Optimization for Machine Learning


 Giles Cummings
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1 Optimization for Machine Learning (Problems; Algorithms  A) SUVRIT SRA Massachusetts Institute of Technology PKU Summer School on Data Science (July 2017)
2 Course materials Some references: Introductory lectures on convex optimization Nesterov Convex optimization Boyd & Vandenberghe Nonlinear programming Bertsekas Convex Analysis Rockafellar Fundamentals of convex analysis Urruty, Lemaréchal Lectures on modern convex optimization Nemirovski Optimization for Machine Learning Sra, Nowozin, Wright Theory of Convex Optimization for Machine Learning Bubeck NIPS 2016 Optimization Tutorial Bach, Sra Some related courses: EE227A, Spring 2013, (Sra, UC Berkeley) , Spring 2014 (Sra, CMU) EE364a,b (Boyd, Stanford) EE236b,c (Vandenberghe, UCLA) Venues: NIPS, ICML, UAI, AISTATS, SIOPT, Math. Prog. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 2 / 36
3 Lecture Plan Introduction (3 lectures) Problems and algorithms (5 lectures) Nonconvex optimization, perspectives (2 lectures) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 3 / 36
4 Constrained problems Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 4 / 36
5 Optimality constrained For every x, y dom f, we have f (y) f (x) + f (x), y x. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 5 / 36
6 Optimality constrained For every x, y dom f, we have f (y) f (x) + f (x), y x. Thus, x is optimal if and only if f (x ), y x 0, for all y X. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 5 / 36
7 Optimality constrained For every x, y dom f, we have f (y) f (x) + f (x), y x. Thus, x is optimal if and only if f (x ), y x 0, for all y X. If X = R n, this reduces to f (x ) = 0 f(x) X x f(x ) x If f (x ) 0, it defines supporting hyperplane to X at x Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 5 / 36
8 Optimality conditions constrained Proof: Suppose y X such that f (x ), y x < 0 Using meanvalue theorem of calculus, ξ [0, 1] s.t. f (x + t(y x )) = f (x ) + f (x + ξt(y x )), t(y x ) (we applied MVT to g(t) := f (x + t(y x ))) For sufficiently small t, since f continuous, by assump on y, f (x + ξt(y x )), y x < 0 This in turn implies that f (x + t(y x )) < f (x ) Since X is convex, x + t(y x ) X is also feasible Contradiction to local optimality of x Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 6 / 36
9 Example: projection operator P X (z) := argmin x z 2 x X (Assume X is closed and convex, then projection is unique) Let X be nonempty, closed and convex. Optimality condition: x = P X (y) iff x z, y x 0 for all y X Exercise: Prove that projection is nonexpansive, i.e., P X (x) P X (y) 2 x y 2 for all x, y R n. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 7 / 36
10 Feasible descent min f (x) s.t. x X f (x ), x x 0, x X. f(x) X x f(x ) x Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 8 / 36
11 Feasible descent x k+1 = x k + α k d k Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 9 / 36
12 Feasible descent x k+1 = x k + α k d k d k feasible direction, i.e., x k + α k d k X Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 9 / 36
13 Feasible descent x k+1 = x k + α k d k d k feasible direction, i.e., x k + α k d k X d k must also be descent direction, i.e., f (x k ), d k < 0 Stepsize α k chosen to ensure feasibility and descent. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 9 / 36
14 Feasible descent x k+1 = x k + α k d k d k feasible direction, i.e., x k + α k d k X d k must also be descent direction, i.e., f (x k ), d k < 0 Stepsize α k chosen to ensure feasibility and descent. Since X is convex, all feasible directions are of the form d k = γ(z x k ), γ > 0, where z X is any feasible vector. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 9 / 36
15 Feasible descent x k+1 = x k + α k d k d k feasible direction, i.e., x k + α k d k X d k must also be descent direction, i.e., f (x k ), d k < 0 Stepsize α k chosen to ensure feasibility and descent. Since X is convex, all feasible directions are of the form d k = γ(z x k ), γ > 0, where z X is any feasible vector. x k+1 = x k + α k (z k x k ), α k (0, 1] Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 9 / 36
16 Cone of feasible directions x Feasible directions at x X d Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 10 / 36
