# the distance of conduction (the thickness), the greater the heat flow.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "the distance of conduction (the thickness), the greater the heat flow."

## Transcription

1 R-Values In heat conduction, the rate of heat flow depends on the temperature difference between sides, the thickness, and the area in contact. The greater the temperature difference, the greater the heat flow. The greater the area in contact, the greater the heat flow. The shorter the distance of conduction (the thickness), the greater the heat flow. The connection between heat flow and these quantities is called the thermal conductivity or the thermal resistance, depending on how the relationship is written. We may write heat flow rate = k A T/t, or alternatively R(heat flow rate) = A T, where k is the thermal conductivity, R is thermal resistance, A the area in contact, t the thickness, and T the temperature difference. These equations describe the heat conduction rate through a plate of material of face area A and thickness t, when the two sides of the plate differ in temperature by T. Fig. E A solid wall of thickness t and area A experiences heat conduction through it when there is a temperature difference T = T 1 - T 2.

2 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 2 For fixed values of R, A, and t, the heat flow increases if T increases. Therefore, the warmer your house is kept relative to the outside temperature, the more heat you will lose by conduction. Since making the walls of a house thicker is not usually feasible, and since the area in contact with the outside is fixed, we can see that the heat flow can be reduced (according to the equation) either by increasing R for a fixed T, decreasing T for fixed R, or some combination of the two. You can increase R by adding insulation to ceiling, walls, and floor. You can decrease T for at least part of the day by turning down the furnace when no one is home or at night when everyone is sleeping. TABLE E R-Values of Common Construction Materials per Inch of Material Material R-value per inch of material Air 1.44 Rock wool (batt) 3.38 Fiberglass (batt) 3.16 Rock wool (blown) 2.75 Fiberglass (blown) 2.20 Cellulose (blown) 3.67 Vermiculite 2.20 Perlite 2.75 Wood (av. pine) 1.28 Wallboard 1.0 Brick 0.11 Glass 7.2 Source: Reprinted with permission from Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 32nd ed., Copyright 1950, CRC Press, Inc. BOAC Raton, FL, and Department of Energy, Insulation (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980).

3 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 3 The units used to measure R-values, as presented in Table E09.4.1, are common English units, ft 2 F/(Btu/h). In the metric system, the unit would be m 2 C/W. Dry air does not conduct very well. Most insulation works by trapping air so that it cannot move. Dry, relatively still air an inch thick has an R-value of about 1. Completely motionless air an inch thick has an R-value of 3 to 4. Some selected R-values are listed in Table E Fig. E A wall made up of layers of varying thickness but the same area. The R-value is in common use, rather than the conductivity k, because R-values can be added. This is easily seen from our defining equation, R(heat flow rate) = A T. For a given fixed heat flow rate and fixed area A, we have, for each layer (Fig. E09.4.2), the equation as given. If all the individual Ts are added up, we get expressions like (T 1 - T 2 ) + (T 2 - T 3 ) + (T 3 - T 4 ) Clearly the sum of all these is just the overall T. If we add the Ts on the right-hand side, we must also add the terms R (heat flow rate) on the left-hand side to get (R 1 + R 2 + R )(heat flow rate) = A T; this shows that the R-values can be added. To illustrate how this property of additivity might be used, consider a typical house wall. From the inside out, there is still air along the wall (R-0.68); wallboard (R-0.45); air space

4 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 4 (R-1.01); sheathing over the studs (R-1.32); wood siding (R- 0.81); and the outside air that moves, thus contributing very little. (151) Ignoring the contribution of outside air, which depends on the weather conditions, the R-value for the house wall is R-value, total = = Clearly, adding R-11 or R-19 insulation will decrease heat loss substantially for this house. TABLE E Average Actual Savings of Retrofits in Different Climatic Regions Measure Percent savings Payback period (yr) Wall insulation Study Study Study Ceiling insulation R-0 R R-0 R R-11 R ? R Interior foundation insulation R-0 R R-0 R R-0 R R-0 R Source: Department of Energy, Ref. 57, Table D-1. Table E gives a representative picture of the poor state of insulation in typical U.S. houses. Buildings built in the energy-cheap 1950s and 1960s use the most energy of the entire stock of buildings. (152) In the late 1970s, buildings were still being built that would generate an energy bill over their 50-year lives that would be double or triple the original construction cost. (57) Large savings from insulation remain possible today. A 1990 study

