Vegard B. Sørdal. Thermodynamics of 4He-3He mixture and application in dilution refrigeration

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Vegard B. Sørdal. Thermodynamics of 4He-3He mixture and application in dilution refrigeration"

Transcription

1 Vegard B. Sørdal Thermodynamics of 4He-3He mixture and application in dilution refrigeration

2 1. Introduction 2. Crogenic methods Contents of the presentation 3. Properties of Helium 4. Superfluid Helium 4 -Two fluid model -Quantum vortex 5. 4He - 3He mixtures 6. Dilution refrigeration

3 Importance of low temperatures in mesoscopic physics No fundamental arguments prohibit mesoscopic effects at room temperature Limitations: important mesoscopic quantities like mean free path and coherence length. These quantities depends on T and feature size.

4 Typical lengthscales for mesoscopic effects T = 300 K L < 10 nm T = 77 K L < 100 nm T = 4.2 K L < 5000 nm

5 How do we reach low T? Doppler laser cooling Isentropic demagnetization Mechanical compression refrigiration Liquid evaporation refrigiration Dilution refrigiration + Many other novel techniques or variations of the above

6 Doppler laser cooling ~μk

7 RW in momentum space due to spontaneous photon emission/absorption Transitions have finite frequency width atoms can scatter from wrong laser Minimal consentration exited atoms colliding unexited atom release kinetic energy and photon falls back to ground state Limited available atoms: - Hyperfine structure (more ways to photon from upper state and not return to ground state) - Laser power required too high for λ < 300 nm

8 Isentropic demagnetization

9 Isothermal magentization Low B High B Insulate thermally Isentropic demagentization T 2 = T 1 B loc B

10 Magnetocaloric effect intrinsic magentic property Depends on magnetic ordering temperature (Néel Temperature) Thermal response highest close to T N High spin entropy before B application is better 100 pk obtained by nuclear DM + dilution refrigeration by Aalto University

11 Mechanical compression refrigeration pv = T Porous material with high C / V COP = Tl/(T a T l )

12 Properties of Helium 4He: Boson 3He: Fermion Abundance: 4He % 3He % Liquid transition temperature: 4He 4.23 K 3He 3.19 K Latent vaporization heat: 4He kj/mol 3He kj/mol ~25% of normal mass in the universe

13 Zero-point fluctuation energy larger than VDW attraction. - P 30 bar required for crystallization Zero-point energy high due to low mass VDW is low since it is a noble gas and has no dipole moment (4He) Easy to separate two Helium atoms - latent heat of vaporization : 5 cal/g - for water : 500 cal/g Large distance between neighbouring atoms - 13% mass density of water

14 Joule-Thompson Effect Attraction between atoms Atoms perform work against expansion and cool down Exceptions: Helium, Hydrogen, Neon, etc.

15 Liquid Helium-3 Gas-liquid transition at 3.18 K Fermions form Cooper pairs and condensate 3He B: BW state 3He A: ABM state

16 Liquid Helium-4 He I: Normal fluid He II: Superfluid Only ~250 cal to go from He I to He II. However! Large part of original He evaporates in transition

17 Superfluid Absence of bubbling indicate large heat conductivity. Heat conductivity increase by 10^6 at transition No capillary viscosity. But viscous drag is observed second sound two fluid model Zero entropy: Heat cannot flow from cold to hot, but this seems to be broken in He II. Heating induce net flow to right chamber. Connection only traversable by He II. He II carries no heat, any internal energy no longer thermally available. Heat energy carried in normal component.

18 Two interpenetrating elements: super/normal ρ = ρ n + ρ s = const Two-fluid Model Normal component acts like an ordinary fluid Superfluid component has the unique properties Elastic and supports sound as oscillating pressure waves Can also transport heat in form of waves, with a characteristic speed: the speed of second sound

19 Second Sound Normal heat conduction is a diffusion process: Superfluids can conducts heat in wave form ρ = ρ n + ρ s j = v s ρ s + v n ρ n First sound: v s = v n Traditional wave where the whole fluid moves as one unit Second sound: j = 0 and ρ = constant The relative densities oscillate, not the total density! Second sound is an entropy wave in the medium and can be generated by an oscillating heat source

20 F = (μ m + M m gz) μ m = U ST + PV ρ n v n t = ρ n ρ P + ρ ss T + η 2 v n ρ s v s t = ρ s ρ P ρ ss T

21

22 Two-fluid model only gives qualitative description of He II He II is a liquid capable of two types of motion, but we can not claim that they happen in different parts of the fluid True nature of He II can only be described by quantum hydrodynamics Many models: vortex rings, hard-sphere models, Gaussian cluster theories Quantum vortex: topological defect with superfluid circulating around. Carries angular momentum and allow superfluid to rotate

23 Simple quantum vortex Impurity: air, vacuum, excited particle, etc. Superfluid wavefunction: n is the number density and S is the phase Wavefunction must return to same value after n circulations, thus φ = 2πn Circulation around a vortex is quantized!

