# ECE 380: Control Systems

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1 ECE 380: Control Systems Course Notes: Winter 2014 Prof. Shreyas Sundaram Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Waterloo

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3 Acknowledgments Parts of these course notes are loosely based on lecture notes by Professors Daniel Liberzon, Sean Meyn, and Mark Spong (University of Illinois), on notes by Professors Daniel Davison and Daniel Miller (University of Waterloo), and on parts of the textbook Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (5th edition) by Franklin, Powell and Emami-Naeini. I claim credit for all typos and mistakes in the notes. The L A TEX template for The Not So Short Introduction to L A TEX 2ε by T. Oetiker et al. was used to typeset portions of these notes. Shreyas Sundaram University of Waterloo

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5 Contents 1 Introduction Dynamical Systems What is Control Theory? Outline of the Course Review of Complex Numbers 5 3 Review of Laplace Transforms The Laplace Transform The Inverse Laplace Transform Partial Fraction Expansion The Final Value Theorem Linear Time-Invariant Systems Linearity, Time-Invariance and Causality Transfer Functions Obtaining the transfer function of a differential equation model Frequency Response Bode Plots Rules for Drawing Bode Plots Bode Plot for K o Bode Plot for s q Bode Plot for ( s p + 1) 1 and ( s z + 1)

6 vi CONTENTS Bode Plot for ( ( s ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( s ω n ) + 1) ± Nonminimum Phase Systems Modeling and Block Diagram Manipulation Mathematical Models of Physical Systems Mechanical Systems Electrical Systems Rotational Systems Block Diagram Manipulation Systems with Multiple Inputs and Outputs Step Responses of Linear Systems Step Response of First Order Systems Rise time Settling time Step Response of Second Order Systems Underdamped and Critically Damped Systems (0 ζ 1) Overdamped System (ζ > 1) Discussion Performance of Second Order Step Responses Performance Measures Rise time (t r ) Peak value (M p ), Peak time (t p ) and Overshoot OS Settling Time (t s ) Choosing Pole Locations to Meet Performance Specifications Effects of Poles and Zeros on the Step Response Effect of a Zero on the Step Response Effect of Poles on the Step Response Stability of Linear Time-Invariant Systems Pole-zero cancellations and stability Stability of the Unity Feedback Loop Tests for Stability

7 CONTENTS vii A Necessary Condition for Stability A Necessary and Sufficient Condition: Routh-Hurwitz Test Testing For Degree of Stability Testing Parametric Stability with Routh-Hurwitz Properties of Feedback Feedforward Control Feedback Control Tracking of Reference Signals Tracking and Steady State Error PID Control Proportional (P) Control Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control Implementation Issues Root Locus The Root Locus Equations Phase Condition Rules for Plotting the Positive Root Locus Start Points and (Some) End Points of the Root Locus Points on the Real Axis Asymptotic Behavior of the Root Locus Breakaway Points Some Root Locus Plots Choosing the Gain from the Root Locus Rules for Plotting the Negative Root Locus Stability Margins from Bode Plots Compensator Design Using Bode Plots Lead and Lag Compensators Lead Compensator Design Lag Compensator Design

8 viii CONTENTS 16 Nyquist Plots Nyquist Plots Drawing Nyquist Plots Nyquist Plots For Systems With Poles/Zeros On The Imaginary Axis Stability Margins from Nyquist Plots Modern Control Theory: State Space Models State-Space Models Nonlinear State-Space Models and Linearization Linearization via Taylor Series The Transfer Function of a Linear State-Space Model Obtaining the Poles from the State-Space Model An Overview of Design Approaches for State-Space Models

9 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Dynamical Systems For the purposes of this course, a system is an abstract object that accepts inputs and produces outputs in response. Systems are often composed of smaller components that are interconnected together, leading to behavior that is more than just the sum of its parts. In the control literature, systems are also commonly referred to as plants or processes. Input System Output Figure 1.1: An abstract representation of a system. The term dynamical system loosely refers to any system that has an internal state and some dynamics (i.e., a rule specifying how the state evolves in time). This description applies to a very large class of systems, from automobiles and aviation to industrial manufacturing plants and the electrical power grid. The presence of dynamics implies that the behavior of the system cannot be entirely arbitrary; the temporal behavior of the system s state and outputs can be predicted to some extent by an appropriate model of the system. Example 1. Consider a simple model of a car in motion. Let the speed of the car at any time t be given by v(t). One of the inputs to the system is the acceleration a(t), applied by the throttle. From basic physics, the evolution of the speed is given by dv = a(t). (1.1) dt The quantity v(t) is the state of the system, and equation (1.1) specifies the dynamics. There is a speedometer on the car, which is a sensor that measures

10 2 Introduction the speed. The value provided by the sensor is denoted by s(t) = v(t), and this is taken to be the output of the system. As shown by the above example, the inputs to physical systems are applied via actuators, and the outputs are measurements of the system state provided by sensors. Other examples of systems: Electronic circuits, DC Motor, Economic Systems, What is Control Theory? The field of control systems deals with applying or choosing the inputs to a given system to make it behave in a certain way (i.e., make the state or output of the system follow a certain trajectory). A key way to achieve this is via the use of feedback, where the input depends on the output in some way. This is also called closed loop control. Input System Output Mapping from output to input Figure 1.2: Feedback Control. Typically, the mapping from outputs to inputs in the feedback loop is performed via a computational element known as a controller, which processes the sensor measurements and converts it to an appropriate actuator signal. The basic architecture is shown below. Note that the feedback loop typically contains disturbances that we cannot control. Desired Output Controller Control Input System Output Figure 1.3: Block Diagram of a feedback control system. Example 2 (Cruise Control). Consider again the simple model of a car from Example 1. A cruise control system for the car would work as follows.

