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3 #% ++ 1 ' 6DA J IAJEIIKA=HA AFJE = A?JE 1 JAHAIJE C OI AHAF HJIE =O = I HA A=IAJDA =JJAH HA? =IIE?=?OJ E AI 6OFE?= E AI E A AFJE A?JE D=LA>AA E EJE= O HA? C E KCDJDAEHH AE JDAHACK =JE BA AHCOIJ A IJ=IEI. HAN= F A AFJE =?JE C?A JH= OMEJDE JDA+ 5F =OI= E F HJ= JH A =I= AC=JELAHACK =J H B=FFAJEJA? JH.KHJDAHHAIA=H?DD=IID M JD=JHA?AFJ HIB HJD IAFH JAE I JDH KCD L=I?K K AIOIJA! # 6DAABBA?JI E AI L=I?K =HBK?JE E K AHACK =JE AJ=> EI = AIJDA AOF =OAHIE JDAF=JD CA AIEI B AJ=> E? A =? KIJAH B? E E?= IO FJ IE? C >AIEJO E IK E HAIEIJ=?A DOFAHJA IE = E= AJ=> AEI A BJDA = HHEI B=?J HI L=I?K HJ= EJO$ % 4A A=IA B E AI =OANF =E A?D= EI I BJDAHA =JE IDEF B L=I?K =HFDA JOFAIE? CDOFAHJA IE I? AH IEI =E O JDH KCDJDAEH=>E @ JDA E= =HBK?JE # =IMA JDH =JE CABBA?JI E K ABK?JE I'MDE?DME >A B ME CF=H=CH=FDI AFJE AFJE M=I A E O IK>IJ= JE= HAIA=H?D=JJA JE AFJE EI=$%= E JAE A? >CA A >A CE CJ =?OJ E AB= E %G!!?KI =HOIEJAI B AFJE ANFHAIIE = JD KCDEJD=I = I >AA ID M J C=IJHE?M= L=I?K =H?A I F =?A J= L=HO I A AJ= KI? ELAH& " LA AFJE H AE =FFAJEJA? JH MEJDE I?= CKJ=NEI^FH = JDH KCDEJ\I =?JE I + 5HA?AFJ HIMEJDE JDADOF JD= = KI " # E?AMEJD > CA A > > FIALAHA >AIEJOE HA =JE J JDA =? B I=JEAJOIEC = E CMEJDE JDAEH>H=E CKJ=NEI& 5E E =H O JIMEJD A OH=HACA @ >AIEJO MDE?D?= AFJE 6DAFDA JOFA BJDAIAIK> A?JIE? I 6?A DOF HAIF IELA AII DOFAHE IK E A IK E HAIEIJ=?A DOFAH E= E K AKH A=> H = EJEAI $ % 2 =I = ALA I B AFJE ALA IE DK = I=HAE =BAM C H= CA & AFJE ALA I=HA? IA O? HHA =II = ' E A = HEJO B AKH D H AI AFJE ALA IANDE>EJE F HJ= HOJD C ECDJ 5ALAH= =C EIJID=LA>AA ID M J E?HA=IA AFJE HA A=IABH 6DAIAE? α JDAHFH E B = =J HO?OJ E AI E IK E C K? IA AIJH CA I JDAHL=I =?JELAB=?J HI E A= CE JA IE 11 JDA E =O= I AFJE HA A=IA! = JD KCDJDEIEIIJE

