k_vkn-unbpw Hm sse\pw

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1 1 k_vkn-unbpw Hm sse\pw {]my-ani hn]wn NqSp-]n-Sn- p p 2 C ybpw kmº-øni hf Zi-I-Ønse XmgvN-bn-tebv v 6 VOL. 8 ISSUE 1 PRICE Rs. 10/- hne- p-dhpw KpW-ta- bpw i n-bm n I kyq-a s^uv 11

2 2 {]my-ani hn]wn NqSp-]n-Sn- p p sp ]n {]m-yani hn]-wn-bnse ac-hn- v amdp- I-bm-Wv ZznXob hn]-wn-bn apt - -ap- m-bn pw ac-hn p InS- p-i-bmbn-cp p {]my-ani hn]-wn. ImcWw Hcp ]t \nt -]-I-tem-I-Øns Bfl hnizmkw \jvs-s - -Xm-bn-cn- mw. kmº- ØnI apc-sn pw Kh-s ns kmº- ØnI ]cn-jvim-c-ß-fnse Kh-s ns DZm-ko-\-Xbpw \nt -]-I-cpsS Bfl-hnizm-ksØ _m[n- p-sh- -XmWv Imc-Ww. ]pxnb \nt -]-Øn\v Iº-\n-Iƒ Xbmdm-Ip- n-. AXn-\m Xs Cjyp \S- Øp-hm Iº-\n-Iƒ pw ss[cy-ap mbn F -XmWv hkvxp-x Unkw_ 21 hsc sk skivkv 3788 t]mbn pw (24.5 ixam-\w) \n^v n t]mbn pw ( ix-am-\w) Db ImWn- t mƒ {]myani hn]wn 63 ix-am\w CSn-hmWv ImWn- -Xv. hfsc s\k- ohv at\m-`m-ham-wv {]my-ani hn]-wn-bn ImWn- - Xv. ssihn-c-en FÆm-hp ]_vfniv Cjyp-Isf ]pd-øp-h- n- p-f-fp. hn]wn sa -s -Sp- -Xp-I v \nc-h[n Iº-\n-Iƒ Cjyp-hn\v Xbm-sd-Sp-Øp-sh- nepw A -co w sa -s -Sm-Ø-Xn-s\- Øp-S v ]n h-en-bp-i-bm-bn-cp- p. s]mxp-ta-je Hml-cn- hnev]-\-bpss Imcyhpw hyxy-kvxambn-cp- n. \hw- _ hsc H CjyphmWv \S-Øn-bn-cp- -Xv. \mj-w _n UnwKv I kv{s- Ivj kv enan- -Uns Hml-cn-Iƒ \evin am n 125 timsn kzcq-]n ncp- p. \S p kmº-øni h j-øn Hmlcn hnev]\ hgn timsn cq]-bmwv Khs v e yw h n- p-f-f-xv. at\m-`mhw amdp p F m sk]v w-_-dn \nhr-ønbn- msx Kh-s v {]Jym-]n kmº- ØnI ]cn-jvim-c-߃ Imcy-߃ hyxykvx-am- p-i-bm-wv. Iº-\n-Iƒ Cjyphn\v ss[cyw Im n-øp-s-ßn-bn-cn- p- p C y hn]wn sa -am-bn-cn- psa {]Xo- bpw CXn\v Imc-W-am-Wv. \hw-_ Ah-km\w FØnb apss_-bnse kz Wm-`-cW \n am-x- fmb Xmcm Pzt gvkn\v 1.97 Cc n At]- Iƒ In n. 230 cq]-bm-bn-cp p Hm^- hne timsn cq]-bmwv kzcq-]n- - Xv. XpS p-ff Znh-k-ß-fn 25 timsn cq]-bpss Cjyp-ambn FØnb hot m kzn vko-b-dn\v 1.5 Cc n At]- -Iƒ In n. Hm^ hne cq]-bm-bn-cp- p Unkw-_-dn FØnb sib-dns ]_vfniv Cjyp-hn\v 41 Cc n At]- - I-fmWv e`n- -Xv e w Hml-cn- Iƒ mbn timsn Hml-cn-Iƒ p-ff At] e`n- p. ss{]kv _m Uv cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. Unkw-_ 12- \v Ah-km-\n ]n kn Pzt -gvkns sf ]n H.bv v 6.7 ix-am\w Ccn n At]- - Iƒ In n. XpS p h `m Xn C {^mss- ns I n Cjyp 1.21 Cc n At]- -Iƒe`n- n- p- v se BZy Cjyp aƒ n Itam- Un n FIvkvtN- n-t -Xm-bn-cp- p timsn cq]-bmwv Cjyp-hgn kzcq-]n- -Xv. Hm^ hne 1032 cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. CXn\v \ {]Xn-I-c-W-amWv e`n- -Xv cq]- bn enãv snbvx Hml-cn v Ct mƒ 1511 cq] hne-bp- v. CXv \nt -]-I v enãnwkv ka-bøv 34 ix-am\w Db \evin. \hw-_ hsc CXns Db 46.5 ix-am-\-am-wv. Npcp- -Øn \nt - ]-Isc \ncm-i-s -Sp-ØmØ Cjyp-I-fn-sem- m-wn-xv Cjyp-I-fmWv \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ]q Øn-bm n enãv snbvxn- p-f-f-xv. AXn 100 timsn cq]bv p api-fn XpI kam-l-cn \mev Iº-\n-I-fm-Wv. aƒ n Itam-Un n FIvkvtN- v, \mj- W _n UnwKv I kv{s-ivj, Sn _n CkvUv, kvs]jym-en n sdã-d dv F nh-bm-wn-h. Ch \mepw \nt -]-I v aqe-[\ hf t\sn-s m-sp-øp. F _n kn Cjyp-hn-e-tb- mƒ 41.5 ix-am- \hpw Sn _n Fkv ix-am-\hpw kvs]jym-en n sdtãm-d v 17.3 ix-am- \hpw Db mwv \nev p- -Xn-t mƒ. Cjy-p-Iƒ \ncm-i-s -Sp-Øn-bn P\p-h-cn \hw-_ Ime-b-fhn sf ]n H hgn 18 Iº-\n-Iƒ kzcq- ]n XpI 1438 timsn cq]-bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-te-Xn-t\- mƒ 63 ix-am\w Ipd-hm-Wn-Xv. CXn Fw kn FIvkns Cjyp Hgn- m samøw kzcq-]n XpI 775 timsn cq]-bm-wv. \qdp-timsn cq]-bv p-ff Xmsg-bpff Cjyp-Ifpw \nt -]-Isc \ncm-i-s - Sp-Øn-bn-. Hs m-gnsi F m Hml-cn- I-fpw-t\ w \evipitbm \jvsw hcp-øm- Xn-cn- p-itbm snbvxn- p- v. Xosc sndnb XpI kam-l-cn Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hmlcn hne Hm^ hne-bn Xs GXm v XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv G hpw t\ w \evinb Hmlcn amivkv Ate v knãwkv BWv. 210 ix-am\w t\ -am-wp- m- nb-xv. Ccp-]Xp cq] Hm^ hne-bp- mbn-cp Cu Hml-cn-bpsS Ct m-gsø hne 62 cq]-bm-wv. ^b ss^ nwkv D]-I-c-W-ßfpw skmeq-j\pw \evip Iº-\n-bm-Wn-Xv. IqSmsX samss_ Sh C Ãm-te-j\pw Iº\n \n h-ln- p- p- v. hn si Fkv t{]mpivsvkv ( Cjyp XpI 55 timsn cq]) 138 ix-am- \hpw samwm v sl Øv ( Cjyp XpI 12 timsn cq]) ix-am-\hpw Db t\sn-bn- p- v Ipd- Xv 11 Iº-\n-I-sf- \qdp-timsn cq]-bv p-ff Xmsg-bp-ff Cjyp-Ifpw \nt -]-Isc \ncm-i-s -Sp-Øn-bn-. Hs m-gnsi F m Hml-cn-I-fpw-t\ w \evipitbm \jvsw hcp-øm-xn-cn- p-itbm snbvxn- p- v. Xosc sndnb XpI kam-l-cn Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hmlcn hne Hm^ hne-bn Xs GXm v XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv. nepw Cjyp {]Jym-]n- -tijw ]n hen- n- p- v. ssat{im-am-ivkv, Fw _kn t{]m n, hn B F tempn-ãnivkv, ]mt -PnwKv sa o-cn-b \n an- p ]vfmks C y, sl ØvsI-b Iº- \n-bmb KpUv hn tlmkv]n-, Hmt m ]m Svkv \n am-x- -fmbv kwh [\ atzgvk ^n\m kv, kvs]jym-en n sian- kv am\p-d-^m-ivn-d-dmb KmeIvkv k ^m-ivs vkv F o Iº- \n-iƒ Cjyp {]Jym-]n- -tijw ]n hen- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. Cu Iº-\n-Iƒ 1805 timsn cq] kzcq-]n- p-hm-\mwv Dt±in- n-cp- -Xv. IqSmsX 29 Iº-\n-Iƒ Cjyp \SØp Xv \o n hbv p-i-bpw snbvxn- p- v. Cu Iº-\n-I-sf mw IqSn timsn cq] kzcq-]n- p-hm-\mwv Dt±-in- n-cp- -Xv. s]mxp-ta-je Hmlcn hnev]\ Unkw-_-tdmsS s]mxp-ta-je ÿm]-\-ß-fpss Hmlcn hnev]-\-bn-eqss timsn cq] kzcq-]n- p-hm Ignbp-sa- mwv [\-a-{ m-ebw {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. [\-IΩn 5.3 ix-am-\-øn HXp n \n Øp-I-sb e y-tømss \S- p-h jw timsn cq]- Hmlcn hnev]\ hgn t\sp-hm-\mwv Kh-s v _P- n e y-an- n-cn p- -Xv. tijn- p XpI am v Izm -dn t\smsa pw Icp-Xp- p timsn cq]-bpss Hmlcn hnev]-\-bmwv e yan- -sx- nepw e`n- Xv timsn cq]- bm-wv. Unkw-_-dn s]mxp-ta-je ÿm]- \-ambn F Fw Un knbpss ]Øp ix-am\w ( timsn Hml-cn-Iƒ) Kh-s v tãmiv FIvkvtNRvNv hgn hn v 5900 timsn cq] t\snbn-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. P\p-hcn 15- \v F Sn ]n knbpss 9.5 ix-am\w Hmlcn \evin timsn cq] t\sp-hm\pw Kh-s pw e y-an- Sp- p. \S- p-h jw timsn cq]- bmwv Kh-s v e yw. CXp-hsc 6880 timsn cq] Hmlcn hnev]\ hgn t\snbn- p- v. hn]wn CtX \ne-bn \oßnbm e yw t\sp-hm km[n- p-sa- mwv Icp-Xp- -Xv. [\-IΩn Ipd-bv phm Kh-Wvsa n\v CXv Bh-iy-am-Wv. Hmbn C y, Fw Fw Sn kn, lnµp-ÿm tim, \m tim F o Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hmlcn hnev]-\bv v CXn- \Iw A\p-aXn \evin- -gn- n- p- v. CXp hgn timsn cq] kzcq-]n- msa p Kh-s v Icp-Xp- p. lnµpÿm tim -dns Cjyp-hmWv BZy-sa- Øp-I. F Sn ]n kn, F Fw Un kn, ]n Pn kn sf F, F Pn-\otbgvkv C y F n-h-bpss Hmlcn hnev]-\-bv p-ff \S-]-Sn-{I-a-߃ ]q Øn-bmbn hcn-i-bm-wv. cmjv{sob Ckv]m v \nkw, skbn, s\bvthen enk-ss\ v F n-h-bpss HmlcnIfpw hnev p-hm\pw Dt±-in- p- p. FØm-\n-cn- p Cjyp-Iƒ Hmlcn hn]-wn-bn Bfl-hnizmkw XncnsI h m hn]-wn-bn FØm-\n-cn- p Iº-\n-I-fpsS FÆw hfsc hep-xm-wv. CXp-hsc Cjyp \S- Øn-bn- n- mø C jp-d kv Iº-\n-Ifpw AXn Dƒs -Sp- p. ]Øp-h jw ]q Øn-bmb C jp-d kv Iº-\n-Iƒ v Cjyp \S-Øp-hm C jp-d kv sdkpte- A\p-aXn simsp-øn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. F v Un F^v kn sse^v, dne-b kv sse^v Dƒs ss Npcp-ßn-bXv \me p Iº-\n-I-sf- nepw AXn\p sdun-bm-bncn- p-i-bm-wv. AtX-t]mse t{_muvim-ãnwkv taj-e-bn \n- p-ff A p Iº-\n-I-sf- nepw Cjyp-hn-\mbn Im p-i-bm-wv. houn-tbm-tim, Sm kvssi, F nh CXn-epƒs -Sp- p. dos -bn snbn kvs] kdpw Cjyp-hn-\v kabw t\m nbn-cn- p-i-bmwv. ÿm]n-x-tijn Db Ø, {]h Ø-\-aq-e-[\w F n-hbv p-th- n-bmwv Cu Iº-\n-Iƒ Cjyp \S-Øp- -Xv. houn-tbm-tim t{_muvimãv 2013 a[y-tømss hn]-wnbn-se-øp-hm-\mwv Dt±-in- p- -Xv. Cjyp hgn timsn cq] kam-l- ]n- p-hm-\mwv Dt±-in- p- -Xv. as mcp hº Cjyp samss_ Iº-\n-bmb shmum-t^m-wn-t -Xm-bn-cn- pw. \nipxn {]iv\-øn\v ]cn-lm-c-ap- m-bm DS Iº\n Cjyp-hn\v Xbmdm-Ipw tem 14- tem Cjyp {]Xo- n- p- p. `m Xn C {^m-ss- mwv Cjyp- e y-an-sp as mcp Iº-\n.

3 cmpohv Km n {][m-\-a{ nbmbn-cp- -t mƒ Bcw-`n ssentimw hn]vfhpw Hcp L -Øn cmpy-øns apj- mb am n se DZm-c-h-XvI-c-W-sØ-Øp-S v sf Sn taje h h-f -bmwv t\snb-xv. AXn\v ASn-Ø-d-bp- m- nbtxm ssentimw hn]vf-h-hpw. Ct mƒ B ssen-timapw sf Snbpw samss_ ssen-t^mwpw tn v suen-hdn kwhn-[m-\-øn as mcp hn]vf-h-øn\v XpS w Ipdn- p-i-bm-wv. Npcp- -Øn C ybn Hm sse tkh-\- ߃ IpXn- p-b-cp-i-bm-wv. {]txy-in pw [\-Imcy tkh-\-ß-fn. _m nw-kv, \nt -]w, Hmlcn hy]m-cw, s{iun v Im Uv, XpSßn \nc-h[n tkh\ taj-e-i-fn taj-e-i-fn. k_vkn-unbpw Hm sse\pw C ybpw 3 tpmbn ^nen v P\p-hcn H v C y Hm sse _m nwkv taj-e-bn ]pxn-sbmcp am -Øn\v XpS w Ipdn- p- I-bm-Wv. Kh-s ns hnhn[ hn`m- K-߃ p \evip k_vkn-un-iƒ Hm sse Bbn t\cn v D]-tbm- m- -fpss _m n-tebv v \evip-hm-\p-ff ss]e v ] -Xn v XpS w Ipdn- p-ibmwv A v. cmpysø 51 Pn -I-fnemWv ] Xn ]co- -Wm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn Bcw-`n- p- -Xv PqWn cmpysø 18 kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw 2014 G]n-entemsS cmpy-sø-ºmspw Cu ] -Xn-Iƒ \S- m- p-hm Dt±-in- p- p. Hcp-]t, sf Sn, ssentimw hn]vf-h-߃ p-tijw C ysb am na-dn- p-hm-\p-ff as mcp hn]vf-h-amipan- Xv. XpS- -Øn hn[-h, hr,-hn-iemwk s] j, kvtimf jn- p-iƒ, ssãs Up-Iƒ XpS-ßnb 29 ] -Xn- I-fmWv BZy-L- -Øn \S- m-hp-i. c mw L -Øn ` y k_vkn-un, Chief Editor Dr. P.K. Abraham Editor In Charge: Joy Philip Managing Editor Jayesh.V.Sudhakar Media Consultancy Current Business Inc. C \ k_vkn-un, hfw XpS-ßnb k_vkn-un-ifpw ]W-ambn A u- n e`y-am- p-hm Dt±-in- p- p. Hcp CØ-c-Øn 4 e w timsn cq]- bmwv cmpysø ]mh-s - -h-cpss ssiifn FØp-I. CtXmsS 44 ] -Xn-I-fn B\p-Iq-ey-߃ t\cn v _m n-se-øpw. _m n A u v Xpd- p-hm B[m Im Uv axn-bm-ipw. A u- n _me kv kq n-t - -Xp-an-. _m nseøn CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ \S-Øp-hm km[n- m-ø-h v _m nwkv tkh\w {]Xn- \n-[n-iƒ hgn ho n-se-øn- pw.- sim- p- \-S- m-hp an\n F Sn FΩp-Iƒ ChcpsS ] -ep- m-ipw. AwK hm-sn, Bi Poh-\- m, kzm{i-bkwlw {]h Ø- I, A[ym-]-I XpS-ßn-b-h v {]Xn- \n-[n-i-fm-imw. Ch v CS-]m-Sns ASnÿm-\-Øn IΩo-j e`n- pw. t]mtãm Hm^o-kp-Isf CXn ] m-fn- I-fm- pw. _m p-iƒ v {]Xn-h jw 4 e w timsnbn-e-[niw cq]-bpss _nkn- \kpw e`n- pw. _m nwkv taj-e-bn sxmgn Ah-k-c-߃ h [n- pw. t\csø kqnn- n- -Xp-t]mse _m ns {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fmbn {]h Øn- p- -h v A[n-I-h-cp-am-\hpw e`n- pw. _m nwkv tkh-\-øn F m-htcbpw Dƒs -Sp-Øp-I-sb e yhpw CtXmsS km m-xvi-cn- p-hm km[n- p-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. cmpysø Xmtg- n-s-bn-ep-ff ]Øp e w IpSpw-_-ßfmWv _m nwkv kwhn- [m-\-øn-tebv v FØ-s -Sp- -Xv. C Ivfq-kohv t{kmøv F Kh-s v e y-øn\v Hcp Nph-Sp-h-bv]p-Iq-Sn-bmbn-cn pw CXv. _m v A u v D m-ip- -txmss PohnX ho -W-Øn Xs am -ap- m- Ipw. {]txy-in pw Hmtcm amkhpw \n nx XpI-bpsS CS-]m-Sp-Ifpw \S- p kml-n-cy-øn. _m nwkv kwhn-[m-\-øn {]th-in- p- -txmss kºm-zy-ønepw sne-h-gn- -enepw BkvXn kam-l-c-w-ønepw hyxymkw hcpw. hmbv] FSp- p-hm\pw BkvXnbp m- p-hm-\p-ap-ff km[y- Xbpw h [n- p- p. k_vknun XpI IpSpw-_-\m-Y-bpsS t]cn-emwv \evip- -sx- n kv{xo im o-i-c-w-øn samss_ _m nwkv ] -]n-sn- p p ssentimw hn]vfhw cmpysø ssen-su kn n 80 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Db ØnbXv as mcp tkh-\-ta-j-e-bpss {ZpX hf bv v hgn sxfn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. samss_ Hm sse CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ v. {]txy-in pw samss_ _m nwkv.- C v Iw]yq- dpw s\ v IW-Ivj\pw D]-tbm-Kn v snøm-hp F m CS-]m-Sp- Ifpw samss_-en \n v snøm-hp ÿnx-bm-wv. _m nwkv taj-ebn Hm sse _m nw-kn\v klm-b-iamb \ne-bn samss_-en ]mce kwhn-[m\w Xs Db-cp-I-bm- Wv. CXv _m nw-kn Ct m-th-j\v hgn sxfn- p- p-sh p am{x-a-,- _m- ns do v hn]p-eo-i-cn- p-hm\pw klm-bn- p- p. Kh-s ns C Ivfq-kohv _m nwkv F e yw t\sp- -Xn\pw CXp klm-b-i-am-ip- p. k_vknunbpw Kh-s ns kmaq-ly-t -]- -Xn-I-fpsS KpW-^ehpw D]-tbm- m- ƒ v t\cn v \evip- -Xn\v `mhn-bn samss_ _m nwkv klm-b-i-am-ip-sa- -Xn kwibw th. samss_- D]-tbm-Kn v ^ v {Sm kv^ snøp- -Xn\pw, sn v dnizãv, ÿnc-\n-t ]w Bcw-`n pi XpSßn ap -txmfw tkh\߃ Ct mƒ snøphm km[n- pw. F v Un F^v kn _m v ASp-Ø-Im-eØv lnµn-bn CS-]m-Sp- Iƒ \S-Øp-hm-\p-ff ]vfm vt^mw ]pd-øn- n-bn- p- v. s{iun v Im Uv D]-tbm- Kn- p-ff CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ samss_ t^m D]-tbm-Kn p snøp-hm-\p-ff ]vfm vt^mapw F v Un F^v kn ASp-Ø-bnsS ]pd-øn-d- n-bn- p- v. CXp-aqew s{iun v Im Uv Zpcp-]-tbmKw snøp- Xv KWy-ambn Ipd-bv p-hm km[n pw. A p-h jw aºmwv C y-bn samss_ _m nwkv Bcw-`n- -Xv. XpS- -Øn ssivãv satk-pp-iƒ am{x-am-bn-cp p \evin-b-xv. F Sn Fw hgn ]Ww ]n h-en- m XpSßn C v \S-Øp Hmtcm CS-]m-Spw satkpv Bbn samss_- en FØpw. samss_ _m nwkv CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ h hf -bmwv t\sp- -Xv G{]nen cmpyøv 1.08 Zi-e w CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ \S- Xv H c h j-øn-\ptijw 2012 sk]v w-_-dn 3.89 Zi-e w CS-]m-Sp-I-fmbn Db n-cn- p- p. Fkv _n sfbpss 20 timsn CS-]m-Sp-Im-cn 52 e w t] samss_ _m nw-kn\v cpn-ã snbvxn- p- v. GXm v Hcp e -tømfw CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ Fw _m nwkv hgn \S- p- p- v. F v Un F^v knbpss 2.6 timsn A u v DS-a-I-fn 12 e w t] samss_ _m nwkv D]-tbm-Kn- p- p. sf kn sf kn sf _m v, BIvknkv _m v, kn n _m v XpS-ßnb _m p-iƒ Fw _m nw-kn h hf -bmwv t\sp- -Xv.

