Crops Diagnosis Using Digital Image Processing and Precision Agriculture Technologies*

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Crops Diagnosis Using Digital Image Processing and Precision Agriculture Technologies*"

Transcription

1 Ing Cuc, Vol. 11, N 1, pp 63-71, Jun, 2015 Crops Diagnosis Usg Digial Imag ocssg and cision Agriculur Tchnologis* Diagnósico d Culivos Uilizando ocsamino Digial d Imágns y Tcnologías d Agriculura d cisión Rsarch Aricl - Rcpion Da: July 22, Accpanc Da: March 2, 2015 Andrés Frnando Jiménz Lópz Masr of Scinc, Univrsidad d los Llanos. Villavicncio (Colombia). Juan Mauricio Salamanca PhD Engrg, Univrsidad Pdagógica y Tcnológica d Colombia. Sogamoso (Colombia). Mlani Jisll Quiroz Mda Elcronic Engr, Univrsidad Pdagógica y Tcnológica d Colombia. Sogamoso (Colombia). Oscar Eduardo Acvdo Pérz Elcronic Engr, Univrsidad Pdagógica y Tcnológica d Colombia. Sogamoso Absrac-- This papr prsns h rsuls of h dsign and implmnaion of a sysm for capurg and procssg imags of agriculural crops. Th dsign cluds h dvlopmn of sofwar and hardwar for imag acquisiion usg a modl hlicopr quippd wih vido camras wih a rsoluion of 640x480 pixls. A sofwar applicaion was dvlopd for prformg diffrnial corrcion of rrors gnrad by h Global Posiiong Sysm (GPS) and for allowg h moniorg of h posiion of h hlicopr ral im. A lmry sysm consisg of an rial masurmn uni, a magnomr, a prssur and aliud snsor, on GPS and wo phoo camras wr dvlopd. Fally, imag procssg sofwar was dvlopd o drm som vgaion dxs and gnraion of hr-dimnsional maps of crops. Rsumn-- Es arículo prsna los rsulados dl disño implmnación d un sisma d capura y procsamino d imágns d culivos agrícolas. El disño cluy l dsarrollo d sofwar y hardwar para la adquisición d imágns mdian un hlicópro d aromodlismo quipado con cámaras d rsolución d 640x480 pixls. S dsarrolló una aplicación n sofwar para ralizar la corrcción difrncial d rrors gnrados por l Sisma d Posicionamino Global (GPS por sus siglas n glés), prmiindo ambién l monioro d la posición dl hlicópro n impo ral. S dsarrolló un sisma d lmría compuso d una unidad d mdida rcial, un magnómro, un snsor d prsión y aliud, un GPS y dos cámaras foográficas. Falmn s laboró un sofwar d procsamino d imágns para drmar algunos índics d vgación y gnración d mapas ridimnsionals d los culivos. Ky Words Agriculur, Elcrodynamics, Engrg, Ligh, Opics, Wavs, Vgaion. Palabras clavs Agriculura, Elcrodámica, Ingniría, Luz, Ópica, Ondas, Vgación. To ci his papr: A.F. Jiménz Lópz, J. M. Salamanca, M. J. Quiroz Mda and O. E. Acvdo Pérz. Diagnósico d Culivos Uilizando ocsamino Digial d Imágns y Tcnologías d Agriculura d cisión, INGE CUC, vol. 11, no. 1, pp , * Rsarch papr drivg from h rsarch ojc Sisma d Adquisición y Análisis d formación mulispcral d snsors rmoos mdian un Vhículo Aéro no Tripulado, para aplicacions d Agriculura d cisión. Fundd by Univrsidad d los Llanos. Sarg da: Ocobr Endg da: Spmbr And from h rsarch ojc Disño Implmnación d un Sisma d Snsado Mulispcral rmoo para aplicacions d Agriculura d cisión. Fundd by Univrsidad Pdagógica y Tcnológica d Colombia. Sarg da: April Endg da: April

2 Crops Diagnosis Usg Digial Imag ocssg and cision AgriCUlur Tchnologis I. Inroducion cision Agriculur (PA) is an grad sysm basd on crop formaion, dsignd o cras producion fficincy, produciviy and profis, and urn, rduc impacs on h prsrvaion of lif and h nvironmn. PA diffrs from convnional agriculur on h fac ha i allows acion on farmg managmn, allowg h farmr o hav a nw crop managmn prspciv wih which o mak mor raional dcisions managg hir crops. Usually h fild of PA, salli imags ar usd for analysis of land, alhough h salli can dc formaion from a wid ara, h spaial rsoluion of h salli imag low-cos producs is: 1000 m, 500 m or 250 m for MODIS produc daa, and 20 m for Landsa and ASTER producs, among ohrs. Ths rsoluions mak i difficul o drm h characrisics for sgmn an imag of h soil and crops bcaus of h dail of h formaion ha can b akn [1]. Th daa acquird by hs producs is no suiabl for dcg h sa of crops small bachs such as small land holdgs or micro-farms, or whn hr is cloud covr, du o rflcanc of visibl radiaion h clouds. In addiion, ohr salli producs wih highr spaial rsoluion IKONOS (4 mrs) and QuickBird (1 mr) ar oo xpnsiv for ordary usrs [2]. Anohr disadvanag of h mhodology o analyz covrag by salli imagry is h im i aks o acquir a salli imag of h sam scor for h spaio-mporal analysis of phnological variabls crops, makg i impossibl o dc changs a h righ im. Many applicaions us daa from rmo snsg or mobil plaforms for moniorg and conrollg naural phnological variabls skg o improv h producion and nvironmnal scor, hrfor, his papr prsns h dvlopmn of a usful ool for drmg phnology paramrs of agriculural crops hrough h acquisiion and procssg of imags ha would adqualy solv h difficuly of obag fild formaion wih spaial and mporal adqua rsoluions. A. cision Agriculur (PA) Iniially PA was usd for larg racs of land; is dvlopmn aros from h growg nvironmnal concrns, h nd o giv propr us o soils and produc qualiy food a susaabl and rspcful way owards h nvironmn. PA is a susaabl alrnaiv sysm and a usful managmn sragy producion procsss; i is an agronomic managmn concp of farmg plos covrg all chniqus, mhods of culivaion and fild managmn. I corporas Informaion chnology wih spcializd mhods and ools for daa collcion and is sudy basd on spaial and mporal variabls. This is don hrough mulipl sourcs, givn h variy h ara (Global Posiiong Sysms -GPS-, srumnaion sysms and daa acquisiion, lcronics, microlcronics, wirlss chnology, snsors, conrollrs and quipmn, among ohrs), wih h purpos o collc, colla, analyz and char h formaion of wha happns or may happn soils or crops, and so dvlop sragis o addrss h consras of h plac [3], [4]. B. Tools usd by cision Agriculur Along wih biochnology, PA is on of h mos imporan chnological changs xprincd by agriculur rcn yars [3], [4]. Th ools usd by PA ar ndd o provid highr qualiy, conrol, daa loggg and highr prcision whn i coms o dfg diffrn managmn alrnaivs or makg fuur dcisions, ordr o hlp mak agriculur mor profiabl hrough cras yild valu (quaniy or qualiy) and rducion h numbr of pus. Informaion chnology provids ools for obag usful daa managg soils and crops on h variabiliy prsn wih an ara by spcifyg h managmn of producion procsss. Among ohrs, h ma chnological ools usd PA clud wahr saions, rmo snsg, Gographic Informaion Sysms (GIS), prformanc moniors, Global Navigaion Salli Sysms (GNSS), Global Posiiong Sysms (GPS) and daa bass. Ths chnologis ar usd for vrifyg diagnosic procsss (mappg of covrag, soil, irrigaion ls, roads, boundaris, dimnsions, frasrucur, c.); srnghng works or projcs h shor, mdium and long rm (sallg an irrigaion sysm l, sablishg a nw plo or a rsrvoir); mappg of growh, dvlopmn, and crop yildg; for h planng and xcuion of asks rlad o h applicaion of pus, sc hy hlp spcify which sis, wha amouns and whn hos pus can b usd. C. Global Posiiong Sysm -GPS Som auhors lik Sugiura, Gonzalz and Pñafl [2], [4], [5], hav undrakn h ask of dfg h Global Posiiong Sysm, known by is acronym: GPS. I bgan as a sysm of salli radio navigaion oprad by h Unid Sas Dparmn of Dfns h 70s, for h launch of gosaionary sallis around h arh for h purpos of guidg missils from mobil plaforms and locag miliary objcivs accuraly and fas nmy counris. Howvr, nowadays i has fosrd h mrgnc of nw sourcs of dvlopmn as AP. Th proocol usd by h GPS sysm is NMEA, dvlopd by h Naional Mar Elcronics Associaion o communica wih a paricular program 64