4 #& E LAIJEC=JE =IJDEIFDA A =O??KH?= O= AI JIAA J =BBA?J F =I = ALA I B C= CE JA IE 11E BKIE! AFJE HA?AFJ HI=B= E O BIF E?AL=HE= JI` * CMEJDJDAIE A B?OJ F =I E?+JAH E K >AH JJEIIKAI MDE?D >H KCDJJDA=JJA JE BHAIA=H?DAHIJ JDAB=?JJD=J AFJE H= CA B=?JE I!!!% F=HJE?K =H OMEJDE L=I?K E K AIOIJA! ",EBBAHA JIF E?AL=HE= JI BJDAHA?AFJ HI HA =JE J IEC = E BANFHAIIE MEJD * 4> C EI B H I=IJDA = HIEC = E C A 6=> 1JEIE F HJ= JJ JAJD=JHA?AFJ H IF E?E = 5K?DK>EGKEJ KIANFHAIIE BJDAHA?AFJ HIE DK = I= C B AFJE E L=HE KI HC= I AE =? IJA =JE BLEJ= FH?AIIAIE? CCH MJD AJ=> E?? JH E K AHACK =JE E IK E IA IEJELEJOHACK =JE 6DAIA=IFA?JI B AFJE =?JE ID=LA>AA ANJA IELA IAMDAHA& '!& " A?JE A?JE =FFA=HIJ M E AHA I >KJE? JH=IJJ AFJE EJIAA IJ D=LAIALAH= >A ABE?E= JA?JELA ABBA?JI 6DAIAABBA?JIE? JE E B = =J HO L=I?K FH JA?JELA = ABBA?JI A?JE = I M F A A J HA FH JAE )?HF!EI= "%= E JAE AHMDE?DB H IJHE AHI MDE?DBKHJDAHF O AHE AE J =HCAHF O AHE?? F ANAIL=HOE CE IE A >AJMAA &,=DAN= AHAI 9 H" $,=$ AHAI 0 9& 1 JAHAIJE C OJDADECDAIJ>E CE?= =?JELEJO=FFA=HIJ AHI D MALAH?AHJ=E BK?JE I E A. =FF=*=?JEL=JE?= DECDAH? F ANAI ALA I A?JE E DK = # C HA =JELA O DECD= IK> A?JIMEJDE IK @ J E?AANDE>EJE IK E HAIEIJ=?A= HA LAH E EIJH=JE A?JE?=KIAIC K? IA MAHE A E H=JAI 6=> A = H M AFJE HA?AFJ HIE DK = I JDAEHANFHAIIE = E C A?D= EI I 4A?AFJ H -NFHAIIE 5EC = E C * 4= 5D HJEI B H I 7>EGKEJ KI = HH AE ) >=HHEAHJH= IF HJ * 4> CEI B H I DOF JD= = KI?OJAI O FD?OJAI ) 56)6F=JDM=O A JAH?OJAI JDA E=?A I I JD KI? A?A I F=?HA=JE?>AJ=?A 56)6! # $ -4 F!& * 4A 5 K> +EH?K =JE CE F =I =?= >AFH = HA?AFJ H H? 2I

5 #' E IK E HAIEIJ=?A" 6DEIE IK E IA IEJE E CABBA?J A?JE IAA IJ >A E?HA=IAE B=JJO JDH KCD=?JEL=JE B) 2 E =IA = FD="! 6M A?JE HA?AFJ 4= 4 D=LA>AA HA?A J O J I A AJ= KI? A MDAHA=I 4 E = J JDA ELAH"" 6DAIAJM A?JE HA?AFJ J=E IALA JH= I A >H= =E I >KJJ >A IJHK?JKH= = / FH JAE? KF HI"" ) JD KCDEJ =OIAA A?JE \IFHE =HOIEJAI B=?JE =HAFAHEFDAH= EJ= I =?JI?A JH= OMEJDE JDA>H=E CKJ=NEI"# 0 MALAH E IFEJA B K AH KIF JA JE= >A ABE?E= ABBA?JI A?JE JDAHA=HA= I IKCCAIJE I BEJ\IF IIE> AFH E B = =J HOABBA?JI MDE?D=HAOAJ J E 4AIEIJE 4AIEIJE D=I>AA = HJDAB=?JJD=JEJ? LAOIJDAHAIEIJ=?AJ E IK E "% 4AIEIJE EI="= E JE DK = I IJ E A OE JDA B H B=BAMIF E?AL=HE= JI =O?HA=JA EC AHE? IJHK?JKHAI +EH?K =JE CHAIEIJE ALA I B >AIEJO >AIADK = I= JE IEC EJ= A AJE?B H I B >AIEJO= E EIJH=JE B = JE HAIEIJE = ID M J E IK E =?JE E E >AIEJO"% 5E E =H OHAIEIJE D=I>AA E F JDAF=JD CA AIEI F E?