4 4 h IpXn- p-nm- -amipw kw`-hn- p-i. B[m Im Uv ASn-ÿm-\-tc-J-bm- Ip- -txmss timsn- -W- n\v Bfp- Iƒ v [\-Im-cy-hn-em-k-am-Ip-sa- mwv B[m ] -Xn v t\xrxzw \evip \µ \nte- \nbpss A`n-{]m-bw. C y sdun-bmtbm? {][m\ tnmzy-ap-b-cp- Xv C y t\cn- p-ff Imjv {Sm kv^-dn\v sdunbmtbm F m-wv. Imjv {Sm kv^ snøp- -Xn-\p-ff ASn-ÿm-\-ku-Icyw {][m-\-am-wv. as m v k_vkn-un-bpss {]tbm-p\w e`n- p F m-h pw _m v A u v thw-sa- -Xv. B[m tcj-bm-bn- m-bn-cn pw `mhn-bn k_vkn-un-\-evip-i. cmpysø P\-kw- Jy-bpsS aq n-sem-t mfw hcp ]mhs - -h v ka-b-_- n-x-ambn B[m Im Uv e`y-am- p-hm k[n- p-tam-sb- -XmWv apjy-{]-iv\w. {KmaoW taj-e-bn _m v imj- Ifpw F Sn FΩp-Ifpw Zp e-`-am-wv. Cu kml-n-cy-øn Imjv suen-hdn F{Xam{Xw hnp-b-i-c-am-ip-a- mwv {]iv\w. _m nwkv Id-kvt]m- p-am-tcbpw {]Xn- \n-[-i-tfbpw CXn-\mbn Npa-X-e-s -Sp- Øp-sa p ]d-bp- p- v. AXv F{Xam{Xw hnp-bn- p-sa v Imew sxfn-bnt - -Xm-Wv. Imjv {Sm kv^-dns hnpbw _m v A u- p-iƒ, icn-bmb A u- p-i-fn ]Ww FØp- -Xv, Bfp- Iƒ v Ffp- -Øn A u- p-i-fn ]Ww ]n h-en- p-hm Ig-bp- Xv F n-hsb B{i-bn- m-wn-cn- p- -Xv. suen-hdn kwhn-[m\w amdp p cmpohv Km n {][m-\-a{ nbmbncp- -t mƒ Bcw-`n ssentimw hn]vfhpw Hcp L -Øn cmpy-øns apj- mb am n se DZm-c-h-XvI-c- W-sØ-Øp-S v sf Sn taje h hf -bmwv t\snb-xv. AXn\v ASn-Ø-dbp- m- n-btxm ssentimw hn]vf-h-hpw. Ct mƒ B ssen-timapw sf Snbpw samss_ ssen-t^mwpw tn v suen-hdn kwhn-[m-\-øn as mcp hn]vf-h-øn\v XpS w Ipdn- p-i-bm-wv. Npcp- -Øn C ybn Hm sse tkh-\-߃ IpXn- p-b-cp- I-bm-Wv. {]txy-in pw [\-Imcy tkh- \-ß-fn. _m nw-kv, \nt -]w, Hmlcn hy]m-cw, s{iun v Im Uv, XpSßn \nch[n tkh\ taj-e-i-fn taj-e-ifn \s mcp ] v tkh-\-ßfpw Hm sse-\n A\p-`-hn- p-hm D]- tbm- m- ƒ v km[n- pw. CXv CS-\ne- m-sc Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc Hgn-hm- psa p am{x-a D]-tbm- m- fpss im o-i-c-w-øn\pw [\-Im-cy-kw-hn-[m- \-Øn ]mh-s - -hsc Dƒs -Sp-Øp- - Xn\pw hgn sxfn- pw. `mhn-bn F m- Øcw [\-Im-cy-tk-h-\-ßfpw C s\ v ASnÿm-\-am- n-bp-ff a v tkh-\-ßfpw thkw e`y-am- p-hm CXp klm-bn- pw. CXn G hpw IqSp-X t\ -ap- m- n-bn- p-f-fxv _m nwkpw Hmlcn hy]m-c-ta-j-e-bp-am-wv se DZm-c-h-XvI-c-W-Øn-\ptijw Hmlcn hn]wnbn h am - Øn-\mWv hgn sxfn- -Xv. C y-bnse sf Sn hn]vf-hhpw CXn\p klm-b-iam-bn. Hmlcn CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ G hpw kpxm-cy-amb ÿnxn-bn-tebv v CXv FØn- p \mj-w tãm v FIvkvtN- n\v cq]w \evin-b-txmss Imcy-߃ Iptd- qsn kpxm-cy-am-bn. C y-bnse GXp sndpxpw hep-xp-amb ] -W-ß-fn \n pw Hmlcn CS-]mSv km[y-am-bn. ASp-Ø-L- -Øn cmpy- Øn-\-IØpw ]pd-øp-ap-ff GXp Iw]yq- -dn \n pw Hm sse-\n CS-]mSp \S-Øm-sa- m-bn. Ct mƒ samss_- en \n- pw. CXns Nph-Sp-]n-Sn v cmpysø _m nwkv kwhn-[m-\-ßfpw amdn. Ahcpw Hm sse-\mbn amdn.- CXv Zmcn{Zyw Ipd-bv p-hm kmaq-ly-t a ] -Xn-I-fpsS KpW-^-e-߃ t\cn v D]-tbm- m-hn\v ]Wambn \evip- Xv Zmcn{Zyw Ipd-bv p-hm kmlm-bn- p- -Xmbn Gjy hni-k\ _m ns ]T\w ]d-bp p. C y-bn CXp-hsc ` y, C \ k_vkn-un-iƒ ]tcm- -am-bmwv D]-tbm- m-hn\v e`y-am- n-bn-cp- -Xv. CXv h txm-xn-ep-ff tnm bv v hgn-sbm-cp- p- p-sh v ]T\w ]d-bp- p. \n_- -\-Iƒ p hnt[-b-ambn kaq-ly-kp-c m B\p-Iq-ey-߃ Imjmbn \evip- Xv Zmcn{Zyw Ipd-bv p- -Xmbn ^nen- o knse A\p-`hw ImWn- p- - Xmbn ]T\w ]d-bp- p. ^oen- o knse ]mh-s - -h v B\q-Iq-ey-߃ ]Wam-bmWv \evip- -Xv. Ip n-isf kviqfn tn Øp-sIm-f-fm-sa pw Bip-]-{Xnbn NnIn- n- p-sim-f-fm-sa- p-ap-ff \n_- -\-I-fn AΩm mwv XpI t\cn p \evip- -Xv. H -c-t msn Bfp-Iƒ mwv CuXv \evip- -Xv.CXn-\mbn sne-h-gn- p- Xv Pn Un ]nbpss 0.5 ix-am-\-am-wv. Nne-cm-Py-߃ Pn Un ]nbpss 19 ix-am\w hsc kaq-ly-t a ] -Xn- Iƒ mbn sne-h-gn- p- p- v. P m-\n-em-wn-xv. C y-bn almfl Km n \mj- W dqd Fwtπm-bn-sa v Kmc n (Fw Pn F B C Pn) Dƒs ss F m kmaqly ] -Xn-Iƒ p-ambn sne-h-gn- p- Xv Pn Un ]nbpss 5 ix-am\w am{xam-wv. k_vkn-un, a v kmaq-ly-t a B\p-Iq-ey-߃ XpS-ßn-bh D]-tbm- mhn\v t\cn v suen-hdn snøm\pw CS-bv p-ff eot Pv C m-xm- p-hm\pw Ct mgsø kwhn-[m-\-ønse Imcy- -a-x-bn- m-xm- p-hm\pw Ign-bp-sa- mwv t\cn- pff Imjv {Sm kv^-dn-eqss Kh-s v e y-an-sp- -Xv. C \ k_vknun D]-tbm- m- ƒ v t\cn v \evip-tºmƒ Kh-s n\v em`n- m Ign-bp- Xv timsn cq]-bm-wv. C \ k_vknun t\cn p \evip- -Xn-\p-ff ss]e v ] Xn ASpØ G{]n-en B U-am \nt m-_m-dn-emwv BZyw ]co- n- p-i. XpS v Hcp h j-øn-\p-f-fn cmpy-sam- msi ] Xn \S- m- p-hm-\mwv Dt±-in- p- -Xv. t\cn p k_vknun \evip- -txmss ho m-h-iy-øn-\p-ff knen- hmwn- Pym-h-iy-Øn\v D]-tbm-Kn- p- Xv XS-bm-\mIpw. IW-Ivj FSp- p- -h v _m v A u- p-iqsn \n _- -am- p-i-bmwv e yw CtXmsS B[m Cs - nepw k_vknun _m p-hgn \evim-\m-ipw. XpS- -Øn F m-h pw k_vknun _m v A u v hgn \evipw. c mw L -Øn B[m hgn ]mh-s - -h p am{xambn k_vknun ]cn-an-x-s -Sp-Øp-hm-\mWv \o w. Ct mƒ F ]n Pn v timsn cq]bpw asæ-sæbv v timsn cq]bpw k_vkn-un-bmbn \evip- p- v. t\cn p Imjv k_vknun BIp- -txmss CXv bym-{iaw 7200 timsn cq]bpw 7500 timsn cq]-bp-am-ip-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. ` y-k-_vknun H t\m -Øn k_vknun t\cn v \evip Xv \ Bi-b-am-Wv. Ct mgø kwhn-[m-\-ønse tnm Hgn-hm- p-hm klm-bn- pw. A l-cm-b-h pw B\p-Iqeyw e`yam- p-hm\pw km[n- pw. ]t ` y-k-_vkn-un-bpss