24 Phase separation below 0.8 K depending on 3He consentration. 3He - 4He mixtures 3He has smaller mass than 4He, thus larger ZPE Triple point 3He rich phase is a Fermi fluid with m 3m 4He acts as inert background in this phase Even at T=0, 6.6% is 3He in 4He rich phase

25 M 3He 3 4 M 4He 4He-3He VDW is stronger than 3He-3He! 3He component 3He 4He + 3He

26 3He is circulated in system by pump operating at p c Precooled by liquid nitrogen Impedance: capillary tubes designed to keep vapor pressure p v (T) below p c Cooling power comes from moving 3He across the phase boundary in the mixing chamber. Dilution refrigeration

27 1. 4He bath cools whole system to 4.2 K 2. At the1k pot, 3He condense and the pot absorb heat of condensation (p c p v ) 3. Exchange heat with still to ~0.7K 4. All impedances chosen to keep p local > p v 5. Further cooled by 3He moving from the mixing chamber 6. Enters mixing chamber and crosses phase boundary. Heat needed for dilution is the cooling power of the refrigerator 7. Leaves the mixing chamber from the diluted phase, enters still and evaporate. Circulation is continued.

28 The still is heated so 3He can evaporate and be extracted by the pump. 1% 3He has lower boiling point than 4He, so the still is fine tuned to keep 4He liquid By reducing 3He concentration in the still (~1%) osmotic pressure drives 3He from mixing chamber to still More 3He can cross the phase boundary, and absorb heat as they do so. The entropy increases as 3He moves from concentrated to dilute phase (entropy of mixing) 6% Cooling comes from the difference in Fermi temperature of the two phases 3He moving from concentrated phase to diluted phase «expand into vacuum»

29 Cooling power If mixing is reversible we have: S is molar entropy, n is circulation rate. T M = mixing chamber temperature. x is the 3He concentration Fermi gas heat capacity: Both the concentrated and dilute phase can be approximated as Fermi gas S = C V T dt Cooling really based on increase in molar volume of 3He!

30 References Second Sound in He II, Otis Chodosh, Jeremy Hiatt, Samir Shah, and Ning Yan Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures, Thomas Heinzel Second Sound in Liquid Helium II, C. T. Lane et. al Refrigeration and thermometry below one Kelvin, D. S Betts Second sound and the superfluid fraction in a Fermi gas with resonant interactions, Leonid A. Sidorenkov The two-fluid theory and second sound in liquid helium, Russell J. Donnelly Introduction to dilution refrigeration, A.T.A.M. de Waele Daniel P. Lathrop's Nonlinear Dynamics Lab (

The Superfluid Phase s of Helium 3

The Superfluid Phase s of Helium 3 The Superfluid Phase s of Helium 3 DIETER VOLLHARD T Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Federal Republic of German y PETER WÖLFL E Universität Karlsruhe Federal Republic of Germany PREFACE

More information

Measurements of ultralow temperatures

Measurements of ultralow temperatures Measurements of ultralow temperatures Anssi Salmela 1 Outline Motivation Thermometry below 1K Methods below 1K (Adiabatic melting experiment) 2 Motivation Why tedious refrigeration is worthwhile? Reduced

More information

Helium-3, Phase diagram High temperatures the polycritical point. Logarithmic temperature scale

Helium-3, Phase diagram High temperatures the polycritical point. Logarithmic temperature scale Helium-3, Phase diagram High temperatures the polycritical point Logarithmic temperature scale Fermi liquid theory Start with a noninteracting Fermi gas and turn on interactions slowly, then you get a

More information

A thermodynamic system is taken from an initial state X along the path XYZX as shown in the PV-diagram.

A thermodynamic system is taken from an initial state X along the path XYZX as shown in the PV-diagram. AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Thermodynamics 1. The maximum efficiency of a heat engine that operates between temperatures of 1500 K in the firing chamber and 600 K in the exhaust chamber is most

More information

From laser cooling to BEC First experiments of superfluid hydrodynamics

From laser cooling to BEC First experiments of superfluid hydrodynamics From laser cooling to BEC First experiments of superfluid hydrodynamics Alice Sinatra Quantum Fluids course - Complement 1 2013-2014 Plan 1 COOLING AND TRAPPING 2 CONDENSATION 3 NON-LINEAR PHYSICS AND

More information

Second Sound in He II

Second Sound in He II Second Sound in He II Otis Chodosh, Jeremy Hiatt, Samir Shah, and Ning Yan Department of Physics, Stanford University All authors contributing equally (Dated: March 1, 8) The speed of second sound in 4

More information

Version 001 HW 15 Thermodynamics C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 1

Version 001 HW 15 Thermodynamics C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 1 Version 001 HW 15 Thermodynamics C&J sizemore 21301jtsizemore 1 This print-out should have 38 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering.