11 1.2 What is Control Theory? 3 The speedometer in the car measures the current speed and produces s(t) = v(t). The controller in the car uses these measurements to produce control signals: if the current measurement s(t) is less than the desired cruising speed, the controller sends a signal to the throttle to accelerate, and if s(t) is greater than the desired speed, the throttle is asked to allow the car to slow down. The throttle performs the action specified by the controller. The motion of the car might also be affected by disturbances such as wind gusts, or slippery road conditions. A properly designed cruise control system will maintain the speed at (or near) the desired value despite these external conditions. Example 3 (Inverted Pendulum). Suppose we try to balance a stick vertically in the palm of our hand. The sensor, controller and actuator in this example are our eyes, our brain, and our hand, respectively. This is an example of a feedback control system. Now what happens if we try to balance the stick with our eyes closed? The stick inevitably falls. This illustrates another type of control, known as feedforward or open loop control, where the input to the system does not depend on the output. As this example illustrates, feedforward control is not robust to disturbances if the stick is not perfectly balanced to start, or if our hand moves very slightly, the stick will fall. This illustrates the benefit of feedback control. As we will see later, feedback control has many strengths, and is used to achieve the following objectives. Good tracking. Loosely speaking, feedback control allows us to make the output of the system follow the desired reference input (i.e., make the system behave as it should). Disturbance rejection. Feedback control allows the system to maintain good behavior even when there are external inputs that we cannot control. Robustness. Feedback control can work well even when the actual model of the plant is not known precisely; sufficiently small errors in modeling can be counteracted by the feedback input. Feedback control is everywhere; it appears not only in engineered systems (such as automobiles and aircraft), but also in economic systems (e.g., choosing the interest rates to maintain a desired rate of inflation, growth, etc.), ecological systems (predator/prey populations, global climate) and biological systems (e.g., physiology in animals and plants).

12 4 Introduction Example 4 (Teary Eyes on a Cold Day). Blinking and tears are a feedback mechanism used by the body to warm the surface of the eyeball on cold days the insides of the lids warm the eyes. In very cold situations, tears come from inside the body (where they are warmed), and contain some proteins and salts that help to prevent front of eyes from freezing. 1.3 Outline of the Course Since control systems appear in a large variety of applications, we will not attempt to discuss each specific application in this course. Instead, we will deal with the underlying mathematical theory, analysis, and design of control systems. In this sense, it will be more mathematical than other engineering courses, but will be different from other math courses in that it will pull together various branches of mathematics for a particular purpose (i.e., to design systems that behave in desired ways). The trajectory of the course will be as follows. Modeling: Before we can control a system and make it behave in a desired manner, we need to represent the input-output behavior of the system in a form that is suitable for mathematical analysis. Analysis: Once we understand how to model systems, we need to have a basic understanding of what the model tells us about the system s response to input signals. We will also need to formulate how exactly we want the output to get to its desired value (e.g., how quickly should it get there, do we care what the output does on the way there, can we be sure that the output will get there, etc.) Design: Finally, once we have analyzed the mathematical model of the system, we will study ways to design controllers to supply appropriate control (input) signals to the system so that the output behaves as we want it to. We will be analyzing systems both in the time-domain (e.g., with differential equations) and in the frequency domain (e.g., using Laplace transforms). We will start by reviewing some relevant mathematical concepts.

13 Chapter 2 Review of Complex Numbers Consider the polynomial f(x) = x The roots of the polynomial are the values of x for which f(x) = 0, or equivalently x 2 = 1. Clearly, there are no real numbers that satisfy this equation. To address this problem, let us define a new number j, such that j 2 = 1. Since this number does not belong to the set of real numbers, we will call it an imaginary or complex number. With this number in hand, we can actually generate an infinite set of other complex numbers. 1 Definition 1 (Complex Numbers). A complex number s is of the form s = σ + jω, where σ and ω are real numbers. The number σ is called the real part of s, and is denoted by σ = Re(s). The number ω is called the imaginary part of s and is denoted by ω = Im(s). The set of all complex numbers is denoted by C. A complex number σ + jω can alternatively be viewed simply as a pair of real numbers (σ, ω). Thus, we can plot complex numbers in a two-dimensional plane called the complex plane. The horizontal axis is called the real axis and the vertical axis is called the imaginary axis. The real axis represents all complex numbers s such that Im(s) = 0; in other words, it contains all real numbers, and thus real numbers are a subset of the complex numbers. The imaginary axis represents all complex numbers s such that Re(s) = 0. The following regions of the plane will be useful to our discussions. 1 An excellent (and intuitive) perspective on complex numbers can be found in a New York Times essay written by Steven Strogatz; it is available at

14 6 Review of Complex Numbers All complex numbers s satisfying Re(s) < 0 are said to lie in the Open Left Half Plane (OLHP). All complex numbers s satisfying Re(s) 0 are said to lie in the Closed Left Half Plane (CLHP). All complex numbers s satisfying Re(s) > 0 are said to lie in the Open Right Half Plane (ORHP). All complex numbers s satisfying Re(s) 0 are said to lie in the Closed Right Half Plane (CRHP). Figure 2.1: A complex number s = σ + jω in the complex plane. An alternative representation of complex numbers is the polar form. Specifically, given a complex number s = σ + jω, note that s is also specified uniquely by its distance r from the origin, and the angle θ that s (as a vector from the origin) makes with the positive real axis: r = σ 2 + ω 2, θ = arctan ω σ. The number r is called the magnitude of s, and is denoted by r = s. The number θ is called the phase of s (in radians), and is denoted by θ = s. Conversely, we have σ = r cos θ and ω = r sin θ. Example. What is the polar form representation of s = 3 j4? Note from Euler s equation that e jθ = cos θ+j sin θ, and so the complex number s can be denoted by s = re jθ. Given the complex number s = σ + jω, its complex conjugate is defined as the complex number s = σ jω. Note that ss = (σ + jω)(σ jω) = σ 2 + ω 2 = s 2 = s 2. In the geometric representation, the complex conjugate of a complex number is obtained by reflecting the vector about the real axis. As we will see throughout the course, many interesting properties of control systems are related to the roots of certain polynomials. The following result explains why complex numbers are so useful.