3 Ing Cuc, Vol. 11, N 1, pp 63-71, Jun, 2015 ha is salld on a compur or on a mobil dvic (PDA, mobil phon, c.). Th diffrnial posiiong occurs whn wo or mor GPS srumns ar volvd wih h aim o lima common posiiong misaks (slciv availabiliy) and is don by calculag coorda crmns from rfrnc quipmn o a mobil on. D. Unmannd Airborn Sysms Th us of airborn plaforms civilian applicaions hdrs h xisnc of a consnsus on is dfiion; hrfor, hr xiss a variy of nams: RPA (Rmoly Pilod Aircraf), or UA (Unmannd Aircraf or Unhabid Aircraf) h pas, and UAV (Unmannd Arial Vhicl), or UAS (Unmannd Aircraf Sysm) nowadays. Ths rms rfr o h absnc of crw on h vhicl which is no ncssarily a synonym of auonomy. Unmannd arial vhicls allow auonomous or smi-auonomous dvlopmn of diffrn yps of missions ha rang from filds of dfns and scuriy o agriculur and nvironmn [6]. E. Rmo Snsg Sysms Rmo snsg is h masurmn or acquisiion of formaion abou an objc or phnomnon by a am ha is no conac wih ha objc; agriculur, hs sysms ar basd on h racion of lcromagnic radiaion wih h soil or h plan whr h radiaion rflcd or mid by h crops or h characrisic spcral signaur is masurd [7]. Rmo snsg applicaions PA ar classifid by h yp of plaform usd for h snsor: dircly from h ground lvl or by mans of dvics ha ar boardd on aircraf, or salli [8]. Arial imags provid a walh of formaion a a rasonabl cos and is analysis allows modlg various agronomic paramrs ha drm h producion and h llign applicaion of hrbicids and frilizrs o diffrnia wds from crops and hus gnra yild maps for managmn durg and afr h growg sason. This chnology has counlss applicaions various filds, from scinific and cological o conomic, urban and social sudis [9]. F. Crop Diagnosis ar highly rflciv h nar frard (NIR 700 o 1300 nm) aras wih laf dnsiy and ffcs of h r canopy srucur [10]. Bsids rflcanc, ransmianc, absorpion, lavs of plans hav hrmal mission (fluorscnc nrgy) wih which war srss crops can b dfd, sc radiaion mission is h mpraur rspons of h laf and canopy, which varis wih h air mpraur and h ra of vaporanspiraion. Vgaion dxs such as NDVI (Normalizd Diffrnc Vgaion Indx), SVI (Simpl Vgaion Indx) and EVI (Enhancd Vgaion Indx) ar mos commonly usd sudis of rmo snsg for vgaion classificaion [8]. A wid rang of ohr dics hav bn dvlopd o offs h ffcs of soil cludg: Soil-Adjusd Vgaion Indx (SAVI), Grn Soil Adjusd Vgaion Indx (GSAVI), Opimizd Soli Adjusd Vgaion Indx (OSAVI) and Grn Opimizd Soil Adjusd Vgaion Indx (GOSAVI). Th rflciv propris of vgaion dpnd on hr yps of variabls: h canopy srucur (characrizd by foliar dx, h orinaion of h lavs and hir disribuion and siz), h opical propris of h rflciv lmns (sms, lavs, flowrs and fruis); and h gomry of obsrvaion, which is drmd by h rlaiv orinaion sunsurfac, and h posiion of h snsor wih rspc o h lar [11]. II. Sysm Dscripion As a soluion o h disadvanags of usg salli imags small agriculural aras, h aim of his projc is o dvlop a sysm abl o acquir, analyz and sor formaion o mak crop diagnosis wih arial imagry capur, hus mimizg oprag coss, gg highr rsoluion and br viwg rang of h spcific ara, ordr o idnify h rra variabiliy and cra prsn phnological condiions. A modl hlicopr is quippd wih wo camras (visibl and nar frard spcrum), a GPS sysm for diffrnial fild corrcion, bsids, prssur and aliud snsors, an IMU (Inrial Masurmn Uni) and a magnomr o monior h hlicopr saus ral im. Th crop formaion obad wirlssly is procssd by sofwar o b rprd and analyzd for is diagnosis hrough vgaion dics and gnraion of 3D maps which urn allows sg h DGPS locaion of h acquird imags and snsor paramrs a h momn of h capurg. Th amoun of radiaion rflcd from plans is vrsly rlad o h radiaion absorbd by pigmns, and varis wih h wavlngh of h cidnal radiaion. Plan pigmns such as chlorophyll srongly absorb radiaion h visibl spcrum (400 o 700 nanomrs); conras, plans A. Sysm Srucur Th sysm consiss of a fild saion and a bas saion. Th fild saion is composd of: a modl aircraf, an mbddd sysm and a vido camra for moniorg. Th bas saion is rsponsibl for 65

4 Crops Diagnosis Usg Digial Imag ocssg and cision AgriCUlur Tchnologis admisrg and managg h daa collcd h fild by wo compurs. Spcifically, h fild saion combs a modl aircraf (9053 Voliaion hlicopr) wih wo camras (visibl spcrum: HD 3000 and frard spcrum: LS-Y201-TTL-Infrard), GPS (VE- NUS638FLPX), rial masurmn unis (gyro and acclromr) IMU MPU 6050, prssur and aliud snsor (LPS331AP), lcronic compass (CMPS10), baris (LiPo yp and GP 9V 1604S 6F22) and a volag rgulaor (LM2596). Th procssg and ransmission of formaion o h bas saion via wirlss is prformd usg BaglBon Black mbddd sysm. Addiionally, h modl aircraf has a vido camra (1/3 CMOS Color, Scrw yp) wih ransmir cludd ha allows moniorg h fligh pah and imag capur from h bas saion ral im. Th bas saion is rsponsibl for admisrg and managg h daa collcd h fild by wo compurs: Compur1 quippd wih h lmry saion for rcivg h formaion from h snsors (IMU, GPS, compass, prssur and aliud; mbddd sysm saus and bary lvl) and Compur2 wih GPS bas saion (for h procss of capurg h GPS rfrnc posiion for diffrnial corrcion) and vido rackg of h UAV fligh. In acquirg h vido, h RF rcivr from h vido camra (1/3 CMOS Color, Scrw yp) is conncd o a fram grabbr (EasyCAP DC60). For rcivg GPS formaion (VENUS638FLPX) a h bas, a USB convrr o UART (PL2303) is usd. Compuador1 rcivs daa concrng h posiion of h modl aircraf, h acquird phoographs and h fild saion sysm saus, which is admisrd by h mbddd sysm. This sysm is abl o conrol, sor, pr-procss and snd h formaion wirlssly o h lmry saion applicaion whr i is displayd hrough a wb rfac, ral-im moniorg of snsors (IMU, GPS, compass, prssur and aliud) and h mbddd sysm formaion ( bary lvl and sysm saus.) Addiionally, i displays capurs akn by visibl and nar frard spcrum camras gnrag a x fil (.x) wih h formaion from h snsors h momn whn h phoographic capur was don, allowg downloadg of his formaion (imags,.x fil.) Compuador2 collcs GPS formaion from h bas saion hrough h GPS bas plaform rfac dvlopd Pyhon, charg of capurg, dcodg, sorg and displayg h NMEA cod ha h GPS snds. Th Ulad Vido Sudio SE DVD (vido dior sofwar) displays h pah of h UAV ral im, as suppor for is locaion and rfrnc whn capurg imags and ohr daa on h arial plaform. Wih rgard o daa procssg and dlivry of rsuls, Indxs Plaform is a sofwar program dvlopd Pyhon for h rspciv analysis and suppor of h crop diagnosis. Th Indx Plaform ak.x fil dlivrd by h GPS plaform bas, h lmry saion and h imags capurd by h camras of visibl and frard spcrum; hn prforms h calculaion of vgaion dxs. I graphically shows h rsul of ach on imags wih and wihou mprg o improv vision of phnological characrisics, i also shows h sgmnaion of h land o diffrnia crop from soil and gnras a 3D imag of is opography. Usg his sofwar, i is also possibl h acquisiion of h posiion daa of h GPS fild saion and h bas saion o s h coordas whr h imags wr capurd and wih hm, mak h rspciv DGPS corrcion and display h snsors saus o know h claion, dircion and aliud. B. Embddd Sysm Th mbddd sysm is h rsul of h srumnaion h UAV. This sysm compriss an srumnaion modul and h sofwar archicur of h mbddd sysm. Th srumnaion modul is rsponsibl for managg h priphrals conncd o i (s Fig. 1); and h sofwar archicur of h mbddd sysm diagrams h funcions usd by h procssor o prform h acquisiion and managmn of h daa by h snsors, and characrizs h libraris usd o acquir snsor daa and h procss ha maks h dvlopmn board o dlivr hos daa o srvrs for is admisraion. Th acquisiion of daa from snsors uss hr libraris: LIBFX, V4L and LIP_LSY201. Th LIBFX library is dvlopd h programmg languag C ++, i conas diffrn drivrs for managg mbddd sysm priphrals among which ar: UART_GPS, I2C_IMU, I2C_LPS, ADC_NIVEL and addiional libraris for procssg such as LN- MEA and FILTROAHRS. Th V4L library is rsponsibl for h configuraion and managmn of vido conrollrs, also wrin C ++ languag. Fally, h LIP_LSY201 library dvlopd Pyhon cod ss h LSY201 or NIR (frard) camra. C. Tlmry Saion. I is rsponsibl for displayg and capurg h daa collcd h fild by h mbddd sysm and admisrd by WEB_SERVER ha allows hrough h of Tlmry Saion wbsi (s Fig. 2) dvlopd Nod.js sourc cod (for layou and visualizaion of snsor daa) and JavaScrip (display of capurd imags), moniorg h UAV ral im and h usr s accss by TCPIP proocol. Th GPS bas saion allows sg a bnchmark and prformg DGPS diffrnial corrcion of daa collcd by h fild saion (s Fig. 3). 66