More information

A) 2.0 atm B) 2.2 atm C) 2.4 atm D) 2.9 atm E) 3.3 atm

A) 2.0 atm B) 2.2 atm C) 2.4 atm D) 2.9 atm E) 3.3 atm Name: Date: 1. On a cold day ( 3 C), the gauge pressure on a tire reads 2.0 atm. If the tire is heated to 27 C, what will be the absolute pressure of the air inside the tire? A) 2.0 atm B) 2.2 atm C) 2.4

More information

Statistical and Low Temperature Physics (PHYS393) 6. Liquid Helium-4. Kai Hock University of Liverpool

Statistical and Low Temperature Physics (PHYS393) 6. Liquid Helium-4. Kai Hock University of Liverpool Statistical and Low Temperature Physics (PHYS393) 6. Liquid Helium-4 Kai Hock 2011-2012 University of Liverpool Topics to cover 1. Fritz London s explanation of superfluidity in liquid helium-4 using Bose

More information

Effects of spin-orbit coupling on the BKT transition and the vortexantivortex structure in 2D Fermi Gases

Effects of spin-orbit coupling on the BKT transition and the vortexantivortex structure in 2D Fermi Gases Effects of spin-orbit coupling on the BKT transition and the vortexantivortex structure in D Fermi Gases Carlos A. R. Sa de Melo Georgia Institute of Technology QMath13 Mathematical Results in Quantum

More information

CHAPTER - 12 THERMODYNAMICS

CHAPTER - 12 THERMODYNAMICS CHAPER - HERMODYNAMICS ONE MARK QUESIONS. What is hermodynamics?. Mention the Macroscopic variables to specify the thermodynamics. 3. How does thermodynamics differ from Mechanics? 4. What is thermodynamic

More information

Ch. 11 States of matter

Ch. 11 States of matter Ch. 11 States of matter States of Matter Solid Definite volume Definite shape Liquid Definite volume Indefinite shape (conforms to container) Gas Indefinite volume (fills any container) Indefinite shape

More information

Chapter 5. Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes. by Asst. Prof. Dr.Woranee Paengjuntuek and Asst. Prof. Dr.Worarattana Pattaraprakorn

Chapter 5. Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes. by Asst. Prof. Dr.Woranee Paengjuntuek and Asst. Prof. Dr.Worarattana Pattaraprakorn Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes by Asst. Prof. Dr.Woranee Paengjuntuek and Asst. Prof. Dr.Worarattana Pattaraprakorn Reference: Cengel, Yunus A. and Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics:

More information

FINAL EXAM. ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2013 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW:

FINAL EXAM. ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2013 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW: ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2013 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW: Div. 5 7:30 am Div. 2 10:30 am Div. 4 12:30 am Prof. Naik Prof. Braun Prof. Bae Div. 3 2:30 pm Div. 1 4:30 pm Div. 6 4:30 pm Prof. Chen Prof.

More information

Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter

Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter KISHORE T. KAPALE June 24, 2003 BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE: A NEW STATE OF MATTER 1 Outline Introductory Concepts Bosons and Fermions Classical and Quantum

More information

Chapter 13 - States of Matter. Section 13.1 The nature of Gases

Chapter 13 - States of Matter. Section 13.1 The nature of Gases Chapter 13 - States of Matter Section 13.1 The nature of Gases Kinetic energy and gases Kinetic energy: the energy an object has because of its motion Kinetic theory: all matter is made if particles in

More information

From Last Time Important new Quantum Mechanical Concepts. Atoms and Molecules. Today. Symmetry. Simple molecules.

From Last Time Important new Quantum Mechanical Concepts. Atoms and Molecules. Today. Symmetry. Simple molecules. Today From Last Time Important new Quantum Mechanical Concepts Indistinguishability: Symmetries of the wavefunction: Symmetric and Antisymmetric Pauli exclusion principle: only one fermion per state Spin

More information

Today: general condition for threshold operation physics of atomic, vibrational, rotational gain media intro to the Lorentz model

Today: general condition for threshold operation physics of atomic, vibrational, rotational gain media intro to the Lorentz model Today: general condition for threshold operation physics of atomic, vibrational, rotational gain media intro to the Lorentz model Laser operation Simplified energy conversion processes in a laser medium:

More information

Kinetic Theory of Matter

Kinetic Theory of Matter 1 Temperature and Thermal Energy Kinetic Theory of Matter The motion of the particles in matter is described by kinetic theory of matter. Matter is composed of particles that are atoms, molecules, or ions

More information

CHAPTER 3 TEST REVIEW

CHAPTER 3 TEST REVIEW IB PHYSICS Name: Period: Date: # Marks: 52 Raw Score: IB Curve: DEVIL PHYSICS BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS CHAPTER 3 TEST REVIEW 1. Water at a temperature of 0 C is kept in a thermally insulated container.