15 7 Theorem 1 (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). Consider any polynomial f(x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0, where the coefficients a n, a n 1,..., a 0 are complex numbers. Then the polynomial has n complex roots. Furthermore, if all coefficients are real, then all non-real roots of f(x) appear in complex conjugate pairs. Decomposing a Real Polynomial into Factors Let f(x) be a polynomial of degree n with all real coefficients. Suppose that f(x) has q roots at x = 0, r nonzero real roots at locations z 1, z 2,..., z r, and 2p complex conjugate roots at c 1, c 1, c 2, c 2,..., c p, c p (we know that these complex roots appear in complex conjugate pairs). Now, note that (x c i )(x c i ) = x 2 (c i + c i )x + c i c i = x 2 2Re(c i )x + c i 2. If we define ω i = c i and we can write ζ i = Re(c i) ω i (x c i )(x c i ) = x 2 + 2ζ i ω i x + ω 2 i. We will be using this notation frequently throughout the course. The polynomial f(x) can therefore always be decomposed as f(x) = K 0 x q (x z 1 )(x z 2 ) (x z r )(x 2 + 2ζ 1 ω 1 x + ω 2 1) (x 2 + 2ζ p ω p x + ω 2 p) for some constant K 0.

16 8 Review of Complex Numbers

17 Chapter 3 Review of Laplace Transforms 3.1 The Laplace Transform Suppose f(t) is a function of time. In this course, unless otherwise noted, we will only deal with functions that satisfy f(t) = 0 for t < 0. The Laplace Transform of the function f(t) is defined as L{f(t)} = 0 f(t)e st dt. This is a function of the complex variable s, so we can write L{f(t)} = F (s). Note: There are various conditions that f(t) must satisfy in order to have a Laplace Transform. For example, it must not grow faster than e st for some s. In this course, we will only deal with functions that have (unique) Laplace Transforms. 1 Example. Find the Laplace Transform of f(t) = e at, t 0, where a R. Solution. F (s) = L{f(t)} = = 0 0 e at e st dt e (s+a)t dt 1 Uniqueness may be lost at points of discontinuity. More specifically, if f(t) and g(t) are piecewise continuous functions, then F (s) = G(s) for all s implies that f(t) = g(t) everywhere except at the points of discontinuity.

18 10 Review of Laplace Transforms = 1 s + a e (s+a)t = 1 0 s + a (if Re(s + a) > 0). Example. Find the Laplace Transform of the unit step function 1(t), defined as { 1 if t 0, 1(t) = 0 otherwise. Solution. Figure 3.1: The unit step function 1(t). Example: The Dirac delta function (or impulse function). Consider the function δ ɛ (t) defined as { 1 δ ɛ (t) = ɛ if 0 t ɛ, 0 otherwise, where ɛ is a small positive number. Figure 3.2: (a) The function δ ɛ (t). (b) The impulse function δ(t). Note that δ ɛ(t)dt = 1. Now suppose that we let ɛ 0; we still have lim ɛ 0 δ ɛ (t)dt = 1. Note that as ɛ gets smaller, the function gets narrower, but taller. Define the impulse function { if t = 0, δ(t) = lim δ ɛ (t) = ɛ 0 0 otherwise. Some properties of δ(t):

19 3.1 The Laplace Transform 11 δ(t)dt = 1. Let f(t) be any function. Then δ(t τ)f(t)dt = f(τ). This is called the sifting property. What is the Laplace Transform of δ(t)? Solution. L{δ(t)} = 0 δ(t)e st dt = e 0 = 1. Transforms of other common functions can be obtained from Laplace Transform tables: Table 3.1: Sample Table of Laplace Transforms. f(t), t 0 F (s) δ(t) 1 1 1(t) s e at 1 s+a 1 t sin ωt cos ωt. s ω 2 s 2 +ω 2 s s 2 +ω 2. Note: The functions f(t) in this table are only defined for t 0 (i.e., we are assuming that f(t) = 0 for t < 0). Some properties of the Laplace Transform 1. Linearity. L{αf 1 (t) + βf 2 (t)} = αf 1 (s) + βf 2 (s). Example. What is L{5e 3t 2 cos 4t}? Solution. 2. Time Delay. Consider a delayed signal f(t λ), λ 0 (i.e., a shifted version of f(t)). L{f(t λ)} = 0 f(t λ)e st dt = = λ 0 f(t λ)e st dt f(τ)e s(τ+λ) dτ (letting τ = t λ) = e sλ F (s).

20 12 Review of Laplace Transforms Figure 3.3: The time-delayed signal f(t λ). Example. What is L{1(t 5)}? Solution. 3. Differentiation. L{ df dt } = sf (s) f(0). More generally, L{ dm f dt m } = sm F (s) s m 1 m 2 df f(0) s dt (0) dm 1 f (0). dtm 1 Example. What is L{ d dt e at }? Solution. 4. Integration. L{ t 0 f(τ)dτ} = 1 s F (s). Example. What is L{ t cos τdτ}? 0 Solution. 5. Convolution. The convolution of two signals f 1 (t) and f 2 (t) is denoted by f 1 (t) f 2 (t) = t 0 f 1 (τ)f 2 (t τ)dτ. The Laplace Transform of the convolution of two signals is given by L{f 1 (t) f 2 (t)} = F 1 (s)f 2 (s).