5 Ing Cuc, Vol. 11, N 1, pp 63-71, Jun, 2015 Fig.1 Insrumnaion modul of h mbddd sysm. 1) Modl aircraf; 2) BaglBon Black; 3) Visibl spcrum camra; 4) Infrard camra; 5) GPS fild saion; 6) Elcronic compass; 7) IMU; 8) ssur and aliud snsor; 9) SD card;10) Wirlss communicaion; 11) Rour; 12) Bas saion compur. Sourc: Auhors. Fig.2 Sysm srucur of h lmry saion. Sourc: Auhors 67

6 Crops Diagnosis Usg Digial Imag ocssg and cision Agriculur Tchnologis Fig. 3. DGPS Diffrnial corrcion plaform. Sourc: Auhors Fig. 4. Plaform for calculag vgaion dxs and 3D Map. Sourc: Auhor 68

7 Ing Cuc, Vol. 11, N 1, pp 63-71, Jun, 2015 E. Analysis and Diagnosis Th UAV sysm (s Fig. 5) was sd a fild of luc, bcaus i allows br idnificaion of h characrisics of h crop and soil, also i has a shor harvs priod. Th rra was dlimid as for an xprimnal plo o conduc h sudy, prsng faurs ha facilia h analysis and diagnosis of h crop. Svral phoographs wr akn o follow h phnological procss whr phoograph 1 was akn sarg on h fourh day afr h plang, and hn vry picur was akn ovr a priod of im ( days) of: 9, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40, havg a oal of 8 diffrn im priods. Inrfac dvlopd Pyhon cod and QT4Dsignr. I prforms daa procssg and dlivrs h rsuls o diagnos h sa of h crop. In his sofwar h imags capurd by h visibl and frard spcrum camra ar loadd oghr wih h Log.x fil which is dlivrd by h Tlmry Saion, and h hisory gpsbas.x fil. Th rfac prforms hr basic funcions: procsss imags, maks DGPS diffrnial corrcion, and displays daa and fal paramrs (s Fig. 4). This sofwar dvlops an imag procssg algorihm ha allows h characrizaion and diagnosis of a produciv agriculural uni. Th calculaion of vgaion dxs: GNVI (grn normalizd vgaion dx), RNVI (rd normalizd vgaion dx), SVI (sgl vgaion dx), GRVI (grn rd vgaion dx), DVI (diffrnc vgaiv dx), GDVI (grn diffrnc vgaion dx), NDVI (Normalizd Diffrnc Vgaion Indx), GNDVI (grn normalizd diffrnc vgaion dx), EVI (nhancd vgaion dx,) SIAV (soil dx adjusd vgaion), GSAVI (grn soil adjusd vgaion dx), OSAVI (opimizd soil adjusd vgaion dx), and GOSAVI (grn opimizd soil adjusd vgaion dx) is prformd by mans of raios and rcangulariy among spcral bands wih corrcions basd on land us. Th consans usd o drm ach vgaion dx wr basd on hos usd by salli sysms. To sablish crop diagnosis, imag sgmnaion is prformd accordg o vgaion dxs and h sa of ach crop or plan. As a rsul of h sgmnaion, vgaion and non-vgaion h crop is drmd by h nsiy of h gray lvl imag. Th analysis o drm h gnral sa of crop is carrid ou usg h rsulg sgmnaion imags of ach on of h vgaion dxs. Th visualizaion gnrad h Indx Plaform dicas: aribus of usd imags; DGPS corrcion daa of capur posiion; lif, wis and il of h UAV a h im of akg picurs; 3D figur of h sudid rra and, of cours, ach of h vgaion dxs showg raw daa, wih nhancmn and sgmnaion. D. Indxs Plaform Fig. 5. Gnral schm of h sysm opraion. Sourc: Auhors 69

8 Crops Diagnosis Usg Digial Imag ocssg and cision Agriculur Tchnologis changs h dx scal valus accordg o crop growh. Th Rd Normalizd Vgaion Indx RNVI (s Fig. 6g and 6h) was h bs on ha providd fasibl analysis faurs. Srucural changs h vs ar obsrvd, allowg idnificaion of a homognous growh his scion of h crop. Each plan rprsns a physiognomy wih a high conn of biomass and good concnraion of chlorophyll h lavs as wll as an adqua lvl of humidiy; Gnrally spakg, i can b frrd ha h laf ara is disribud proprly, favorg h growh and dvlopmn of ach plan. For crop analysis and diagnosis, h usd imags ar h ons corrspondg o h im of plang and six wks lar. Thus, h changs occurrg h crop durg is mos imporan phnological phass ar drmd. Figur 6 shows h imags capurd by h sysm and procssd usg h algorihm Pyhon, boh for h bar soil and h growg crop. On of h calculad vgaion dxs is shown as wll as h vgaion sgmnaion procdur accordg o h nomal scals of h dxs ha ar usd o discrima bwn vgaion and non-vgaion covrag. Th scal valus for covrag of hs wo yps highligh h b) a) c) d) ) f) 70 Nx...