5 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 5 on conservation potential identified technological improvements in U.S. residential buildings that would lead, even in the no-change reference case, to a 10% improvement overall; in the best case, a 65% reduction in space heat could be achieved in new construction. (57) In Germany, insulation can reduce energy use 30% to 40%. (65) A recording method called PRISM has been developed at the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University. PRISM could be used to gather valid data and evaluate how well or poorly various conservation methods work. (153) Several experiments showed that it was possible to save as much as 10% of home energy use by a single visit from a house doctor (154,155) and that major rebuilding efforts could save as much as 20%. (154,156) A program backed by the Bonneville Power Administration at Hood River, Oregon, demonstrated that retrofitting of houses with insulation and other conventional measures of energy saving was cost-effective, (157) as other studies had shown. (158,159) The study found that, as compared to an audit model, actual savings due to storm windows and heating ducts were greater than the predictions of the model. The actual savings due to storm doors, caulking, and weather stripping were much smaller than predicted. Overall, predicted savings were 6200 kwh/yr, while actual mean savings were 4130 kwh/yr, for an average \$2100 savings. (131,141,157) Part of the reason for these results may have been that many homes that had used wood as a heating supplement (wood was not accounted for in prechange surveys) switched back to conventional heating. The map of Fig. E shows the recommended insulation for each area of the country. It is divided into six climatic zones.

6 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 6 Fig. E Recommended insulation values. (U.S. Department of Energy, NREL, Ref. 81)

7 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 7 Typical North American houses built in 1980 have an annual energy use of 122 kj per m 2 per degree-day ( C). The energy use in the superinsulated Minnesota homes averaged 51 kj per m 2 per degree-day ( C). (61) In addition, some economies with superinsulated homes are not readily apparent. For example, the heating system of such a home is much smaller than that of an ordinary home built in a similar climate. In Uppsala, Sweden, a 130 m 2 superinsulated house uses only 110 MJ/m 2 /yr as compared to the usual 800 MJ/m 2 /yr. (160) Sweden is now marketing superinsulated homes in the United States. They are prefabricated and shipped in crates. A Swedishbuilt house costs about \$30 to \$35/ft 2, which is comparable to the late 1980s cost of new American housing. (161) The additional costs of superinsulation are probably not justified except in areas of sustained winter cold. Convection and heat transfer Of course, insulation does not necessarily prevent or even minimize heat flow to the outside. Air infiltrates a house through cracks and when a door is opened for entry or egress (convective losses). As a result, there is some approximately steady rate at which heat must be supplied to a house, in addition to that which would be necessary to maintain a temperature difference between inside and outside because of conduction through exterior surfaces. The added heat is used to warm up the outside air to interior room temperature. The amount of energy transfer needed depends to some extent on weather conditions outside. (161) In times of high wind, transfer of air will be greater than at other times.

8 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 8 TABLE E Conduction-Convection Parameter Orientation h [W/(m 2 C)] Upward-facing horizontal surface 2.5 ( T) 1/4 Downward-facing horizontal surface 1.3 ( T) 1/4 Vertical surface 1.8 ( T) 1/4 Source: Based on Ref. 162, Table 5-2 As mentioned in Chapter 8, if we look at the temperature profile of a window exposed to cold outdoors with a heated inside, there is a boundary layer of air of intermediate temperature on both sides of the window. If the air outside is in motion, some of the heated outside air is moved away rapidly, increasing the rate of heat flow (or, alternatively, effectively decreasing the R-value). The same principle applies to a house. When a cold wind blows, the boundary layer is much smaller, and the effective R-value decreases. The rate of heat transfer for reasonable-size temperature differences given the conduction-convection parameter of Table E09.4.3, is described by heat flow rate = h A T. Fig. E A window with convective layers both inside and outside.

9 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 9 To understand what happens at a window (Fig. E09.4.4), we must take into account both the conduction through the window glass and the convection at each surface of the window. For specificity, suppose the outside air is at 5 C and the inside air is at 20 C and assume the air is quiescent both inside and outside, and the glass is 3.0 mm thick. We will also suppose the glass is 1 m by 1 m. We may then find the total temperature difference T by adding the pieces: T = ( T air film inside = T air film inside - T ) window + ( T window - T ) window + ( T window - T air film inside inside outside outside - T air film outside = 20 C - 5 C = 15 C. Looking at each of the pieces, T air film - T window = (heat flow rate)/h A, inside inside T window inside T window outside Overall, then, - T window outside - T air film outside = (heat flow rate)(thickness of window)/k A, and = (heat flow rate)/h A. 15 C = (1/A)(heat flow rate)(1/h + [thickess of window]/k + 1/h). outside ) Using our values and the thermal conductivity of glass, 0.8 W/(m C) and the conductionconvection parameter for vertical surfaces, where heat flow rate = (15 C) (1 m 2 )/D, D = 1/1.8 W/(m 2 C) ( T air film inside - T window inside )1/4 + 1/1.8 W/(m 2 C) ( T window - T air film outside outside )1/ m/{0.080 W/(m C)}. To make any progress, we should guess and repeat until a consistent answer is obtained.