21 3.2 The Inverse Laplace Transform 13 This is a very important property of Laplace Transforms! Convolution of two signals in the time-domain (which could be hard to do) is equivalent to the multiplication of their Laplace Transforms in the s domain (which is easy to do). Example. What is L{1(t) 1(t)}? Solution. 3.2 The Inverse Laplace Transform Given the Laplace Transform F (s), we can obtain the corresponding timedomain function f(t) via the Inverse Laplace Transform: f(t) = L 1 {F (s)} = 1 2πj σ+j σ j F (s)e st ds. This is quite tedious to apply in practice, and so we will not be using it in this class. Instead, we can simply use the Laplace Transform tables to obtain the corresponding functions. Example. What is L 1 { 1 s(s+1) }? Solution. L 1 1 { s(s + 1) } = L 1 { 1 s 1 s + 1 } = L 1 { 1 s } L 1 { 1 s + 1 } (by linearity of the (inverse) Laplace Transform) = 1(t) e t, t 0. 1 In the above example, we broke up the function s(s+1) into a sum of simpler functions, and then applied the inverse Laplace Transform (by consulting the Laplace Transform table) to each of them. This is a general technique for inverting Laplace Transforms Partial Fraction Expansion Suppose we have a rational function F (s) = b ms m + b m 1 s m b 1 s + b 0 s n + a n 1 s n a 1 s + a 0 where the a i s and b i s are constant real numbers. = N(s) D(s),

22 14 Review of Laplace Transforms Definition 2. If m n, the rational function is called proper. If m < n, it is strictly proper. By factoring N(s) and D(s), we can write F (s) = K (s + z 1)(s + z 2 ) (s + z m ) (s + p 1 )(s + p 2 ) (s + p n ). Definition 3 (Zeros and Poles). The complex numbers z 1, z 2,..., z m are the roots of N(s) and are called the zeros of F (s). The complex numbers p 1, p 2,..., p n are the roots of D(s) and are called the poles of F (s). Note: Remember these terms, as the poles and zeros of a system will play a very important role in our ability to control it. First, suppose each of the poles are distinct and that F (s) is strictly proper. We would like to write F (s) = k 1 + k k n, s + p 1 s + p 2 s + p n for some constants k 1, k 2,..., k n, since the inverse Laplace Transform of F (s) is easy in this form. How do we find k 1, k 2,..., k n? Heaviside s Cover-up Method. To find the constant k i, multiply both sides of the expansion of F (s) by (s + p i ): (s + p i )F (s) = k 1(s + p i ) s + p 1 + k 2(s + p i ) s + p k i + + k n(s + p i ) s + p n. Now if we let s = p i, then all terms on the right hand side will be equal to zero, except for the term k i. Thus, we obtain k i = (s + p i )F (s) s= pi. Example. What is the partial fraction expansion of F (s) = s+5 s 3 +3s 2 6s 8?

23 3.3 The Final Value Theorem 15 Solution. The partial fraction expansion when some of the poles are repeated is obtained by following a similar procedure, but it is a little more complicated. We will not worry too much about this scenario here. One can also do a partial fraction expansion of nonstrictly proper functions by first dividing the denominator into the numerator to obtain a constant and a strictly proper function, and then applying the above partial fraction expansion. The details will be covered in a homework problem. 3.3 The Final Value Theorem Let F (s) be the Laplace Transform of a function f(t). Often, we will be interested in how f(t) behaves as t (this is referred to as the asymptotic or steady state behavior of f(t)). Can we obtain this information directly from F (s)? Theorem 2 (Final Value Theorem). If all poles of sf (s) are in the open left half plane, then lim f(t) = lim sf (s). t s 0

24 16 Review of Laplace Transforms Example. F (s) = 1 s(s+1). What is lim t f(t)? Solution. Why do we need the poles of sf (s) to be in the OLHP in order to apply the Final Value Theorem? First, note from the partial fraction expansion of F (s) that F (s) = k 1 s + k 2 + k s + p 2 s + p 3 s + p n f(t) = k 1 1(t) + k 2 e p2t + k 3 e p3t + + k n e pnt. Note that if F (s) does not have a pole at s = 0, then the constant k 1 will simply be zero in the above expansion. Based on the above expansion, if one of the poles has a positive real part, the corresponding exponential term will explode, and thus f(t) will have no final value! On the other hand, if all poles have negative real parts, all of the exponential terms will go to zero, leaving only the term k 1 1(t) (corresponding to k1 s in the partial fraction expansion). Thus, the asymptotic behavior of f(t) is simply k 1, and this is obtained by calculating lim s 0 sf (s). k n One must be careful about applying the Final Value Theorem; if the signal f(t) does not settle down to some constant steady state value, the theorem might yield nonsensical results. For example, consider the function f(t) = sin t, with Laplace transform F (s) = 1 s The function sf (s) does not have all poles in the OLHP (it has two poles on the imaginary axis). However, if we forgot to check this before applying the Final Value Theorem, we would get lim sf (s) = 0, s 0 and would mistakenly assume that f(t) 0. Clearly f(t) has no steady state value (it constantly oscillates between 1 and 1).

25 Chapter 4 Linear Time-Invariant Systems 4.1 Linearity, Time-Invariance and Causality Consider the system: Input System Output The system is said to be linear if the Principle of Superposition holds. Definition 4 (Principle of Superposition). Suppose that the output of the system is y 1 (t) in response to input u 1 (t) and y 2 (t) in response to input u 2 (t). Then the output of the system in response to the input αu 1 (t) + βu 2 (t) is αy 1 (t) + βy 2 (t), where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. Note that this must hold for any inputs u 1 (t) and u 2 (t). The system is said to be time-invariant if the output of the system is y(t τ) when the input is u(t τ) (i.e., a time-shifted version of the input produces an equivalent time-shift in the output). The system is said to be causal if the output at time t depends only on the input up to time t. In particular, this means that if u(t) = 0 for t < τ, then y(t) = 0 for t < τ.