=JE = HA LAH JHA=J A J B H = E?AMEJDHA? >E = JHAIEIJE E F=EHIC K? IAJ IK E =?JE 1 IK E IJE K K? IAKFJ= AKJH= E =JE BHAIEIJE = JHA=J A J"% 5 KH?A BHAIEIJE EIK M"& =IEJ =O J? OBH =OH=JDAH HECE =JABH E B = =J HO?A IE BE JH=JE CB=J JEIIKA"' # 4A A=IA BHAIEIJE =FFA=HIJ >AIJE K B = =JE 25 1 $ DOFAHC O?A E= CH D H AI 9DE AHA JDA B=JJEIIKAHAIEIJE =?JI IA LAI CJ E IK E HAIEIJ=?A.KHJDAH?D=H=?JAHE =JE BHAIEIJE EI A?AII=HO=IEJ\IAN=?JH A?D= EI B=?JE EIF H 8EIB=JE E 8EIB=JE EIJDA IJHA?A J E A M FHALE KI O=I FHA *?A? OA D=?E CB=?J H 2*-.MDE?D=FFA=HIJ >AFHABAHA JE= O FH IAJEIIKA# IK E E AJE?=?JE I 8EIB=JE ANFHAIIE = E I B =I =??A JH=JE DK = E = >AIEJO A EJKI 8EIB=JE JDAE IK E HA?AFJ E IK E

6 # ANAHJIDOF C O?A CC K? IAHA A=IABH IJE K =JE CC K? IAKJE E =JE E FAHEFDAH= JEIIKAI# 6DA =JJAHFH FAHJO? = AJDEI A?K ALAHOKIABK E JDAF JA JE= JHA=J A J 1 JAHAIJE C O M =I2*-. LEIB=JE M=I= I E B = =J HO?A I ALA L=HE KIE B = =J I# )FA E EI= JDAHID IJE K =JE >O A C E IK E 1 E AMEJDJDEI F =I ==FA E ALA >AIEJO IK E IK E A E=# 6DHAAB H I B =FA E? IEIJE C B! % H!$= E = HECE =JE CBH =? %% = E HI# 1 L=I?K =HIOIJA =FA E A E?EJI J EJHE? HA =N=JE = 1 =FA IJH=JAIF JA C =IJE C F IEJELAE JH FE?=?JELEJO *E CO= L=I?K =HABBA?JI B=FA E D=LA>AA HA?A J O ANJA IELA IAMDAHA# =HCAANJA JDAHA -BBA?JI E AI E K AIOIJA 6DAB=?JJD=JAN?AIIELA= K JI IAJEIIKA=HAHA IOIJA E?E B = =JE D=I>AA FH LA E > JD? E E?= A J= IAJJE C ' 6DEIEIHA JDA=>E EJO E AI=IMA =IJDA E B = =J HOE BE JH=JE BB=J>O?OJAI =?H IIE> O JDAH E B = =J HO?A I E A O FD?OJAI 6DAHA =JELAE F HJ=?A BJD IA? F=HJ A JI BB=JE >AIAE IHA =E + =IIE?=?OJ E AI 5ALAH= ]? =IIE?= ^?OJ E AIIK?D=I6. α 1 $ HIA E AI?= >AHA =OF=HJE?EF=JAE JDAHACK =JE B >AIEJO =IMA =IE IK E HAIEIJ=?AAJ? * JD6. α = =HCAHANJA J1 $=HA JDA IA LAI 1 B=?J A=H O! BJ J= 1 $E >AIAII E I?