10 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 10 Step 1: Let s suppose that because the glass is so thin, we say there is only a 1 temperature difference across the window. Then, plausibly, each of the temperature differences is (15 C - 1 C)/2 = 7 C and the temperature difference to the one-fourth power is 1.63, giving Then D = {[2/(1.8)(1.63)] } (m 2 C)/W = (m 2 C)/W. heat flow rate = (15 C) (1 m 2 )/[0.687 (m 2 C)/W] = 21.8 W. Putting this back into T window inside - T window outside = (heat flow rate)(thickness of window)/k A = (21.8 W)(0.003 m)/{[0.8 W/(m C)][1 m 2 ]} = C, which is quite close to zero. We were obviously too optimistic about the insulating properties of the windows. Step 2: Feed this back and try again. Each temperature difference is (15 C C)/2 = 7.46 C, the temperature difference to the one-fourth power is 1.65, giving D = {[2/(1.8)(1.65)] } (m 2 C)/W = (m 2 C)/W, and so the heat flow rate is heat flow rate = (15 C) (1 m 2 )/[0.676 (m 2 C)/W] = 22.2 W. The temperature difference across the glass is now T window - T window = (heat flow rate)(thickness of window)/k A inside outside = (22.2 W)(0.003 m)/{[0.8 W/(m C)][1 m 2 ]} = C, and we can t gain anything by doing it again, so there need be no Step 3.

11 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 11 Most of the temperature difference exists across the air layers. If the air is not still, the thermal energy loss through the window will be much higher. That s why windows feel so cold on the inside when we are near them on a windy day. Adding storm windows serves two purposes it will add a space with still air, and, more important, more layers of air at each window surface. Low-e windows Low-emissivity windows, mentioned in the Chapter, are windows with a plastic coating that reflects thermal energy while letting most visible light through. Windows treated with low-e film help in both the winter and summer, with little leakage of thermal energy to the inside on a hot summer day, or little leakage to the outside in winter. The windows are usually also double-paned, and may have a filling of an inert gas such as argon or nitrogen. The idea of a low-e window is shown in Fig. E Figure E a shows the situation in winter, while Fig. E b shows the effect during summer. A similar sort of idea is the vacuum window. The window has the same insulating value as 35 cm of wall. The thermal conductivity is a mere 0.2 W/(m 2 C). The basic difference from the windows of Fig. E is that the space between the two glass sheets contains nothing, or very close to nothing. The Swiss firm that makes these windows, Dörig (St. Gallen-Mörschwil, Switzerland), actually makes them with four layers; a pair with a vacuum, a space filled with krypton, then another pair with a vacuum. The double vacuum design is quite similar to that of a thermos, and the window works in a similar way. (163)

12 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 12 a. b. Fig. E A window with coated glass reflects thermal energy, keeping it in in winter and out in summer. (U.S. Department of Energy, NREL, Ref. 81) Of special interest is the coating used on glass to reduce both light transmissions and heat transfer. These coatings are used to keep air conditioning costs relatively low. A magic coating that could allow light through but not transfer heat when outdoor temperatures are high and transfer heat when the outdoor temperature is low would be a great boon. It appears that such a coating may have been found! It is a mixture of tungsten and

13 Energy, Ch. 9, extension 4 R-values 13 vanadium dioxide that switches at just above room temperature (29 C). (164) That a transition occurs had been known about for a long time, but it had occurred at around 70 C, too high to be of practical use. The researchers found a way to reduce it to 51 C by adding tungsten, and succeeded in reaching 29 C. The coating can be put on molten glass at atmospheric pressure, and so manufacturing should not be overly difficult. Such glass may be available commercially before 2010.