More information

Quantum Theory of Matter

Quantum Theory of Matter Quantum Theory of Matter Overview Lecture Derek Lee Imperial College London January 2007 Outline 1 Course content Introduction Superfluids Superconductors 2 Course Plan Resources Outline 1 Course content

More information

Thermodynamic system is classified into the following three systems. (ii) Closed System It exchanges only energy (not matter) with surroundings.

Thermodynamic system is classified into the following three systems. (ii) Closed System It exchanges only energy (not matter) with surroundings. 1 P a g e The branch of physics which deals with the study of transformation of heat energy into other forms of energy and vice-versa. A thermodynamical system is said to be in thermal equilibrium when

More information

Unit 7 (B) Solid state Physics

Unit 7 (B) Solid state Physics Unit 7 (B) Solid state Physics hermal Properties of solids: Zeroth law of hermodynamics: If two bodies A and B are each separated in thermal equilibrium with the third body C, then A and B are also in

More information

Matter, States of Matter, Gas Laws, Phase Changes, and Thermal Energy

Matter, States of Matter, Gas Laws, Phase Changes, and Thermal Energy Matter, States of Matter, Gas Laws, Phase Changes, and Thermal Energy Double Jeopardy Jeopardy! Matter Tempera ture Phase Changes Heat Transfer Thermal Energy vs Heat 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200

More information

Chapter Practice Test Grosser

Chapter Practice Test Grosser Class: Date: Chapter 10-11 Practice Test Grosser Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of

More information

4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium?

4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium? Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL 2010 4.1 4 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM What is thermal equilibrium? 1. (, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body.

More information

Draw the Lewis structures of all 7 diatomic elements

Draw the Lewis structures of all 7 diatomic elements Warm up Draw the Lewis structures of all 7 diatomic elements States of Matter - Part 1 - Gasses Definitions kinetic-molecular theory particles of matter are always in motion ideal gas hypothetical gas

More information

Thermodynamics and States of Matter

Thermodynamics and States of Matter Thermodynamics and States of Matter There are three states (also called phases) ) of matter. The picture to the side represents the same chemical substance, just in different states. There are three states

More information

Quantum Quantum Optics Optics VII, VII, Zakopane Zakopane, 11 June 09, 11

Quantum Quantum Optics Optics VII, VII, Zakopane Zakopane, 11 June 09, 11 Quantum Optics VII, Zakopane, 11 June 09 Strongly interacting Fermi gases Rudolf Grimm Center for Quantum Optics in Innsbruck University of Innsbruck Austrian Academy of Sciences ultracold fermions: species

More information

The structure of solids: There are two main types of structure that solids have:

The structure of solids: There are two main types of structure that solids have: States of Matter Introduction: As you re no doubt aware, the three states of matter we work with in chemistry are solids, liquids, and gasestable: General properties of the three states of matter property

More information

Calibration of a Quartz Tuning Fork for Low Temperature Measurements

Calibration of a Quartz Tuning Fork for Low Temperature Measurements 1 Calibration of a Quartz Tuning Fork for Low Temperature Measurements Joshua Wiman Mentor: Yoonseok Lee University of Florida Mechanical oscillators are commonly used to measure the properties of cryogenic

More information

Speed Distribution at CONSTANT Temperature is given by the Maxwell Boltzmann Speed Distribution

Speed Distribution at CONSTANT Temperature is given by the Maxwell Boltzmann Speed Distribution Temperature ~ Average KE of each particle Particles have different speeds Gas Particles are in constant RANDOM motion Average KE of each particle is: 3/2 kt Pressure is due to momentum transfer Speed Distribution

More information

What are the states of Matter?

What are the states of Matter? What are the states of Matter? Solid Lowest energy/heat Molecules barely moving Definite, uniform shape Example: ice States of Matter Liquid Medium energy/heat Molecules slowly moving Shape of container

More information

Cold Polar Molecules and their Applications for Quantum Information H.P. Büchler

Cold Polar Molecules and their Applications for Quantum Information H.P. Büchler Cold Polar Molecules and their Applications for Quantum Information H.P. Büchler Theoretische Physik III, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Outline Introduction to polar molecules - quantum melting transition

More information

Chemical thermodynamics the area of chemistry that deals with energy relationships

Chemical thermodynamics the area of chemistry that deals with energy relationships Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical thermodynamics the area of chemistry that deals with energy relationships 19.1: Spontaneous Processes First law of thermodynamics

More information

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. Professor Benjamin G. Levine CEM 182H Lecture 5