9 Ing Cuc, Vol. 11, N 1, pp 63-71, Jun, 2015 Con... g) h) Fig.6. Imag spcrum: a) Imag h visibl spcrum for bar soil, b) Imag h visibl spcrum for soil wih vgaion covrag, c) Imag h NIR spcrum for bar soil, d) Imag h NIR spcrum for soil wih vgaion covrag, ) and f) RN Vgaion Indx,,g) and h) Vgaion Indx imag wih imag sgmnaion. Sourc: Auhors III. Conclusions For h dvlopmn of his projc, fiv programmg languags wr grad (HTML, JavaScrip, Nod.Js, C ++ and Pyhon) which oghr complmn ach sofwar ool (Saion Tlmry, GPS Bas Saion, Indxs Plaform), makg i possibl o gnra a bas from which diffrn applicaions for civilian us can b dvlopd, spcially h moniorg of crops, damag assssmn, sarch and rscu, locaion of naural rsourcs, frasrucur spcion, forsry sudis, scuriy applicaions and vryhg rlad o prcision agriculur, sc all hs applicaions mus adap an implmnaion of similar algorihms for handlg of his yp of imags. Som vgaion dxs show br characrisics and rsuls han ohrs, bu all of hm allow for h quanificaion of plan formaion. This projc should conu wih h adjusmn and corrcion of h obad valus for cass of disass, pss, irrigaion, nuriion and applicaion of pus spcific crops. IV. Acknowldgmns Th auhors ar graful o h rsarch groups DSP-UPTC and Macryp of UNILLANOS for h suppor h dvlopmn of his projc. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Rfrncs [1] R. Sugiura, T. Fukagawa, N. Noguchi, K. Ishii, Y. Shibaa, and K. Toriyama, Fild formaion sysm usg an agriculural hlicopr owards prcision farmg, IEEE/ASME Inrnaional Confrnc on Advancd Inllign Mcharonics, 2003, vol. 2, pp DOI: /aim [11] R. Sugiura, N. Noguchi, and K. Ishii, Rmo-snsg Tchnology for Vgaion Moniorg usg an Unmannd Hlicopr, Biosys. Eng., vol. 90, no. 4, pp , DOI: /j.biosysmsng M. Bragachi, A. Méndz, F. oii, and F. Scaramuzza, oyco Agriculura d cisión, INTA Manfrdi, [En lína]. Disponibl n: hp://coschayposcoscha.org/daa/follos/folloagriculuradcision.pdf. C. Gonzálz, J. Spúlvda, R. Barroso, F. Frnándz, F. Pérz, and J. Lornzo, Sisma para la gnración auomáica d mapas d rndimino. Aplicación n la agriculura d prcisión, Idsia, vol. 29, no. 1, pp , DOI: /S J. Pñafil and J. Zagas, Fundamnos dl sisma GPS y aplicacions n la opografía. Madrid, 2001, pp F. Mdiros, A. Sanos, M. Gonzai, V. Olivira, and M. Landrhal, Uilização d umvículo aéro nãoripulado maividads d imagamno gorfrnciado, Ciência Rural, vol. 38, no. 8, pp , DOI: /S X. Burgos, A. Ribiro, A. Tllach, G. Pajars, and C. Frnándz, Analysis of naural imags procssg for h xracion of agriculural lmns, Imag Vis. Compu., vol. 28, no. 1, pp , DOI: /j. imavis D. J. Mulla, Twny fiv yars of rmo snsg prcision agriculur: Ky advancs and rmag knowldg gaps, Biosys. Eng., vol. 114, no. 4, pp , DOI: /j.biosysmsng J. Torrs-Sánchz, F. Lópz-Granados, A. I. D Casro, and J. M. Pña-Barragán, Configuraion and Spcificaions of an Unmannd Arial Vhicl (UAV) for Early Si Spcific Wd Managmn, PLoS On, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1 15, DOI: /journal.pon A. Casro, J. Pña, L. Garcia, and F. Lópz, Discrimación d malas hirbas crucífras n culivos d virno para su aplicación n agriculura d prcisión, XIII Congrso d la Asociación Española d TldcciónCalaayud, 2009, pp Q. Du, B. Luo, and J. Chanusso, Usg High-Rsoluion Airborn and Salli Imagry o Assss Crop Growh and Yild Variabiliy for cision Agriculur, oc. IEEE, vol. 101, no. 3, pp , DOI: /JPROC

CPSC 211 Data Structures & Implementations (c) Texas A&M University [ 259] B-Trees

CPSC 211 Data Structures & Implementations (c) Texas A&M University [ 259] B-Trees CPSC 211 Daa Srucurs & Implmnaions (c) Txas A&M Univrsiy [ 259] B-Trs Th AVL r and rd-black r allowd som variaion in h lnghs of h diffrn roo-o-laf pahs. An alrnaiv ida is o mak sur ha all roo-o-laf pahs

More information

Section. Problem Representation. Substation. Protection Device. protection equipments. Substation. Client. EPDS divided in blocks connected by

Section. Problem Representation. Substation. Protection Device. protection equipments. Substation. Client. EPDS divided in blocks connected by HIERARCHICAL MULTIPLE CRITERIA OPTIMIZATION OF MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES ON POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS Problm Rprsaion EPDS comprising: Subsaions, primary nworks, scondary, nworks; Fdrs (cabls, lins, pols,

More information

4.1 The Uniform Distribution Def n: A c.r.v. X has a continuous uniform distribution on [a, b] when its pdf is = 1 a x b

4.1 The Uniform Distribution Def n: A c.r.v. X has a continuous uniform distribution on [a, b] when its pdf is = 1 a x b 4. Th Uniform Disribuion Df n: A c.r.v. has a coninuous uniform disribuion on [a, b] whn is pdf is f x a x b b a Also, b + a b a µ E and V Ex4. Suppos, h lvl of unblivabiliy a any poin in a Transformrs

More information

Microscopic Flow Characteristics Time Headway - Distribution

Microscopic Flow Characteristics Time Headway - Distribution CE57: Traffic Flow Thory Spring 20 Wk 2 Modling Hadway Disribuion Microscopic Flow Characrisics Tim Hadway - Disribuion Tim Hadway Dfiniion Tim Hadway vrsus Gap Ahmd Abdl-Rahim Civil Enginring Dparmn,

More information

2.1. Differential Equations and Solutions #3, 4, 17, 20, 24, 35

2.1. Differential Equations and Solutions #3, 4, 17, 20, 24, 35 MATH 5 PS # Summr 00.. Diffrnial Equaions and Soluions PS.# Show ha ()C #, 4, 7, 0, 4, 5 ( / ) is a gnral soluion of h diffrnial quaion. Us a compur or calculaor o skch h soluions for h givn valus of h

More information

CHAPTER CHAPTER14. Expectations: The Basic Tools. Prepared by: Fernando Quijano and Yvonn Quijano

CHAPTER CHAPTER14. Expectations: The Basic Tools. Prepared by: Fernando Quijano and Yvonn Quijano Expcaions: Th Basic Prpard by: Frnando Quijano and Yvonn Quijano CHAPTER CHAPTER14 2006 Prnic Hall Businss Publishing Macroconomics, 4/ Olivir Blanchard 14-1 Today s Lcur Chapr 14:Expcaions: Th Basic Th

More information

Voltage v(z) ~ E(z)D. We can actually get to this wave behavior by using circuit theory, w/o going into details of the EM fields!

Voltage v(z) ~ E(z)D. We can actually get to this wave behavior by using circuit theory, w/o going into details of the EM fields! Considr a pair of wirs idal wirs ngh >, say, infinily long olag along a cabl can vary! D olag v( E(D W can acually g o his wav bhavior by using circui hory, w/o going ino dails of h EM filds! Thr

More information

7.4 QUANTUM MECHANICAL TREATMENT OF FLUCTUATIONS *

7.4 QUANTUM MECHANICAL TREATMENT OF FLUCTUATIONS * Andri Tokmakoff, MIT Dparmn of Chmisry, 5/19/5 7-11 7.4 QUANTUM MECANICAL TREATMENT OF FLUCTUATIONS * Inroducion and Prviw Now h origin of frquncy flucuaions is inracions of our molcul (or mor approprialy

More information

Charging of capacitor through inductor and resistor

Charging of capacitor through inductor and resistor cur 4&: R circui harging of capacior hrough inducor and rsisor us considr a capacior of capacianc is conncd o a D sourc of.m.f. E hrough a rsisr of rsisanc R, an inducor of inducanc and a y K in sris.

More information

Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, 6 th edition October 17, 2016

Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, 6 th edition October 17, 2016 Applid Saisics and robabiliy for Enginrs, 6 h diion Ocobr 7, 6 CHATER Scion - -. a d. 679.. b. d. 88 c d d d. 987 d. 98 f d.. Thn, = ln. =. g d.. Thn, = ln.9 =.. -7. a., by symmry. b.. d...6. 7.. c...

More information

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR NATURAL COOLING OF A CUP OF TEA

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR NATURAL COOLING OF A CUP OF TEA MTHEMTICL MODEL FOR NTURL COOLING OF CUP OF TE 1 Mrs.D.Kalpana, 2 Mr.S.Dhvarajan 1 Snior Lcurr, Dparmn of Chmisry, PSB Polychnic Collg, Chnnai, India. 2 ssisan Profssor, Dparmn of Mahmaics, Dr.M.G.R Educaional

More information

( ) C R. υ in RC 1. cos. ,sin. ω ω υ + +

( ) C R. υ in RC 1. cos. ,sin. ω ω υ + + Oscillaors. Thory of Oscillaions. Th lad circui, h lag circui and h lad-lag circui. Th Win Bridg oscillaor. Ohr usful oscillaors. Th 555 Timr. Basic Dscripion. Th S flip flop. Monosabl opraion of h 555

More information

The Science of Monetary Policy

The Science of Monetary Policy Th Scinc of Monary Policy. Inroducion o Topics of Sminar. Rviw: IS-LM, AD-AS wih an applicaion o currn monary policy in Japan 3. Monary Policy Sragy: Inrs Ra Ruls and Inflaion Targing (Svnsson EER) 4.

More information

The transition:transversion rate ratio vs. the T-ratio.

