values from Step 5 above for a PERFECT Circle to solve for G in this simulation. 7a) Stop Reset Click Number of bodies 3 to add a planet WE will put planet 2 at TWICE the radius of planet 1 EDIT to match the first 3 lines in the table. This time describe the orbit of planet 2 (body 3) as TOO FAST or TOO SLOW for a perfect circle 7b) Find the exact velocity for a perfectly circular orbit use measuring tape!! 7c) The outer planet is going at ( faster ) (slower) velocity = ( faster ) (slower) tangential speed 7d) Find how many times the planet 1 orbits for just one orbit of planet 2 Planet 2 has a year * 7e) Rearrange your equation 6c to solve for v v 2 = v = 7f) Solve this for radius r = 284 Compare the calculated value with your data table 7g) Calculate the ratio vel body3/ vel body2 for circular obits = = When the radius is doubled the velocity for circular orbit is approx. ( 1/2) (same) ( 1/sqrt2) 8. Find select preset and pull down to Sun Planet moon Start Draw the sun and one complete orbit of each 9a) Find select preset and pull down to

5 Sun Planet comet Start Draw the sun and one complete orbit of each 9b) Observe the comet Where is it moving fastest? Slowest Where does the comet have greatest PE? Planet Orbital Year Radius A.U. Mercury Earth Jupiter 10. Research Our Solar System to see how it follows the same pattern The unit A.U is convenient 1 A.U = earths orbital radius Complete the table INCLUDING THE BLANKS - EVERY ROW IS A PLANET!! list the sites you use -- ( try "stardate" or "nineplanets") Uranus Neptune Pre-Lab Questions Projectile Motion: 1. Without air resistance, the piano travels further / the same distance as the football. (circle) 2. This is due to the fact that velocity in the X-direction increases / is constant / decreases as projectiles travel. 3. The Y-component of velocity increases / is constant / decreases as projectiles travel. 4. The answers to #2 and #3 are due to the fact that gravity acts only in the Y / both the X any Y direction. 5. The path of a projectile is a linear curve / round curve / parabolic curve. 6. This is due to the fact that the time component in the free fall equation (dy) is. 7. Without air resistance, maximum range of a projectile is obtained with an angle of. 8. The same range can be obtained with angles of and. 9. Firing a projectile at 25 m/s at an angle of 35 o is similar to firing a projectile with a speed of straight up and horizontally. 10. A projectile with a horizontal component of 13 m/s and a vertical component of 18 m/s would have an overall velocity of m/s at an angle of above the horizontal. Pre-Lab Questions Solar System: 0) Play with this simulation and mouse around with it. Try to figure out what all the controls do. 1) Using Select Preset, select Sun and Planet. Then select, System Centered, Show Traces, and Show Grid. Describe the shape of the orbit. How does the distance and planet tangential speed affect the shape of the orbit? 2) Move the planet outward, and observe (and record) the orbit period. Make a graph of distance (from the star) vs. period of orbit. (Use the graph paper on next page).

6 3) What happens to the period as the star-planet distance increases? Why do you think there is a relationship?

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