26 18 Linear Time-Invariant Systems Figure 4.1: The Principle of Superposition. Figure 4.2: The Time-Invariance Property In this class, we will primarily be dealing with the analysis of linear timeinvariant causal systems (if the system is nonlinear, we will linearize it). We will be interested in how the system responds to certain types of inputs. The impulse response of a system is the output of the system when the input to the system is δ(t), and is denoted by the signal h(t). The step response is the output of the system when the input to the system is 1(t). Note: The impulse response for causal systems satisfies h(t) = 0 for t < Transfer Functions Recall from the sifting property of the delta function that u(t) = 0 u(τ)δ(t τ)dτ. Note that this can be interpreted in the following way: the signal u(t) is the sum of an infinite series of weighted and shifted delta functions. The delta function at t = τ is weighted by the value u(τ). Now, the time-invariance of

27 4.2 Transfer Functions 19 Figure 4.3: (a) A causal system. (b) A non-causal system. the system says that the output of the system due to the input δ(t τ) will be h(t τ). Using the Principle of Superposition, we see that the output of the system when u(t) is the input will be the infinite sum (or integral) of weighted and shifted impulse responses (when all initial conditions are equal to zero): y(t) = 0 u(τ)h(t τ)dτ. Note that the output of the system is just the convolution of the signals u(t) and h(t)! This is a well known relationship for linear time-invariant systems. Applying Laplace Transforms to both sides of the above equation, we obtain Y (s) = H(s)U(s), or equivalently, H(s) = Y (s) U(s). The function H(s) is the ratio of the Laplace Transform of the output to the Laplace Transform of the input (when all initial conditions are zero), and it is called the transfer function of the system. Note that this transfer function is independent of the actual values of the inputs and outputs it tells us how any input gets transformed into the output. It is a property of the system itself. We will frequently represent systems in block diagrams via their transfer functions: Input U(s) H(s) Output Y (s) Note: The transfer function is the Laplace Transform of the impulse response of the system.

28 20 Linear Time-Invariant Systems Obtaining the transfer function of a differential equation model We will be dealing with systems whose input and output are related via a differential equation of the form y (n) + a n 1 y (n 1) + + a 1 ẏ + a 0 y = b m u (m) + b m 1 u (m 1) + + b 1 u + b 0 u. Taking Laplace Transforms of both sides (assuming that all initial conditions are zero), we get (s n +a n 1 s n 1 + +a 1 s+a 0 )Y (s) = (b m s m +b m 1 s m 1 + +b 1 s+b 0 )U(s), from which we obtain the transfer function H(s) = Y (s) U(s) = b ms m + b m 1 s m b 1 s + b 0 s n + a n 1 s n a 1 s + a 0. The impulse response of this system is given by h(t) = L 1 {H(s)}. Example. Consider the system given by the differential equation ẏ+3y = 2u(t). What is the transfer function of this system? What is the impulse response? What is the step response? Solution.

29 4.3 Frequency Response Frequency Response Suppose that the input to the system is u(t) = e s0t, t 0, for some s 0 = σ + jω. Recall that y(t) = 0 u(τ)h(t τ)dτ = 0 u(t τ)h(τ)dτ. Since both u(t) and h(t) are zero for t < 0, the above expression becomes y(t) = t 0 u(t τ)h(τ)dτ = t 0 t e s0(t τ) h(τ)dτ = e s0t e s0τ h(τ)dτ. The quantity t 0 e s0τ h(τ)dτ looks a lot like the Laplace Transform of the signal h(τ) evaluated at s = s 0, except that the upper limit on the integration is t instead of. Suppose that we examine what happens when t becomes very large (i.e., as t ). In this case, if the integral exists, we can write y(t) = H(s 0 )e s0t. Thus, the asymptotic response (if H(s 0 ) exists) to a complex exponential input is that same complex exponential, scaled by the transfer function evaluated at s 0. This gives us one potential way to identify the transfer function of a given black box system: apply the input e s0t for several different values of s 0, and use that to infer H(s). Problem: If Re(s 0 ) > 0, then e s0t blows up very quickly, and if Re(s 0 ) < 0, it decays very quickly. What about s 0 = jω? This would solve the problem. How do we apply e jωt in practice? Solution: Sinusoids. Recall the identity cos ωt = ejωt +e jωt 2. Using the Principle of Superposition and the property derived above: The response of the system to the input u 1 (t) = 1 2 ejωt is y 1 (t) = 1 2 H(jω)ejωt. 0 The response of the system to the input u 2 (t) = 1 2 e jωt is y 2 (t) = 1 2 H( jω)e jωt. Note that H(jω) is just a complex number, and so we can write it in the polar form H(jω) = H(jω) e j H(jω), where H(jω) is the magnitude of H(jω) and H(jω) is the phase of H(jω) (they will both depend on the choice of ω). Similarly, H( jω) is just the complex conjugate of H(jω), 1 and so we can 1 You should be able to prove this by using the fact that the numerator and denominator of H(s) are polynomials with real coefficients.

