PIEZOCERAMICS UNDER ELECTRON IRRADIATION

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PIEZOCERAMICS UNDER ELECTRON IRRADIATION"

Transcription

1 U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series A, Vol. 72, Iss. 2, 2010 ISSN PIEZOCERAMICS UNDER ELECTRON IRRADIATION Irinela CHILIBON 1 Lucrarea prezintă aspecte privind comportarea piezoceramicelor PZT la iradiere cu electroni de putere scazuta. Probele PZT au ost iradiate într-un accelerator liniar de electroni cu doze dierite de electroni, şi anume: 10 kgy; 15 kgy; 20 kgy; 25 kgy. Aceste ceramice îşi schimbă puţin perormanţele după iradierea cu electroni de putere scazută, însă la 25 kgy constantele piezoelectrice de sarcină şi de tensiune cresc mai mult. Totuşi, descompunerea parţială a PZT ar putea să apară la iradierea cu electroni de putere ridicată şi în consecinţă creşterea coeicienţilor de pierdere. O remarcă, probele experimentale iradiate prezintă proprietăţi dielectrice şi piezoelectrice cu variaţii mici, iar coeicienţii de cuplaj descresc chiar la doze mici de iradiere (sub 25 kgy). Rezultatele obtinute constituie punctul de plecare pentru proiectarea de materiale ceramice superioare cu parametrii îmbunătăţiţi, optime pentru aplicaţiile diverse ale traductoarelor piezoelectrice. Paper presents aspects concerning the behaviour o PZT piezoceramics at low power electron irradiation. The PZT samples were irradiated into a linear accelerator o electrons with dierent electron doses, namely: 10 kgy; 15 kgy; 20 kgy; 25 kgy. These ceramics change slightly their perormances ater low power electron irradiation, but at 25kGy the piezoelectric charge and voltage constants increase more. However, PZT partial decomposition could occur at high power electron irradiation doses and consequently the loosing coeicients enhance. As remark, the experimental irradiated PZT samples present piezoelectric and dielectric properties with small variations, and the coupling coeicients decrease even at small irradiation doses (below 25 kgy). The obtained results could be an excellent starting point in designing superior ceramic materials with improved parameters, suitable or various piezoelectric transducers applications. Keywords: piezoceramic, PZT, electron irradiation, electron accelerator 1. Introduction Piezoceramics represent a well-proven technology or abrication o electromechanical transducers. However, despite their widespread applications there are still many aspects o their behaviour that poorly understood this is particular true o nonlinear eects that characterize their dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric properties [1]. The piezoceramics are crystallite conglomerate erroelectrics materials with random orienting and the piezoceramic materials 1 Researcher, National Institute o R&D or Optoelectronics, INOE-2000, Bucharest-Magurele, ROMANIA,

2 186 Irinela Chilibon Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 are solid solutions, obtained in the classical technology [2], utilizing oxide powders and impurities as base materials. The properties o piezoceramics are unction o the preparation process [3] and the luctuations may be caused by inhomogeneous chemical composition, mechanical dierences in the orming process, varying shrinkage and chemical modiication during iring, and by varying response to the poling treatment. A high degree o process control is essential in the manuacture o piezoceramics in order to insure a consistent product with respect to electrical and mechanical properties [4]. PZT ceramics are piezoelectric material with the perovskit structure. The internal stress o PZT is induced by the para- to erro-electric phase transition at the Curie point during cooling process ater iring and the additional anisotropic internal stress is induced in perpendicular direction. Their physical, chemical, and piezoelectric characteristics can be tailored to speciic applications. These materials are used as electromechanical transducers in various applications. The purpose o this study is to investigate the dependence o dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical properties o hard PZT ceramic at electron irradiation dose variation, produced by an electron linear accelerator. 2. Piezoelectric coeicients and relations Piezoelectric ceramics produce an electrical charge when a load is applied and deormation occurs. Piezoelectric ceramics can also produce orce or deormation when an electrical charge is applied. A piezoceramic is thereore capable o acting as either a sensing or transmitting element, or both. Since piezoceramic elements are capable o generating very high voltages, they are compatible with today's generation o solid-state devices - rugged, compact, reliable, and eicient. Relationships between applied orces and the resultant responses depend upon: the piezoelectric properties o the ceramic; the size and shape o the piece; and the direction o the electrical and mechanical excitation. To identiy directions in a piezoceramic element, three axes are used (Figure 1). These axes, termed 1, 2, and 3, are analogous to X, Y, and Z o the classical three dimensional orthogonal set o axes. The polar, or 3 axis, is taken parallel to the direction o polarization within the ceramic. This direction is established during manuacturing by a high DC voltage that is applied between a pair o electroded aces to activate the material. In shear operations, these poling electrodes are later removed and replaced by electrodes deposited on a second pair o aces. In this event, the 3 axis is not altered, but is then parallel to the electroded aces ound on the inished element. When the mechanical stress or strain is shear, the subscript 5 is used in the second place. Piezoelectric coeicients with double subscripts link electrical and mechanical quantities. The irst subscript gives the direction o the electrical ield

3 Piezoceramics under electron irradiation 187 associated with the voltage applied, or the charge produced. The second subscript gives the direction o the mechanical stress or strain. Several piezoceramic material constants may be written with a "superscript" which speciies either a mechanical or electrical boundary condition. The superscripts are T, E, D, and S, signiying: T = constant stress = mechanically ree; E = constant ield = short circuit; D = constant electrical displacement = open circuit; S = constant strain = mechanically clamped. As an example, K T 3 expresses the relative dielectric constant (K), measured in the polar direction ( 3 ) with no mechanical clamping applied. The electrical behaviour o an unstressed medium under the inluence o an electric ield is deined by two quantities - the ield strength E and the dielectric displacement D. Their relationship is: D = εe (1) in which ε is the material permittivity. The mechanical behaviour o the same medium at zero electric ield strength is deined by two mechanical quantities - the stress applied T and the strain S. The relationship here is: S = st (2) in which s denotes the compliance o the medium. Piezoelectricity involves the interaction between the electrical and mechanical behaviour o the medium. To a good approximation this interaction can be described by linear relations between two electrical and mechanical variables: E S = s T + de (3) T D = dt + ε E The choice o the independent variables (T - mechanical, and E - electrical) is arbitrary. A given pair o piezoelectric equations corresponds to a particular choice o independent variables. In a similar way it is possible to arrive at the ollowing ormulae: D E = gt + ; S = s D + gd (4) T ε D D E = hs + ; T = c S hd (5) S ε S E D = ds + ε E ; T = c S ee (6) In these equations, S D, S E, ε T, ε S, d and g are the main practical constants. The superscripts to the symbols denote the quantity kept constant under boundary conditions. In reality, Eqs 3 to 6 are tensor equations with, in the general case, 3 electrical quantities (in the X, Y and Z directions) and 6 mechanical ones including shear about the three axes. So, o each piezoelectric parameter, up to 18 varieties can exist and are indicated by subscripts. For piezoelectric materials the direction o polarization is usually taken to be that o the Z-axis (direction 3) (see