17 FrankWolfe / conditional gradient method Optimality: f (x k ), z k x k 0 for all z k X Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 11 / 36
18 FrankWolfe / conditional gradient method Optimality: f (x k ), z k x k 0 for all z k X Aim: If not optimal, then generate feasible direction d k = z k x k that obeys descent condition f (x k ), d k < 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 11 / 36
19 FrankWolfe / conditional gradient method Optimality: f (x k ), z k x k 0 for all z k X Aim: If not optimal, then generate feasible direction d k = z k x k that obeys descent condition f (x k ), d k < 0. FrankWolfe (Conditional gradient) method Let z k argmin x X f (x k ), x x k Use different methods to select α k x k+1 = x k + α k (z k x k ) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 11 / 36
20 FrankWolfe / conditional gradient method Optimality: f (x k ), z k x k 0 for all z k X Aim: If not optimal, then generate feasible direction d k = z k x k that obeys descent condition f (x k ), d k < 0. FrankWolfe (Conditional gradient) method Let z k argmin x X f (x k ), x x k Use different methods to select α k x k+1 = x k + α k (z k x k ) Due to M. Frank and P. Wolfe (1956) Practical when solving linear problem over X easy Very popular in machine learning over recent years Refinements, several variants (including nonconvex) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 11 / 36
21 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
22 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
23 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, f (x k+1 ) f (x ) = f ((1 α k )x k + α k z k ) f (x ) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
24 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, f (x k+1 ) f (x ) = f ((1 α k )x k + α k z k ) f (x ) f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), z k x k α2 k C Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
25 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, f (x k+1 ) f (x ) = f ((1 α k )x k + α k z k ) f (x ) f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), z k x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), x x k α2 k C Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
26 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, f (x k+1 ) f (x ) = f ((1 α k )x k + α k z k ) f (x ) f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), z k x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), x x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) α k (f (x k ) f (x )) α2 k C Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
27 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, f (x k+1 ) f (x ) = f ((1 α k )x k + α k z k ) f (x ) f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), z k x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), x x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) α k (f (x k ) f (x )) α2 k C = (1 α k )(f (x k ) f (x )) α2 k C. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
28 FrankWolfe: Convergence Assum: There is a C 0 s.t. for all x, z X and α (0, 1): f ( (1 α)x + αz) f (x) + α f (x), z x Cα2. Let α k = 2 k+2. Recall xk+1 = (1 α k )x k + α k z k ; thus, f (x k+1 ) f (x ) = f ((1 α k )x k + α k z k ) f (x ) f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), z k x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) + α k f (x k ), x x k α2 k C f (x k ) f (x ) α k (f (x k ) f (x )) α2 k C = (1 α k )(f (x k ) f (x )) α2 k C. A simple induction (Verify!) then shows that f (x k ) f (x ) 2C k + 2, k 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 12 / 36
29 Example: Linear Oracle Suppose X = { x p 1 }, for p > 1. Write Linear Oracle (LO) as maximization problem: max z g, z s.t. z p 1. What is the answer? Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 13 / 36
30 Example: Linear Oracle Suppose X = { x p 1 }, for p > 1. Write Linear Oracle (LO) as maximization problem: max z g, z s.t. z p 1. What is the answer? Hint: Recall, g, z z p g q. Pick z to obtain equality. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 13 / 36
31 Example: Linear Oracle Suppose X = { x p 1 }, for p > 1. Write Linear Oracle (LO) as maximization problem: max z g, z s.t. z p 1. What is the answer? Hint: Recall, g, z z p g q. Pick z to obtain equality. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 13 / 36