The transition:transversion rate ratio vs. the T-ratio. PhyloMah Lcur 8 by Dan Vandrpool March, 00 opics of Discussion ransiion:ransvrsion ra raio Kappa vs. ransiion:ransvrsion raio raio alculaing h xpcd numbr of subsiuions using marix algbra Why h nral im

More information

Physics 160 Lecture 3. R. Johnson April 6, 2015

Physics 160 Lecture 3. R. Johnson April 6, 2015 Physics 6 Lcur 3 R. Johnson April 6, 5 RC Circui (Low-Pass Filr This is h sam RC circui w lookd a arlir h im doma, bu hr w ar rsd h frquncy rspons. So w pu a s wav sad of a sp funcion. whr R C RC Complx

More information

Lecture 4: Laplace Transforms

Lecture 4: Laplace Transforms Lur 4: Lapla Transforms Lapla and rlad ransformaions an b usd o solv diffrnial quaion and o rdu priodi nois in signals and imags. Basially, hy onvr h drivaiv opraions ino mulipliaion, diffrnial quaions

More information

Let s look again at the first order linear differential equation we are attempting to solve, in its standard form:

Let s look again at the first order linear differential equation we are attempting to solve, in its standard form: Th Ingraing Facor Mhod In h prvious xampls of simpl firs ordr ODEs, w found h soluions by algbraically spara h dpndn variabl- and h indpndn variabl- rms, and wri h wo sids of a givn quaion as drivaivs,

More information

Single Electron Devices for Logic Applications

Single Electron Devices for Logic Applications Sinl Elcron Dvics for Loic Applicaions Rza M. Rad UMB Basd on pas 45-441 441 of Nanolcronics and Informaion Tchnoloy,, Rainr Wasr Inroducion Scalin down MOSFETs has bn fundamnal in improvin h prformanc

More information

LaPlace Transform in Circuit Analysis

LaPlace Transform in Circuit Analysis LaPlac Tranform in Circui Analyi Obciv: Calcula h Laplac ranform of common funcion uing h dfiniion and h Laplac ranform abl Laplac-ranform a circui, including componn wih non-zro iniial condiion. Analyz

More information

Ratio-Product Type Exponential Estimator For Estimating Finite Population Mean Using Information On Auxiliary Attribute

Ratio-Product Type Exponential Estimator For Estimating Finite Population Mean Using Information On Auxiliary Attribute Raio-Produc T Exonnial Esimaor For Esimaing Fini Poulaion Man Using Informaion On Auxiliar Aribu Rajsh Singh, Pankaj hauhan, and Nirmala Sawan, School of Saisics, DAVV, Indor (M.P., India (rsinghsa@ahoo.com

More information

Experimental and Computer Aided Study of Anisotropic Behavior of Material to Reduce the Metal Forming Defects

Experimental and Computer Aided Study of Anisotropic Behavior of Material to Reduce the Metal Forming Defects ISSN 2395-1621 Exprimnal and Compur Aidd Sudy of Anisoropic Bhavior of Marial o Rduc h Mal Forming Dfcs #1 Tausif N. Momin, #2 Vishal B.Bhagwa 1 ausifnmomin@gmail.com 2 bhagwavb@gmail.com #12 Mchanical

More information

Chap 2: Reliability and Availability Models

Chap 2: Reliability and Availability Models Chap : lably ad valably Modls lably = prob{s s fully fucog [,]} Suppos from [,] m prod, w masur ou of N compos, of whch N : # of compos oprag corrcly a m N f : # of compos whch hav fald a m rlably of h

More information

Consider a system of 2 simultaneous first order linear equations

Consider a system of 2 simultaneous first order linear equations Soluon of sysms of frs ordr lnar quaons onsdr a sysm of smulanous frs ordr lnar quaons a b c d I has h alrna mar-vcor rprsnaon a b c d Or, n shorhand A, f A s alrady known from con W know ha h abov sysm

More information

To be published in the Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, Kluwer Acadelic Publishers, 2004

To be published in the Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, Kluwer Acadelic Publishers, 2004 To b publishd in h Journal of Inllign & Roboic Sysms, Kluwr Acadlic Publishrs, 24 Th Discr Evn Concp as a Paradigm for h Prcpion Basd Diagnosis of Sachm Marc LE GOC 1&2 and Claudia FRYDMAN 1 1 LSIS Domain

More information

Estimation of Metal Recovery Using Exponential Distribution

Estimation of Metal Recovery Using Exponential Distribution Inrnaional rd Journal o Sinii sarh in Enginring (IJSE).irjsr.om Volum 1 Issu 1 ǁ D. 216 ǁ PP. 7-11 Esimaion o Mal ovry Using Exponnial Disribuion Hüsyin Ankara Dparmn o Mining Enginring, Eskishir Osmangazi

More information

Lecture 1: Growth and decay of current in RL circuit. Growth of current in LR Circuit. D.K.Pandey

Lecture 1: Growth and decay of current in RL circuit. Growth of current in LR Circuit. D.K.Pandey cur : Growh and dcay of currn in circui Growh of currn in Circui us considr an inducor of slf inducanc is conncd o a DC sourc of.m.f. E hrough a rsisr of rsisanc and a ky K in sris. Whn h ky K is swichd

More information

First Lecture of Machine Learning. Hung-yi Lee

First Lecture of Machine Learning. Hung-yi Lee Firs Lcur of Machin Larning Hung-yi L Larning o say ys/no Binary Classificaion Larning o say ys/no Sam filring Is an -mail sam or no? Rcommndaion sysms rcommnd h roduc o h cusomr or no? Malwar dcion Is

More information

PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONS

PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONS Prliinary Dfiniions and Rlaions 1 CHAPTER 2 PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONS يتكون حجم معيه مه التربة مه حبيبات صلببة هولواو هملاو اميلاي جوفيللة أه ميللاي (.للصدر همقلل ) ال للو فللي التربللة وللو

More information

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N

More information

( ) 2! l p. Nonlinear Dynamics for Gear Fault Level. ( ) f ( x) ( ),! = sgn % " p. Open Access. Su Xunwen *,1, Liu Jinhao 1 and Wang Shaoping 2. !

( ) 2! l p. Nonlinear Dynamics for Gear Fault Level. ( ) f ( x) ( ),! = sgn %  p. Open Access. Su Xunwen *,1, Liu Jinhao 1 and Wang Shaoping 2. ! Nonlinar Dynamics for Gar Faul Lvl Su Xunwn Liu Jinhao and Wang Shaoping Snd Ordrs for Rprins o rprins@bnhamscinc.a Th Opn Mchanical Enginring Journal 04 8 487496 487 Opn Accss School of Tchnology Bijing

More information

The Variance-Covariance Matrix

The Variance-Covariance Matrix Th Varanc-Covaranc Marx Our bggs a so-ar has bn ng a lnar uncon o a s o daa by mnmzng h las squars drncs rom h o h daa wh mnsarch. Whn analyzng non-lnar daa you hav o us a program l Malab as many yps o

More information

Modelling and optimization of multi-energy source building systems in the design concept phase

Modelling and optimization of multi-energy source building systems in the design concept phase rocdgs of Clima 2007 WllBg Indoors Modllg and opimizaion of muli-nrgy sourc buildg sysms h dsign concp phas Vcnzo Corrado, Enrico Fabrizio and Marco Filippi Diparimno di Enrgica (DENER), olicnico di Toro,

More information

Circuits and Systems I

Circuits and Systems I Circuis and Sysms I LECTURE #3 Th Spcrum, Priodic Signals, and h Tim-Varying Spcrum lions@pfl Prof. Dr. Volan Cvhr LIONS/Laboraory for Informaion and Infrnc Sysms Licns Info for SPFirs Slids This wor rlasd

More information

Authors. Introduction. Introduction

Authors. Introduction. Introduction Auhors Hidden Applied in Agriculural Crops Classificaion Caholic Universiy of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio Paula B. C. Leie Raul Q. Feiosa Gilson A. O. P. Cosa Hidden Applied in Agriculural Crops Classificaion

More information

fiziks Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES MATEMATICAL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS are

fiziks Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES MATEMATICAL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS are MTEMTICL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS GTE- Q. Considr an ani-symmric nsor P ij wih indics i and j running from o 5. Th numbr of indpndn componns of h nsor is 9 6 ns: Soluion: Th numbr of indpndn componns of h nsor

More information

Advances in automation design for fast vessels propulsion

Advances in automation design for fast vessels propulsion Advancs in auomaion dsign for fas vssls propulsion M. Alosol, G. Bnvnuo & M. Marlli Dparmn of Naval Archicur and Elcrical Enginring, Gnova, Ialy M. Galli Sasma S.p.A., Gnova, Ialy ABSTRACT: Suprior prformanc,

More information

COD removal from industrial wastewater using activated carbon prepared from animal horns

COD removal from industrial wastewater using activated carbon prepared from animal horns African Journal of Biochnology Vol. 7 (2), pp. 37-3, 5 Novmbr, 2008 Availabl onlin a hp://www.acadmicjournals.org/ajb ISSN 684 535 2008 Acadmic Journals Full Lngh Rsarch Papr COD rmoval from indusrial