30 22 Linear Time-Invariant Systems write H( jω) = H(jω) e j H(jω). Using these identities, and the Principle of Superposition, the output of the system when the input is u(t) = u 1 (t)+u 2 (t) = cos ωt is y(t) = y 1 (t) + y 2 (t) = 1 2 H(jω)ejωt H( jω)e jωt = 1 2 H(jω) ej H(jω) e jωt H(jω) e j H(jω) e jωt = 1 2 H(jω) ( e j(ωt+ H(jω)) + e j(ωt+ H(jω))) = H(jω) cos(ωt + H(jω)). In other words, the (steady-state) response to the sinusoid cos ωt is a scaled and phase-shifted version of the sinusoid! This is called the frequency response of the system, and will be a useful fact to identify and analyze linear systems. Later, we will be plotting the magnitude and phase of the system as we sweep ω from 0 to ; this is called the Bode plot of the system. As an example, consider a linear system with transfer function ω 2 n H(s) = s 2 + 2ζω n s + ωn 2, where ζ and ω n are some real numbers. We will study systems of this form in more detail later in the course. Since the denominator of this transfer function has degree 2, it is called a second order system. The magnitude of this function at s = jω is given by H(jω) = = ω 2 n ω 2 + 2ζω n ωj + ω 2 n ω 2 n (ω 2 n ω 2 ) 2 + 4ζ 2 ω 2 nω 2 = 1 (1 ( ωωn ) 2 ) 2 + 4ζ 2 ( ωωn ) 2, and the phase is given by ω 2 n H(jω) = ω 2 + 2ζω n ωj + ωn 2 1 = ( ω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j + 1 = tan 1 2ζ ω ω n ( 1 ) 2 ω ω n. ω Since these quantities are a function of ω n, we can plot them vs ω ω n for various values of ζ. Note that in the following plots, we used a logarithmic scale for the frequency. This is commonly done in order to include a wider range of frequencies in our plots. The intervals on logarithmic scales are known as

31 4.3 Frequency Response 23 decades. We can label the following important characteristics of the magnitude plot:

32 24 Linear Time-Invariant Systems The magnitude of the transfer function for low frequencies (i.e., near ω = 0) is called the low frequency gain or the DC gain. The bandwidth of the system is the frequency at which the magnitude drops to 1 2 times the DC gain, and is denoted by ω BW. For the second order system considered above, the plot shows that the bandwidth is approximately equal to ω n. The resonant peak is the difference between maximum value of the frequency response magnitude and the DC gain, and is denoted by M r. The resonant frequency is the frequency at which the resonant peak occurs, and is denoted by ω r. The concepts of bandwidth and DC gain will play an important role in this course, and you should be comfortable manipulating and deriving these quantities. While we identified these metrics using the magnitude plot of a second order system, these quantities can be used to discuss the frequency response of any transfer function. For simple first order systems, we can calculate these quantities explicitly, as shown in the following example. Example. Find the bandwidth and DC gain of the system with transfer function H(s) = b s+a. Solution. The DC gain is the magnitude of the transfer function when s = jω, with ω = 0. In this case, the DC gain is H(0) = b a. The bandwidth is the frequency ω BW at which the magnitude H(jω BW ) is equal to 1 2 of the DC gain. In this case, we have 1 b 2 a = H(jω BW ) = b jω BW + a = Cancelling out the b and squaring both sides, we obtain which means that ω BW = a. 2a 2 = a 2 + ω 2 BW, b. a2 + ωbw 2 Next, we will develop some ways to systematically draw the magnitude and phase for general transfer functions.

33 Chapter 5 Bode Plots A Bode plot is a plot of the magnitude and phase of a linear system, where the magnitude is plotted on a logarithmic scale, and the phase is plotted on a linear scale. Specifically, consider the linear system with transfer function H(s) = N(s) D(s). For the moment, assume that all poles and zeros of the transfer function are real (to avoid cumbersome notation), and write H(s) = K (s + z 1)(s + z 2 ) (s + z m ) (s + p 1 )(s + p 2 ) (s + p n ). When working with Bode plots, we will find it more convenient to write this system as: ( s z H(s) = K 1 + 1)( s z 2 + 1) ( s z m + 1) o ( s p 1 + 1)( s p 2 + 1) ( s p n + 1), where K o = K z1z2...zm p 1p 2...p n. This is called the Bode form, and the reason for doing this is that the DC gain of the above transfer function can now immediately be obtained as K o, which will be useful when drawing Bode plots. We will handle more general transfer functions after the following discussion. The magnitude of H(jω) is given by H(jω) = K o j ω z j ω z j ω z m + 1 j ω p j ω p j ω p n + 1 Now if we take the logarithm of both sides (any base is acceptable, but base 10 is conventional), we get log H(jω) = log K o + m log j ω + 1 z i i=1 n log j ω + 1. p i In other words, when viewed on a logarithmic scale, the magnitudes of each of the individual terms in the transfer function add together to produce the i=1.

34 26 Bode Plots magnitude of the overall transfer function. This is quite useful, and the reason for introducing the logarithm. In keeping with convention, we will multiply both sides of the above equation by 20, and work with the units in decibels; this only scales the magnitudes, but does not change the additivity due to the logarithm. Note that the phase of H(jω) already satisfies the additivity property: H(jω) = K o + m (j ω + 1) z i i=1 n (j ω + 1), p i i=1 and thus it suffices to consider the phase on a linear scale. Note that we can always draw Bode plots for any transfer function by simply evaluating the magnitude and phase for each value of ω and then plotting these values. However, will want to come up with some quick rules to sketch these plots. 5.1 Rules for Drawing Bode Plots Now that we understand the general motivation behind drawing the log-magnitude and phase of Bode plots, we will study how to draw the Bode plots of general transfer functions (potentially involving complex conjugate terms as well). We will assume for now that the transfer function H(s) has all zeros and poles in the CLHP (we will discuss the more general case later). Recall from Chapter 2 that a polynomial with real coefficients can always be decomposed into a product of a constant, first order terms (corresponding to real roots) and second order terms (corresponding to complex conjugate roots). Thus, we can assume (without loss of generality) that H(s) is composed of four different types of factors: K o (a constant) s q (corresponding to zeros at the origin if q is a positive integer, or poles at the origin if q is a negative integer) ( s p + 1) 1 and ( s z + 1) (corresponding to real poles and zeros) ( ±1 ( s ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( s ω n ) + 1) (corresponding to complex conjugate zeros if the exponent is 1, and complex conjugate poles if the exponent is 1). Example. Consider H(s) = 3 (s+2)(s2 +2s+4) s 3 (s+1)(s 2 +3s+4). Write this in Bode form, and write the logarithm of the magnitude of H(jω) in terms of the logarithm of the magnitudes of each of the factors. Also write the phase of H(jω) in terms of the phases of each of the factors.