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. Professor Benjamin G. Levine CEM 182H Lecture 5 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Professor Benjamin G. Levine CEM 182H Lecture 5 Chemical Equilibrium N 2 + 3 H 2 2 NH 3 Chemical reactions go in both directions Systems started from any initial state

More information

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Bose-Einstein Condensates

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Bose-Einstein Condensates The 10th US-Japan Joint Seminar Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Bose-Einstein Condensates Masahito UEDA Tokyo Institute of Technology, ERATO, JST collaborators Yuki Kawaguchi (Tokyo Institute of Technology)

More information

Gases, Liquids, and Solids. Chapter 5

Gases, Liquids, and Solids. Chapter 5 Gases, Liquids, and Solids Chapter 5 Educational Goals 1. Define, compare, contrast the terms specific heat, heat of fusion, and heat of vaporization. Know the equations that involve these concepts and

More information

Imperfect Gases. NC State University

Imperfect Gases. NC State University Chemistry 431 Lecture 3 Imperfect Gases NC State University The Compression Factor One way to represent the relationship between ideal and real gases is to plot the deviation from ideality as the gas is

More information

Draw the Lewis structures of all 7 diatomic elements

Draw the Lewis structures of all 7 diatomic elements Warm up Draw the Lewis structures of all 7 diatomic elements Jan 27-7:44 AM States of Matter - Part 1 - Gases Definitions kinetic-molecular theory particles of matter are always in motion ideal gas hypothetical

More information

Physical transformations of pure substances Boiling, freezing, and the conversion of graphite to diamond examples of phase transitions changes of

Physical transformations of pure substances Boiling, freezing, and the conversion of graphite to diamond examples of phase transitions changes of Physical transformations of pure substances Boiling, freezing, and the conversion of graphite to diamond examples of phase transitions changes of phase without change of chemical composition. In this chapter

More information

Hood River Valley High

Hood River Valley High Chemistry Hood River Valley High Name: Period: Unit 7 States of Matter and the Behavior of Gases Unit Goals- As you work through this unit, you should be able to: 1. Describe, at the molecular level, the

More information

1 Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute temperature of the gas doubles.

1 Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute temperature of the gas doubles. 1 Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute temperature of the gas doubles. The mean square speed of the gas molecules A remains constant. B increases by a factor of 2.

More information

Atoms and Molecules Interacting with Light Atomic Physics for the Laser Era

Atoms and Molecules Interacting with Light Atomic Physics for the Laser Era Atoms and Molecules Interacting with Light Atomic Physics for the Laser Era Peter van der Straten Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands and Harold Metcalf State University of New York, Stony Brook This

More information

K n. III. Gas flow. 1. The nature of the gas : Knudsen s number. 2. Relative flow : Reynold s number R = ( dimensionless )

K n. III. Gas flow. 1. The nature of the gas : Knudsen s number. 2. Relative flow : Reynold s number R = ( dimensionless ) III. Gas flow. The nature of the gas : Knudsen s number K n λ d 2. Relative flow : U ρ d η U : stream velocity ρ : mass density Reynold s number R ( dimensionless ) 3. Flow regions - turbulent : R > 2200

More information

Part I. Temperature Measurements in the Range from 0.1 K to 300 K

Part I. Temperature Measurements in the Range from 0.1 K to 300 K Part I Temperature Measurements in the Range from 0.1 K to 300 K Introduction Part I describes modem methods for measuring temperatures lower than O C based on the use of substances that are gaseous at

More information

Gases. T boil, K. 11 gaseous elements. Rare gases. He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Diatomic gaseous elements H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2

Gases. T boil, K. 11 gaseous elements. Rare gases. He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Diatomic gaseous elements H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2 Gases Gas T boil, K Rare gases 11 gaseous elements He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn 165 Rn 211 N 2 O 2 77 F 2 90 85 Diatomic gaseous elements Cl 2 238 H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2 H 2 He Ne Ar Kr Xe 20 4.4 27 87 120

More information

Reference for most of this talk:

Reference for most of this talk: Cold fermions Reference for most of this talk: W. Ketterle and M. W. Zwierlein: Making, probing and understanding ultracold Fermi gases. in Ultracold Fermi Gases, Proceedings of the International School

More information

SOLUTION: Consider the system to be the refrigerator (shown in the following schematic), which operates over a cycle in normal operation.

SOLUTION: Consider the system to be the refrigerator (shown in the following schematic), which operates over a cycle in normal operation. Soln_21 An ordinary household refrigerator operating in steady state receives electrical work while discharging net energy by heat transfer to its surroundings (e.g., the kitchen). a. Is this a violation

More information

Process Nature of Process

Process Nature of Process AP Physics Free Response Practice Thermodynamics 1983B. The pv-diagram above represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the following

More information

The First Law of Thermodynamics. By: Yidnekachew Messele

The First Law of Thermodynamics. By: Yidnekachew Messele The First Law of Thermodynamics By: Yidnekachew Messele It is the law that relates the various forms of energies for system of different types. It is simply the expression of the conservation of energy

More information

Part I.