32 Example: Linear Oracle max Z Trace norm LO G, Z σ i(z) 1. i Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 14 / 36
33 Example: Linear Oracle max Z Trace norm LO G, Z σ i(z) 1. i max { G, Z Z 1} is just the dualnorm to the trace norm; see Lectures 13 for more on dual norms. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 14 / 36
34 Example: Linear Oracle max Z Trace norm LO G, Z σ i(z) 1. i max { G, Z Z 1} is just the dualnorm to the trace norm; see Lectures 13 for more on dual norms. can be shown that G 2 is the dual norm here. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 14 / 36
35 Example: Linear Oracle max Z Trace norm LO G, Z σ i(z) 1. i max { G, Z Z 1} is just the dualnorm to the trace norm; see Lectures 13 for more on dual norms. can be shown that G 2 is the dual norm here. Optimal Z satisfies G, Z = G 2 Z = G 2 ; use Lanczos (or using power method) to compute top singular vectors. (for more examples: Jaggi, Revisiting FrankWolfe:...) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 14 / 36
36 Extensions How about FW for nonconvex objective functions? What about FW methods that can converge faster than O(1/k)? Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 15 / 36
37 Extensions How about FW for nonconvex objective functions? What about FW methods that can converge faster than O(1/k)? NonconvexFW possible. It works (i.e., satisfies firstorder optimality conditions to ɛaccuracy in O(1/ɛ) iterations (LacosteJulien 2016; Reddi et al. 2016). Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 15 / 36
38 Extensions How about FW for nonconvex objective functions? What about FW methods that can converge faster than O(1/k)? NonconvexFW possible. It works (i.e., satisfies firstorder optimality conditions to ɛaccuracy in O(1/ɛ) iterations (LacosteJulien 2016; Reddi et al. 2016). Linear convergence under quite strong assumptions on both f and X ; alternatively, use a more complicated method: FW with Away Steps (GuelatMarcotte 1986); more recently (Jaggi, LacosteJulien 2016) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 15 / 36
39 Quadratic oracle: projection methods FW can be quite slow If X not compact, LO does not make sense A possible alternative (with other weaknesses though!) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 16 / 36
40 Quadratic oracle: projection methods FW can be quite slow If X not compact, LO does not make sense A possible alternative (with other weaknesses though!) If constraint set X is simple, i.e., we can easily solve projections min 1 2 x y 2 s.t. x X. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 16 / 36
41 Quadratic oracle: projection methods FW can be quite slow If X not compact, LO does not make sense A possible alternative (with other weaknesses though!) If constraint set X is simple, i.e., we can easily solve projections min 1 2 x y 2 s.t. x X. Projected Gradient x k+1 = P X ( x k α k f (x k ) ), k = 0, 1,... where P X denotes above orthogonal projection. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 16 / 36
42 Quadratic oracle: projection methods FW can be quite slow If X not compact, LO does not make sense A possible alternative (with other weaknesses though!) If constraint set X is simple, i.e., we can easily solve projections min 1 2 x y 2 s.t. x X. Projected Gradient x k+1 = P X ( x k α k f (x k ) ), k = 0, 1,... where P X denotes above orthogonal projection. PG can be much faster than O(1/k) of FW (e.g., O(e k ) for strongly convex); but LO can be sometimes much faster than projections. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 16 / 36
43 Projected Gradient convergence Depends on the following crucial properties of P: Nonexpansivity: Px Py 2 x y 2 Firm nonxpansivity: Px Py 2 2 Px Py, x y Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 17 / 36
44 Projected Gradient convergence Depends on the following crucial properties of P: Nonexpansivity: Px Py 2 x y 2 Firm nonxpansivity: Px Py 2 2 Px Py, x y Using projections, essentially convergence analysis with α k = 1/L for the unconstrained case works. Exercise: Let f (x) = 1 2 Ax b 2 2. Write a Matlab/Python script to minimize this function over the convex set X := { 1 x i 1} using projected gradient as well as FrankWolfe. Compare the two. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 17 / 36
45 Duality Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 18 / 36