35 5.1 Rules for Drawing Bode Plots 27 Since the log-magnitude and phase are obtained by simply adding together the log-magnitudes and phases of the individual factors, we can draw the Bode plot for the overall system by drawing the Bode plots for each of the individual factors, and then adding the plots together Bode Plot for K o The Bode plot of constant terms is very easy to draw. The log-magnitude is simply 20 log K o, and the phase is { 0 if Ko > 0 K o = π if K o < 0. Both the magnitude and phase are just horizontal lines. Example. Draw the Bode plot of Solution.

36 28 Bode Plots Example. Draw the Bode plot of 10. Solution Bode Plot for s q The log-magnitude of the factor s q for s = jω is given by 20 log (jω) q = 20q log jω = 20q log ω. On a log scale, this simply a straight line with slope 20q, going through the point 0 when ω = 1. The phase of s q at s = jω is which is just a horizontal line at q π 2. Example. Draw the Bode plot of s 2. Solution. (jω) q = q jω = q π 2,

37 5.1 Rules for Drawing Bode Plots 29 Example. Draw the Bode plot of 1 s 3. Solution Bode Plot for ( s p + 1) 1 and ( s z + 1) A system zero at s = z will correspond to the factor ( s z + 1) in the Bode form of the transfer function, and a system pole at s = p will correspond to the factor ( s p + 1) 1, where we are assuming that z > 0 and p > 0. Let s deal with the zero first. The log-magnitude of the factor ( s z + 1) at s = jω is given by 20 log j ω z + 1 = 20 log 1 + ( ω z )2. If ω z, we have 20 log j ω z + 1 0, and thus for values of ω less than z, the magnitude is simply a horizontal line at 0. If ω z, we have 20 log j ω z log( 1 z ) + 20 log(ω). On a log scale, this is a line of slope 20, going through the point 0 when ω = z. These two rules together produce a magnitude plot

38 30 Bode Plots that looks like this: The point ω = z is called the breakpoint. These straight lines were derived based on values of ω that were much smaller or much larger than the breakpoint, and thus they are called asymptotes. Note that they are only approximations to the shape of the actual magnitude plot for example, the actual value of 20 log(j ω z + 1) at ω = z is equal to 3 db. However, the approximations will suffice for us to obtain some general intuition about Bode plots. The phase of (j ω z + 1) is given by (j ω z + 1) = tan 1 ω z. For ω z, this is approximately equal to 0, and for ω z, this is approximately equal to π 2. At the breakpoint ω = z, the phase is tan 1 (1) = π 4. The phase curve transitions smoothly from 0 to π 2 through π 4 ; for convenience, we will draw the transition as a line starting at ω = 0.1z and ending at ω = 10z (i.e., one decade before and one decade after z): The magnitude and phase plots for a factor corresponding to a pole follow the same rules as the plot for the zero, except that everything is negated. Specific Shreyas Sundaram

39 5.1 Rules for Drawing Bode Plots 31 cally, for a factor of the form (j ω p + 1) 1, we have 20 log (j ω p + 1) 1 = 20 log( 1 + ( ω z )2 ) 1 = 20 log( 1 + ( ω p )2 ), (j ω p + 1) 1 = tan 1 ω p. The Bode plot for the factor (j ω p + 1) 1 looks like this: Example. Draw the Bode plot for H(s) = 10 s+10 (s+1)(s+100). Solution.

40 32 Bode Plots Bode Plot for ( ) ±1 ( s ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( s ω n ) + 1 We have already seen what the magnitude and phase plots look like for a second order system of this form. To derive general rules for drawing this, note that the magnitude of this function at s = jω is given by 20 log ( jω ) 2 + 2ζ( ω )j + 1 ω n ω n (1 = 20 log ( ω ) ω 2 ) 2 + 4ζ 2 ( ω ) n ω 2. n For ω ω n, we have ω ω n 0, and so 20 log ( jω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j For ω ω n, we have ( (1 ( ω ) ω 2 ) 2 + 4ζ 2 ( ω ) 4 ( ) 2 ω ω ) n ω 2 =, n ω n ω n and so 20 log ( jω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j log ω 40 log ω n. This is a line of slope 40 passing through the point 0 when ω = ω n. The general magnitude curve for 20 log ( jω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j + 1 thus looks like: The phase of ( ) ( jω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j + 1 is given by ( ( jω ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ) )j + 1 ω n ω n = tan 1 2ζ ω ω n ( 1 ) 2 ω ω n. For ω ω n, the argument of the arctan function is almost 0, and so the phase curve starts at 0 for small ω. For ω = ω n, the argument is, and so the phase curve passes through π 2 when ω = ω n. For ω ω n, the argument of the arctan function approaches 0 from the negative side, and so the phase curve approaches π for large values of ω. Just as in the first order case, we will take the phase curve transitions to occur one decade before and after ω n. This produces a

41 5.1 Rules for Drawing Bode Plots 33 phase curve of the form: ( 1 The Bode plot for the factor ( jω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j + 1) looks just like the Bode ( ) plot for the factor ( jω ω n ) 2 + 2ζ( ω ω n )j + 1, except that everything is flipped: Example. Draw the Bode Plot of H(s) = (s+1)(s2 +3s+100) s 2 (s+10)(s+100)