Imcyw hcp-tºmƒ \nc-h[n tnmzy-߃ v C\nbpw DØ-c-ap- m-ti- n-bn-cn- p- p. B[m kmº-øni hnemkw \evip-sa- nepw Abmƒ ]mh-s - -h-\mtwm ]W- m-c-\mtwm F p Xncn- -dn-bp-hm-\m-in-. Cbmƒ p k_vknun Bh-iyap-f-f-h-\mtWm A tbm F v \n n-bn- m-\pw hø. kwÿm\ k m-cp-ifpss a v kwhn-[m-\-øn-eq-sssb k_vkn-un v A l-x-bp-f-f-hsc Is -Øm- \m-iq. Ct m-gsø tdj Im Uv kwhn-[m\øn t]mepw ]mh-s - -hsc Is -Øm-\m-Ip n-. CXv ho pw k_vkn-un-bpss e ysø C m-xm- p- p. s]mxp-hn-x-cw kwhn-[m-\-øn-eqss Acn, asæ-æ, tkmx-ºv, ` y-sb- Æ, ] -kmc XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv \evip- -Xv. AXpw t\csø Kh-s v \n - bn- n- p-ff hne-bv v. Cu km[-\-߃ Kh-s v I j-i-cn \n v \n nxn hnebv v tij-cn- p-i-bmwv ]Xn-hv. Ct m-gsø s]mxp-hn-x-cw kwhn-[m-\- Øn-\p-th n k m kwhn-[m-\-øn Zi-e- -W- n\v S ` y-[m-\y-amwv Hmtcm h jhpw tij-cn- p- -Xv. k_vkn-un kwhn-[m\w t]mip- -txmss Khs v CXn \n v ]n m-dn-bm s]mxp-hn-]-wn- hne-bm-bn-cn pw DXv]- -߃ v. s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bn hne Ib-dp- -Xn\v B\p-]m-Xn-I-ambn k_vkn-un-bnepw h [- \-bp- m-ip-tam- F v ktµ-l-ap- v. k_vknun h [n- n- msx h m Ime- {I-a-Øn k_vknun Xs C m-xm-ipw. s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bnse hnebv v ` ykm-[-\-߃ hmßm \n _- n-x-cm-hp-ibpw snøpw. CXv IqSp-X t]sc Zmcn-{Zy-Øn-tebv v X n-bn-spw. s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bn hne Db-cp- -txmss Kh-s ns hmß hnebv v I j-i DXv]- -߃ hnev p-hm\pw Xmbm-dm-bn-s p hcpw. Imjv k_vknun FØp- -txmss ]n Un Fkv kwhn-[m\øns {]k n Ipd-bpw. Cu kml-n-cy-øn F{X k_vkn-un-bmwv Kh-s v \evip-i. AtXt]mse Xs cmpysø hnhn[ taj-e-iƒ XΩn hne-bnepw hyxym-k-ap- v. Imjv k_vknun e`y-am- p- -txmss cmpysø 5 e -tømfw hcp ]n Un FkpI-fpsS ÿnxn F mipw? as m v IpSpw-_-Øn\v F{X k_vknun In p-sa v hy -am- n-bn- n-. hmßp ` y-h-kvxp- ƒ mtwm AtXm IpSpw-_-Øn\v A\p-h-Zn- n-cn- p ` y-h-kvxp- ƒ mtwm ( ]e Imc-W-߃sIm pw A\p-h-Zn- Xp apgp-hm hmßphm km[n- p- n- ) kv_vknun- e`n- p-i-sb Imcyhpw hy -am-t - -bn-cn- p- p. c masø kml-n-cy-øn am{xta ]mh-s - -h-cpss im o-ic-ww thk-øn-em- p-i-bp-f-fp. ` y-[m-\y-ß-fpss D]-t`m-K-Øn hcp hyxymk-øn \n p e`n- p XpI a v Bh-iy-߃ v D]-tbm-Kn- p-hm km[n- - p. CXv Xo -bmbpw PohnX \ne-hm-c-øn am w hcp-øpw. Npcp- -Øn ` y k_vkn-un-bpss Imcyw hcp-tºmƒ Ht sd tnmzy߃ v DØcw \evti- n-bn-cn- p- p. Cu y _m nwkv kwhn-[m-\-øns apj- mb Xs am n. Ct mgpw amdns m- n-cn- p-i-bmwv Xm\pw. ]e

5 _m nwkv tkh-\-ßfpw t\sp-hm _m n t]mhp-itb th F m-bncn- p- p. Iw]yq- -dp-ifpw C s\ pw _m nwkv tkh-\-߃ t\sp- Xv Ffp- -am nbn-cn- p- p. _m n A u v Dff \s mcp ] v Bfp-Iƒ pw C s\ v hgn _ -s -Sp-hm Ignbp ÿnxn-bm-wv. ho n \n v _m nwkv ho n-en-cp- p-sim v Iw]yq- -dn ] _m nwkv {Sm km-ivj-\p-ifpw \S- Øp-hm Ign-bp XmWv Hm sse _m nw-kv. ssiv {]nb-cmb sndp- - m ns-bn Hm sse _m nw-kn\v {]nb-tadn hcn-i-bm-wv. _m n t]mbn Iyq \nevti F -Xp-X-s -bmwv Ahsc CXn-tebv v \oßp-hm t{]cn- n- n- p-f-f-xv. temi-øns GXp `mk-øp- \n pw _m nwkv sh_vssk- n Ibdn _n p-iƒ AS p Xo m-sa- -XmWv Hm sse _m nw-kns\ t]m p-e-dm- p- -Xv. ]Ww {Sm kv^ snømw. s{iun- v, su_n v Im Up-Iƒ v Hm U snømw. A u v _me kv sn v snømw... D]-Im-c-߃ Gsd-bm- Wv. G hpw henb KpWw Hm sse hgn _n p-iƒ AS-bv m-sa- -Xm-Wv. sshzypxn _n, samss_ _n, shf-f- cw XpS-ßn-b-h-sbms ho n-encp v Hm sse-\n AS p Xo m-sa- -Xm-Wv. As - n CXn-\mbn Hcp Znh-k-Øns \s mcp ] v sne-h-gnt - m-xbn hcp ÿnxn-bm-wv. Hm sse-\n c p an\n- p-t]mepw th CØcw _n p-iƒ AS p Xo p-hm. Ct mƒ hmbv] thw-sa- n t]mepw Hm sse-\n At] \evimw. Hm sse tkh-\-߃ \evip- -Xn _m p-iƒ F mw Hcp t]mseb. Nne _m p-iƒ Hm sse sh_vssk- p-i-fn _n p-iƒ \evti t]sa p-i-fpss XobXn hsc \evim-dp- v. As - n C sa-bn hgn Adn-bn- m-dp v. CXp-aqew _n p-iƒ AS-bv p- -Xn hogvn hcp-øp- Xv Hgn-hm- p-hm km[n- pw. F nepw F m CS-]m-Sp-Ifpw Hm sse-\n \S-Øp-hm Ign-bp-I-bn-. Nne-Xn\v _m p-i-fp-ambn _ - s t axn-bm-iq. Hm sse tkh\w kup\yw C y-bn Hm sse _m nwkv kup-\y-am-bmwv \evip- Xv. Hm sse _m nw-kn-tebv v BIrjvS-cm-Ip-hm-\p-ff Imc-W-ß-fn-sem v CXm-Wv. am{x-hp-apf _m p-iƒ v Ipd sne-hn Ah-cpsS imj-iƒ HmSn- p-sim- p-t]m-ip-hm\pw CXp-hgn km[n- p- p. Ipd kvt]kn IqSp- Hm sse CS-]mSv kpc- n-x-am- p-hm Aev]w {i n- m Hm sse CS-]mSv kpc- n-x-am- -hm km[n- pw. D]-tbm-Kn- p ]mkv thup-iƒ GXm\pw \mfp-iƒ am pi F -Xm-Wv. ]mkv thuv A c-ßfpw A -ßfpw \nd- -Xm-Wv. as m v Htc ]mkvthuv Xs F m A u- p-iƒ pw D]-tbm-Kn- m-xn-cn- p-i. Hm sse _m nwkpw \nt - ]-hp-sams Imcy-߃ hfsc Ffp- am- p- p-s - nepw ssk_ ss{iap- Ifpw AXn-\-\p-k-cn v h [n p hcn- I-bm-Wv. Ft m an- p-i. Iw]yq- -dnse kwc- n- pi: Iw]yq- -dns\ B n sshd-kv, B n kvss]h tkm^v vth XpS-ßn-bh D]-tbm-Kn v i n-s -Sp-Øp-I. sh_v {_uk XpS-ßnb tkm^v vth-dp-iƒ Hmt m-am- n- mbn A]vtU v snøpi.ign-bp-sa- n Hm sse CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ ho n \n pw am{xw snøp-i. ]mkvthuv i -am- pi: i - amb ]mkvthup-iƒ krjvsn- p-i. CXv kz -ambn Hm Øn-cn- p-hm Ffp- hpw a p-f-f-h p I p-]n-sn- p-hm {]bm-k-i-c-hp-am- pw. ]Øpw ]Xn- \mepw Imc-IvS Dff ]mkvth-up-iƒ krjvsn- p-i.