1 Optical Properties of CdSe Colloidal Quantum Dots and NV-Nanodiamonds James MacNeil and Madhu Ashok University of Rochester The Institute of Optics Submitted to Dr. Svetlana Lukishova on 11/20/2013 Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to explore fluorescence of single emitters through confocal microscopy, along with analysis of photon antibunching and fluorescence life-time through the use of a Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup and 532 nm pulsed laser source. With the use of an EM-CCD camera in conjunction with the confocal microscope, blinking of quantum dots was observed due to excitation from the 633nm HeNe source. Additionally, atomic force microscopy was utilized to image the topography of colloidal quantum dots and nanodiamonds.
2 Introduction With the emergence and development of theories regarding quantum applications to communications and computational techniques, the demand for an ideal single photon source has dramatically increased. A single photon source emits a single quanta of light (i.e. a photon) at a time, that is, it emits antibunched light. In this experiment we explore the optical properties of various single emitters specifically, we examine the topography, antibunching characteristics, spectrum of emission, and fluorescence lifetime of these various single emitters through the use of various optical experimental techniques. Theory I. Quantification of Antibunching with a Hanbury Brown Twiss Interferometer As mentioned above, this experiment is focused on the properties of single photon sources. Single photon sources emit all of their photons separated in time, exhibiting a property called antibunching. It is important to note that it is easy to achieve an approximation for antibunched light through attenuation of a laser beam, but this does not actually achieve antibunching. In lasers, many photons are produced at the same time that is, it produces coherent light. Thus even after attenuation, the beam will be contaminated with clusters of photons due to the classical statistics by which coherent light (lasers) obeys. In this experiment we are considering only those sources of light that exhibit antibunching. To quantify the degree of antibunching for a particular source of photons, the second order coherence function is used : Where I is the intensity of the light, r 1 and r 2 are the positions of two separate photodetectors, and is the time between detection of photons. This function is a measure of the joint photo-detection probability for the two detectors at different times . For classical light,, meaning that it is more probable for the detectors to register photons at the same time i.e. the light is highly correlated. For antibunched light,, meaning that there is zero probability that two photons will be detected at the same time this is equivalent to all photons being separated in time. To measure the degree coherence between photons emitted from a particular light source, a Hanbury-Brown Twiss setup can be used, shown below in Figure 1. Fluorescent light enters the setup and hits the beam splitter, which leads to two separate single photon detectors (avalanche photodiode modules are shown in the figure these are the detectors used in the Hanbury Brown Twiss setup for this experiment). When a photon is incident on one detector, the computer logs the time elapsed until a photon is incident on the other detector. The computer is capable of this due to the installation of a TimeHarp 200 single
3 photon counting card. Thus the computer measures the time separation between incident photons and the TimeHarp software compiles these measurements into a plot (also known as a histogram) of counts versus time. If antibunching is observed, a dip at t=0 should be present on the histogram. Figure 1: Hanbury-Brown Twiss setup  II. Fluorescence Lifetime Quantum mechanics states that the energy levels of all systems are quantized. On a small enough scale, this discreet quantization of energy becomes noticeable, whereas on larger scales, energy appears to be continuous. Single photons arise from this quantization, where the energy of the emitted photon,, is equal to the spacing between energy levels of a system: All atoms and molecules are single photon sources. When one of their electrons absorbs a single quanta of energy, it gains kinetic energy and moves further away from the nucleus. When the electron releases energy and returns to its ground state, it produces a photon with frequency corresponding to the decrease in its kinetic energy. The changing of energy level for any system that is quantum confined results in the emission of single photons. The fluorescence lifetime of a single emitter is defined as the average amount of time that a system stays in its excited state before fluorescing and decaying to ground. The intensity of a single emitter s fluorescence with respect to time is given by, where I 0 is the initial intensity and is the fluorescence lifetime of the single emitter. Thus the fluorescence lifetime is also equivalent to the time it takes for a single emitter s intensity to decrease to 1/e of its maximum value during a single period of fluorescence. By fitting a function to a data set of counts versus time, the fluorescence lifetime of the single emitter in question can be extracted for that particular data set..
