# Beams. Beams are structural members that offer resistance to bending due to applied load

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1 Beams Beams are structural members that offer resistance to bending due to applied load 1

2 Beams Long prismatic members Non-prismatic sections also possible Each cross-section dimension Length of member Loading r to the member axis 2

3 Beams Determinacy Statically determinate beam Only equilibrium equations required to obtain support reactions Statically indeterminate beam 3 equilibrium eqs. (1 redundant) Deformability required to obtain support reactions 3 equilibrium eqs. (insufficient) 3

4 Types of Beams Based on support conditions Propped Cantilever 4

5 Types of Beams Based on pattern of external loading Concentrated load Distributed load Intensity (w) expressed force per unit length of beam 5

6 Beams Resultant force (R) on beams? R :: area formed by w and length L over which the load is distributed : R passes through centroid of this area 6

7 Beams Distributed Loads on beams : General Load Distribution Differential increment of force is dr = w dx Total load R is sum of all the differential forces R w dx acting at centroid of the area under consideration x xw dx R Once R is known reactions can be found out from Statics 7

8 Beams: Example Determine the external reactions for the beam R A = 6.96 kn, R B = 9.84 kn 8

9 Beams: Example Determine the external reactions for the beam Dividing the un-symmetric triangular load into two parts with resultants R 1 and R 2 acting at point A and 1m away from point A, respectively. R 1 = 0.5x1.8x2 = 1.8 kn R 2 = 0.5x1.2x2 = 1.2 kn R 1 R 2 F x =0 A x = 1.5sin30 = 0.75 kn A x M A =0 4.8xB y = 1.5cos30x x1.0 B y = kn A y 0.4m B y F y =0 A y = cos A y = kn 9

10 Beams: Example Determine the external reactions for the beam Dividing the trapezoidal load into two parts with resultants R 1 and R 2 R 1 = 24x2.5 = m A R 2 = 0.5x2.5x36=45 A (distances from A) 60 kn/m M A =0 M A x4.0-60x x4.17=0 M A = 253 knm M A F y =0 A y = 0 A y = -55 kn Downwards 24 kn/m A y R 1 R 2 36 kn/m 10

11 Beams Internal Effects Internal Force Resultants Axial Force (N), Shear Force (V), Bending Moment (M), Torsional Moment (T) in Beam Method of Sections is used Axial 11

12 Beams Internal Effects Method of Section: Internal Force Resultants at B Section a-a at B and use equilibrium equations in both cut parts 12

13 Beams Internal Effects 2D Beam 3D Beam The Force Resultants act at the centroid of the section 13

14 Beams Internal Effects Sign Convention Positive Axial Force creates Tension Positive shear force will cause the Beam segment on which it acts to rotate clockwise Positive bending moment will tend to bend the segment on which it acts in a concave upward manner (compression on top of section). 14

15 Beams Internal Effects Sign convention in a single plane Interpretation of Bending Couple H-section Beam bent by two equal and opposite positive moments applied at ends Neglecting resistance offered by web Compression at top; Tension at bottom Resultant of these two forces (one tensile and other compressive) acting on any section is a Couple and has the value of the Bending Moment acting on the section. 15

16 Beams Internal Effects Example: Find the axial force in the fixed bar at points B and C Solution: Draw the FBD of the entire bar Draw sections at B and C to get AF in the bar at B and C Alternatively, take a section at C and consider only CD portion of the bar Then take a section at B and consider only BD portion of the bar no need to calculate reactions 16

17 Beams Internal Effects Example: Find the internal torques at points B and C of the circular shaft subjected to three concentrated torques Solution: FBD of entire shaft Sections at B and C and FBDs of shaft segments AB and CD 17

18 Beams Internal Effects Example: Find the AF, SF, and BM at point B (just to the left of 6 kn) and at point C (just to the right of 6 kn) Solution: Draw FBD of entire beam D y need not be determined if only left part of the beam is analysed 18

19 Beams Internal Effects Example Solution: Draw FBD of segments AB and AC and use equilibrium equations 19

20 Beams SFD and BMD Shear Force Diagram and bending Moment Diagram Variation of SF and BM over the length of the beam SFD and BMD Maximum magnitude of BM and SF and their locations is prime consideration in beam design SFDs and BMDs are plotted using method of section Equilibrium of FBD of entire Beam External Reactions Equilibrium of a cut part of beam Expressions for SF and BM at the cut section Use the positive sign convention consistently 20

21 Beams SFD and BMD Draw SFD and BMD for a cantilever beam supporting a point load at the free end F L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4 +V +F +F +F +F +F +F SFD -V +M M=0 -M -FL -3FL/4 -FL/2 -FL/4 BMD 21

22 Beams SFD and BMD Shear and Moment Relationships Consider a portion of a beam Isolate an element dx Draw FBD of the element Vertical equilibrium in dx V w dx (V + dv) = 0 w dv dx Moment equilibrium in dx ( the left side of the element) M dx wdx 2 V dvdx ( M dm) 0 V dm dx Terms w(dx) 2 /2 and dvdx may be dropped since they are differentials of higher order than those which remains. 22

23 Beams SFD and BMD Shear and Moment Relationships w dv dx Slope of the shear diagram = - Value of applied loading V dm dx Slope of the moment curve = Shear Force Both equations not applicable at the point of loading because of discontinuity produced by the abrupt change in shear. 23

24 Beams SFD and BMD Shear and Moment Relationships Expressing V in terms of w by integrating OR V 0 is the shear force at x 0 and V is the shear force at x Expressing M in terms of V by integrating V V 0 M M dv 0 dm x x 0 x x wdx 0 Vdx OR M 0 is the BM at x 0 and M is the BM at x w dv dx V = V 0 + (the negative of the area under the loading curve from x 0 to x) V dm dx M = M 0 + (area under the shear diagram from x 0 to x) 24

25 Beams SFD and BMD V = V 0 + (negative of area under the loading curve from x 0 to x) M = M 0 + (area under the shear diagram from x 0 to x) If there is no externally applied moment M 0 at x 0 = 0, total moment at any section equals the area under the shear diagram up to that section When V passes through zero and is a continuous function of x with dv/dx 0 (i.e., nonzero loading) dm 0 dx BM will be a maximum or minimum at this point Critical values of BM also occur when SF crosses the zero axis discontinuously (Example: Beams under concentrated loads) 25

26 Beams SFD and BMD w V dv dx dm dx Degree of V in x is one higher than that of w Degree of M in x is one higher than that of V Degree of M in x is two higher than that of w Combining the two equations d 2 dx M 2 w If w is a known function of x, BM can be obtained by integrating this equation twice with proper limits of integration. Method is usable only if w is a continuous function of x (other cases not part of this course) 26

27 Beams SFD and BMD: Example Draw the SFD and BMD. Maximum BM occurs where Shear changes the direction Determine reactions at supports. Cut beam at C and consider member AC, V P 2 M Px Cut beam at E and consider member EB, V P 2 L 2 2 M P x For a beam subjected to concentrated loads, shear is constant between loading points and moment varies linearly. 27

### dv dx Slope of the shear diagram = - Value of applied loading dm dx Slope of the moment curve = Shear Force

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