### Infrared Experiments of Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer

Infrared Experiments of Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer You will explore thermal energy, thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, and latent heat in a series of hands-on activities augmented by the thermal

### ADVANCED ROOF COATINGS: MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

ADVANCED ROOF COATINGS: MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Abstract J.M. Bell 1 and G.B. Smith 2 The use of low emittance and high solar reflectance coatings is widespread in window glazings, wall and roof

### EE-489 Modeling Project: Behavior of the. Temperature Changes in a Room

EE-489 Modeling Project: Behavior of the 1 Temperature Changes in a Room Younes Sangsefidi, Saleh Ziaieinejad, Tarik Wahidi, and Takouda Pidename, Abstract A precise heat flow model, which predicts the

### PHYSICS OF FOIL. HEAT GAIN/LOSS IN BUILDINGS. Up Heat Flow. Down Heat Flow. Side Heat Flow

HEAT GAIN/LOSS IN BUILDINGS There are three modes of heat transfer: CONDUCTION, CONVECTION, and RADIATION (INFRA-RED). Of the three, radiation is the primary mode; conduction and convection are secondary

### Conduction is the transfer of heat by the direct contact of particles of matter.

Matter and Energy Chapter 9 energy flows from a material at a higher temperature to a material at a lower temperature. This process is called heat transfer. How is heat transferred from material to material,

### Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Earth s Atmosphere. Atmospheric Pressure

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric

### Science 7 Unit C: Heat and Temperature. Topic 6. Transferring Energy. pp WORKBOOK. Name:

Science 7 Unit C: Heat and Temperature Topic 6 Transferring Energy pp. 226-236 WORKBOOK Name: 0 Read pp. 226-227 object or material that can transfer energy to other objects Example: light bulb, the Sun

Conduction Thermal energy is transferred from place to place by conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles in matter. Conduction

### A) usually less B) dark colored and rough D) light colored with a smooth surface A) transparency of the atmosphere D) rough, black surface

1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows two identical houses, A and B, in a city in North Carolina. One house was built on the east side of a factory, and the other

### Here Comes the Sun. Rachel Wagner. Duluth Energy Design Conference 26 February

Here Comes the Sun Duluth Energy Design Conference 26 February 2014 Photo by Dave Swenson Rachel Wagner Here Comes the Sun 1 Wagner Zaun Architecture 17 N Lake Avenue Duluth, MN 55802 www.wagnerzaun.com

### HIGHLY INSULATING AEROGEL GLAZING

HIGHLY INSULATING AEROGEL GLAZING A. Beck, M. Reim, W. Körner, J. Fricke Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, ZAE Bayern e.v., Am Hubland, 9774 Würzburg, Germany, Phone (+49) 931/7564-32, Fax -6,

### Clouds and Rain Unit (3 pts)

Name: Section: Clouds and Rain Unit (Topic 8A-2) page 1 Clouds and Rain Unit (3 pts) As air rises, it cools due to the reduction in atmospheric pressure Air mainly consists of oxygen molecules and nitrogen

### Chapter 22: Uses of Solar Energy

Chapter 22: Uses of Solar Energy Goals of Period 22 Section 22.1: To describe three forms of energy derived from solar energy water power, wind power, and biomass Section 22.2: To illustrate some uses

### Study of air curtains used to restrict infiltration into refrigerated rooms

Study of air curtains used to restrict infiltration into refrigerated rooms Gregory Verhaeghe 1, Marnix Van Belleghem 1, Arnout Willockx 1, Ivan Verhaert 1, Michel De Paepe 1 1 Ghent University, Department

### Making Decisions with Insulation

More on Heat Transfer from Cheresources.com: FREE Resources Making Decisions with Insulation Article: Basics of Vaporization Questions and Answers: Heat Transfer Experienced-Based Rules for Heat Exchangers

### Making Decisions with Insulation

PDHonline Course K115 (3 PDH) Making Decisions with Insulation Instructor: Christopher Haslego, B.S. ChE 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

### The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 10 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics

### Name: Applied Physics II Exam 2 Winter Multiple Choice ( 8 Points Each ):

Name: e-mail: Applied Physics II Exam 2 Winter 2006-2007 Multiple Choice ( 8 Points Each ): 1. A cowboy fires a silver bullet ( specific heat c = 234 J / kg O C ) with a muzzle speed of 200 m/s into a

### HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION

HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION 11 Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction, General Conduction Equation Based on Cartesian Coordinates, Heat Transfer Through a Wall, Composite Wall

### SAMPLE ASSESSMENT TASKS PHYSICS ATAR YEAR 11

SAMPLE ASSESSMENT TASKS PHYSICS ATAR YEAR Copyright School Curriculum and Standards Authority, 204 This document apart from any third party copyright material contained in it may be freely copied, or communicated