-a-xn A -c-ßfpw A -ßfpw knw_- ep-ifpw D m-bn-cn- -Ww. sndnb A -chpw henb A -chpw D m-bn-cn- Ww. ]mkvthupw ]n \º-cp- Ifpw cl-ky-ambn kq n- p-i. C -sa-bn-en Hcn- epw CXv ] p hbv -cp-xv. t^mwntem samss_ Fkv Fw Fkntem CXp B pw \evi-cp-xv. Hcp _m nse CS-]m-Sn\v Hcp ]mkvthuv am{xw D]-tbm-Kn- pw. ]e _m p-iƒ mbn H v ]mkvthuv D]- tbm-kn- -cp-xv. ImcWw ]mkvthuv tamjvsn- -s - m F m _m p-i-fnepw CXp-]-tbm-Kn v Zpcp-]-tbmKw snøphm km[n- pw. sh_vssk n \n v CS-]mSv: _m ns sh_vssk- n {]th-in v am{xw CS-]mSv \S-Øp-I. CS-]mSp \S- Øn- -gn- m At mƒ Xs s vssk v Ivtfmkv snøp-i. B ssk n \n v a v ssk p-i-fn-tebv v t]micp-xv. CtXm-sSm w {_uknwkv lnã-dnbpw Ivfnb snøp- I. C -sa-bn ktµ-iw, ssivãv ktµ-i-߃ t]m v A]v ]c-ky-߃ XpS-ßn-b-h-bn \n v _m v ssk n-te {]th-in v CS-]mSv \S-Ø-cp-Xv. CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ ho p Iw]yq- -dn am{xw: _n X Bfp-Isf Dƒs m- p-hm CXphgn km[n- p- p- v. Npcp- -Øn Hm sse _m nwkv kwhn-[m\w C y _m nw- Kns Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-ambn amdn-bn-cn- p- p. tim _m- nwkv skmeq-j-\n-eqss-bmwv Hm sse _m nwkv _m p- Iƒ e`y-am- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. kwtbm-pnx Hm sse _m nwkv kwhn-[m-\-ap-ff temi-ønse G hpw henb _m p-ifn-sem- mwv tã v _m v Hm^v C y. \nt -]hpw Hm sse-\n _m v A u- n-s\m w Uoam v _m v do v Db Øpw temi-ønse G hpw henb c m-asø henb P\-kw-Jy-bp-ff C ybn _m p-im-j-i-fm-wp-f-g-f-xv. P\-kw-Jy-bpsS 40 ix-am-\-øn\pam{xamwv _m nwkv tkh\w FØn-bn- p-f-f-xv. AXm-bXv IqSp-X _m v imj-iƒ Xpdt axn-bm-iq. samss_ _m nwkv Xo -bmbpw CXn\p am w hcp-øpw. {]txy-in pw 91 timsn-tbmfw samss_ IW-Ivj-\p-Iƒ Dff kml-n-cy-øn. samss_ lm Uvsk v hgn _m nwkv tkh\w FØn- p- Xn sne-hm-ip- -Xns ]Øn-c nbmwv imj-iƒ hgn _m nwkv tkh\w \evip-hm th -Xv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v _m v imj hgn ÿnc-\n-t ]w XpS-ßp-hm 45 cq] snehm-ip-tºmƒ samss_ _m v B]vfn-t -j h-gn-bm-sw- n snehv 38 ss]kbmbn Npcp-ßpw. C _m v samss_ t]sa v k hokv ( sf Fw ]n Fkv) h txmss samss_ _m nwkv tkh-\-øn\ ]pxnb am\w ssih-cp-i-bm-wv \hw-_ 30 hsc 75 _m p-iƒ dnk hv _m n \n v samss_ _m nwkv ssek kv FSp-Øn- p- v. AXn 53 _m p-ifv samss_ _m nwkv k hokv \evin-øp-s-ßn-bn- p- v. ^ v {Sm kv^, Hm -WnwKv Unt m-kn- v, _n t]sa v, C simtagvkv, k hokv At]- -Iƒ XpSßn \nc-h[n tkh-\-߃ samss_-en-eqss e`y-am-wv. t]sa v, _m v, tjm]v CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh 5 ho nse Iw]yq- -dn am{xw kq n- p-i. s]mxp-hm-bn- p-f-ftxm sjb snbvxv D]-tbm-Kn- p- txm Bb Iw]yq- -dp-i-fn kq n- -cp-xv. hb sekv s\ v h v Dff sse]vtsm- v, samss_ t^mwp-iƒ XpS-ßn-b-hbnepw [\-Imcy CS-]m-Sp-I-fpsS hnh-c-߃ kq n- cp-xv. A]-cn-N-Xsc Hgn-hm- pi: ssk_ kvt]kn \n v FØp A]-cn-Nn-X-cp-am-bn- p-ff C sa-bn hgnbp-ff kwkmcw Hgn-hm- p-i. am th XpS-ßnb sshd-kp-iƒ Iw]yq- -dp-i-fn FØp-hm-\p-ff Ffp hgn-bm-wn-xv. _m p-ifpw a pw C -sa-bn hgn bmsxmcp kwk-xnbpw km[m-cw KXn-bn Bh-iy-s -Sp-I-bn F v Hm an- n- p-i. AtX-t]mse kup\y klm-b߃ \nc-kn- p-i. tima sk kv: F m- m-cy-ønepw F -Xpt]mse Hm sse CS-]m-Sn NXn-]- m-xn-cn- p-hm tima sk kv D]-tbm-Kn- p-i. ssk_ kvimw kw_- n hm Ø-Iƒ hmbn- p-i. At mƒ hnhn[ Xc-Øn-ep-ff X n- p-i-sf- p-dn v Adnhv e`n- pw. AØcw satk-pp-iƒ At mƒ Xs \o n- -f-bp-i. ss]e v ] Xn hnpbw 2013 P\p-hcn H n\v kaq-ly-t a ] -Xn-Iƒ t\cn v D]-tbm- m- -fpss A u- n-tebv v {Sm kv^ snøp-hm-\p-ff Xocp-am\w FSp- p- -Xn\v apºv cmpysø Nne {]tz-i-ß-fnƒ Ch-bpsS ss]e v ] Xn ]co- n- n-cp- p. I Wm- I-bnse ssakq-cnepw cmp-ÿm-\nse B hm Pn -bn-ep-amwv Cu ] Xn ]co- n- -Xv. ]mn-i-hm-x-i-øn-emwv Hmbn Iº-\n-Iƒ CXp ]co- n- Xp t\m n-b-xv. ^ew AXn-i-b-I-c-am-bn-cp- p. ]mn-i-hm-xi IW-Ivj-\p-I-fpsS FÆw 40 ix-am-\-tømf CSn-hmWv ImWn- Xv cmp-ÿm-\nsb B hm-dn asæ-æ-bpss D]-tbmKw 80 ix-am\w I p Ipd- p. AXm-bXv Kh-s ns k_vknun _n Chn-S-ß-fn KWy-ambn Ipd- p. k_vknun B\p-Iq-ey-Øn-\mbn ]n Un Fkv hgn-bp-ff hnev]\ Iq n- m-wn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. hfw, ` yw, C \w XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS k_vkn-un-bn-\-øn Khs ns _m[yx 2.5 e w timsn cq]-tbmfw hcpw. CXn \s mcp ] v t\cn- p-ff k_vknun {Sm kv^-dn-eqss sh n- p-d-bv p-hm\v Ign-bp-sa v Khs v Icp-Xp- p. A u- p-iqsn Hm snbvxm Hm sse _m nw-kn-s\m w Hmlcn \nt -]-ßfpw hym]m-chpw \S-Ømw. ayqnz ^ p-iƒ hmßmw. Hmlcn hn m _m n-tebv v ]Ww am mw. Hmlcn hmßn-bn _m n \n v ]Ww FSp-Øp-sIm- pw. CØ-c-Øn _m p- Iƒ _m nwkv tkh-\-߃s m w _m nwkv CXc tkh-\-ßfpw e`y-am n hcn-i-bm-wv. BtKmf I kƒ kn ÿm]- \-amb a n kn \S-Ønb C ymkv t]gvk-w ^n\m jy k ho-kkv k th A\p-k-cn v Hm sse t{sunw-kns hchv {_m v _m nwkv CS-]m-Sp-I-fn 15 ix-am\w Ipdhv hcp-øn-sb- m-wv. AtX-t]mse Hm sse _m nwkv CS-]mSv snøp- -h-cpss kwjy Ggp ix-am-\-am-wv. CXv Ipd-hm-sW- nepw A p h jw apºp-f-f ÿnxn-bp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s -Sp- Øp-tºmƒ h hf -bmwv t\sn-bn- p-f-f-sx v a n kn k th ]d-bp- p. A p h jw apºv 1 ix-am\w CS-]m- Sp-Im-cm-bn-cp p C s\ v _m nwkv D]- tbm-kn ncp- -Xv. C s\- v, samss_ _m nw- Kn Gjy-bn G hpw IqSp-X hf t\sp cmpy-amwv C y-sb pw k th ]d-bp- p.