Part I. Part I bblee@unimp . Introduction to Mass Transfer and Diffusion 2. Molecular Diffusion in Gasses 3. Molecular Diffusion in Liquids Part I 4. Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solutions and Gels 5. Molecular

More information

Estimate, for this water, the specific heat capacity, specific heat capacity =... J kg 1 K 1. the specific latent heat of vaporisation.

Estimate, for this water, the specific heat capacity, specific heat capacity =... J kg 1 K 1. the specific latent heat of vaporisation. 1 A kettle is rated as 2.3 kw. A mass of 750 g of water at 20 C is poured into the kettle. When the kettle is switched on, it takes 2.0 minutes for the water to start boiling. In a further 7.0 minutes,

More information

Chapter 19. Heat Engines

Chapter 19. Heat Engines Chapter 19 Heat Engines Thermo Processes Eint = Q+ W Adiabatic No heat exchanged Q = 0 and E int = W Isobaric Constant pressure W = P (V f V i ) and E int = Q + W Isochoric Constant Volume W = 0 and E

More information

Worksheet 1.1. Chapter 1: Quantitative chemistry glossary

Worksheet 1.1. Chapter 1: Quantitative chemistry glossary Worksheet 1.1 Chapter 1: Quantitative chemistry glossary Amount The number of moles of a substance present in a sample. Aqueous solution A solution with water as the solvent. Atmosphere The unit atmosphere

More information

Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Seventh Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGraw-Hill, 2011 Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission

More information

MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY First Edition Jeanne L. McHale University of Idaho PRENTICE HALL, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 CONTENTS PREFACE xiii 1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW 1 1.1 Historical Perspective

More information

Vacuum Pumps. Two general classes exist: Gas transfer physical removal of matter. Mechanical, diffusion, turbomolecular

Vacuum Pumps. Two general classes exist: Gas transfer physical removal of matter. Mechanical, diffusion, turbomolecular Vacuum Technology Vacuum Pumps Two general classes exist: Gas transfer physical removal of matter Mechanical, diffusion, turbomolecular Adsorption entrapment of matter Cryo, sublimation, ion Mechanical

More information

Cold fermions, Feshbach resonance, and molecular condensates (II)

Cold fermions, Feshbach resonance, and molecular condensates (II) Cold fermions, Feshbach resonance, and molecular condensates (II) D. Jin JILA, NIST and the University of Colorado I. Cold fermions II. III. Feshbach resonance BCS-BEC crossover (Experiments at JILA) $$

More information

BEC AND MATTER WAVES an overview Allan Griffin, University of Toronto

BEC AND MATTER WAVES an overview Allan Griffin, University of Toronto BEC AND MATTER WAVES an overview Allan Griffin, University of Toronto The discovery of Bose-Einstein condensation ( BEC ) in 1995 in dilute, ultracold trapped atomic gases is one of the most exciting developments

More information

Introduction to Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics

Introduction to Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics Physics 404 and Physics 690-03 Introduction to Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics [images courtesy of Thywissen group, U of T] Prof. Seth Aubin Office: room 255, Small Hall, tel: 1-3545 Lab: room 069, Small

More information

Gases and IMFs Unit Exam Review Guide

Gases and IMFs Unit Exam Review Guide Gases and IMFs Unit Exam Review Guide The following review guide does not necessarily contain all topics that will appear on the test. Make sure to review all notes and concepts from this unit. This review

More information

Spring_#7. Thermodynamics. Youngsuk Nam.

Spring_#7. Thermodynamics. Youngsuk Nam. Spring_#7 Thermodynamics Youngsuk Nam ysnam1@khu.ac.kr You can t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in

More information

We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity.

We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much its temperature will change heat capacity. 3/3 Measuring Heat If all we do is add heat to a system its temperature will rise. How much the temperature rises depends on the system. We call the characteristic of a system that determines how much

More information

Circuit QED with electrons on helium:

Circuit QED with electrons on helium: Circuit QED with electrons on helium: What s the sound of one electron clapping? David Schuster Yale (soon to be at U. of Chicago) Yale: Andreas Fragner Rob Schoelkopf Princeton: Steve Lyon Michigan State:

More information

ABSOLUTE ZERO Karina Aliaga

ABSOLUTE ZERO Karina Aliaga ABSOLUTE ZERO Karina Aliaga WHAT IS ABSOLUTE ZERO? Temperature is a physical quantity that measures the kinetic energy of particles in matter. It depends on the oscillations of atoms and molecules. As

More information

Thermodynamics 2013/2014, lecturer: Martin Zápotocký

Thermodynamics 2013/2014, lecturer: Martin Zápotocký Thermodynamics 2013/2014, lecturer: Martin Zápotocký 2 lectures: 1. Thermodynamic processes, heat and work, calorimetry, 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics 2. Entropy, thermodynamic potentials, nonequilibrium