More information

Poisson process Markov process

Poisson process Markov process E2200 Quuing hory and lraffic 2nd lcur oion proc Markov proc Vikoria Fodor KTH Laboraory for Communicaion nwork, School of Elcrical Enginring 1 Cour oulin Sochaic proc bhind quuing hory L2-L3 oion proc

More information

XV Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

XV Exponential and Logarithmic Functions MATHEMATICS 0-0-RE Dirnial Calculus Marin Huard Winr 08 XV Eponnial and Logarihmic Funcions. Skch h graph o h givn uncions and sa h domain and rang. d) ) ) log. Whn Sarah was born, hr parns placd $000

More information

GUIDE FOR SUPERVISORS 1. This event runs most efficiently with two to four extra volunteers to help proctor students and grade the student

GUIDE FOR SUPERVISORS 1. This event runs most efficiently with two to four extra volunteers to help proctor students and grade the student GUIDE FOR SUPERVISORS 1. This vn uns mos fficinly wih wo o fou xa voluns o hlp poco sudns and gad h sudn scoshs. 2. EVENT PARAMETERS: Th vn supviso will povid scoshs. You will nd o bing a im, pns and pncils

More information

MPX Detectors as LHC Luminosity Monitor

MPX Detectors as LHC Luminosity Monitor MPX Dcors as LHC Luminosiy Monior arxiv:5.4v [physics.ins-d] 5 Dc 5 André Sopczak, Babar Ali, Ndaa Asbah, Bndik Brgmann, Khald Bkhouch 3, David Caforio, Michal Campbll 4, Erik Hijn, Claud Lroy, Anna Lipniacka

More information

Measuring the NAIRU: Evidence from the European Union, USA and Japan

Measuring the NAIRU: Evidence from the European Union, USA and Japan Inrnaional Rsarch Journal of Financ and Economics ISSN 10- Issu 1 (00) EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 00 hp://www.urojournals.com/financ.hm Masuring h : Evidnc from h Europan Union, USA and Japan Gorg Sphanids

More information

Likelihood Ratio Based Tests for Markov Regime Switching

Likelihood Ratio Based Tests for Markov Regime Switching Liklihood Raio Basd ss for Markov Rgim Swiching Zhongjun Qu y Boson Univrsiy Fan Zhuo z Boson Univrsiy Fbruary 4, 07 Absrac Markov rgim swiching modls ar widly considrd in conomics and nanc. Alhough hr

More information

Frequency Response. Response of an LTI System to Eigenfunction

Frequency Response. Response of an LTI System to Eigenfunction Frquncy Rsons Las m w Rvsd formal dfnons of lnary and m-nvaranc Found an gnfuncon for lnar m-nvaran sysms Found h frquncy rsons of a lnar sysm o gnfuncon nu Found h frquncy rsons for cascad, fdbac, dffrnc

More information

Observer Bias and Reliability By Xunchi Pu

Observer Bias and Reliability By Xunchi Pu Obsrvr Bias and Rliability By Xunchi Pu Introduction Clarly all masurmnts or obsrvations nd to b mad as accuratly as possibl and invstigators nd to pay carful attntion to chcking th rliability of thir

More information

A new cast-resin transformer thermal model based on recurrent neural networks

A new cast-resin transformer thermal model based on recurrent neural networks AHIVES OF ELETIAL ENGINEEING VOL. 66(), pp. 7-28 (207) DOI 0.55/a-207-0002 A n cas-rsin ransformr hrmal modl basd on rcurrn nural nors DAVOOD AZIZIAN, MEHDI BIGDELI 2 Dparmn of Elcrical Enginring, Abhar

More information

Search sequence databases 3 10/25/2016

Search sequence databases 3 10/25/2016 Sarch squnc databass 3 10/25/2016 Etrm valu distribution Ø Suppos X is a random variabl with probability dnsity function p(, w sampl a larg numbr S of indpndnt valus of X from this distribution for an

More information

Mechanical Fatigue and Load-Induced Aging of Loudspeaker Suspension. Wolfgang Klippel,

Mechanical Fatigue and Load-Induced Aging of Loudspeaker Suspension. Wolfgang Klippel, Mechanical Faigue and Load-Induced Aging of Loudspeaker Suspension Wolfgang Klippel, Insiue of Acousics and Speech Communicaion Dresden Universiy of Technology presened a he ALMA Symposium 2012, Las Vegas

More information

State Observer Design

State Observer Design Sa Obsrvr Dsgn A. Khak Sdgh Conrol Sysms Group Faculy of Elcrcal and Compur Engnrng K. N. Toos Unvrsy of Tchnology Fbruary 2009 1 Problm Formulaon A ky assumpon n gnvalu assgnmn and sablzng sysms usng

More information

AFFINITY SET AND ITS APPLICATIONS *

AFFINITY SET AND ITS APPLICATIONS * oussa Larbani Yuh-Wn Chn FFINITY SET ND ITS PPLICTIONS * bsrac ffiniy has a long hisory rlad o h social bhavior of human, spcially, h formaion of social groups or social nworks. ffiniy has wo manings.

More information

Optimal policies for aircraft fleet management in the presence of unscheduled maintenance

Optimal policies for aircraft fleet management in the presence of unscheduled maintenance 22nd Inrnaional Congrss on Modlling and Simulaion Hobar Tasmania Ausralia 3 o 8 Dcmbr 2017 mssanz.org.au/modsim2017 Opimal policis for aircraf fl managmn in h prsnc of unschduld mainnanc J.R. Lookr a V.

More information

Extension of Wiener s Approach on Security on Aadhaar Card based ATM System

Extension of Wiener s Approach on Security on Aadhaar Card based ATM System Inrnaional Journal of Compur Applicaions (0975 8887) Volum 55 o, Dcmbr 06 Exnsion of Winr s Approach on Scuriy on Aahaar Car bas ATM Sysm Rashmi Singh Dparmn of Compur Scinc Babasahb Bhimrao Ambkar Univrsiy

More information

Air Traffic Forecast Empirical Research Based on the MCMC Method

Air Traffic Forecast Empirical Research Based on the MCMC Method Compuer and Informaion Science; Vol. 5, No. 5; 0 ISSN 93-8989 E-ISSN 93-8997 Published by Canadian Cener of Science and Educaion Air Traffic Forecas Empirical Research Based on he MCMC Mehod Jian-bo Wang,

More information

Lecture 2 Qualitative explanation of x-ray sources based. on Maxwell equations

Lecture 2 Qualitative explanation of x-ray sources based. on Maxwell equations Lcur Qualiaiv xplanaion of x-ray sourcs basd Oulin on Maxwll quaions Brif qualiaiv xplanaion of x-ray sourcs basd on Maxwll quaions From Maxwll quaions o Wav quaion (A and (B. Th fild E radiad by a currn

More information

SUMMER 17 EXAMINATION

SUMMER 17 EXAMINATION (ISO/IEC - 7-5 Crtifid) SUMMER 7 EXAMINATION Modl wr jct Cod: Important Instructions to aminrs: ) Th answrs should b amind by ky words and not as word-to-word as givn in th modl answr schm. ) Th modl answr

More information

22/ Breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Selection rules for rotational-vibrational transitions. P, R branches.

22/ Breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Selection rules for rotational-vibrational transitions. P, R branches. Subjct Chmistry Papr No and Titl Modul No and Titl Modul Tag 8/ Physical Spctroscopy / Brakdown of th Born-Oppnhimr approximation. Slction ruls for rotational-vibrational transitions. P, R branchs. CHE_P8_M

More information

8. Basic RL and RC Circuits

8. Basic RL and RC Circuits 8. Basic L and C Circuis This chaper deals wih he soluions of he responses of L and C circuis The analysis of C and L circuis leads o a linear differenial equaion This chaper covers he following opics

More information

Estimating a New Zealand NAIRU

Estimating a New Zealand NAIRU Esimaing a Nw Zaland NAIRU Kam Long Szo and Mlody Guy N EW Z EALAND T REASURY W ORKING P APER 04/10 S EPTEMBER 2004 NZ TREASURY WORKING PAPER 04/10 Esimaing a Nw Zaland NAIRU MONTH/ YEAR Spmbr 2004 AUTHORS

More information

Sara Godoy del Olmo Calculation of contaminated soil volumes : Geostatistics applied to a hydrocarbons spill Lac Megantic Case