6 6 kmº-øni hf Zi-I-Ønse XmgvN-bn-tebv v Kh-s v kmºøni hf -bpss Imcy-Øn bmym y-øn-tebv v Cdßn h n-cn- p-i-bm-wv kmº-øni hf ix-am-\-øn-\n-s-bn-em-bncn- p-sa v ]m e-sa n h A [-hm jni kmº-ønimh-tem-i-\-øn Khs v hne-bn-cp-øp- p. kmº-øni k th-bn 7.6 ix-am\w hf -bp- m-ipsa- m-bn-cp p IW- m- n-bn-cp- -Xv. BZy ]Ip-Xn-bn 5.4 ix-am-\-amwv Pn Un ]n hf Kh-s v IW- m- p hf -th-w-sa- n c mw ]Ip-Xn-b 6 ix-am\w hf -bp- m-i-ww. AXp km[n pw hn[w kml-n-cy-߃ sa -s -Sp-I-bm-sW- mwv Kh-s v hnebn-cp-øp- -Xv. \S- p-h jw ix-am\w hf t\s-w-sa- n \nt -]-I-cpsS Bflhn-izmkw Db Øpw hn[w ]W-\-b-Øn-ep- m-i-ww. kº-zvl-s-\-bn LS-\m-]- camb ]cn-jvim-c-߃ Kh-s v apt m- p-sim- p-t]m-ip-sa pw dnhyp ]d-bp- p se kmº-øni hf 9 h jsø G hpw Ipd-hmb 6.5 ix-am-\- amwv. BtKmf, B`y- c Imcy-߃ CXn\v Imc-am-Wv. ]W-s -cp w am t mss ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Xmgp-sa v dnhyp ]d-bp- p. [\-IΩn \S- p-h jw 5.3 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- pw. _P- n 5.1 ix-am-\-amwv IW- m- n-bn-cp- -Xv. A [-hm jn-i- C- -twm-aniv A\m-en-knkv * c mw ]Ip-Xn-bn 6 ix-am\w Pn Un ]n hf {]Xo- n- p- p. BZy-]- Ip-Xn-bn 5.4 ix-am-\-amwv hf * BtKmf kº-zvl-s-\-bpss ÿnxn ]cn-xm-]-i-c-amb Ah-ÿ-bn-emWv * kmº-øni Xf -bpss Ah-km-\-ambn * ]W-\-bhpw [\-Im-cy-\-bhpw \nt -]-I-cpsS Bfl-hn-izmkw Db Øpw * kao-]-im-esø kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ \nt -]-I-cpsS at\m-`mhhpw A\p-Iq-e-am- n-bn- p v * [\-IΩn 5.3 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn pw * ]W-s -cp w \memw Izm -dn anx-am-ipw. am n ]W-s -cp w ix-am-\-am-bn-cn pw * ]W-s -cp w Ipd-bp- Xv hgn dnk hv _m v ]W-\-b-Øn Abhp hcpøpw * dm_n hnf-sh-sp v sa -amipw * tkh-\-ta-j-e-bn hf {]Xo- n- p p * Id v A u v IΩn Ign h j-tø- mƒ Ipdbpw * hym]-c-iωnbnepw Ign h j-tø- mƒ Ipdhv {]Xo- n- p p * I i-\-amb ]W-\bhpw Db ]en-i-\n-c pw \nt -]sø _m[n- p * BtKm-f, A`y- c {]iv\-߃ {]Xy- -\n-ipxn hcp-am-\sø _m[n- p-ibmwv hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\w hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\w HIvtSm-_-dn 8.2 ix-am\w hf t\sn. {]Xo- n- n-cp- Xv 5 ix-am-\-øn-\-sp-øm-bn-cp- p. sk]v w-_-dn 0.7 ix-am\w \yq\-hf -bm-bn-cp p.]xn-\m-dp-am-ksø G hpw Db hf -bm-wn-xv. ap h jw HIvtSm-_-dn 5 ix-am\w \yq\ hf -bmwv ImWn- n-cp- -Xv. F m Ct m-gsø hf XpS amk-ß-fn \ne-\n-ev p-tam-sb- mwv Adn-tb- -Xv. ImcWw Hmt m Dƒs -ss-bp-ff ]e taj-e-i-fn- \n pw FØn-bn- p-ff IW- p-iƒ Xf -bpts-xm-wv. F m-bmepw hymh-km-bn-i-h-f bnse Xf t_m w Hu v Bbn F p-x-s bmwv s]mxp-th-bp-ff hne-bn-cp-ø. am\p-^m-ivn-dnw- Kn\v ]pdta sshpyp- Xn, Im n- KpUvkv, I kyq-a KpUvkv XpS-ßn-b-hbpw tami-a- mø hf t\sn. Ch-bnse hf kº- ZvL-S-\- kpo-h-am-ip- - Xns kqn-\-bm-bn- mwv Icp-Xp- -Xv.Cu kml-n-cy-ønepw G{]n HIvtSm-_ Ime-b-f-hnse hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\ hf 1.2 ix-am- \tabp-f-fp. ap h j-anxv 3.8 ix-am-\-am-bncp- p. am\p-^m-ivn-dnw-kns Xncn- p-h-c-hmwv G hpw {it -b-amb kwk-xn. am\p-^m-ivndnwkv taje HIvtSm-_-dn 9.6 ix-am-\w hf t\sn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. sk]v w-_- dnenxv 1.5 ix-am\w \yq\ hf bmbn-cp- p. kqnn-i-bn am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv tajebv v 75 ix-am\w shbn-t Pv D v HIvtSm-_ amk-øn 6 ix-am\w Npcp-ßp- I-bm-bn-cp- p. am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv taj-e-bnse 22 hyh-km-b- {Kq p-i-fn 17 FÆhpw HIvtSm- _-dn t]mko- ohv hf t\sn Im n- KpUvkv Cu HIvtSm-_-dn 7.5 ix-am\w hf t\sn.ap h jw HIvtSm- _-dn 26.5 ix-am\w Npc- -amwv ImWn- Xv. F m G{]n HIvtSm-_-dn 11.4 ix-am\w Npcp-ßp-I-bmWv snbvx-xv Im n- taje Ac ix-am\w hf bmwv t\sn-b-xv. Im n- KpUvkv taj-ebnse hf hfsc Bthiw ]I-cp- -XmsW- mwv [\-a{ n ]n NnZw-_cw A`n-{]mb-s - -Xv. Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w XpS -bmb Ggm-asØ amkw Ib- - axn hcp-am\w CSn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w \hw-_-dn 4.17 ix-am\w CSn-thmsS 2230 timsn tumf-dm-bn. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv 2330 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. HIvtSm-_-dnse CSnhv 1.7 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. AtX-k-abw Cd- p-axn 6.35 ix-am\w hf -tbmss 4160 timsn tumf-dnse-øp-ibpw ( ap h jw 3910 timsn tumf ) snbvxp. CtXmsS hy]m-c-iωn 1580 timsn tumf-dn \n v 1928 Cd- p-axn hcp-am\w amkw tumf hyxn-bm\w G{]n 2369 timsn % sabv 2679 timsn 4.16 % Pq 2651 timsn 5.45 % Pqsse 2634 timsn % HmKÃv 2470 timsn 9.70 % sk]v w-_ 2656 timsn % HIvtSm-_ 2363 timsn 1.63 % \hw-_ timsn 4.17 % hymh-tkm-bn-tim-xv]m-z\ hf (HIvtSm-_ 2012) taje am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv 9.6 % 6.0 % ssa\nwkv 0.1 % 5.9 % sshzypxn 5.5 % 5.6 % t_kniv KpUvkv 4.1 % 1.2 % Im n- KpUvkv 7.5 % 26.5 % C ao-un. KpUvkv 9.4 % 8.4 % I kyq-a KpUvkv 16.5 % 0.1 % I kyq-.uyq-d-_nƒ 16.5 % 0.4 % I. t\m Uyq-d % 0.50 % BsI 8.2 % 5.0 % ]W-s -cp w 7.24 % \hw-_-dn ]W-s -cp w 7.24 ix-am-\-am-wv. HIvtSm- _-dn-enxv 7.45 ix-am-\-hpw. ]Øp-am-k-Øn-\n-S-bnse G hpw Ipd ]W-s -cp- -\n-c- m-wn-xv. ASpØ 2 3 amk-øn-\p-f-fn ]W-s -cp w anx-amb ÿnxn-bn-tebv v \oßp-sa v dnk hv _m v {]Xo- n- p- p. timsn tumf-dntebv Db-cv p. bp Fkv, bqtdm-]y taj-e-bpss Xf -bmwv Ib- p-axn hcp-am- \sø _m[n- -Xv. G{]n \hw-_ Ime-bf-hn Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w 5.95 ix-am\w CSn-thmsS timsn tumf-dm-bn. Cd- p-axn Cu Imeb-f-hn 1.58 ix-am\w CSnthmsS timsn tumf-dm-wv. hym]mc-iωn timsn tumf-dm-wv. {IqtUm-bn Cd- p-axn am{xw BZy F p amk- m-eøv 10.8 ix-am\w Db -tbmss timsn tumf-dm-wv. ap h j-anxv 9930 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. Id v A u v IΩn 3.6 ix-am-\-øn HXp n \ndp-øp-hm k m e y-an-sp- p-s - nepw Ct m-gsø kml-n-cy-øn AXv 4 ix-am-\-øn\p api-fn-tebv p \oßp-sa- mwv C -twm-an-ãp-iƒ IW- m- p- -Xv. F m C ybv timsn tumf hntz-i-\m-wy-ti-j-c-ap-f-f-xn-\m AS-hp-in-jvS-\ne-bn Ipg- -ap- m-ip-hm-\p-ff km[yx Ipd-hm-Wv.