### Experimental Performance and Numerical Simulation of Double Glass Wall Thana Ananacha

Experimental Performance and Numerical Simulation of Double Glass Wall Thana Ananacha Abstract This paper reports the numerical and experimental performances of Double Glass Wall are investigated. Two

### Bridge Grade Two Winter 1/09 1. GRADE TWO WINTER NATURE WALK Using Thermometers

Bridge Grade Two Winter 1/09 1 GRADE TWO WINTER NATURE WALK Using Thermometers OBJECTIVES: Use thermometers to measure temperature. Compare temperature of air and water inside and outside the school. Relate

### PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect

PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall 2006 Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect Only a short report is required: worksheets, graphs and answers to the questions. Introduction In this experiment we study the

### Teacher s Discussion Notes Part 1

Teacher s Discussion Notes Part 1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Vocabulary: Chlorophyll--A green substance which gives leaves their color. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight, which a plant uses to make food. Chloroplast--A

### Building Envelope Requirements Overview Page 3-4

Building Envelope Requirements Overview Page 3-4 The benefit of a high reflectance surface is obvious: while dark surfaces absorb the sun s energy (visible light, invisible infrared. and ultraviolet radiation)

### Radiant Heating Panel Thermal Analysis. Prepared by Tim Fleury Harvard Thermal, Inc. October 7, 2003

Radiant Heating Panel Thermal Analysis Prepared by Tim Fleury Harvard Thermal, Inc. October 7, 2003 Analysis Objective Perform a thermal test on a small sample of the concrete to determine the Thermal

### BACK TO BASICS: PIPE INSULATION

BACK TO BASICS: PIPE INSULATION INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION CONSORTIUM RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY FORUM MAY 2-3, 2012 Todd Jekel, Ph.D., P.E. Assistant Director, IRC Overview 1 2 3 4 Basics of insulation & insulation

### 2Energy in transit UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS. CHApteR

CHApteR 2Energy in transit Thermal imaging shows the temperature of these people. Their faces and hands are red and white as these areas are producing heat and are not covered by clothing. ReMeMBeR Before

### Simultaneous Conduction and Radiation Energy Transfer

Simultaneous Conduction and Radiation Energy Transfer Radiant energy can transfer from a colder to a warmer radiator. ###########, PhD Chemical Process Control Systems Engineer, PE TX & CA Abstract The

### K20: Temperature, Heat, and How Heat Moves

K20: Temperature, Heat, and How Heat Moves Definition of Temperature Definition of Heat How heat flows (Note: For all discussions here, particle means a particle of mass which moves as a unit. It could

### Bernoulli s Principle. Application: Lift. Bernoulli s Principle. Main Points 3/13/15. Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper

Bernoulli s Principle Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper Where the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases. Due to continuous flow of a fluid: what goes in must come out! Fluid

### Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION

Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, 3rd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2008 Chapter 3 NATURAL CONVECTION Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

### Climate versus Weather

Climate versus Weather What is climate? Climate is the average weather usually taken over a 30-year time period for a particular region and time period. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather,

### Pilgrims and Puritans The Pilgrim Home

Non-fiction: Pilgrims and Puritans The Pilgrim Home Pilgrims and Puritans The Pilgrim Home The Pilgrims built very simple and practical 1 houses for themselves. Despite a terrible first winter, they worked

### Steps to Reduce the Risk of Tornado Damage in Commercial Structures

Hanover Risk Solutions Steps to Reduce the Risk of Tornado Damage in Commercial Structures About 1,000 tornadoes occur each year in the United States, causing an average of \$1.1 billion in property damage

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy Internal Energy U Energy of a system due to microscopic motion and inter-molucular forces Work W -F x -P V is work done by expansion

### What Is Air Temperature?

2.2 Read What Is Air Temperature? In Learning Set 1, you used a thermometer to measure air temperature. But what exactly was the thermometer measuring? What is different about cold air and warm air that

### Lesson 9: Products of Electricity

Magnetism and Electricity -> 9: Products of Electricity Getting Started? Big Ideas P What does electrical power produce? P How is electrical power produced? Lesson 9: Products of Electricity & Facts and

### Chapter: Heat and States

Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

### Natural Disasters and Storms in Philadelphia. What is a storm? When cold, dry air meets warm, moist (wet) air, there is a storm.