4 188 Irinela Chilibon Fig. 1). Methods o measurement and piezoelectric properties o ceramic materials and components are described by [5] [8]. Fig. 1 Designation o the axis and directions o deormation Fig. 2 Equivalent electrical circuit o PZT disc The equivalent electrical circuit o PZT disc is a resonant circuit (Fig. 2) and is characterized by two requencies: s and p. At the series resonance, branch L - C a is in resonance, the lower branch o the equivalent circuit diagram becomes low-resistive and the impedance shows a minimum Z min. At the parallel resonance, the branch L - (C b + C a ) is in resonance, the resonant circuit becomes high-resistive and the impedance has a maximum Z max. Modern impedance analyzers (e.g. HP 4192A) can be combined with a computer and programmed to ind s, p, Z min and Z max The eective coupling actor k e then ollows rom the ormula (Fig. 3): k e 2 2 p s = (7) 2 p Fig. 3 Impedance at the planar resonance (measured at a disc φ 5 x 1 mm)

5 Piezoceramics under electron irradiation 189 It is also possible to determine k e o more complicated devices like bimorphs or PZT discs or plates glued on some substrate. Depending on the construction dierent values o k e will be ound. The translation to the absolute quality level is oten very complicated or impossible. However k e is always a useul relative measure or the eectiveness o a device. k 2 Ca = (8) e C + b Ca By using equations: 1 1 s = (9) 2π LCa and 1 Ca + Cb p = (10) 2π L CaCb This ratio can be expressed as a unction o series- and parallel resonant requency, p s k = (11) 2 p So it is possible to derive the coupling actor rom these resonant requencies. As an approximation, when ke <<1 one may write: p 2 s Δ k e 2 = 2 (12) s s The piezoelectric voltage constant g is deined as the electric ield generated in a material per unit mechanical stress applied to it. Alternatively, it is the mechanical strain experienced by the material per unit electric displacement applied to it. The irst subscript reers to the direction o the electric ield generated in the material or to the applied electric displacement the second reers respectively to the direction o the applied stress or to the direction o the induced strain. The piezoelectric charge constants d is deined as the electric polarization generated in a material per unit mechanical stress applied to it. Alternatively, it is the mechanical strain experienced by the material per unit electric ield applied to it. The irst subscript reers to the direction o polarization generated in the material (at E = 0) or to the applied ield strength, the second reers respectively to the direction o the applied stress or to the direction o the induced strain. The g and d constants o a material are inter-related by their dielectric constant. Thus

6 190 Irinela Chilibon d g = or g kε 0 = d (13) kε 0 where K is the dielectric constant and ε o is the permittivity o space, 9 x Farads per meter. For a given level o d constant, the g is high i the dielectric constant is low and vice-versa. The compliance s o a material is deined as the strain produced per unit stress. It's the reciprocal o the modulus o elasticity. The irst subscript reers to the direction o strain, the second to direction o stress. For example, the compliance s o a material determined or the piezoceramic plate is: E 1 s11 = (14) 2 2 4ρ L r D E 11 s11 1 k31 s 2 ( ) = (15) where ρ is the piezoceramic density, r is the resonance requency, L is the thickness o disc. The relation between d 31, k 31 and s 11 is the ollowing: d k T s E ε33 11 = (16) Whereas the relative dielectric constant is strictly a material property, the capacitance is a quantity dependent on the type o material and its dimensions. The capacitance is calculated by multiplying the relative dielectric constant by the 12 permittivity o ree space ( ε 0 = arads / meter ) and A electrode surace area, then dividing by the t thickness separating the electrodes. Units are expressed in arads. kε 0A C = (17) t K 3 is related to the capacitance between the original poling electrodes. K 1 is related to the capacitance between the second pair o electrodes applied ater removal o the poling electrodes or the purposes o shear excitation. The mechanical losses can be determined rom the mechanical quality or damping actor, Q M (18). 2 a Q M = (18) π r Z rc( a r ) Where C is the low requency capacitance and Z r is the minimum impedance, r is the resonance requency and a is the antiresonance requency. Also, when Q M > 3, Q M can also be determined approximately rom the requency response curve and the bandwidth at 3 db ( 2 1 ) as ollows: Q = r M (19) 2 1

7 Piezoceramics under electron irradiation Experiments and results The piezoceramic materials under study are solid solutions o PZT (lead titanate zirconate) Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 obtained by classic technology in laboratory, using as raw materials oxide. Material selection should be based on the conditions o a given application. PZT ceramic is the active element into various piezoceramic transducers. Thereore, it is important to understand the behaviour o this material at the variation o electron irradiation doses. PZT material parameters were measured or two modes: planar and thickness, or complete characterization, by using disc samples o hard PZT material (7600 Kg/m 3 density), with small size (15 mm diameter, and 1.06 mm thickness). The research was made on many PZT samples, in order to have an accurate evaluation. Ater each electron irradiation the main electric, piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics o the piezoceramic materials were measured, namely: coupling coeicients (K e, k), piezoelectric coeicients (g 31, d 31 ), strain coeicients, and mechanical quality actor (Q m ). Reerring to the equivalent circuit o PZT disc, the dependence o ( s and p ) serial and parallel resonant requencies (in the planar and thickness modes), R impedance at resonant requency (in the planar and thickness modes) and the capacities (C a and C b ) upon irradiation doses are determined. The PZT disc samples were irradiated by an electron accelerator with dierent doses (between 10 and 25 kgy), and then the main electric, piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics o the PZT disc were measured. Electron accelerator has the ollowing parameters: energy 7 MeV, average beam current 7 ma, pulse width 2.5 ms, pulse repetition rate 150 Hz, electron irradiation dose 4 W10 3 Gy/min at 1 m. The PZT samples were irradiated by dierent electron doses, namely: 10 kgy; 15 kgy; 20 kgy; 25 kgy. According to [5], [6], the main parameters and characteristics o PZT piezoceramic were determined by HP 4194 Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer, Hewlett Packard, USA. The main measured or calculated parameters o the experimental PZT materials were: coupling coeicients, piezoelectric voltage coeicients, ree dielectric constant, mechanical quality actor in thickness mode and the elements o the equivalent electrical circuit (resonant requencies, resistance, and capacities). For better understanding o results, the main material parameters and characteristics as unction o electron irradiation doses are illustrated in the Figures 4 to 14. For the planar mode o PZT disc, the curves requency as unction o electron irradiation doses show small variations o parallel and serial requencies ( p and s ), (Fig. 4). However, in the thickness mode o PZT disc p decreases, and s increases (Fig. 5).