4 III. Types of Single Emitters In this experiment two types of single emitters were examined nitrogenvacancy (NV) nanodiamond and cadmium selenide (CdSe) colloidal quantum dots. In addition to this, nanodiamond doped with photonic bandgap materials (specifically, cholesteric liquid crystal) was also examined. Further details on these single emitters and photonic bandgap materials are discussed below. i. NV-Nanodiamond Nitrogen vacancy color centers, shown in Figure 2, occur when a lattice vacancy becomes trapped next to a nitrogen impurity in diamonds. Vacancies can be created through electron irradiation at energies greater than 200 kev . The vacancies become mobile at temperatures above 800 degrees Celsius, and can become trapped next to a nitrogen impurity . A portion of the nitrogen s valence electrons along with electrons in the vacancy form a discreet energy level structure, leading to the emission of single photons with a strong zero phonon line of ev . Figure 2: Nitrogen vacancy color center in diamond lattice. Image taken from Wikipedia page on nitrogen-vacancy nanodiamonds Nitrogen vacancy color centers show a number of characteristics that make them suitable for implementation in single photon source applications. They operate a room temperature, they do not bleach, they fluoresce under pulsed excitation (i.e. they are ondemand), and they are measured to have high quantum efficiencies . All of these characteristics make nitrogen vacancy nanodiamond a promising source of single photons in the field of nanophotonics and quantum communications. ii. CdSe Colloidal Quantum Dots Another type of single photon sourc is semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (shown in Figure 3). In this experiment we consider only colloidal synthesized CdSe quantum dots. The energy level structure of quantum dots arises from the quantum confinement effect on bound electron-hole pairs . When the size of the nanocrystal approaches the size of its exciton Bohr radius, the electron and hole can be
5 modeled as a particle confined in a box , leading to discreet energy levels. Due to the relatively large exciton Bohr radius of quantum dots (~10 nm), these effects become prominent at crystal sizes much larger than that of atoms or molecules. Quantum dots also show the property of fluorescing at different wavelengths based on their size, even if they are made of the same material . Decreasing the size of the quantum dot causes its energy levels to shift to higher values, much like a particle confined to a box will have its energy levels shifted higher if the box is made smaller . Thus different wavelengths of light can be achieved by preparing samples of quantum dots with varying sizes. Many quantum dots must be operated at cryogenic temperatures, but there are several types that been shown to fluoresce at room temperatures , making them a promising source of single photons much like NV-nanodiamond. Figure 3: Typical colloidal quantum dot. Image taken from reference  iii. Photonic Bandgap Materials There are many applications for single photon sources, including quantum communications and quantum computing . All of these applications involve encoding information through the quantum states of photons typically, the information is encoded based on the polarization. Thus in implementing a single photon source, it is important to have a source that emits photons of specific, intentional properties (i.e. frequency or polarization). This can be done through the use of photonic bandgap materials [1, 3]. Photonic bandgap materials are crystal structures that have a periodically varying index of refraction , leading to the transmission of certain wavelengths of light and reflection of others. Photonic bandgap materials are not single photon sources, but they are important in the applications of single photon sources. By doping single emitters in such crystal solutions, emission of photons with definite polarization or frequency can be obtained. This has been demonstrated by Bissell with both quantum dots and nitrogen vacancy nanodiamonds doped in planar-aligned cholesteric liquid crystal, from which he obtained definite circular polarization of the photons emitted . In this experiment we examine the fluorescence of NV-nanodiamond doped in chiral nematic (cholesteric) thermotropic liquid crystal. The term nematic refers to the alignment of the molecules in the crystal substance nematic liquid crystal has its
6 molecules approximately aligned, while their centers are located at random . Chiral refers to the substance s symmetry a chiral object is any structure whose image cannot be superimposed on its mirror image . Thus chiral liquid crystal cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. The term thermotropic denotes that the crystal s properties change with respect to its temperature. Visual depictions of nematic and cholesteric (chiral nematic) liquid crystal are shown Figure 4. Figure 4: (Left) Nematic phase of liquid crystal. (Right) Cholesteric (chiral nematic) liquid crystal. Images taken from reference .