42 34 Bode Plots Solution Nonminimum Phase Systems So far we have been looking at the case where all zeros and poles are in the CLHP. Bode plots can also be drawn for systems that have zeros or poles in the RHP however, note that for systems that have RHP poles, the steady state response to a sinusoidal input will not be a sinusoid (there won t even be a steady state response, as the output will blow up). This does not change the fact that the transfer function will have a magnitude and phase at every frequency (since the transfer function is simply a complex number at every frequency ω). Transfer functions with zeros in the right half plane are called nonminimum phase systems, and those with all zeros and poles in the CLHP are called minimum phase systems. To gain intuition about how the Bode plot of a nonminimum phase system compares to that of a minimum phase system, let us see how the Bode plots of the terms H 1 (s) = s + 1 and H 2 (s) = s 1 compare. First, note that H 1 (jω) = jω + 1 = 1 + ω 2 = H 2 (jω), and thus the magnitude plots of the two terms are identical. To compare the phase contribution, it is useful to examine the complex number representation

43 5.1 Rules for Drawing Bode Plots 35 of H 1 (jω) and H 2 (jω): From this, we see that H 2 (jω) = (jω 1) = π H 1 (jω). Thus, the phase plots of the two terms look like this: An alternative method to draw the phase plot of H 2 (s) = s 1 is to first convert it to Bode form to obtain H 2 (s) = 1( s + 1), where we now have a gain of 1 in front. This gain contributes nothing to the log-magnitude, but it contributes a phase of π. The phase of s+1 is the negative of the phase of s+1 (since they are complex conjugates), and once again, we obtain that the phase of H 2 (jω) is π H 1 (jω). Example. Draw the Bode plots for the systems Solution. H 1 (s) = 10 s + 1 s + 10, H 2(s) = 10 s 1 s + 10.

44 36 Bode Plots As we can see from the above example, the magnitudes of the two transfer functions do not depend on whether the zero is in RHP or the LHP. However, the phase plots are quite different. Based on the above analysis, we see that the phase contribution of a zero in the right half plane is always at least as large (in absolute terms) as the phase contribution of a zero in the left half plane this is the reason for calling systems with such zeros (or poles) nonminimum phase. Note that for minimum phase systems, the magnitude plot uniquely determines the transfer function, but for nonminimum phase systems, we need both the magnitude plot and the phase plot in order to determine the transfer function.

45 Chapter 6 Modeling and Block Diagram Manipulation With the mathematical foundations from the previous chapters in hand, we are now ready to move on to the modeling of control systems. 6.1 Mathematical Models of Physical Systems The first task of control system design is to obtain an appropriate mathematical model of the plant. In many applications, this can be difficult to do, as experimental data is often noisy, and real-world systems are often quite complex. Thus, we must frequently come up with an approximate model, maintaining a tradeoff between complexity and how accurately it captures the actual physical plant. In general, we try to follow Einstein s rule: Make things as simple as possible, but no simpler. If the system is known (or approximated) to be linear, then one way to identify a model is to apply sinusoidal inputs of appropriate frequencies to the system, and then try and fit an appropriate transfer function to the resulting Bode plot. An alternative (and complementary) method is to use physical laws to obtain the model. We will now study some examples of this approach Mechanical Systems The key equation governing the model of many mechanical systems is Newton s Law: F = ma. In this equation, F represents the vector sum of all the forces acting on a body, m represents the mass of the body, and a represents the acceleration of the body. The forces acting on the body can be generated by an

46 38 Modeling and Block Diagram Manipulation outside entity (as an input to the system), or by springs and dampers attached to the body. Example: Mass-Spring-Damper System Electrical Systems Standard components in electrical systems include resistors, capacitors and inductors, connected together in various ways. The quantities of interest in electrical systems are voltages and currents. Figure 6.1: (a) Components of Electrical Systems. (b) An Electrical System. The main modeling technique for electrical systems is to use Kirchoff s Laws.

47 6.1 Mathematical Models of Physical Systems 39 Kirchoff s Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of the voltages around a closed loop is zero. Kirchoff s Current Law (KCL): The algebraic sum of the currents coming into a node is zero. We will see an example of an electric circuit model in the context of a DC motor below Rotational Systems When the system involves rotation about a point, the system dynamics are governed by a modified form of Newton s Law: τ = J θ. Here, τ is the sum of all external torques about the center of mass, J is the moment of inertia of the body, and θ is the angular position of the body (so that θ is the angular acceleration). Example: A DC motor consists of an electrical component and a rotational component. The input voltage to the electrical component induces a current, which then provides a torque to the motor shaft via a magnetic field. This torque causes the shaft to rotate. In turn, this torque also induces a voltage drop (called the back emf) in the electrical circuit. Derive the overall system equations. and find the transfer function from the input voltage to the angular velocity (ω = θ) of the DC motor.

48 40 Modeling and Block Diagram Manipulation

49 6.2 Block Diagram Manipulation 41 All of the above examples considered above yielded models that involved linear differential equations of the form y (n) + a n 1 y (n 1) + + a 1 ẏ + a 0 y = b m u (m) + b m 1 u (m 1) + + b 1 u + b 0 u. As we saw in Section 4.2, the transfer function of such systems is given by H(s) = Y (s) U(s) = b ms m + b m 1 s m b 1 s + b 0 s n + a n 1 s n a 1 s + a 0. In practice, many systems are actually nonlinear, and there is a whole set of tools devoted to controlling such systems. One technique is to linearize the system around an operating point, where the nonlinearities are approximated by linear functions. In the rest of the course, we restrict our attention to linear systems, and assume that these linearization techniques have been applied to any nonlinearities in the system. We will now study how to manipulate interconnections of linear systems. 6.2 Block Diagram Manipulation Control systems typically involve several smaller systems (or components) that are interconnected together in various ways the output of one system will be the input to other systems. For example, remember from the first lecture that the basic block diagram of a feedback control system looks like this: We will frequently want to manipulate block diagram representations of systems in order to find the overall transfer function of the system in terms of the transfer functions of the individual components or subsystems. There are three types of interconnections that we will be studying. Series Connection. In this case, the output of one system feeds directly into the input of another system. Figure 6.2: Two Systems Connected in Series.

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