8 192 Irinela Chilibon Fig. 4 Frequency as unction o Dose in the Planar Mode or PZT disc Fig. 5 Frequency as unction o Dose in Thickness Mode or PZT disc For the planar and thickness modes o PZT disc, the curves R resistance as unction o electron irradiation doses increase (Fig. 6). Fig. 6 Resistance as unction o Dose or PZT disc

9 Piezoceramics under electron irradiation 193 Reerring to the equivalent circuit o the PZT disc (Fig. 2), the curves o C a and C b capacities unction o electron irradiation doses increase or the planar and thickness modes, with small variations (Fig. 7 and 8). Fig. 7 Capacity as unction o Dose in Planar Mode or PZT disc Fig. 8 Capacity as unction o Dose in Thickness Mode or PZT disc For the planar and thickness modes o the PZT disc, the mechanical quality actors Q m as unction o electron irradiation doses present small variations (Fig. 9). Fig. 9 Mechanical Quality Factor as unction o Dose or PZT disc

10 194 Irinela Chilibon For the planar and thickness modes, the eective coupling coeicients as unction o electron irradiation doses decrease that means the electromechanical eiciencies are smaller (Fig. 10 and 11). Fig. 10 Eective Coupling Coeicient as unction o Dose or PZT disc Fig. 11 Coupling Coeicients as unction o Dose or PZT disc The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 as unction o electron irradiation doses increases by 3% (Fig. 12). Fig. 12 Piezoelectric Charge Constant as unction o Dose or PZT disc

11 Piezoceramics under electron irradiation 195 The piezoelectric voltage constant g 31 as unction o electron irradiation doses increases by 14% (Fig. 13). Fig. 13 Piezoelectric Voltage Constants as unction o Dose or PZT disc The elastic constants (compliances) s 11e, s 11d, s 12e, and s 12e as unction o electron irradiation doses present small variations (Fig. 14). Fig. 14 Elastic Constants as unction o Dose or PZT disc As important result the values o piezoelectric coeicients increase in the range o 10 to 25 kgy electron irradiation doses. However, the values o coupling coeicients decrease. At 25 kgy electron irradiation doses, the piezoelectric charge constant d 31 increases by 3%, and the piezoelectric voltage constant g 31 increases by 14%. The other parameters present an acceptable stability with the irradiation doses.

12 196 Irinela Chilibon 4. Conclusions As experimental results, the irradiated PZT samples change their piezoelectric and dielectric properties, especially piezoelectric and voltage charge constants. These PZT materials are stable in time and can be successully utilized into piezoceramic transducers and devices which work in radiation environment, such as: nuclear reactors and centrals, etc. The coupling coeicients decrease at 25 kgy irradiation doses, and the piezoelectric charge and voltage constants increase. Usual, high g constants are wanted. However, the connections to the element, such as cables, act as suplimentary capacities, increase the losses and decrease the output voltage. Thereore, high dielectric and piezoelectric constants are also desirables to minimize the eects o the capacitive loads. In consequence, the study o piezoceramics at electron irradiation could promote research or superior ceramic materials with improved characteristics, suitable or various piezoelectric transducer applications [9]. R E F E R E N C E S [1] D. A. Hall, Piezoelectric Materials: Advances in Science, Technology and Applications, NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publisher, 76, 2000 [2] K. Okazaki, Ferroelectrics, 41, 77-96, 1982 [3] Z. Surowiak, D. Czekj, Inluence o the chemical composition on the physical properties o PZT-type piezoceramic, Molecular and Quantum Acoustics, , 2003 [4] M. Brissaud, IEEE Transaction on Ultrasonics, 38, 6, 1991 [5] IEEE Standards on Piezoelectricity. Special Issue o Trans. Sonics Ultrason, SU 31.2, pt.ii, 1984, ANSI-IEEE Std. 176, 1987 [6] IEC TS Ed. 1.0 B 1CD, Piezoelectric and dielectric devices or requency control and selection - Glossary - Part 4-2: Piezoelectric materials - Piezoelectric ceramics, 1994 [7] pren :2001, Piezoelectric properties o ceramic materials and components - Part 2: Methods o measurement and properties - Low power [8] pren :2001, Piezoelectric properties o ceramic materials and components - Part 3: Methods o measurement - High power [9] M. Musu-Coman, H. Ispas, M.I. Petrescu, E. Jianu, Improved retention o surace treated diamonds in sintered tools or processing ornamental stones, U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series B, 68, No. 4, 47-56, 2006

Piezo materials. Actuators Sensors Generators Transducers. Piezoelectric materials may be used to produce e.g.: Piezo materials Ver1404

Piezo materials. Actuators Sensors Generators Transducers. Piezoelectric materials may be used to produce e.g.:  Piezo materials Ver1404 Noliac Group develops and manufactures piezoelectric materials based on modified lead zirconate titanate (PZT) of high quality and tailored for custom specifications. Piezoelectric materials may be used

More information

APPENDIX A: MATHEMATICAL RELATIONS

APPENDIX A: MATHEMATICAL RELATIONS APPENDIX A: MATHEMATICAL RELATIONS A.1 Piezoelectric relations The electrical behaviour of an unstressed medium under the influence of an electric field is defined by two quantities - the field strength

More information

PIEZOELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY PRIMER

PIEZOELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY PRIMER PIEZOELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY PRIMER James R. Phillips Sr. Member of Technical Staff CTS Wireless Components 4800 Alameda Blvd. N.E. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87113 Piezoelectricity The piezoelectric effect is

More information

Piezoelectric Resonators ME 2082

Piezoelectric Resonators ME 2082 Piezoelectric Resonators ME 2082 Introduction K T : relative dielectric constant of the material ε o : relative permittivity of free space (8.854*10-12 F/m) h: distance between electrodes (m - material

More information

Addition 1. Shear Stack Piezoelectric Elements and Shear Effect Basics

Addition 1. Shear Stack Piezoelectric Elements and Shear Effect Basics 120 Addition 1 Shear Stack Piezoelectric Elements and Shear Effect Basics Introduction The STM scanner built up in this work is a Besocke type scanner (see room temperature STM instrumental chapter). The

More information

Temperature Dependence of the Dielectric, Elastic and Piezoelectric Material Constants of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics

Temperature Dependence of the Dielectric, Elastic and Piezoelectric Material Constants of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Temperature Dependence of the Dielectric, Elastic and Piezoelectric Material Constants of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics S. Sherrit, G. Yang, H.D. Wiederick and B.K. Mukherjee Department of Physics,

More information

Studies on effective fiber and matrix poling characteristics of 1-3 piezoelectric composites

Studies on effective fiber and matrix poling characteristics of 1-3 piezoelectric composites INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN SOLIDS Mechanics and Applications Volume 3, Number 3, 211, pp. 1-19 Studies on eective iber and matrix poling characteristics o 1-3 piezoelectric composites