7 Experimental Setup I. Confocal Microscopy and Hanbury Brown and Twiss Setup: Figure 5: Confocal microscope with a Hanbury Brown, and Twiss setup. This experimental setup was used for EM-CCD imaging, photon antibunching, and fluorescence lifetime analysis. The system was aligned for use of either a 633nm HeNe source or the mentioned 532nm diode-pumped solid state laser.  The experimental setup for the majority of the exercises involved the use of the confocal microscope in conjunction with the Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup. A 633nm HeNe or 532 nm pulsed source is lazed onto a spatial filter to clean and widen the beam, and is then directed towards neutral density filters before entering the confocal microscope. The beam is then passed through a dichroic mirror which reflects the laser beam up towards the sample, and transmits the fluorescent light from the single emitter to the imaging systems. The sample was held onto a piezo-translation stage with magnets, and a LabView program controlled the x and y movement of the stage. Key components of the confocal microscope are the oil immersed objective and the use of a pinhole to increase contrast in the imaging.
8 Figure 6: (left) Effect of oil immersed objective on image and (right) pinhole effect on contrast. Using an oil immersed microscope objective, increased brightness and resolution is obtained by increasing the index of refraction between the glass slide and the objective lens (figure 6 left). These characteristics are crucial under high magnification, as well as the increased contrast induced from use of a pinhole (figure 6 right). The pinhole effectively eliminates out of focus light from specimens on the conjugated detection plane. The setup had multiple ports, which allowed for observation of the fluorescent light to be directed towards an eye piece, EM-CCD camera, or the Hanbury Brown, and Twiss setup by changing a dial on the microscope. For EM-CCD imaging of fluorescence, a 633nm HeNe source was used to excite colloidal quantum dots at 800nm. The eye piece was used for rough alignment and focus of beam, followed by changing the dial to the camera and removing neutral density filters until an image is viewed on the EM-CCD camera. This ensures the protection of the camera since it is very sensitive to high intensities of light. This mode of operation was used to observe blinking of quantum dots. To observe antibunching, the Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup was used with a 532 nm pulsed excitation source. The Hanbury Brown Twiss setup consisted of two single photon counting avalanche photodiode detectors (APD) with a 50:50 nonpolarizing beam splitter. These APDs emitted TTL pulses to a TimeHarp computer card when incident photons hit the detectors. Two detectors were used for photon counting due to a dead time following detection associated with the APDs. This setup allowed for observation of antibunching through measurement of the time interval between photons. Using one APD as a start and the other as a stop on the TimeHarp 200 PCI card, time between successive photons are plotted on a histogram. The TimeHarp computer card works by charging a capacitor when the start channel receives a TTL pulse, and stops charging the capacitor when a TTL pulse reaches the stop channel. This charge is proportional to time, which is generated by the software. The setup can also be used for raster scanning a sample area through the Lab View program; which controls the piezo-translation stage in tandem with signals from the APDs. This imaging technique is useful for pinpointing single quantum dots and clusters through the color-scaled intensity graphs generated by the program.
9 For fluorescence lifetime measurements, a 532 nm pulsed laser source is used and the Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup is modified by changing the stop channel of the TimeHarp to the diode-pump solid state laser pulse. The delay time was also altered so that a single fluorescence period is observed. This effectively generates a histogram for the time interval from the impinging of a photon on the detector to the next pulse of the solid state laser. By fitting the curve generated by the histogram, the fluorescence lifetime can be calculated. II. Atomic Force Microscopy Setup: Figure 7: Atomic Force Microscope (orange). Samples included quantum dots and nanodiamonds. Atomic force microscopy is a method of imaging that produces extremely high resolution images. AFMs function by utilizing the properties of piezoelectric materials to perform a raster scan across a sample s surface with a very small probe (the probe's tip is on the order of tens of nanometers). An image of the sample s topography is produced by using force transducers and feedback to maintain a constant setpoint between the probe tip and sample surface [reference number]. In addition to this, AFMs can use their probe to perform lithography on samples, making them very useful tools in the field of nanophotonics. There are two basic modes of operation in atomic force microscopy: static mode and dynamic mode. The modes differ in the nature of their setpoints; static mode maintains a constant force of deflection between the sample and probe, whereas dynamic mode maintains the probe at a constant amplitude of oscillation . Static mode results in direct contact between the tip and sample, making it the most reliable and thus the preferred method of performing lithography commands. On the other end, static mode often results in probe damage, making dynamic mode more suitable for imaging and was thus the mode of operation used in this experiment.