46 Primal problem Let f i : R n R (0 i m). Generic nonlinear program min f 0 (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, 1 i m, x {dom f 0 dom f 1 dom f m }. (P) Def. Domain: The set D := {dom f 0 dom f 1 dom f m } We call (P) the primal problem The variable x is the primal variable We will attach to (P) a dual problem In our initial derivation: no restriction to convexity. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 19 / 36
47 Lagrangian To the primal problem, associate Lagrangian L : R n R m R, L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + m λ if i (x). i=1 Variables λ R m called Lagrange multipliers Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 20 / 36
48 Lagrangian To the primal problem, associate Lagrangian L : R n R m R, L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + m λ if i (x). i=1 Variables λ R m called Lagrange multipliers If x is feasible, λ 0, then we get the lowerbound f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ R m +. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 20 / 36
49 Lagrangian To the primal problem, associate Lagrangian L : R n R m R, L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + m λ if i (x). i=1 Variables λ R m called Lagrange multipliers If x is feasible, λ 0, then we get the lowerbound f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ R m +. Lagrangian helps write problem in unconstrained form Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 20 / 36
50 Lagrangian Claim: Since, f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ R m +, primal optimal p = inf x X sup λ 0 L(x, λ). Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 21 / 36
51 Lagrangian Claim: Since, f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ R m +, primal optimal p = inf x X sup λ 0 L(x, λ). Proof: If x is not feasible, then some f i (x) > 0 Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 21 / 36
52 Lagrangian Claim: Since, f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ R m +, primal optimal p = inf x X sup λ 0 L(x, λ). Proof: If x is not feasible, then some f i (x) > 0 In this case, inner sup is +, so claim true by definition Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 21 / 36
53 Lagrangian Claim: Since, f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ R m +, primal optimal p = inf x X sup λ 0 L(x, λ). Proof: If x is not feasible, then some f i (x) > 0 In this case, inner sup is +, so claim true by definition If x is feasible, each f i (x) 0, so sup λ i λ if i (x) = 0 Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 21 / 36
54 Lagrange dual function Def. We define the Lagrangian dual as g(λ) := inf x L(x, λ). Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 22 / 36
55 Lagrange dual function Def. We define the Lagrangian dual as g(λ) := inf x L(x, λ). Observations: g is pointwise inf of affine functions of λ Thus, g is concave; it may take value Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 22 / 36
56 Lagrange dual function Def. We define the Lagrangian dual as g(λ) := inf x L(x, λ). Observations: g is pointwise inf of affine functions of λ Thus, g is concave; it may take value Recall: f 0 (x) L(x, λ) x X, λ 0; thus x X, f 0 (x) inf x L(x, λ) =: g(λ) Now minimize over x on lhs, to obtain λ R m + p g(λ). Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 22 / 36
57 Lagrange dual problem sup g(λ) s.t. λ 0. λ Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 23 / 36
58 Lagrange dual problem sup g(λ) s.t. λ 0. λ dual feasible: if λ 0 and g(λ) > dual optimal: λ if sup is achieved Lagrange dual is always concave, regardless of original Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 23 / 36
59 Weak duality Def. Denote dual optimal value by d, i.e., d := sup λ 0 g(λ). Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 24 / 36
60 Weak duality Def. Denote dual optimal value by d, i.e., d := sup λ 0 g(λ). Theorem. (Weakduality): For problem (P), we have p d. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 24 / 36
61 Weak duality Def. Denote dual optimal value by d, i.e., d := sup λ 0 g(λ). Theorem. (Weakduality): For problem (P), we have p d. Proof: We showed that for all λ R m +, p g(λ). Thus, it follows that p sup g(λ) = d. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 24 / 36
