# Objective Molecular Dynamics

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1 Objective Molecular Dynamics Richard D. James University of Minnesota Joint work with Kaushik Dayal, Traian Dumitrica, Stefan Müller

2 Fluid Mechanics viscometric flows Simple shearing flow, for example normal stress (non-newtonian fluids)

3 Viscometric flows Constitutive equation for the Cauchy stress relative deformation gradient Ordinary Lagrangian description of motion Formula for the relative deformation gradient cone and plate flow Definition of a viscometric flow

4 Solid Mechanics the bending and twisting of beams B. de St. Venant, Memoire sur la torsion des prismes, Mem. Des Savants Etrangers 14 (1855), S. Antman, Nonlinear Problems of Elasticity. Applied Mathematical Sciences 107 (ed, S. S. Antman, J. E. Marsden, L. Sirovich). Springer (2005)

5 Bending and twisting of beams J. L. Ericksen, Adv. Appl. Mech. (ed. C-S Yih) 17 (1977), : or

6 Main thesis of this talk There is a universal molecular level interpretation of these motions (universal = independent of material) From this viewpoint the bending and twisting of beams and viscometric flows of fluids are the same

7 Isometry groups Iterate g 1 : More generally,

8 Examples Translation group Theorem: If a discrete group of isometries does not contain a translation and does not consist entirely of rotations, it is expressible in one of the forms where Dayal, Elliott, James

9 A time dependent invariant manifold of the equations of molecular dynamics simulated atoms a discrete group of isometries (N can be infinite) all of the atoms The elements can depend on t>0, but this time dependence must be consistent with

10 Atomic forces The force is smooth and satisfies Frame-indifference (These conditions satisfied, e.g., by the Hellmann-Feynman force based on Born- Oppenheimer quantum mechanics) Permutation invariance where Π is a permutation that preserves species.

11 Potential energy These conditions can be found by formally differentiating the frame-indifference and permutation invariance of the potential energy, ( but of course this calculation would not make sense when N = )

12 Theorem Assume the restrictions on the potential energy above and let be a time-dependent discrete group of isometries satisfying the restriction on the timedependence given above. If satisfy the equations of molecular dynamics, i.e., then also satisfy the equations of molecular dynamics:

13 Proof

14 Allowed time dependence of the group elements The permitted time-dependence, that is, This is satisfied (in the absence of excessive assumptions on the solution) if and only if

15 Simplest case - translation group affine in t discrete translation group all of the atoms simulated atoms permitted time-dependence

16 Naïve passage to continuum level affine motion Recall, for simple materials because

17 Evidently Some viscometric flows, i.e., cone and plate flow, seem to have no analog at atomic level. My personal view: failure of full timedependent frame-indifference in molecular dynamics The definition of viscometric flows misses some affine motions having all the good properties of viscometric flows

18 Key question: how representative are these solutions? Attracting in some sense? If one takes more and more simulated atoms (and a fixed group), with certain averages of initial conditions prescribed, the behavior is statistically like the large body/large time limit of a suitable boundary value problem (?). Another way to explore this issue: look at other theories of physics intermediate between MD and continuum Maxwell-Boltzmann Equation molecular density function Maxwell-Boltzmann equation

19 OMD solutions have their own statistics Use translation group (i.e., gases fill volumes) y 0

20 This yields an exact reduction of the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation g(t,w) satisfies Apparently includes all known exact solutions of the M-B equation for special molecular force laws (A further reduction is possible that leads to a ODE operator on the left hand side at the expense of slightly complicating the right hand side)

21 H theorem Prototypical molecular density corresponding to these flows g(t,w) w

22 Principle of Material Frame Indifference change of frame objectivity transformations Cauchy stress objective tensor PMFI:

23 Suggested modification of PMFI Add: (homogeneous materials only) Satisfied by every successful constitutive equation of which I am aware Have to look on the fringes of legitimate theory

24 Some interesting examples LES equations satisfied! Langevin equation

25 Langevin, continued simulated atoms all atoms Langevin equation for the simulated atoms, with all other atoms given by the above All other atoms also satisfy the Langevin equation with the same noise! Suggested way of writing the Langevin equation for general affine motions:

26 Other groups besides the translation group (joint work with Traian Dumitrica) Periodic MD Objective MD

27 Objective MD study of a carbon nanotube under torsion Three-body Tersoff potentials for carbon Twist was controlled by controlling the group parameters (interesting open question: what generalized forces answer to variations of group parameters?) The groups chosen were various subgroups of the following group (with no translational subgroup) listed earlier: No time-dependence of the group elements was introduced.

28 Objective MD: study of buckling of C nanotube under torsion a t 1 (12, 12) CNT b b a b t 2 3 deg/angstrom twist

29 Effect of different choices of the fundamental domain bifurcation diagram

30 Objective MD simulation of bending of a carbon nanotube Is there a St. Venant s principle at atomic level, with these solutions playing the role of the St. Venant solutions?

31 The most interesting cases pending Subperiodic groups (as in this case of C-nanotubes) but with timedependent group elements There are fascinating nontrivial cases of this type Best described as flowing nanostructures Do these flows at atomic level have the same fundamental significance for the measurement of material properties as viscometric flows and the bending and twisting of beams do for continuum theory?

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