10 III. Sample Preparation: The CdSe colloidal quantum dots were prepared using a pipette to drop a small amount of a low concentration onto a glass slide. The slide was then spin coated by rotating the slide at a high rpm to evenly spread the solution. This effectively distributed the quantum dots along the glass slide for greater uniformity and separation. The microscope objective was cleaned with acetone, and oil was applied to the lens before placing the slide on the piezo-translation stage with magnets. The nanodiamonds examined under the confocal microscope were doped with cholesteric liquid crystal by using a capillary tube to apply the liquid crystal and nanodiamond solution to a glass subtrate. The capillary tube was used to mix the solution, and once the solution was adequately mixed, a cover slip was applied on the substrate. The nanodiamonds examined under the AFM were prepared for us using 10μL nanodiamond solution diluted by a factor of Results i. Imaging: (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 8a-d: The four images convey the blinking of quantum dots viewed on the EM- CCD camera. Excitation from a 633nm HeNe laser source was viewed without a pinhole to observe traditional wide field microscopy. The EM-CCD camera was used to take a video of the fluorescence blinking of quantum dots, generating the images above (figure 8). Instead of confocal microscopy, the pinhole was removed to observe a wide field view of the quantum dots emitting photons. This camera view was also a way to roughly focus the system before performing raster scans of the individual quantum dots.
11 Figure 9: Nanodiamond spectrum taken with spectrometer and EM-CCD Camera. 532 nm pulsed, microwatt laser. The EM-CCD Camera along with a diffraction grating spectrometer was also used to image the spectral range of the nanodiamonds fluorescence. The spectrogram above (figure 8) shows sharp peaks at 581.5nm, 653.8nm, and 713.9nm. These peaks indicate wavelengths where the nanodiamonds will fluoresce and thus correspond to the energy levels of the NV-nanodiamond. (a) (b) Figure 10a-b: Atomic force microscopy images of quantum dots (a) and nanodiamonds (b). Notice the scale difference between the two images. The nanodiamond (a) is roughly 400nm, while the quantum dot(s) 250nm. The nanodiamond may in fact be a cluster due to its large size.
12 The topological images of the quantum dots (figure 10a) illustrate the size of what is believed to be a cluster, since a single quantum dot is normally on the order of tens of nanometers. The 10μL nanodiamond solution diluted by a factor of 2000 (figure 10b) showed stripes and shadows due inherent flaws (i.e. hysteresis, creep, nonlinearity) associated with atomic force microscopy. This structure may also be a cluster due to its large size (nanodiamond is typically between nm across). ii. Antibunching: Using the confocal microscope coupled with the Hanbury Brown Twiss interferometer and TimeHarp 200 single photon counting hardware, counts with respect to interphoton times were observed and plotted for several quantum dots. There were two measurements that indicate antibunching, shown in Figures  and . Note that the histograms have a dip at their centers, corresponding to a small amount of photons being detected at the same time. The zero-point of the histograms was not determined prior to making measurements, making numerical analysis of the antibunching histograms difficult. However, it is reasonable to conclude that we observed some degree of antibunching due to the dips in the centers of the histograms. Figure 11: (Left) 10x10 micrometer confocal raster scan of 800 nm quantum dot 1. 2 order magnitude filter and 14 ns delay used with 633 nm, 0.47 mw HeNe laser source. (Right) Histogram corresponding to quantum dot indicated by green spot on the right in confocal raster image. The dip in the center indicates fluorescence antibunching.
13 Figure 12: (Left) 10x10 micrometer confocal raster scan of 800 nm quantum dot 2. 2 order magnitude filter and 14 ns delay used with 633 nm, 0.47 mw HeNe laser source. (Right) Histogram corresponding to quantum dot indicated by green spot located at the bottom of the confocal raster image. The dip in the center indicates antibunching. iii. Fluorescence Lifetime: The TimeHarp computer card was modified to have the stop channel connected to the solid state laser and the start to an APD. This generated a histogram of the pulse when delay was induced, and can be modeled by fitting the data linearly or exponentially. Figure 10: TimeHarp histogram of fluorescence lifetime for a single quantum dot attenuated by.46 with a glass filter and 2 ns delay. Excited by a HeNe 633nm laser at.47mw power.