62 Duality gap p d 0 Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 25 / 36
63 Duality gap p d 0 Strong duality if duality gap is zero: p = d Notice: both p and d may be + Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 25 / 36
64 Duality gap p d 0 Strong duality if duality gap is zero: p = d Notice: both p and d may be + Several sufficient conditions known, especially for convex optimization. Easy necessary and sufficient conditions: unknown Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 25 / 36
65 Example: Slater s sufficient conditions min f 0 (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, 1 i m, Ax = b. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 26 / 36
66 Example: Slater s sufficient conditions min f 0 (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, 1 i m, Ax = b. Constraint qualification: There exists x ri D s.t. f i (x) < 0, Ax = b. That is, there is a strictly feasible point. Theorem. Let the primal problem be convex. If there is a feasible point such that is strictly feasible for the nonaffine constraints (and merely feasible for affine, linear ones), then strong duality holds. Moreover, the dual optimal is attained (i.e., d > ). Reading: Read BV for a proof. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 26 / 36
67 Example: failure of strong duality min x,y e x x 2 /y 0, over the domain D = {(x, y) y > 0}. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 27 / 36
68 Example: failure of strong duality min x,y e x x 2 /y 0, over the domain D = {(x, y) y > 0}. Clearly, only feasible x = 0. So p = 1 Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 27 / 36
69 Example: failure of strong duality min x,y e x x 2 /y 0, over the domain D = {(x, y) y > 0}. Clearly, only feasible x = 0. So p = 1 L(x, y, λ) = e x + λx 2 /y, so dual function is { g(λ) = inf x,y>0 e x + λx 2 0 λ 0 y = λ < 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 27 / 36
70 Example: failure of strong duality min x,y e x x 2 /y 0, over the domain D = {(x, y) y > 0}. Clearly, only feasible x = 0. So p = 1 L(x, y, λ) = e x + λx 2 /y, so dual function is { g(λ) = inf x,y>0 e x + λx 2 0 λ 0 y = λ < 0. Dual problem d = max 0 s.t. λ 0. λ Thus, d = 0, and gap is p d = 1. Here, we had no strictly feasible solution. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 27 / 36
71 Zero duality gap: nonconvex example Trust region subproblem (TRS) min x T Ax + 2b T x x T x 1. A is symmetric but not necessarily semidefinite! Theorem. TRS always has zero duality gap. Remark: Above theorem extremely important; part of family of related results for certain quadratic nonconvex problems. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 28 / 36
72 Example: Maxent min i x i log x i Ax b, 1 T x = 1, x > 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 29 / 36
73 Example: Maxent min i x i log x i Ax b, 1 T x = 1, x > 0. Convex conjugate of f (x) = x log x is f (y) = e y 1. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 29 / 36
74 Example: Maxent min i x i log x i Ax b, 1 T x = 1, x > 0. Convex conjugate of f (x) = x log x is f (y) = e y 1. max λ,ν g(λ, ν) = b T λ v n s.t. λ 0. i=1 e (AT λ) i ν 1 Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 29 / 36
75 Example: Maxent min i x i log x i Ax b, 1 T x = 1, x > 0. Convex conjugate of f (x) = x log x is f (y) = e y 1. max λ,ν g(λ, ν) = b T λ v n s.t. λ 0. i=1 e (AT λ) i ν 1 If there is x > 0 with Ax b and 1 T x = 1, strong duality holds. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 29 / 36
76 Example: Maxent min i x i log x i Ax b, 1 T x = 1, x > 0. Convex conjugate of f (x) = x log x is f (y) = e y 1. max λ,ν g(λ, ν) = b T λ v n s.t. λ 0. i=1 e (AT λ) i ν 1 If there is x > 0 with Ax b and 1 T x = 1, strong duality holds. Exercise: Simplify above dual by optimizing out ν Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 29 / 36
77 Example: dual for Support Vector Machine min x,ξ 1 2 x C i ξ i s.t. Ax 1 ξ, ξ 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 30 / 36
78 Example: dual for Support Vector Machine min x,ξ 1 2 x C i ξ i s.t. Ax 1 ξ, ξ 0. L(x, ξ, λ, ν) = 1 2 x C1T ξ λ T (Ax 1 + ξ) ν T ξ Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 30 / 36
79 Example: dual for Support Vector Machine min x,ξ 1 2 x C i ξ i s.t. Ax 1 ξ, ξ 0. L(x, ξ, λ, ν) = 1 2 x C1T ξ λ T (Ax 1 + ξ) ν T ξ g(λ, ν) := L(x, ξ, λ, ν) inf { = λ T AT λ 2 2 λ + ν = C1 + otherwise d = max λ 0,ν 0 g(λ, ν) Exercise: Using ν 0, eliminate ν from above problem. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 30 / 36