= HECE =JABH +DA E AIFH +2 =O>AHAIF IE> AB H =?H FD=CA E BE JH=JE IAJEIIKA#" JDAH?DA E AI E A4) # =O >AHA CJ JDAHA?HKEJ A J B JDAHA C 6?A IMDE?D?= F=HJE?EF=JAE B K AH KI?OJ E AI## 1 B = =J HO?A I E BE JH=JE CB=J?HA=JA= E EAKMDE?DFAHFAJK=JAIE B = =JE MEJDE IA JEIIKA= IA LAIJ B = =J HO HI = E AI? IE C=LE?E KI?EH? A BE B = =JE HA >AIEJO #$ A BJDALAHOE F HJ= J=IFA?JI B? =IIE?=?OJ E E B = =J HO?A IEIJDAEHE F HJ=?AE JDAF=JD CA AIEI BJDA AJ=> E? A. HE IJ=?A6. J >AIA E?A > > J E?A FE IK E HAIEIJ=?AJ JDAI= AANJA J=I >IAII BK?JE = 6. α F=JDM=O#% 1JEID MALAH J? F AJA O? AI

7 # JDA6. α, E F HJ= JE E IK E HAIEIJ=?A? E CBH E 1 JAHAIJE C O E DE>EJE B.κ*F=JDM=OE F HJ= JE B? =IIE?=?OJ E AIE? C6. α) D=I>AA ID M J =JJA K=JAE IK E HAIEIJ=?A = I MDA κ*f=jdm=om=ie AJE?= O OE OA I#& 1 F HJ= J O 6. α EI= I @= CMEJD+42 =O>A =LAHOE F HJ= H B HJ= EJOE E IMEJD AJ=> A#' AFJE ) JD KCD AFJE EI J=? =IIE?=?OJ E AIALAH= E K A?A IE? C F O HFD K? A=H AK?OJAI?OJAI =?H O FD?OJAI>A=H AFJE HA?AFJ AFJE $ $! IJ B AFJE FH E B = =J HO=?JELEJEAI=FFA=HJ >A C *4>HA?AFJ H IAA6=> AFJE D=I?AHJ=E IJHK?JKH= IE E =HEJEAIJ? =IIE?=?OJ E AI E A 1 $ / +5. H1 ' 1 JAHAIJE CJDAH A B AFJE E CE K EJOD=LA>AA >J=E ICELE CE IECDJE J AFJE >E COE A > > E?A =? E C AFJE E?AID ME C AFJE HAIEIJ=?A E?A =? E C AFJE ID M K AH KIF=JD CEAI BJDAE K AIOIJA 1 B=?J AFJE D=I>AA F IJK F =O= E F HJ= JH AE E E C KJHEJE = IJ=JKIJ E K AIOIJA $" 6DA JABBA?JIIAA J??KH JDA ALA K EJO J > > E?AD=LAIALAHAJDO C IKCCAIJIJD=JJDEID H H H = JDO F EAIEI = JD KCDJDAH A B AFJE =O>A HA? F ANE JDAIAJJE C BE B = =JE IJE K EIK?D=I 25 AFJE E EIJH=JE E K F EAIEIE > > E?A JIJE K =JAJDO F EAIEIE JOFA+#%* $ H *) *? E?A$# 5KHFHEIE C O E J NE E?A AFJE FHALA 25 E KIMAECDJ K CA AHA=HH= CA A J 0E? IJH=JAJD=J AFJE D=I=IA A?JELAJDO IJE K =J HOH AE IAJJE CI @ J NE E EIJH=JE =O>AKIABK B HFH JA?JE C JDAJDO A JE C6?A HA? IJEJKJE E JDAIA? E E?= IJ=JAI$# 1 JAHAIJE C O AFJE =FFA=HIJ FH JA?J= I BH 6. α E J NE?EJO )?JE C?OJAI AFJE A=IA B JDAH?OJ E AIIK?D=I6. = FD= H1 $=IMA =I++ HA LAHEJ FH EBAH=JE = JE=JE B?OJAI )?JE C AKJH FDE I AFJE J = E?HA=IA B+,>ANFHAIIE =IMA AKJH FDE?DA # $$ = BMDE?D=HALAHOE F HJ= JE E =JAE K A HAIF =JE BF=JD CA? E =JE BJDAI E K? I=$% )I A JE LAJDA = H=?JE I B AFJE =FFA=HIJ??KH JDA ALA K AHAIF IAI =E OE 6?A HACK =JE AFJE E C?A I$" $$ $& $'