Sara Godoy del Olmo Calculation of contaminated soil volumes : Geostatistics applied to a hydrocarbons spill Lac Megantic Case wwwnvisol-canadaca Sara Godoy dl Olmo Calculation of contaminatd soil volums : Gostatistics applid to a hydrocarbons spill Lac Mgantic Cas Gostatistics: study of a PH contamination CONTEXT OF THE STUDY

More information

The Natural Logarithmic Function: Differentiation. The Natural Logarithmic Function

The Natural Logarithmic Function: Differentiation. The Natural Logarithmic Function 60_00.q //0 :0 PM Pag CHAPTER Logarihmic, Eponnial, an Ohr Transcnnal Funcions Scion. Th Naural Logarihmic Funcion: Diffrniaion Dvlop an us propris of h naural logarihmic funcion. Unrsan h finiion of h

More information

CHAPTER 9. Compressible Flow. Btu ft-lb lbm ft-lb c p = = ft-lb slug- R. slug- R. 1 k. p p. p v p v. = ρ ρ

CHAPTER 9. Compressible Flow. Btu ft-lb lbm ft-lb c p = = ft-lb slug- R. slug- R. 1 k. p p. p v p v. = ρ ρ CHPTER 9 Cmrssibl Flw 9 Bu f-lb lbm f-lb c 778 6 lbm- R Bu slug slug- R f-lb cv c R 6 76 96 96 slug- R Bu 7 lbm R f-lb slug- R Bu 778 f - lb slug lbm c 9 c cv + R c cv c + R r c R c R / ( ) 9 If s, Eq

More information

Programming Languages CRN Test 1 Version 1 CMSC 4023 Autumn 2013

Programming Languages CRN Test 1 Version 1 CMSC 4023 Autumn 2013 Programming Languags CRN 12105 Ts 1 Vrsion 1 CMSC 4023 Auumn 2013 1. Wri your nam on your scanron in h spac labld NAME. 2. Wri CMSC 4023 in h spac labld SUBJECT. 3. Prin h s numbr and vrsion, T1/V1, in

More information

Differentiation of Exponential Functions

Differentiation of Exponential Functions Calculus Modul C Diffrntiation of Eponntial Functions Copyright This publication Th Northrn Albrta Institut of Tchnology 007. All Rights Rsrvd. LAST REVISED March, 009 Introduction to Diffrntiation of

More information

A Prey-Predator Model with an Alternative Food for the Predator, Harvesting of Both the Species and with A Gestation Period for Interaction

A Prey-Predator Model with an Alternative Food for the Predator, Harvesting of Both the Species and with A Gestation Period for Interaction Int. J. Opn Problms Compt. Math., Vol., o., Jun 008 A Pry-Prdator Modl with an Altrnativ Food for th Prdator, Harvsting of Both th Spcis and with A Gstation Priod for Intraction K. L. arayan and. CH. P.

More information

Major: All Engineering Majors. Authors: Autar Kaw, Luke Snyder

Major: All Engineering Majors. Authors: Autar Kaw, Luke Snyder Nolr Rgrsso Mjor: All Egrg Mjors Auhors: Aur Kw, Luk Sydr hp://urclhodsgusfdu Trsforg Nurcl Mhods Educo for STEM Udrgrdus 3/9/5 hp://urclhodsgusfdu Nolr Rgrsso hp://urclhodsgusfdu Nolr Rgrsso So populr

More information

Random Access Techniques: ALOHA (cont.)

Random Access Techniques: ALOHA (cont.) Random Accss Tchniqus: ALOHA (cont.) 1 Exampl [ Aloha avoiding collision ] A pur ALOHA ntwork transmits a 200-bit fram on a shard channl Of 200 kbps at tim. What is th rquirmnt to mak this fram collision

More information

Planning & Zoning Commission

Planning & Zoning Commission uscan aks Mr lan vision #5 lanng & Zong oission lanng & vlopn parn pbr, 23 qus pplican wnr crag Zong ocaion vis h uscan aks Mr lan cludg: Incr rsidnial sgl-faily land us by 2 crs, 2 Incr rsidnial sgl-faily

More information

What are those βs anyway? Understanding Design Matrix & Odds ratios

What are those βs anyway? Understanding Design Matrix & Odds ratios Ral paramtr stimat WILD 750 - Wildlif Population Analysis of 6 What ar thos βs anyway? Undrsting Dsign Matrix & Odds ratios Rfrncs Hosmr D.W.. Lmshow. 000. Applid logistic rgrssion. John Wily & ons Inc.

More information

Module 2 F c i k c s la l w a s o s f dif di fusi s o i n

Module 2 F c i k c s la l w a s o s f dif di fusi s o i n Module Fick s laws of diffusion Fick s laws of diffusion and hin film soluion Adolf Fick (1855) proposed: d J α d d d J (mole/m s) flu (m /s) diffusion coefficien and (mole/m 3 ) concenraion of ions, aoms

More information

HOMEWORK # 2: MATH 211, SPRING Note: This is the last solution set where I will describe the MATLAB I used to make my pictures.

HOMEWORK # 2: MATH 211, SPRING Note: This is the last solution set where I will describe the MATLAB I used to make my pictures. HOMEWORK # 2: MATH 2, SPRING 25 TJ HITCHMAN Noe: This is he las soluion se where I will describe he MATLAB I used o make my picures.. Exercises from he ex.. Chaper 2.. Problem 6. We are o show ha y() =

More information

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2014 series 9231 MATHEMATICS. 9231/12 Paper 1, maximum raw mark 100

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2014 series 9231 MATHEMATICS. 9231/12 Paper 1, maximum raw mark 100 CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS Cambrig Inrnaional Aanc Ll MARK SCHEME for h Ocobr/Nombr sris 9 MATHEMATICS 9/ Papr, maimum raw mar This mar schm is publish as an ai o achrs an canias, o inica h rquirmns

More information

ECE602 Exam 1 April 5, You must show ALL of your work for full credit.

ECE602 Exam 1 April 5, You must show ALL of your work for full credit. ECE62 Exam April 5, 27 Nam: Solution Scor: / This xam is closd-book. You must show ALL of your work for full crdit. Plas rad th qustions carfully. Plas chck your answrs carfully. Calculators may NOT b

More information

Section 4.3 Logarithmic Functions

Section 4.3 Logarithmic Functions 48 Chapr 4 Sion 4.3 Logarihmi Funions populaion of 50 flis is pd o doul vry wk, lading o a funion of h form f ( ) 50(), whr rprsns h numr of wks ha hav passd. Whn will his populaion rah 500? Trying o solv

More information

Chapter 15: Phenomena. Chapter 15 Chemical Kinetics. Reaction Rates. Reaction Rates R P. Reaction Rates. Rate Laws

Chapter 15: Phenomena. Chapter 15 Chemical Kinetics. Reaction Rates. Reaction Rates R P. Reaction Rates. Rate Laws Chaper 5: Phenomena Phenomena: The reacion (aq) + B(aq) C(aq) was sudied a wo differen emperaures (98 K and 35 K). For each emperaure he reacion was sared by puing differen concenraions of he 3 species

More information

Lab 10: RC, RL, and RLC Circuits

Lab 10: RC, RL, and RLC Circuits Lab 10: RC, RL, and RLC Circuis In his experimen, we will invesigae he behavior of circuis conaining combinaions of resisors, capaciors, and inducors. We will sudy he way volages and currens change in

More information

The general Solow model

The general Solow model The general Solow model Back o a closed economy In he basic Solow model: no growh in GDP per worker in seady sae This conradics he empirics for he Wesern world (sylized fac #5) In he general Solow model:

More information

Signal processing. A. Sestieri Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica University La Sapienza, Rome

Signal processing. A. Sestieri Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica University La Sapienza, Rome Signal processing A. Sesieri Diparimeno di Meccanica e Aeronauica Universiy La Sapienza, Rome Presenaion layou - Fourier series and Fourier ransforms - Leakage - Aliasing - Analog versus digial signals

More information

Oral Language Proficiency. The Critic al Link to Readi ng Comp rehen sion. Grades K 3. Materials designed to explicitly develop oral language!

Oral Language Proficiency. The Critic al Link to Readi ng Comp rehen sion. Grades K 3. Materials designed to explicitly develop oral language! O R A L L A N G U A G E ~ R E A D I N G & W ri ing Or al La ng ua g Pr of ic i nc y Th Criic al Link o Rai ng Cop rhn sion Why is oral lguag vlopn nial? o r a l l a n g u a g ~ REA D I NG k i s n Oral

More information

u 3 = u 3 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )

u 3 = u 3 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) Lctur 23: Curvilinar Coordinats (RHB 8.0 It is oftn convnint to work with variabls othr than th Cartsian coordinats x i ( = x, y, z. For xampl in Lctur 5 w mt sphrical polar and cylindrical polar coordinats.