80 Dual via Fenchel conjugates min f (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, Ax = b. L(x, λ, ν) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) + ν T (Ax b) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 31 / 36
81 Dual via Fenchel conjugates min f (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, Ax = b. L(x, λ, ν) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) + ν T (Ax b) g(λ, ν) = inf L(x, λ, ν) x Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 31 / 36
82 Dual via Fenchel conjugates min f (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, Ax = b. L(x, λ, ν) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) + ν T (Ax b) g(λ, ν) = inf L(x, λ, ν) x g(λ, ν) = ν T b + inf x xt A T ν + F(x) F(x) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 31 / 36
83 Dual via Fenchel conjugates min f (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, Ax = b. L(x, λ, ν) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) + ν T (Ax b) g(λ, ν) = inf L(x, λ, ν) x g(λ, ν) = ν T b + inf x xt A T ν + F(x) F(x) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) g(λ, ν) = ν T b sup x x, A T ν F(x) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 31 / 36
84 Dual via Fenchel conjugates min f (x) s.t. f i (x) 0, Ax = b. L(x, λ, ν) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) + ν T (Ax b) g(λ, ν) = inf L(x, λ, ν) x g(λ, ν) = ν T b + inf x xt A T ν + F(x) F(x) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) g(λ, ν) = ν T b sup x g(λ, ν) = ν T b F ( A T ν). x, A T ν F(x) Not so useful! F hard to compute. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 31 / 36
85 Example: norm regularized problems min f (x) + Ax Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 32 / 36
86 Example: norm regularized problems min f (x) + Ax Dual problem min y f ( A T y) s.t. y 1. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 32 / 36
87 Example: norm regularized problems min f (x) + Ax Dual problem min y f ( A T y) s.t. y 1. Say ȳ < 1, such that A T ȳ ri(dom f ), then we have strong duality (e.g., for instance 0 ri(dom f )) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 32 / 36
88 Example: Lassolike problem p := min x Ax b 2 + λ x 1. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 33 / 36
89 Example: Lassolike problem p := min x Ax b 2 + λ x 1. { } x 1 = max x T v v 1 { } x 2 = max x T u u 2 1. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 33 / 36
90 Example: Lassolike problem p = min x p := min x Ax b 2 + λ x 1. { } x 1 = max x T v v 1 { } x 2 = max x T u u 2 1. max u,v Saddlepoint formulation { u T (b Ax) + v T x u 2 1, v λ } Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 33 / 36
91 Example: Lassolike problem p = min x = max u,v p := min x Ax b 2 + λ x 1. { } x 1 = max x T v v 1 { } x 2 = max x T u u 2 1. max u,v min x Saddlepoint formulation { } u T (b Ax) + v T x u 2 1, v λ { } u T (b Ax) + x T v u 2 1, v λ Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 33 / 36
92 Example: Lassolike problem p = min x = max u,v p := min x Ax b 2 + λ x 1. { } x 1 = max x T v v 1 { } x 2 = max x T u u 2 1. max u,v min x Saddlepoint formulation { } u T (b Ax) + v T x u 2 1, v λ { } u T (b Ax) + x T v u 2 1, v λ = max u,v ut b A T u = v, u 2 1, v λ Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 33 / 36
93 Example: Lassolike problem p = min x = max u,v p := min x Ax b 2 + λ x 1. { } x 1 = max x T v v 1 { } x 2 = max x T u u 2 1. max u,v min x Saddlepoint formulation { } u T (b Ax) + v T x u 2 1, v λ { } u T (b Ax) + x T v u 2 1, v λ = max u,v ut b A T u = v, u 2 1, v λ = max u T b u 2 1, A T v λ. u Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 33 / 36
94 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
95 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
96 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
97 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
98 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
99 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) = d = g(λ ) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
100 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) = d = g(λ ) = min x L(x, λ ) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