14 Ln(Counts) The figure above depicts an example of fluorescence lifetime in quantum dots. The glass filters tended to increase the fluorescence lifetime, which was generated on excel by taking the natural logarithm of the counts and plotting a linear best fit line. The slope of the linear fit line was equal to Nanodiamond Fluorescence Lifetime Interphoton Time (ns) y = x R² = Nanodiamonds Figure 11: Natural logarithm of counts vs. interphoton time (ns) for nanodiamonds. The resulting fluorescence lifetime was calculated to be. The regression models in excel for exponential functions gave lower after the natural logarithm was applied to counts. values than that of linear models Fluorescence lifetime was generated for quantum dots (single and clusters) and nanodiamonds (single and clusters) doped in cholesteric liquid crystal. QD Single No Filter QD Single.46 Filter QD Cluster No Filter QD Cluster.46 Filter Average 18.03ns 20.24ns 34.80ns 42.76ns STD 0.91ns 2.07ns 1.99ns 2.28ns Figure 12: Tabulated averages and standard deviation of fluorescence lifetime in single and clustered quantum dots. Lifetime generated with.46 orders of attenuation resulted in greater values in both average and standard deviation. We can observe that the average fluorescence lifetime for quantum dots increases when clustered or attenuated. The same table was generated for nanodiamonds, although fewer measurements were taken.
15 Nanodiamond Single Nanodiamond Cluster Average 4.75ns 4.72ns STD 0.08ns N/A Figure 13: Tabulated averages and standard deviation of fluorescence lifetime in single and clustered nanodiamonds. Only one measurement was taken for nanodiamond clusters so no standard deviation could be measured. Nandiamonds exhibited shorter fluorescence lifetime than either type of quantum dot (single or clustered), but more measurements would be needed to generate more solidified conclusions. Conclusion Through the use of a confocal microscope, images of NV-nanodiamond and CdSe colloidal quantum dots were produced. The EM-CCD camera was also used in conventional wide-field microscopy to observe the blinking of quantum dots. In addition to this, an atomic force microscope was used to create high resolution images of NV-nanodiamond and CdSe quantum dot topography. These images indicated that clusters of nanodiamonds were observed due to the large size (~400 nm) indicated typical nanodiamonds are between 50 and 100 nm across. It is believed that the image produced of the quantum dot is a single quantum dot quantum dots can be anywhere between on the order of 10 and 100 nanometers. The confocal microscope was also used in conjunction with a Hanbury Brown Twiss interferometer and TimeHarp200 single photon counting card with delay to observe fluorescence antibunching of quantum dots. The zero-point of the TimeHarp software was not determined, making specific quantification of the second order coherence function difficult. However, a dip at the center of two histograms was present, indicating fluorescence antibunching for the quantum dots associated with those plots. A similar setup was used to observe the fluorescence lifetime of both single and clustered quantum dots as well as both single and clustered NV-nanodiamond doped in cholesteric liquid crystal. It was found that the fluorescence lifetime of clusters was less than that of single structures, as expected. It was also found that the fluorescence lifetimes of nanodiamond was less than the fluorescence lifetime of the quantum dots observed in this experiment. This is entirely plausible due to the wide range of fluorescence lifetimes associated with quantum dots.
16 References  Lukishova, Svetlana. Lab 2 Single Photon Interference. Powerpoint Presentation. University of Rochester Institute of Optics, Rochester NY.  N.B. Manson, J.P. Harrison, M.J. Sellars. The nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond revisited. The American Physical Society Physical Review B 74,  L.J. Bissell. Experimental Realization of Efficient, Room Temperature Single- Photon Sources with Definite Circular and Linear Polarizations, Ph.D Thesis. University of Rochester Institute of Optics, Arts Sciences and Engineering, Edmund A. Hajim School of Engineering and Applied Sciences  L. Novotny, B. Hecht. Principle of Nano-Optics. Cambridge, Web. <  Lukishova, Svetlana. Lab 3-4 Most Difficult Topics (Preparation for Final Exam). Powerpoint Presentation. University of Rochester Institute of Optics. Rochester, NY  Lukishova, Svetlana. Labs 3 4 Manual. Powerpoint Presentation. University of Rochester Institute of Optics, Rochester NY.  Eaton, P. and West, P., Atomic Force Microscopy. Oxford Press, New York City. Note James MacNeil Introduction, Theory, Atomic Force Microscopy section of Experimental Setup, Antibunching of Quantum Dots in Results section, Conclusion Madhu Ashok Abstract, Experimental Setup section I and III, Results i and iii
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