More information

News and Expectations in Financial Markets: An Experimental Study

News and Expectations in Financial Markets: An Experimental Study Nws and Expcaions in Financial Marks: An Exprimnal Sudy Gordon Douglas Mnzis School of Financ and Economics, Univrsiy of Tchnology, Sydny CAMA, Ausralian Naional Univrsiy Danil John Zizzo School of Economics

More information

PHA 5127 Answers Homework 2 Fall 2001

PHA 5127 Answers Homework 2 Fall 2001 PH 5127 nswrs Homwork 2 Fall 2001 OK, bfor you rad th answrs, many of you spnt a lot of tim on this homwork. Plas, nxt tim if you hav qustions plas com talk/ask us. Thr is no nd to suffr (wll a littl suffring

More information

PHASE-ONLY CORRELATION IN FINGERPRINT DATABASE REGISTRATION AND MATCHING

PHASE-ONLY CORRELATION IN FINGERPRINT DATABASE REGISTRATION AND MATCHING Anall Univrsităţii d Vst din Timişoara Vol. LII, 2008 Sria Fizică PHASE-OLY CORRELATIO I FIGERPRIT DATABASE REGISTRATIO AD ATCHIG Alin C. Tusda, 2 Gianina Gabor Univrsity of Orada, Environmntal Faculty,

More information

Exam 2 Thursday (7:30-9pm) It will cover material through HW 7, but no material that was on the 1 st exam.

Exam 2 Thursday (7:30-9pm) It will cover material through HW 7, but no material that was on the 1 st exam. Exam 2 Thursday (7:30-9pm) It will covr matrial through HW 7, but no matrial that was on th 1 st xam. What happns if w bash atoms with lctrons? In atomic discharg lamps, lots of lctrons ar givn kintic

More information

EE 315 Notes. Gürdal Arslan CLASS 1. (Sections ) What is a signal?

EE 315 Notes. Gürdal Arslan CLASS 1. (Sections ) What is a signal? EE 35 Noes Gürdal Arslan CLASS (Secions.-.2) Wha is a signal? In his class, a signal is some funcion of ime and i represens how some physical quaniy changes over some window of ime. Examples: velociy of

More information

Decomposing the relationship between international bond markets

Decomposing the relationship between international bond markets Dcomposing h rlaionship bwn inrnaional bond marks Andrw Clar and Ilias Lkkos 1 1. Inroducion Th corrlaions bwn major ass classs ar of concrn and inrs o monary auhoriis and financial rgulaors alik h ponial

More information

BSWithJump Model And Pricing Of Quanto CDS With FX Devaluation Risk

BSWithJump Model And Pricing Of Quanto CDS With FX Devaluation Risk MPRA Mnich Prsonal RPEc Archiv BSWihmp Mol An Pricing Of Qano CDS Wih FX Dvalaion Risk Rachi EL-Mohammai Bank Of Amrical Mrrill Lynch Ocobr 9 Onlin a hps:mpra.b.ni-mnchn.478 MPRA Papr No. 478, pos 8. Novmbr

More information

Age (x) nx lx. Age (x) nx lx dx qx

Age (x) nx lx. Age (x) nx lx dx qx Life Tables Dynamic (horizonal) cohor= cohor followed hrough ime unil all members have died Saic (verical or curren) = one census period (day, season, ec.); only equivalen o dynamic if populaion does no

More information

Gauge Theories. Elementary Particle Physics Strong Interaction Fenomenology. Diego Bettoni Academic year

Gauge Theories. Elementary Particle Physics Strong Interaction Fenomenology. Diego Bettoni Academic year Gau Thors Elmary Parcl Physcs Sro Iraco Fomoloy o Bo cadmc yar - Gau Ivarac Gau Ivarac Whr do Laraas or Hamloas com from? How do w kow ha a cra raco should dscrb a acual hyscal sysm? Why s h lcromac raco

More information

Outline. Why speech processing? Speech signal processing. Advanced Multimedia Signal Processing #5:Speech Signal Processing 2 -Processing-

Outline. Why speech processing? Speech signal processing. Advanced Multimedia Signal Processing #5:Speech Signal Processing 2 -Processing- Outlin Advancd Multimdia Signal Procssing #5:Spch Signal Procssing -Procssing- Intllignt Elctronic Systms Group Dpt. of Elctronic Enginring, UEC Basis of Spch Procssing Nois Rmoval Spctral Subtraction

More information

Matlab and Python programming: how to get started

Matlab and Python programming: how to get started Malab and Pyhon programming: how o ge sared Equipping readers he skills o wrie programs o explore complex sysems and discover ineresing paerns from big daa is one of he main goals of his book. In his chaper,

More information

Calculation of the Two High Voltage Transmission Line Conductors Minimum Distance

Calculation of the Two High Voltage Transmission Line Conductors Minimum Distance World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 15, 3, 89-96 Published Online Ocober 15 in SciRes. hp://www.scirp.org/journal/wje hp://dx.doi.org/1.436/wje.15.33c14 Calculaion of he Two High Volage Transmission

More information

The Matrix Exponential

The Matrix Exponential Th Matrix Exponntial (with xrciss) by D. Klain Vrsion 207.0.05 Corrctions and commnts ar wlcom. Th Matrix Exponntial For ach n n complx matrix A, dfin th xponntial of A to b th matrix A A k I + A + k!

More information

On the Hamiltonian of a Multi-Electron Atom

On the Hamiltonian of a Multi-Electron Atom On th Hamiltonian of a Multi-Elctron Atom Austn Gronr Drxl Univrsity Philadlphia, PA Octobr 29, 2010 1 Introduction In this papr, w will xhibit th procss of achiving th Hamiltonian for an lctron gas. Making

More information

BANK OF FINLAND DISCUSSION PAPERS

BANK OF FINLAND DISCUSSION PAPERS BANK OF FINLAND DISCUSSION PAPERS 4/2000 Financial Marks Dparmn 8.5.2000 Informd Trading, Shor Sals Consrains and Fuurs Pricing BANK OF FINLAND DISCUSSION PAPERS Financial Marks Dparmn 8.5.2000 Informd

More information

3.6 Derivatives as Rates of Change

3.6 Derivatives as Rates of Change 3.6 Derivaives as Raes of Change Problem 1 John is walking along a sraigh pah. His posiion a he ime >0 is given by s = f(). He sars a =0from his house (f(0) = 0) and he graph of f is given below. (a) Describe

More information

Simulation Model for the Monitoring System of Air Brake of the Train and Determining the Place of Breakage

Simulation Model for the Monitoring System of Air Brake of the Train and Determining the Place of Breakage Inernaional Journal of Traffic and Transporaion Engineering 04, 3(4: 84-88 DOI: 0593/jije0403040 Simulaion Model for he Monioring Sysem of Air Brake of he Train and Deermining he Place of Breakage Oleksandr

More information

A Volume Density Optical Model. Center for Supercomputing Research & Development, and. University of Illinois at Urbana

A Volume Density Optical Model. Center for Supercomputing Research & Development, and. University of Illinois at Urbana A Volum Dnsiy Opical Modl Pr L. Williams y and Nlson Max z y Cnr for Suprcompuing Rsarch & Dvlopmn, and Naional Cnr for Suprcompuing Applicaions Univrsiy of Illinois a Urbana z Univrsiy of California,

More information

Using Actuarial Methodologies to Analyse Chinese PAYG Pension System

Using Actuarial Methodologies to Analyse Chinese PAYG Pension System Using Acuarial Mhodologis o Analys Chins PAYG Pnsion Sysm Jing Xu Insiu for Financial and Acuarial Mahmaics (IFAM), Dparmn of Mahmaical Scincs, Univrsiy of Livrpool, Livrpool L69 7ZL, UK. E-mail: sgju2@livrpool.ac.uk

More information

1 Finite Automata and Regular Expressions

1 Finite Automata and Regular Expressions 1 Fini Auom nd Rgulr Exprion Moivion: Givn prn (rgulr xprion) for ring rching, w migh wn o convr i ino drminiic fini uomon or nondrminiic fini uomon o mk ring rching mor fficin; drminiic uomon only h o

More information

Failure Load of Plane Steel Frames Using the Yield Surface Method

Failure Load of Plane Steel Frames Using the Yield Surface Method ISBN 978-93-84422-22-6 Procdings of 2015Inrnaional Confrnc on Innovaions in Civil and Srucural Enginring (ICICSE'15) Isanbul (Turky), Jun 3-4, 2015. 206-212 Failur Load of Plan Sl Frams Using h Yild Surfac

More information