More information

Analysis of Friction-Induced Vibration Leading to Eek Noise in a Dry Friction Clutch. Abstract

Analysis of Friction-Induced Vibration Leading to Eek Noise in a Dry Friction Clutch. Abstract The 22 International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering Dearborn, MI, USA. August 19-21, 22 Analysis o Friction-Induced Vibration Leading to Eek Noise in a Dry Friction Clutch P. Wickramarachi

More information

SENSORS and TRANSDUCERS

SENSORS and TRANSDUCERS SENSORS and TRANSDUCERS Tadeusz Stepinski, Signaler och system The Mechanical Energy Domain Physics Surface acoustic waves Silicon microresonators Variable resistance sensors Piezoelectric sensors Capacitive

More information

Material properties and vibration isolation Technical information

Material properties and vibration isolation Technical information Material properties and vibration isolation Technical inormation General inormation on Sylomer Sylomer is a special PUR elastomer manuactured by Getzner, which eatures a cellular, compact orm and is used

More information

Transduction Based on Changes in the Energy Stored in an Electrical Field

Transduction Based on Changes in the Energy Stored in an Electrical Field Lecture 7-1 Transduction Based on Changes in the Energy Stored in an Electrical Field - Electrostriction The electrostrictive effect is a quadratic dependence of strain or stress on the polarization P

More information

Numerical calculation of the electron mobility in ZnS and ZnSe semiconductors using the iterative method

Numerical calculation of the electron mobility in ZnS and ZnSe semiconductors using the iterative method International Journal o the Physical Sciences Vol. 5(11), pp. 1752-1756, 18 September, 21 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ijps ISSN 1992-195 21 Academic Journals Full Length Research

More information

ON AN ESTIMATION OF THE DAMPING PROPERTIES OF WOVEN FABRIC COMPOSITES

ON AN ESTIMATION OF THE DAMPING PROPERTIES OF WOVEN FABRIC COMPOSITES ON AN ESTIMATION OF THE DAMPING PROPERTIES OF WOVEN FABRIC COMPOSITES Masaru Zao 1, Tetsusei Kurashii 1, Yasumasa Naanishi 2 and Kin ya Matsumoto 2 1 Department o Management o Industry and Technology,

More information

Gas-side mass transfer coefficient of a laboratory column equipped with one sieve tray

Gas-side mass transfer coefficient of a laboratory column equipped with one sieve tray Gas-side mass transer coeicient o a laoratory column equipped with one sieve tray Zhivko Ivanov, Zhelcho Steanov, Bogdan Bogdanov Astract: The inluence o plate geometry on the characteristics o luid low

More information

Supporting Information for: Flexible Energy Conversion

Supporting Information for: Flexible Energy Conversion Supporting Inormation or: Piezoelectric Nanoribbons Printed onto Rubber or Flexible Energy Conversion Yi Qi, Noah T. Jaeris, Kenneth Lyons, Jr., Christine M. Lee, Habib Ahmad, Michael C. McAlpine *, Department

More information

8.3 Design of Base Plate for Thickness

8.3 Design of Base Plate for Thickness 8.3 Design o Base Plate or Thickness 8.3.1 Design o base plate or thickness (Elastic Design) Upto this point, the chie concern has been about the concrete oundation, and methods o design have been proposed

More information

The achievable limits of operational modal analysis. * Siu-Kui Au 1)

The achievable limits of operational modal analysis. * Siu-Kui Au 1) The achievable limits o operational modal analysis * Siu-Kui Au 1) 1) Center or Engineering Dynamics and Institute or Risk and Uncertainty, University o Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, United Kingdom 1)

More information

Asymptote. 2 Problems 2 Methods

Asymptote. 2 Problems 2 Methods Asymptote Problems Methods Problems Assume we have the ollowing transer unction which has a zero at =, a pole at = and a pole at =. We are going to look at two problems: problem is where >> and problem

More information

MODELLING OF RECIPROCAL TRANSDUCER SYSTEM ACCOUNTING FOR NONLINEAR CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS

MODELLING OF RECIPROCAL TRANSDUCER SYSTEM ACCOUNTING FOR NONLINEAR CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS MODELLING OF RECIPROCAL TRANSDUCER SYSTEM ACCOUNTING FOR NONLINEAR CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS L. X. Wang 1 M. Willatzen 1 R. V. N. Melnik 1,2 Abstract The dynamics of reciprocal transducer systems is modelled

More information

Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Transducers for Polymer Characterization

Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Transducers for Polymer Characterization Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Transducers for Polymer Characterization Serena De Paolis *, Francesca Lionetto and Alfonso Maffezzoli

More information

Chapter 6 Reliability-based design and code developments

Chapter 6 Reliability-based design and code developments Chapter 6 Reliability-based design and code developments 6. General Reliability technology has become a powerul tool or the design engineer and is widely employed in practice. Structural reliability analysis

More information

Life Prediction Under Multiaxial Fatigue

Life Prediction Under Multiaxial Fatigue Lie Prediction Under Multiaxial Fatigue D. Ramesh and M.M. Mayuram Department o Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute o Technology, Madras Chennai-600 036 (India) e-mail: mayuram@iitm.ac.in ABSTRACT

More information

COURSE OUTLINE. Introduction Signals and Noise Filtering Sensors: Piezoelectric Force Sensors. Sensors, Signals and Noise 1

COURSE OUTLINE. Introduction Signals and Noise Filtering Sensors: Piezoelectric Force Sensors. Sensors, Signals and Noise 1 Sensors, Signals and Noise 1 COURSE OUTLINE Introduction Signals and Noise Filtering Sensors: Piezoelectric Force Sensors Piezoelectric Force Sensors 2 Piezoelectric Effect and Materials Piezoelectric

More information

UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF SINUSOIDAL FORCE MEASUREMENT

UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF SINUSOIDAL FORCE MEASUREMENT XXI IMEKO World Congress Measurement in Research and Industry August 30 eptember 4, 05, Prague, Czech Republic UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF INUOIDAL FORCE MEAUREMENT Christian chlegel, Gabriela Kiekenap,Rol

More information

One-Dimensional Motion Review IMPORTANT QUANTITIES Name Symbol Units Basic Equation Name Symbol Units Basic Equation Time t Seconds Velocity v m/s

One-Dimensional Motion Review IMPORTANT QUANTITIES Name Symbol Units Basic Equation Name Symbol Units Basic Equation Time t Seconds Velocity v m/s One-Dimensional Motion Review IMPORTANT QUANTITIES Name Symbol Units Basic Equation Name Symbol Units Basic Equation Time t Seconds Velocity v m/s v x t Position x Meters Speed v m/s v t Length l Meters

More information

Laser Interferometric Displacement Measurements of Multi-Layer Actuators and PZT Ceramics