Natural Disasters and Storms in Philadelphia 1. What is a natural disaster? 2. Does Philadelphia have many natural disasters? o Nature (noun) everything in the world not made No. Philadelphia does not

### Chapter 11 Thermal Transport

Chapter 11 Thermal Transport GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define the following terms, and use them in an operational

### Atmosphere, Weather & Climate Review for Unit Assessment (Can be taken on Study Island Due Mon., 11/26/12)

Name Class Period Atmosphere, Weather & Climate Review for Unit Assessment (Can be taken on Study Island Due Mon., 11/26/12) 1. When hot and cold air meet, the hot air rises to the top. Which process causes

### Exercises Conduction (pages ) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor?

Exercises 22.1 Conduction (pages 431 432) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor? 3. are the best conductors. 4. In conduction, between particles transfer thermal energy. 5. Is the following sentence

### Thermal Effects. IGCSE Physics

Thermal Effects IGCSE Physics Starter What is the difference between heat and temperature? What unit is thermal energy measured in? And what does it depend on? In which direction does heat flow? Heat (Thermal

### Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out by the sun L = 3.9

### Vincent Barraud SOPREMA BASICS OF THERMAL INSULATION

Vincent Barraud SOPREMA BASICS OF THERMAL INSULATION Summary Part 1 - What is thermal conductivity? Part 2 - How the thermal conductivity is measured? Part 3 How to certify a lambda value? Part 1 - What

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy Internal Energy U = Energy of microscopic motion and intermolucular forces Work W = -F x = -P V is work done by compression (next chapter)

### Heat can be transferred by. and by radiation Conduction

Heat can be transferred by conduction, by convection, and by radiation. The spontaneous transfer of heat is always from warmer objects to cooler objects. If several objects near one another have different

### Security Boss Manufacturing LLC MAXSEAL Pet Doors

Security Boss Manufacturing LLC MAXSEAL Pet Doors The MaxSeal Pet Door Program is for customers and installers wanting the best pet door product in their homes. The MaxSeal door by Security Boss Manufacturing

### Antireflection treatment of low-emitting glazings for energy efficient windows with high visible transmittance

Thin Solid Films 44 (003) 6 Antireflection treatment of low-emitting glazings for energy efficient windows with high visible transmittance Elin Hammarberg*, Arne Roos The Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University,

### Section 2: The Atmosphere

Section 2: The Atmosphere Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives The Atmosphere Composition of the Atmosphere Air Pressure Layers of the Atmosphere The Troposphere Section 2: The Atmosphere Preview, continued

### Everyone Can SAVE ENERGY. Activity Book. Be a POWER SMART * Electrosaurus. *Manitoba Hydro is a licensee of the Trademark and Official Mark.

veryone Can SAV NGY Activity Book Be a POW SMAT * lectrosaurus *Manitoba Hydro is a licensee of the Trademark and Official Mark. LCTOSAUUS The POW SMAT* Dinosaur Originally developed in 1996, and a copyright

### IDA ICE CIBSE-Validation Test of IDA Indoor Climate and Energy version 4.0 according to CIBSE TM33, issue 3

FHZ > FACHHOCHSCHULE ZENTRALSCHWEIZ HTA > HOCHSCHULE FÜR TECHNIK+ARCHITEKTUR LUZERN ZIG > ZENTRUM FÜR INTEGRALE GEBÄUDETECHNIK IDA ICE CIBSE-Validation Test of IDA Indoor Climate and Energy version 4.0

### Climates of NYS. Definitions. Climate Regions of NYS. Storm Tracks. Climate Controls 10/13/2011. Characteristics of NYS s Climates

Definitions Climates of NYS Prof. Anthony Grande 2011 Weather and Climate Weather the state of the atmosphere at one point in time. The elements of weather are temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture.

### KSB * 2 Conductive heat flow

KSB * 2 ( * KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL BUILDER) Conductive heat flow Building Materials k Values Brick = 0.39 Newspaper = 0.023 Polystyrene = 0.017 Plywood = 0.075 Straw = 0.052 Steel = 26.6 Fiberglass = 0.023

### Physics 101: Lecture 26 Conduction, Convection, Radiation

Final Physics 101: Lecture 26 Conduction, Convection, Radiation Today s lecture will cover Textbook Chapter 14.4-14.9 Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 1 Review Heat is FLOW of energy Flow of energy may increase

### !U = Q " P!V. Q = mc!t. Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy. Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes. Example Temperature and Specific Heat

Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Internal Energy U = Energy of microscopic motion and intermolucular forces Work W = -F!x = -P!V is work done by compression (next chapter)

### Climate Regulation. - What stabilizes the climate - Greenhouse effect

Climate Regulation - What stabilizes the climate - Greenhouse effect Last time! Processes that shaped Earth: Volcanism, tectonics! How we retain atmospheric molecules ( escape speed )! A magnetic field