More information

CP CHEMISTRY STUDY GUIDE The Kinetic Theory of Matter (Chapters 10 and 14)

CP CHEMISTRY STUDY GUIDE The Kinetic Theory of Matter (Chapters 10 and 14) Unit 9 CP CHEMISTRY STUDY GUIDE The Kinetic Theory of Matter (Chapters 10 and 14) Unit Goals ( During this unit I will ) 1. Explain the behavior of matter in terms of the relationships between temperature,

More information

INSTRUCTIONS PART I : SPRING 2006 PHYSICS DEPARTMENT EXAM

INSTRUCTIONS PART I : SPRING 2006 PHYSICS DEPARTMENT EXAM INSTRUCTIONS PART I : SPRING 2006 PHYSICS DEPARTMENT EXAM Please take a few minutes to read through all problems before starting the exam. Ask the proctor if you are uncertain about the meaning of any

More information

Superfluid Helium-3: From very low Temperatures to the Big Bang

Superfluid Helium-3: From very low Temperatures to the Big Bang Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism University of Augsburg Superfluid Helium-3: From very low Temperatures to the Big Bang Dieter Vollhardt Dvořák Lecture Institute of Physics, Academy of

More information

Chapter 17 Temperature and heat

Chapter 17 Temperature and heat Chapter 17 Temperature and heat 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium When we speak of objects being hot and cold, we need to quantify this by some scientific method that is quantifiable and reproducible.

More information

The Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging The Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Nathalie JUST, PhD nathalie.just@epfl.ch CIBM-AIT, EPFL Course 2013-2014-Chemistry 1 Course 2013-2014-Chemistry 2 MRI: Many different contrasts Proton density T1

More information

1985B4. A kilogram sample of a material is initially a solid at a temperature of 20 C. Heat is added to the sample at a constant rate of 100

1985B4. A kilogram sample of a material is initially a solid at a temperature of 20 C. Heat is added to the sample at a constant rate of 100 1985B4. A 0.020-kilogram sample of a material is initially a solid at a temperature of 20 C. Heat is added to the sample at a constant rate of 100 joules per second until the temperature increases to 60

More information

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015. Solid. Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015. Solid. Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma Unit 10: States of Matter Lesson 10.1: States and Their Changes (Review) STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Matter Solid } Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma STATES OF MATTER Based upon particle

More information

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015

STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015 The Four States of Matter Unit 10: States of Matter Lesson 10.1: States and Their Changes (Review) Solid } Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma Based upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of

More information

Introduction to Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics

Introduction to Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics Physics 404 and Physics 690-03 Introduction to Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics [images courtesy of Thywissen group, U of T] Instructor Prof. Seth Aubin Office: room 245, Millington Hall, tel: 1-3545

More information

Phase Change Diagram. Rank Solids, liquids and gases from weakest attractive forces to strongest:

Phase Change Diagram. Rank Solids, liquids and gases from weakest attractive forces to strongest: Unit 11 Kinetic molecular theory packet Page 1 of 13 Chemistry Unit 11 Kinetic Theory Unit Quiz: Test Objectives Be able to define pressure and memorize the basic pressure units. Be able to convert to/from:

More information

Matter: Properties & Change

Matter: Properties & Change Matter: Properties & Change Essential Vocabulary 6.P.2.1 Recognize that all matter is made up of atoms and atoms of the same element are all alike, but are different from the atoms of other elements. 6.P.2.2

More information

Thermodynamics. Thermo : heat dynamics : motion Thermodynamics is the study of motion of heat. Time and Causality Engines Properties of matter

Thermodynamics. Thermo : heat dynamics : motion Thermodynamics is the study of motion of heat. Time and Causality Engines Properties of matter Thermodynamics Thermo : heat dynamics : motion Thermodynamics is the study of motion of heat. Time and Causality Engines Properties of matter Graeme Ackland Lecture 1: Systems and state variables September

More information

Most substances can be in three states: solid, liquid, and gas.

Most substances can be in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. States of Matter Most substances can be in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. Solid Particles Have Fixed Positions The particles in a solid are very close together and have an orderly, fixed arrangement.