Laser Interferometric Displacement Measurements of Multi-Layer Actuators and PZT Ceramics Ferroelectrics, 320:161 169, 2005 Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 0015-0193 print / 1563-5112 online DOI: 10.1080/00150190590967026 Laser Interferometric Displacement Measurements of Multi-Layer

More information

Thermal Analysis of a piezo-disk ultrasound probe

Thermal Analysis of a piezo-disk ultrasound probe Thermal Analysis of a piezo-disk ultrasound probe Lorenzo Spicci, Marco Cati Research and Development Department, Esaote S.p.A., Via di Caciolle 15, 50127, Florence, Italy. Excerpt from the Proceedings

More information

Potential Energy of a Battery

Potential Energy of a Battery Chapter 21 Solutions Potential Energy o a Battery Description: The electric potential and potential energy associated with a battery. Learning Goal: To understand electrical potential, electrical potential

More information

SIO 211B, Rudnick. We start with a definition of the Fourier transform! ĝ f of a time series! ( )

SIO 211B, Rudnick. We start with a definition of the Fourier transform! ĝ f of a time series! ( ) SIO B, Rudnick! XVIII.Wavelets The goal o a wavelet transorm is a description o a time series that is both requency and time selective. The wavelet transorm can be contrasted with the well-known and very

More information

A Systematic Approach to Frequency Compensation of the Voltage Loop in Boost PFC Pre- regulators.

A Systematic Approach to Frequency Compensation of the Voltage Loop in Boost PFC Pre- regulators. A Systematic Approach to Frequency Compensation o the Voltage Loop in oost PFC Pre- regulators. Claudio Adragna, STMicroelectronics, Italy Abstract Venable s -actor method is a systematic procedure that

More information

AH 2700A. Attenuator Pair Ratio for C vs Frequency. Option-E 50 Hz-20 khz Ultra-precision Capacitance/Loss Bridge

AH 2700A. Attenuator Pair Ratio for C vs Frequency. Option-E 50 Hz-20 khz Ultra-precision Capacitance/Loss Bridge 0 E ttenuator Pair Ratio or vs requency NEEN-ERLN 700 Option-E 0-0 k Ultra-precision apacitance/loss ridge ttenuator Ratio Pair Uncertainty o in ppm or ll Usable Pairs o Taps 0 0 0. 0. 0. 07/08/0 E E E

More information

Intelligent Materials and their applications. Autors: Jana Pintea, Ionut Balan INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest, ROMANIA

Intelligent Materials and their applications. Autors: Jana Pintea, Ionut Balan INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest, ROMANIA Intelligent Materials and their applications Autors: Jana Pintea, Ionut Balan INCDIE ICPE-CA Bucharest, ROMANIA What are intelligent materials? The intelligence of a material is a characteristic difficult

More information

Bayesian Technique for Reducing Uncertainty in Fatigue Failure Model

Bayesian Technique for Reducing Uncertainty in Fatigue Failure Model 9IDM- Bayesian Technique or Reducing Uncertainty in Fatigue Failure Model Sriram Pattabhiraman and Nam H. Kim University o Florida, Gainesville, FL, 36 Copyright 8 SAE International ABSTRACT In this paper,

More information

sensors ISSN

sensors ISSN Sensors 1, 1, 744-756; doi:1.339/s17744 OPEN ACCESS sensors ISSN 144-8 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors Article Investigation o the Frequency Shit o a SAD Circuit Loop and the Internal Micro-Cantilever in

More information

Pre-AP Physics Chapter 1 Notes Yockers JHS 2008

Pre-AP Physics Chapter 1 Notes Yockers JHS 2008 Pre-AP Physics Chapter 1 Notes Yockers JHS 2008 Standards o Length, Mass, and Time ( - length quantities) - mass - time Derived Quantities: Examples Dimensional Analysis useul to check equations and to

More information

Analog Computing Technique

Analog Computing Technique Analog Computing Technique by obert Paz Chapter Programming Principles and Techniques. Analog Computers and Simulation An analog computer can be used to solve various types o problems. It solves them in

More information

Intrinsic Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit of GaAs MESFET s

Intrinsic Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit of GaAs MESFET s Intrinsic Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit o GaAs MESFET s M KAMECHE *, M FEHAM M MELIANI, N BENAHMED, S DALI * National Centre o Space Techniques, Algeria Telecom Laboratory, University o Tlemcen, Algeria

More information

Sound Attenuation at High Temperatures in Pt

Sound Attenuation at High Temperatures in Pt Vol. 109 006) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. Sound Attenuation at High Temperatures in Pt R.K. Singh and K.K. Pandey H.C.P.G. College, Varanasi-1001, U.P., India Received October 4, 005) Ultrasonic attenuation

More information

ANALYSIS AND NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CERAMIC PIEZOELECTRIC BEAM BEHAVIOR UNDER THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL SOLICITATIONS

ANALYSIS AND NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CERAMIC PIEZOELECTRIC BEAM BEHAVIOR UNDER THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL SOLICITATIONS Third International Conference on Energy, Materials, Applied Energetics and Pollution. ICEMAEP016, October 30-31, 016, Constantine,Algeria. ANALYSIS AND NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CERAMIC PIEZOELECTRIC BEAM

More information

SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF MEMS PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER WITH A NON-TRADITIONAL GEOMETRY

SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF MEMS PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER WITH A NON-TRADITIONAL GEOMETRY SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF MEMS PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER WITH A NON-TRADITIONAL GEOMETRY S. Sunithamani 1, P. Lakshmi 1, E. Eba Flora 1 1 Department of EEE, College of Engineering, Anna University,

More information

7.Piezoelectric, Accelerometer and Laser Sensors

7.Piezoelectric, Accelerometer and Laser Sensors 7.Piezoelectric, Accelerometer and Laser Sensors 7.1 Piezoelectric sensors: (Silva p.253) Piezoelectric materials such as lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) can generate electrical charge and potential difference

More information

RESOLUTION MSC.362(92) (Adopted on 14 June 2013) REVISED RECOMMENDATION ON A STANDARD METHOD FOR EVALUATING CROSS-FLOODING ARRANGEMENTS

RESOLUTION MSC.362(92) (Adopted on 14 June 2013) REVISED RECOMMENDATION ON A STANDARD METHOD FOR EVALUATING CROSS-FLOODING ARRANGEMENTS (Adopted on 4 June 203) (Adopted on 4 June 203) ANNEX 8 (Adopted on 4 June 203) MSC 92/26/Add. Annex 8, page THE MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE, RECALLING Article 28(b) o the Convention on the International

More information

Study of full band gaps and propagation of acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic plates

Study of full band gaps and propagation of acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic plates Study o ull band gaps and propagation o acoustic waves in two-dimensional pieoelectric phononic plates J.-C. Hsu and T.-T. Wu Institute o Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt

More information

TFY4102 Exam Fall 2015

TFY4102 Exam Fall 2015 FY40 Eam Fall 05 Short answer (4 points each) ) Bernoulli's equation relating luid low and pressure is based on a) conservation o momentum b) conservation o energy c) conservation o mass along the low

More information

Introduction to Simulation - Lecture 2. Equation Formulation Methods. Jacob White. Thanks to Deepak Ramaswamy, Michal Rewienski, and Karen Veroy

Introduction to Simulation - Lecture 2. Equation Formulation Methods. Jacob White. Thanks to Deepak Ramaswamy, Michal Rewienski, and Karen Veroy Introduction to Simulation - Lecture Equation Formulation Methods Jacob White Thanks to Deepak Ramaswamy, Michal Rewienski, and Karen Veroy Outline Formulating Equations rom Schematics Struts and Joints

More information

COMPARISON OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN THE PLATE-FIN AND PIN-FIN HEAT SINKS IN NATURAL CONVECTION

COMPARISON OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN THE PLATE-FIN AND PIN-FIN HEAT SINKS IN NATURAL CONVECTION HEFAT014 10 th International Conerence on Heat Transer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 14 6 July 014 Orlando, Florida COMPARISON OF THERMA CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN THE PATE-FIN AND PIN-FIN HEAT SINKS

More information

Acoustic forcing of flexural waves and acoustic fields for a thin plate in a fluid

Acoustic forcing of flexural waves and acoustic fields for a thin plate in a fluid Acoustic orcing o leural waves and acoustic ields or a thin plate in a luid Darryl MCMAHON Maritime Division, Deence Science and Technology Organisation, HMAS Stirling, WA Australia ABSTACT Consistency

More information

FATIGUE DURABILITY OF CONCRETE EXTERNALLY STRENGTHENED WITH FRP SHEETS

FATIGUE DURABILITY OF CONCRETE EXTERNALLY STRENGTHENED WITH FRP SHEETS FATIGUE DURABILITY OF CONCRETE EXTERNALLY STRENGTHENED WITH FRP SHEETS H. Diab () and Zhishen Wu () () Department o Urban and Civil Engineering, Ibaraki University, Japan Abstract A primary concern o the

More information

ME 328 Machine Design Vibration handout (vibrations is not covered in text)

ME 328 Machine Design Vibration handout (vibrations is not covered in text) ME 38 Machine Design Vibration handout (vibrations is not covered in text) The ollowing are two good textbooks or vibrations (any edition). There are numerous other texts o equal quality. M. L. James,

More information

Thickness Optimization of a Piezoelectric Converter for Energy Harvesting

Thickness Optimization of a Piezoelectric Converter for Energy Harvesting Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 29 Milan Thickness Optimization of a Piezoelectric Converter for Energy Harvesting M. Guizzetti* 1, V. Ferrari 1, D. Marioli 1 and T. Zawada 2 1 Dept.

More information

Frequency damage indicators for piezoelectric composites

Frequency damage indicators for piezoelectric composites Frequency damage indicators or piezoelectric composites *Ayech Benjeddou ), Mohsen Hamdi ) and Samir Ghanmi ) ) Structures, SUPMECA, Saint Ouen 900, France ) benjeddou@supmeca.r,) Technology department,

More information

Non-newtonian Rabinowitsch Fluid Effects on the Lubrication Performances of Sine Film Thrust Bearings

Non-newtonian Rabinowitsch Fluid Effects on the Lubrication Performances of Sine Film Thrust Bearings International Journal o Mechanical Engineering and Applications 7; 5(): 6-67 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijmea doi:.648/j.ijmea.75.4 ISSN: -X (Print); ISSN: -48 (Online) Non-newtonian Rabinowitsch

More information

774. Tribological adhesion of particles in acoustic field

774. Tribological adhesion of particles in acoustic field 774. Tribological adhesion o particles in acoustic ield Vladas Vekteris 1 Vytautas Striška Vadim Mokšin 3 Darius Ozarovskis 4 Rolandas Zaremba 5 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Department o Machine

More information

8.4 Inverse Functions

8.4 Inverse Functions Section 8. Inverse Functions 803 8. Inverse Functions As we saw in the last section, in order to solve application problems involving eponential unctions, we will need to be able to solve eponential equations

More information

Load-Carrying Capacity of Timber - Wood Fibre Insulation Board - Joints with Dowel Type Fasteners

Load-Carrying Capacity of Timber - Wood Fibre Insulation Board - Joints with Dowel Type Fasteners Load-Carrying Capacity o Timber - Wood ibre Insulation Board - Joints with Dowel Type asteners G. Gebhardt, H.J. Blaß Lehrstuhl ür Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen Universität Karlsruhe, Germany

More information

WELDED ALUMINUM ALLOY PLATE GIRDERS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR FORCE

WELDED ALUMINUM ALLOY PLATE GIRDERS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR FORCE Advanced Steel Construction Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 71-94 (2012) 71 WELDED ALUMINUM ALLOY PLATE GIRDERS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR FORCE Feng Zhou 1a, 1b, Ben Young 2,* and Hin-Chung Lam 3 1a Department o Building

More information

Fatigue verification of high loaded bolts of a rocket combustion chamber.

Fatigue verification of high loaded bolts of a rocket combustion chamber. Fatigue veriication o high loaded bolts o a rocket combustion chamber. Marcus Lehmann 1 & Dieter Hummel 1 1 Airbus Deence and Space, Munich Zusammenassung Rocket engines withstand intense thermal and structural

More information

I. INTRODUCTION II. SAMPLE PREPARATION JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 92, NUMBER 5 1 SEPTEMBER

I. INTRODUCTION II. SAMPLE PREPARATION JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 92, NUMBER 5 1 SEPTEMBER JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 92, NUMBER 5 1 SEPTEMBER 2002 Longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients of lead zirconate titanateõvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene composites with different

More information

Fluctuationlessness Theorem and its Application to Boundary Value Problems of ODEs

Fluctuationlessness Theorem and its Application to Boundary Value Problems of ODEs Fluctuationlessness Theorem and its Application to Boundary Value Problems o ODEs NEJLA ALTAY İstanbul Technical University Inormatics Institute Maslak, 34469, İstanbul TÜRKİYE TURKEY) nejla@be.itu.edu.tr

More information

VIBRATION CONTROL OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-PLY FRP PLATES USING PZT MATERIALS

VIBRATION CONTROL OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-PLY FRP PLATES USING PZT MATERIALS Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 12, No. 12 (217) 3398-3411 School of Engineering, Taylor s University VIBRATION CONTROL OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-PLY FRP PLATES USING PZT MATERIALS DILEEP

More information

Sensors & Transducers 2016 by IFSA Publishing, S. L.