101 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) = d = g(λ ) = min x L(x, λ ) L(x, λ ) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
102 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) = d = g(λ ) = min L(x, λ ) L(x, λ ) f 0 (x ) = p x Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
103 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) = d = g(λ ) = min L(x, λ ) L(x, λ ) f 0 (x ) = p x Thus, equalities hold in above chain. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
104 Example: KKT conditions min f 0 (x) f i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. Recall: f 0 (x ), x x 0 for all feasible x X Can we simplify this using Lagrangian? g(λ) = inf x L(x, λ) := f 0 (x) + i λ if i (x) Assume strong duality; and both p and d attained! Thus, there exists a pair (x, λ ) such that p = f 0 (x ) = d = g(λ ) = min L(x, λ ) L(x, λ ) f 0 (x ) = p x Thus, equalities hold in above chain. x argmin x L(x, λ ). Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 34 / 36
105 Example: KKT conditions x argmin x L(x, λ ). If f 0, f 1,..., f m are differentiable, this implies Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 35 / 36
106 Example: KKT conditions x argmin x L(x, λ ). If f 0, f 1,..., f m are differentiable, this implies x L(x, λ ) x=x = f 0 (x ) + i λ i f i(x ) = 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 35 / 36
107 Example: KKT conditions x argmin x L(x, λ ). If f 0, f 1,..., f m are differentiable, this implies x L(x, λ ) x=x = f 0 (x ) + i λ i f i(x ) = 0. Moreover, since L(x, λ ) = f 0 (x ), we also have Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 35 / 36
108 Example: KKT conditions x argmin x L(x, λ ). If f 0, f 1,..., f m are differentiable, this implies x L(x, λ ) x=x = f 0 (x ) + i λ i f i(x ) = 0. Moreover, since L(x, λ ) = f 0 (x ), we also have i λ i f i(x ) = 0. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 35 / 36
109 Example: KKT conditions x argmin x L(x, λ ). If f 0, f 1,..., f m are differentiable, this implies x L(x, λ ) x=x = f 0 (x ) + i λ i f i(x ) = 0. Moreover, since L(x, λ ) = f 0 (x ), we also have i λ i f i(x ) = 0. But λ i 0 and f i (x ) 0, Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 35 / 36
110 Example: KKT conditions x argmin x L(x, λ ). If f 0, f 1,..., f m are differentiable, this implies x L(x, λ ) x=x = f 0 (x ) + i λ i f i(x ) = 0. Moreover, since L(x, λ ) = f 0 (x ), we also have i λ i f i(x ) = 0. But λ i 0 and f i (x ) 0, so complementary slackness λ i f i(x ) = 0, i = 1,..., m. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 35 / 36
111 KKT conditions f i (x ) 0, i = 1,..., m (primal feasibility) λ i 0, i = 1,..., m (dual feasibility) λ i f i(x ) = 0, i = 1,..., m (compl. slackness) x L(x, λ ) x=x = 0 (Lagrangian stationarity) Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 36 / 36
112 KKT conditions f i (x ) 0, i = 1,..., m (primal feasibility) λ i 0, i = 1,..., m (dual feasibility) λ i f i(x ) = 0, i = 1,..., m (compl. slackness) x L(x, λ ) x=x = 0 (Lagrangian stationarity) We showed: if strong duality holds, and (x, λ ) exist, then KKT conditions are necessary for pair (x, λ ) to be optimal Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 36 / 36
113 KKT conditions f i (x ) 0, i = 1,..., m (primal feasibility) λ i 0, i = 1,..., m (dual feasibility) λ i f i(x ) = 0, i = 1,..., m (compl. slackness) x L(x, λ ) x=x = 0 (Lagrangian stationarity) We showed: if strong duality holds, and (x, λ ) exist, then KKT conditions are necessary for pair (x, λ ) to be optimal If problem is convex, then KKT also sufficient Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 36 / 36
114 KKT conditions f i (x ) 0, i = 1,..., m (primal feasibility) λ i 0, i = 1,..., m (dual feasibility) λ i f i(x ) = 0, i = 1,..., m (compl. slackness) x L(x, λ ) x=x = 0 (Lagrangian stationarity) We showed: if strong duality holds, and (x, λ ) exist, then KKT conditions are necessary for pair (x, λ ) to be optimal If problem is convex, then KKT also sufficient Exercise: Prove the above sufficiency of KKT. Hint: Use that L(x, λ ) is convex, and conclude from KKT conditions that g(λ ) = f 0 (x ), so that (x, λ ) optimal primaldual pair. Suvrit Sra Optimization for Machine Learning 36 / 36
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