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13 #% '$ '& 0 MALAH =? =? =J HABBA?J >AJMAA AFJE E HA LAHI A JDAH MJD=J AFJE =J J F=JDM=OIF=HJE?K =H OE DK =? H =HO=HJAHEAI'' E A OA=?D BJDAIA A?D= EI IF =OI=F=HJE?K =HH AE = JAHE CL=I?K =J HOBK?JE I.KHJDAH =HEBOJDA? JHE>KJE IJ L=I?K =HFDA A IK?D =JE?= =J HOABBA?JI B AFJE 1J IE= I E F HJ= JJ JAJD=JIOIJA E?DOFAH AFJE A E= >AIEJO MDE?DJDH KCD K AH KI A?D= EI I? JDA E= @ CA KI AFJE ALA I'$.E = O JDAL=HOE CABBA?JI B AFJE I ECDJ>AHA CA AJE?L=HE=>E EJOE AEJDAH AFJE HA?AFJ HI HALA J=HCAJ A?K AIMDE?D? 5F O HFDEI I =IMA =I F O HFDEI IMEJDE L=I?K =H 6DAIAEIIKAIHA =E J >A A AFJE >A ABE?E= A J= E A,=J=?KHHA J O=L=E => JIKBBE?EA J OANF =E MDAJDAH AFJE IAHLAI= >A ABE?E= A J= H AE L=I?K =HIOIJA E LEL 2=HJE?K =H O EJJ AEI M E HA =JE J DK = I 2=JD CA AJE?H A B AFJE E =JDAH I? AH IEID=I>AA E F 1JD=I>AA ID M A E JE = FH EBAH=JE B AFJE HA?AFJ H 4 JAE! 1? JH=IJJ > > J LAIIA E L LA A J DOFAH E= HIA E C >AIEJO AFJE HA?AFJ HEI =JDAH I? AH JE?F AFJE E BKIE E JDA > > E?AHAIK K E = IJA IEIIKCCAIJE E >AJMAA AFJE =JDAH I? AH IEI" 6DEID=I= I >AA ANF DK = I F=HJE?K =H OE JDA 9 5+ IFA?JELA O AFJE ALA I>AB H =HOALA JE 5? J KIJ A JIB H=CA IOIJ FHAIIKHA * 1 HAJ=E EBE?=?AIKCCAIJE C AFJE JHEI B=?J HB H=JDAH I? AH IEI# 6DAHAD=LA>AA IALAH= DK =? E E?= JHE= IIKFF HJE CJDEIIJH C? HHA =JE E E B=H?JE $? H =HO=HJAHO?=?EBE?=JE % A&IKCCAIJE C= EJELA HA =JE IDEF>AJMAA AFJE = F A J B? E E?= OFAHJE A J? H =HO AIE I AFJE D=I= I ID M J D=LAFH JDH > JE?FH FAHJEAI 9EJDJDA AFJE HA?AFJ HB >A DK = F =JA AJIFH JE CF =JA AJ=CCHAC=JE ' > > E JE A BLAIIA AJ JDH >KIB H =JE? E?A 2 =JA AJ=CCHAC=JE =C=E M=IIKFF AFJE E BKIE E > > > E?A OE E J

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