Sensors & Transducers 2016 by IFSA Publishing, S. L. Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 96, Issue, January 206, pp. 52-56 Sensors & Transducers 206 by IFSA Publishing, S. L. http://www.sensorsportal.com Collapse Mode Characteristics of Parallel Plate Ultrasonic

More information

APPENDIX 1 ERROR ESTIMATION

APPENDIX 1 ERROR ESTIMATION 1 APPENDIX 1 ERROR ESTIMATION Measurements are always subject to some uncertainties no matter how modern and expensive equipment is used or how careully the measurements are perormed These uncertainties

More information

Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting. Characteristics of Barium Titanate Laminates

Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting. Characteristics of Barium Titanate Laminates Advances in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Vol. 9, 2016, no. 1, 43-54 HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikari.com http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/atam.2016.634 Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Characteristics

More information

Material Properties and Vibration Isolation Technical information

Material Properties and Vibration Isolation Technical information Material Properties and Vibration Isolation Technical inormation General inormation on Sylomer Sylomer is a special PUR elastomer manuactured by Getzner, which eatures a cellular, compact orm and is used

More information

6.013 Recitation 13: Introduction to Electric Forces and Generators

6.013 Recitation 13: Introduction to Electric Forces and Generators 6.013 Recitation 13: Introduction to Electric Forces and Generators A. Overview This section introduces electrostatic orces and generators and explores their application to micro-electromechanical systems

More information

General Case for Deriving Four Pole Coefficients for Gas Pulsation

General Case for Deriving Four Pole Coefficients for Gas Pulsation urdue University urdue e-ubs International Compressor Engineering Conerence School o Mechanical Engineering 21 General Case or Deriving Four ole Coeicients or Gas ulsation Nasir Bilal urdue University

More information

Introduction. Methods of vibration control

Introduction. Methods of vibration control ISSN: 394-3696 VOLUME 1, ISSUE DEC-014 Identiication o coulomb, viscous and particle damping parameters rom the response o SDOF harmonically orced linear oscillator Mr.U.L.Anuse. Department o Mechanical

More information

IMPACT BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE INTERIOR PARTS

IMPACT BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE INTERIOR PARTS 0 th HSTAM International Congress on Mechanics Chania, Crete, Greece, 5 7 May, 03 IMPACT BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE INTERIOR PARTS Mariana D. Stanciu, Ioan Curtu and Ovidiu M.

More information

Bond strength model for interfaces between nearsurface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips and concrete

Bond strength model for interfaces between nearsurface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips and concrete University o Wollongong Research Online Faculty o Engineering and Inormation Sciences - Papers: Part A Faculty o Engineering and Inormation Sciences 2014 Bond strength model or interaces between nearsurace

More information

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 MASSACHUSTTS INSTITUT OF TCHNOLOGY DPARTMNT OF MATRIALS SCINC AND NGINRING CAMBRIDG, MASSACHUSTTS 0239 322 MCHANICAL PROPRTIS OF MATRIALS PROBLM ST 4 SOLUTIONS Consider a 500 nm thick aluminum ilm on a

More information

DAMPING CONTROL OF A PZT MULTILAYER VIBRATION USING NEGATIVE IMPEDANCE CIRCUIT

DAMPING CONTROL OF A PZT MULTILAYER VIBRATION USING NEGATIVE IMPEDANCE CIRCUIT International Workshop SMART MATERIALS, STRUCTURES & NDT in AEROSPACE Conference NDT in Canada 2011 2-4 November 2011, Montreal, Quebec, Canada DAMPING CONTROL OF A PZT MULTILAYER VIBRATION USING NEGATIVE

More information

ELECTROMECHANICAL RESPONSE OF PIEZOELECTRIC FOAMS

ELECTROMECHANICAL RESPONSE OF PIEZOELECTRIC FOAMS 18 TH INTRNATIONAL CONFRNC ON COMPOSIT MATRIALS LCTROMCHANICAL RSPONS OF PIZOLCTRIC FOAMS K.S. Challagulla 1 *, T.A. Venkatesh 1 School of ngineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada, Department

More information

Open Access Dynamic Parameters Identification for the Feeding System of Commercial Numerical Control Machine

Open Access Dynamic Parameters Identification for the Feeding System of Commercial Numerical Control Machine Send Orders or Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.net The Open Automation and Control Systems Journal, 13, 5, 161-166 161 Open Access Dynamic Parameters Identiication or the Feeding System o Commercial

More information

A study on the Accelerated Life Test Coupled with Computation for Life Prediction of Product According to Wear and Damage

A study on the Accelerated Life Test Coupled with Computation for Life Prediction of Product According to Wear and Damage International Journal o Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:15 No:03 106 A study on the Accelerated Lie Test Coupled with Computation or Lie Prediction o Product According to Wear and

More information

INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCES OF ELECTROMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLZT CERAMICS

INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCES OF ELECTROMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLZT CERAMICS Molecular and Quantum Acoustics vol. 28 (2007) 47 INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCES OF ELECTROMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLZT CERAMICS M. CZERWIEC, R. ZACHARIASZ and J. ILCZUK Department of Material

More information

Design criteria for Fiber Reinforced Rubber Bearings

Design criteria for Fiber Reinforced Rubber Bearings Design criteria or Fiber Reinorced Rubber Bearings J. M. Kelly Earthquake Engineering Research Center University o Caliornia, Berkeley A. Calabrese & G. Serino Department o Structural Engineering University

More information

Measurements of Radial In-plane Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Disk Transducers

Measurements of Radial In-plane Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Disk Transducers Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 25(1) : 13~23, 2015 한국소음진동공학회논문집제 25 권제 1 호, pp. 13~23, 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.5050/ksnve.2015.25.1.013 ISSN 1598-2785(Print), ISSN 2287-5476(Online) Measurements

More information

Manufacturing Remaining Stresses in Truck Frame Rail's Fatigue Life Prediction

Manufacturing Remaining Stresses in Truck Frame Rail's Fatigue Life Prediction Manuacturing Remaining Stresses in Truck Frame Rail's Fatigue Lie Prediction Claudiomar C. Cunha & Carlos A. N. Dias MSX International & Department o Naval Engineering EPUSP/USP/Brazil Department o Mechanical

More information

Non-linear Properties of Piezoelectric Ceramics

Non-linear Properties of Piezoelectric Ceramics Invited Paper Non-linear Properties of Piezoelectric Ceramics B.K. Mukherjee *, W. Ren, S-F. Liu, A.J. Masys and G. Yang Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, Canada,

More information

MSE405 Microstructure Characterization XRD-1 Lab X-ray diffraction in crystallography

MSE405 Microstructure Characterization XRD-1 Lab X-ray diffraction in crystallography X-ray diraction in crystallography I. Goals Crystallography is the science that studies the structure (and structure-derived properties) o crystals. Among its many tools, X-ray diraction (XRD) has had

More information

Physics 5153 Classical Mechanics. Solution by Quadrature-1

Physics 5153 Classical Mechanics. Solution by Quadrature-1 October 14, 003 11:47:49 1 Introduction Physics 5153 Classical Mechanics Solution by Quadrature In the previous lectures, we have reduced the number o eective degrees o reedom that are needed to solve

More information

Linear Motion Test Review. 4. What does it mean when the sign of the acceleration is different than the sign of the velocity? Object is slowing down.