### 5. Thermal Design. Objective: Control heat flow to: Maintain comfortable indoor conditions

5. Thermal Design Objective: Control heat flow to: 2. Maintain comfortable indoor conditions 3. Reduce heating/cooling loads, which reduces operating costs 4. Control vapor movement/condensation 5. Design

### 10-year industry best core warranty. 2-year warranty on balance of unit.

MODEL FEATURES MERV-8 filters Fully insulated case Large cores for high efficiency No condensate pan or drain required AHRI Certified Rainhood included Access door for easy maintenance and Cleaning Integral

### Page 1. Weathering & Erosion by Mass Wasting Pre-Test. Name:

Weathering & Erosion by Mass Wasting Pre-Test 3048-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) As a particle of sediment in a stream breaks into several smaller pieces, the rate of weathering of the sediment will A) increase

### Environmental Science Chapter 13 Atmosphere and Climate Change Review

Environmental Science Chapter 13 Atmosphere and Climate Change Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Climate in a region is a. the long-term,

### Name Class Date. What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators? What makes something a good conductor of heat?

CHAPTER 14 SECTION Heat and Temperature 2 Energy Transfer KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators?

### Aalborg Universitet. Empirical Test Case Specification Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per Kvols. Publication date: 2006

Aalborg Universitet Empirical Test Case Specification Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per Kvols Publication date: 2006 Document Version Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record Link to publication

### PHYSICAL SCIENCE SPRING FINAL REVIEW GUIDE

PHYSICAL SCIENCE SPRING FINAL REVIEW GUIDE 1. Draw a diagram to show the position of the Earth (include axis) and sun during the N. Hemisphere: a. Winter b. Spring 2. What times of year do the Sun s rays

### A SIMPLE MODEL FOR THE DYNAMIC COMPUTATION OF BUILDING HEATING AND COOLING DEMAND. Kai Sirén AALTO UNIVERSITY

A SIMPLE MODEL FOR THE DYNAMIC COMPUTATION OF BUILDING HEATING AND COOLING DEMAND Kai Sirén AALTO UNIVERSITY September 2016 CONTENT 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF DYNAMIC ENERGY CALCULATIONS... 3 1.1. Introduction...

### HomeWorks Construction

1 Client: Kain - Put Back Home: Property: 11888 N. Coquillard Dr. South Bend, IN 46617 Operator: NKAIN Estimator: Adam Brown Business: (574) 876-8060 Company: Home Works E-mail: abrown@gohomeworks.com

### Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles

Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles Or, what happens to the energy received from the sun? First We Need to Understand The Ways in Which Heat Can be Transferred in the Atmosphere

### Winter Thermal Comfort in 19 th Century Traditional Buildings of the Town of Florina, in North-Western Greece

PLEA2 - The 22 nd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. Beirut, Lebanon, 13-16 November 2 Winter Thermal Comfort in 19 th Century Traditional Buildings of the Town of Florina, in North-Western

### REVIEW OF REFLECTIVE INSULATION ESTIMATION METHODS James M Fricker 1 and David Yarbrough 2

REVIEW OF REFLECTIVE INSULATION ESTIMATION METHODS James M Fricker 1 and David Yarbrough 2 1 James M Fricker Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia 2 R&D Services, Inc., TN, U.S.A. ABSTRACT This paper reviews the

### Understanding Light, Temperature, Air, and Water Effects on Plant Growth

Lesson A2 7 Understanding Light, Temperature, Air, and Water Effects on Plant Growth Unit A. Horticultural Science Problem Area 2. Plant Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 7. Understanding Light, Temperature,

### Energy in Thermal Processes. Heat and Internal Energy

Energy in Thermal Processes Heat and Internal Energy Internal energy U: associated with the microscopic components of a system: kinetic and potential energies. The larger the number of internal degrees

### Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction

Heat Transfer Energy from the Sun Introduction The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, but its exact path changes over the course of the year, which causes the seasons. In order to use the sun

### Procedures in the Event of a Natural Disaster

Procedures in the Event of a Natural Disaster For your safety, please be sure to check with your neighbors and the chief of the ward in which you live about the appropriate procedures for different natural

### Assess why particular characteristics are necessary for effective conduction KEY POINTS

Conduction LEARNING OBJECTIVES Assess why particular characteristics are necessary for effective conduction KEY POINTS On a microscopic scale, conduction occurs as rapidly moving or vibrating atoms and

### Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws

Unit 3 - Stevens 1 Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws Vocabulary: Solid Term Definition Example Liquid Gas No definite shape, but definite volume; Particles close together, but can move around

### Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L)

### GARP 0102 Earth Radiation Balance (Part 1)

Class 8: Earth s Radiation Balance I (Chapter 4) 1. Earth s Radiation Balance: Sun, Atmosphere, and Earth s Surface as a System 2. Electromagnetic Radiation: Shortwave vs. longwave radiation (Page 69-71)

### Lecture 36: Temperatue Measurements

Lecture 36: Temperatue Measurements Contents Principle of thermocouples Materials for themocouples Cold junction compensation Compensating wires Selection of thermocouples Illustration of gas temperature

### Spring_#7. Thermodynamics. Youngsuk Nam.

Spring_#7 Thermodynamics Youngsuk Nam ysnam1@khu.ac.kr You can t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in

### 1. Base your answer to the following question on the weather map below, which shows a weather system that is affecting part of the United States.

1. Base your answer to the following question on the weather map below, which shows a weather system that is affecting part of the United States. Which sequence of events forms the clouds associated with

### Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound Source: Utah State Office of Education A two-year-old has plenty of it, and the sun has a bunch of it. Do you know what it is? If not, let me give you a definition: A source

### Law of Heat Transfer

Law of Heat Transfer The Fundamental Laws which are used in broad area of applications are: 1. The law of conversion of mass 2. Newton s second law of motion 3. First and second laws of thermodynamics

### ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College RADIATION FROM the SUN SOLAR RADIATION Primarily shortwave (UV-SIR) Insolation Incoming

### 3 Temperate and Polar Zones

CHAPTER 3 3 Temperate and Polar Zones SECTION Climate BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate zone? What biomes

### Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 16 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 16 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

### T U T O R I A L : A M O D E L F O R C I R C U I T S

South Pasadena Physics Name 10 Circuits Period Date T U T O R I A L : A M O D E L F O R C I R C U I T S Tutorial Instructions This Tutorial contains Activities and Exercises. Activities: These are intended

### WO2 ROZSA-HRABINSKI METEOROLOGY 1

WO2 ROZSA-HRABINSKI METEOROLOGY 1 INTRODUCTION What are we covering today? The Atmosphere Clouds Atmospheric Stability Temperature and Humidity THE ATMOSPHERE THE ATMOSPHERE The atmosphere is composed

### Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Selective absorption Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out

### Analytical Design of Isolations for Cryogenic Tankers

, July 3-5, 2013, London, U.K. Analytical Design of Isolations for Cryogenic Tankers R. Miralbes, D. Valladares, L. Castejon, J. Abad, J.L. Santolaya, Member, IAENG Abstract In this paper it is presented

### Chapter 11 Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 11 Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Heat Engines Heat engines use a temperature difference involving a high temperature (T H ) and a low temperature (T C ) to do mechanical work.

### Matter and Its Properties. Unit 2

Matter and Its Properties Unit 2 Lesson 1: Physical & Chemical Properties & Changes Unit 2: Matter and Its Properties Section 1: Physical Properties & Change Lesson 1: Physical & Chemical Properties &

### Activity 1-2: Origin of the Earth

Earth Science 11 Name: Block: Activity 1-2: Origin of the Earth Read the following passage, and then answer the questions at the end: Where Earth Science Begins: The Solar System Where shall the study

### KITCHEN. How can improvements or remodeling save me money? Increase Attic Insulation Add a Ceiling Fan Add Vacancy Sensors

www.sgvenergywise.org How can improvements or remodeling save me money? S avings in the K itchen It is the most active room, the heart of the home. It presents the most opportunities to make an impact

### AN IMPACT OF AIR INFILTRATION ON HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH LIGHTWEIGHT BUILDING PARTITIONS FILLED WITH LOOSE MINERAL WOOL PHD THESIS ABSTRACT

Białystok University of Technology Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering AN IMPACT OF AIR INFILTRATION ON HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH LIGHTWEIGHT BUILDING PARTITIONS FILLED WITH LOOSE MINERAL WOOL PHD

### P1 Quick Revision Questions. P1 for AQA GCSE examination 2018 onwards

P1 Quick Revision Questions Question 1... of 50 What type of energy is stored in a stretched elastic band? Answer 1... of 50 Elastic potential energy. Question 2... of 50 What type of energy is stored

### Lewis and Clark and Me

Name Lewis and Clark and Me Read the selection. Then answer the questions that follow. Rabbit Fools Coyote Coyote was hiding behind a bush waiting for Rabbit to leave his hole. But Rabbit was no fool.