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 11 Liquids and States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of matter is the strength of the intermolecular forces of attraction. Stronger forces bring molecules

More information

Activities for chapter 13: States of matter

Activities for chapter 13: States of matter Activities for chapter 13: States of matter What do I already know about states of matter? (index card) and Vocabulary table Chapter 13 reading guide (feb break assignment) and Powerpoints POGIL activities:

More information

Chapter 11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces

Chapter 11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Chapter 11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces 11.1 A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids Gases are highly compressible and assume the shape and volume of their container. Gas molecules are

More information

3. When the external pressure is kpa torr, water will boil at what temperature? a C b C c. 100 C d. 18 C

3. When the external pressure is kpa torr, water will boil at what temperature? a C b C c. 100 C d. 18 C Chemistry EOC Review 5: Physical Behavior of Matter 1. Which gas is monatomic at STP? a. chlorine b. fluorine c. neon d. nitrogen 2. What Kelvin temperature is equal to 25 C? a. 248 K b. 298 K c. 100 K

More information

Matter & Energy. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature.

Matter & Energy. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Matter & Energy 1) All matter is made up of atoms and molecules that act as tiny particles. 1 2 2) These tiny particles are always in motion. State of matter depends on its molecular motion as measured

More information

Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium molecules and studies of a strongly interacting Fermi gas

Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium molecules and studies of a strongly interacting Fermi gas Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium molecules and studies of a strongly interacting Fermi gas Wolfgang Ketterle Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms 3/4/04 Workshop

More information

Liquids and Solids Chapter 10

Liquids and Solids Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids Chapter 10 Nov 15 9:56 AM Types of Solids Crystalline solids: Solids with highly regular arrangement of their components Amorphous solids: Solids with considerable disorder in their

More information

Solutions Midterm Exam 3 December 12, Match the above shown players of the best baseball team in the world with the following names:

Solutions Midterm Exam 3 December 12, Match the above shown players of the best baseball team in the world with the following names: Problem 1 (2.5 points) 1 2 3 4 Match the above shown players of the best baseball team in the world with the following names: A. Derek Jeter B. Mariano Rivera C. Johnny Damon D. Jorge Posada 1234 = a.

More information

The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT

The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT The Kinetic Theory of Matter Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 6 HEAT Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in

More information

CHAPTER 15 ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION

CHAPTER 15 ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION 1 HAER 15 ADIAAI DEAGNEIZAION 151 Introduction One way to cool a gas is as follows First compress it isothermally his means compress it in a vessel that isn t insulated, and wait for the gas to lose any

More information

Chemistry 1A, Spring 2007 Midterm Exam 3 April 9, 2007 (90 min, closed book)

Chemistry 1A, Spring 2007 Midterm Exam 3 April 9, 2007 (90 min, closed book) Chemistry 1A, Spring 2007 Midterm Exam 3 April 9, 2007 (90 min, closed book) Name: KEY SID: TA Name: 1.) Write your name on every page of this exam. 2.) This exam has 34 multiple choice questions. Fill

More information

Chapter 2 Energy and Matter

Chapter 2 Energy and Matter Chapter 2 Energy and Matter Energy makes objects move makes things stop is needed to do work Kinetic Energy Work is done when you climb you lift a bag of groceries you ride a bicycle you breathe your heart

More information

Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms

Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms Chapter 2 Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms Since its conception in 1975 [71, 72] laser cooling has revolutionized the field of atomic physics research, an achievement that has been recognized by the

More information

CHEM3023: Spins, Atoms and Molecules

CHEM3023: Spins, Atoms and Molecules CHEM3023: Spins, Atoms and Molecules Lecture 3 The Born-Oppenheimer approximation C.-K. Skylaris Learning outcomes Separate molecular Hamiltonians to electronic and nuclear parts according to the Born-Oppenheimer

More information

SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy

SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy THERMAL ENERGY AND LATENT HEAT LEARNING GOALS Students will learn: Heat changes the amount of thermal energy in an object Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy in an object Heat capacity

More information

Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES PURE SUBSTANCE Pure substance: A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be a pure

More information

Cold Metastable Neon Atoms Towards Degenerated Ne*- Ensembles

Cold Metastable Neon Atoms Towards Degenerated Ne*- Ensembles Cold Metastable Neon Atoms Towards Degenerated Ne*- Ensembles Supported by the DFG Schwerpunktprogramm SPP 1116 and the European Research Training Network Cold Quantum Gases Peter Spoden, Martin Zinner,

More information

Principles of dilution refrigeration. A brief technology guide

Principles of dilution refrigeration. A brief technology guide Principles of dilution refrigeration A brief technology guide 3 He 4 He About the authors Dr Graham Batey Chief Technical Engineer United Kingdom Graham completed his PhD in Low Temperature Physics at

More information

Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Spring 2002

Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Spring 2002 10.213 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Spring 2002 Test 2 Solution Problem 1 (35 points) High pressure steam (stream 1) at a rate of 1000 kg/h initially at 3.5 MPa and 350 ºC is expanded in a turbine

More information

Physics of atoms and molecules

Physics of atoms and molecules Physics of atoms and molecules 2nd edition B.H. Bransden and C.J. Joachain Prentice Hall An imprint of Pearson Education Harlow, England London New York Boston San Francisco Toronto Sydney Singapore Hong

More information