Linear Motion Test Review. 4. What does it mean when the sign of the acceleration is different than the sign of the velocity? Object is slowing down. Linear Motion Test Review 1. What is the slope o the graph o position versus time? LOOK IT UP IN YOUR NOTES 2. What is the slope o the graph o velocity versus time? LOOK IT UP IN YOUR NOTES 3. Name three

More information

Piezo Theory: Chapter 1 - Physics & Design

Piezo Theory: Chapter 1 - Physics & Design Piezoelectric effect inverse piezoelectric effect The result of external forces to a piezoelectric material is positive and negative electrical charges at the surface of the material. If electrodes are

More information

Strain and Stress Measurements with a Two-Dimensional Detector

Strain and Stress Measurements with a Two-Dimensional Detector Copyright ISSN (C) 97-, JCPDS-International Advances in X-ray Centre Analysis, or Volume Diraction 4 Data 999 5 Strain and Stress Measurements with a Two-Dimensional Detector Baoping Bob He and Kingsley

More information

Finite Element Modeling of Residual Thermal Stresses in Fiber-Reinforced Composites Using Different Representative Volume Elements

Finite Element Modeling of Residual Thermal Stresses in Fiber-Reinforced Composites Using Different Representative Volume Elements Proceedings o the World Congress on Engineering 21 Vol II WCE 21, June 3 - July 2, 21, London, U.K. Finite Element Modeling o Residual Thermal Stresses in Fiber-Reinorced Composites Using Dierent Representative

More information

Heat transfer studies for a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline

Heat transfer studies for a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline Sādhanā Vol. 34, Part 2, April 2009, pp. 243 254. Printed in India Heat transer studies or a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline A K SINHA Synchrotron Utilisation and Materials Research Division,

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Energy Procedia 83 (2015 ) Václav Dvo ák a *, Tomáš Vít a

Available online at   ScienceDirect. Energy Procedia 83 (2015 ) Václav Dvo ák a *, Tomáš Vít a Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Energy Procedia 83 (205 ) 34 349 7th International Conerence on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings Numerical investigation o counter low plate

More information

Syllabus Objective: 2.9 The student will sketch the graph of a polynomial, radical, or rational function.

Syllabus Objective: 2.9 The student will sketch the graph of a polynomial, radical, or rational function. Precalculus Notes: Unit Polynomial Functions Syllabus Objective:.9 The student will sketch the graph o a polynomial, radical, or rational unction. Polynomial Function: a unction that can be written in

More information

ROAD MAP... D-1: Aerodynamics of 3-D Wings D-2: Boundary Layer and Viscous Effects D-3: XFLR (Aerodynamics Analysis Tool)

ROAD MAP... D-1: Aerodynamics of 3-D Wings D-2: Boundary Layer and Viscous Effects D-3: XFLR (Aerodynamics Analysis Tool) AE301 Aerodynamics I UNIT D: Applied Aerodynamics ROAD MAP... D-1: Aerodynamics o 3-D Wings D-2: Boundary Layer and Viscous Eects D-3: XFLR (Aerodynamics Analysis Tool) AE301 Aerodynamics I : List o Subjects

More information

Micro-canonical ensemble model of particles obeying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics

Micro-canonical ensemble model of particles obeying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics Indian Journal o Pure & Applied Physics Vol. 4, October 004, pp. 749-757 Micro-canonical ensemble model o particles obeying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics Y K Ayodo, K M Khanna & T W Sakwa Department

More information

Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of an Actual Large Size Wall Foundation by Experiments and Analyses

Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of an Actual Large Size Wall Foundation by Experiments and Analyses Proceedings Third UJNR Workshop on Soil-Structure Interaction, March 9-3, 4, Menlo Park, Caliornia, USA. Study on the Dynamic Characteristics o an Actual Large Size Wall Foundation by s and Analyses Masanobu

More information

Lecture 8 Optimization

Lecture 8 Optimization 4/9/015 Lecture 8 Optimization EE 4386/5301 Computational Methods in EE Spring 015 Optimization 1 Outline Introduction 1D Optimization Parabolic interpolation Golden section search Newton s method Multidimensional

More information

New Mathematical Models of Axial Cutting Force and Torque in Drilling 20MoCr130 Stainless Steel

New Mathematical Models of Axial Cutting Force and Torque in Drilling 20MoCr130 Stainless Steel Proceedings o the 1th WSEAS International Conerence on MATHEMATICAL and COMPUTATIONAL METHODS in SCIENCE and ENGINEERING (MACMESE'8) New Mathematical Models o Axial Cutting Force and Torque in Drilling

More information

ABSTRACT. Professor Alexander. L. Roytburd Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

ABSTRACT. Professor Alexander. L. Roytburd Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering ABSTRAT Title o Document: ORIENTATION DEPENDENE OF THE PIEZOELETRI PROPERTIES OF EPITAXIAL FERROELETRI THIN FILMS Jun Ouyang, Doctor o Philosophy, 25 Directed By: Proessor Alexander. L. Roytburd Dept.

More information

2.6 Two-dimensional continuous interpolation 3: Kriging - introduction to geostatistics. References - geostatistics. References geostatistics (cntd.

2.6 Two-dimensional continuous interpolation 3: Kriging - introduction to geostatistics. References - geostatistics. References geostatistics (cntd. .6 Two-dimensional continuous interpolation 3: Kriging - introduction to geostatistics Spline interpolation was originally developed or image processing. In GIS, it is mainly used in visualization o spatial

More information

/06/$ IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference

/06/$ IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference Tailoring the Temperature Coeicient o Capacitance (TCC), Dielectric Loss and Capacitance Density with Ceramic-Polymer Nanocomposites or RF Applications Isaac Robin Abothu, Baik-Woo Lee, P. Markondeya Raj,

More information

SOME RESEARCH ON FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

SOME RESEARCH ON FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS The 3 rd International Conerence on DIAGNOSIS AND PREDICTION IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS DIPRE 12 SOME RESEARCH ON FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF Valeriu DULGHERU, Viorel BOSTAN, Marin GUŢU Technical

More information

ME 515 Mechatronics. Overview of Computer based Control System

ME 515 Mechatronics. Overview of Computer based Control System ME 515 Mechatronics Introduction to Sensors I Asanga Ratnaweera Department of Faculty of Engineering University of Peradeniya Tel: 081239 (3627) Email: asangar@pdn.ac.lk Overview of Computer based Control

More information