7 7 ]pxp-h j-ønse [\-Im-cy-]vfm ho p-samcp ]pxp-h jw-iqsn FØp- I-bm-Wv ]pxp-h jsø kzmkxw snøp-hm F m-hcpw Fs - n-epsams ]vfm snbvxn- p- m-ipw. ]t, ]nd-tim v Xncn p t\m p-tºmƒ 2012 A{X sa -am-bn-cn- p- I-bn-. {]txy-in pw [\-Im-cy-ta-J-e-bn ]W-s -cp- hpw Db ]en-i-\n-c pw h msx he Hcp h j-amwv IS- pt]m-ip- -Xv. Fhn-sS-\n pw tamiw [\- hm Ø-Itf tiƒ p-hm-\p- m-bn-cp- p-ffp. F m ]pxp h j-tøbv p IS- m-dm-b-t m-tgbv pw Nne \ hm Ø- Iƒ ti p XpS-ßnbn p- v. A{X-bp-sa- n-ep-ambn At. ]pxph jsø kzmkxw snøp-hm Nne ]vfm\p-iƒ snbvx kml-n-cy-øn ]pxp h j-øn [\-Imcy ]vfm\nw-kns\- p-dn pw Btem-Nn mw. F mh jhpw ]pxp-h j-øn Nne {]Xn- -I-sfms FSp- p-sa- nepw GXm\pw Znh-k-߃ Ign-bp-tºmƒ AXp ad- p-i-bmwv ]Xn-hv. F nepw ]pxnb h j-øn Nne {]Xn- -Iƒ FSp- mw. [\-Imcy Btcm-Ky-Øn-\m-bn. ]p\-c-h-tem-i\w snømw ]pxnb h j-tøbv v IS- p- - Xn\v apºv Ign h j-ß-fnse \nt ]ßsf ]p\-c-h-tem-i\w sntø Xv ASpØ h jsø Xocp-am- \-Øn\v G hpw Bh-iy-am-Wv. \SØnb \nt ]w Dt±-in e y-^-e-߃ t\sn- Øt m, t\sn-ø-cp-hm km[y-xbpt m AtXm ^vtfm mtbm, Ct mgsø \nt -]-Øn am w hcp-ø-wtam Fs ms Xocp-am-\n- p-hm CXm-h-iyam-Wv. Xs e y-߃ -\p-kr-x-am-bn- m-wv \nt ]w \oßp- -sx- n \nt - ]-ti-j-c-øn am w Bh-iy-an-. adn- msw- n \nt -]m-kvxn-i-fn Agn- p- ]Wn A\n-hm-cy-amWv. As - n IqSp- X \jvs-øn-tebv v CsX-Øn- pw. dnt e`n- p-i-bn-s p am{x-a \nt -]hpw A{]-Xy- -am-ipw. BZyw IpSpw_w BZyw IpSpw-_-Øns kpc- n- XXzw Dd- m-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. hcp-am\w t\sp- -bmƒ F \ne-bn IpSpw-_- Øns kmº-øni kpc- n-xxzw Dd- p-h-cp-tø- Xv kam-[m-\-]q W-amb Pohn-X-Øn\v Bh-iy-am-Wv. ImcWw A{]- Xo- nx kw`-h-߃ Pohn-XsØ am n adn- mw. AXv hosns kmº-øni `{ZX C m-xm- mw. {]nb-s - -bm-fp-ise Zpcn-X- Øn-tebv v X n-hn-smw. AXn-\m hcpam-\p-ff Bƒ F \ne-bn {]nb-s - h-cpss kmº-øni kpc- n-x-xz-øn\v Xo -bmbpw ap Xq w \evi-ww. AXn\v Bh-iy-amb C jp-d kv ]cn-c FSp- p-i-sb- -Xm-Wv. Ipd {]oan-b-øn henb Ih-tdPv \evip ] -Xn-I-fmWv tsw C jp-d kp-iƒ.- \nß-fpss Akm- n-[y-øn CXv IpSpw-_- Øns kmº-øni kpc Dd- m- pw. Ct m-gsø PohnX \ne-hm-c-øn XpS pw Pohn p t]mim-hp hn[- Øn Bh-iy-ap-ff tsw C jp-d kv ]cn-c FSp- -Ww. kmº-øni kpc t]mse Xs {][m-\-amwv BtcmKy c bpw. Bip- ]-{Xn-s -e-hp-iƒ Znh-kw-tXm-dp-sa- -Xpt]mse Db-cp-I-bm-Wv. s]mxp-]-w-s -cp- -tø- mƒ hfsc Db \ne-bn-emwv saun- C ^vtf-j. AXn-\m hcpam\w t\sp- -bmƒ F \ne-bn X\n pw IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ pw \n -bambpw saun- C jp-d kv FSp-Øncn- p-ww. Ct mƒ IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ p IqS NnIn- m-]-cn-c In p \nc-h[n sl Øv ^vtfm t]mf-kn-iƒ hn]-wnbn e`y-am-wv. G hpw sndp- -Xnse Xs FSp- p-ibpw IrXy-ambn ]pxp- p-ibpw snøp-i. BtcmKy t]mfnkn Cs - n AXv FSp- p-i. Ds - n AXv IrXy-ambn ]pxp- p-i. IqSp-X Ih-tdPv Bh-iy-ap-s - n ]pxp- ka-bøvv Bh-iy-a-\p-k-cn v Ih-tdPv Db Øp-I. ASn-b- c ^ v A{]-Xo- nx kw`h-߃ D m-iptºmƒ Ahsb t\cn-sp-hm ASn-b- c ^ v D m-bn-cn-t - Xv AXym-h-iy-am- Wv. CXv Bip-]-{Xn-t -km-imw, sxmgn \jvs-am-imw... Cu kml-n-cysø t\cn- Sp-hm Ahiyw ]Ww kºm-zy-ambn D m-bn-cn- -Ww. tkhnwkvk _m n kq n- n-cn- p XpI-sb-bmWv ASn-b- c ^ mbn IW- m- p- -Xv. Ipd- Xv 6 12 amksø sne-hn\v Bhiy-amb XpI tkhnwkvkv _m n-ep- mbn-cn- -Ww. As - n B kabw ]Wbw hbv p-hm\pw hmbv] tnmzn- phm\pw t]mti- -Xmbn hcpw. sndn-b-txm-xn-em-sw- nepw F m amkhpw Hcp XpI \nt -]n v CØ-c- Øn-ep-ff ^ v cq]-s -Sp-Øn-sb-Sp- phm km[n- pw. AXv \ enizn-un- nbp-ff BkvXn-I-fn \nt -]n- m sndnb dnt Wpw e`n- pw. ]W-s -cp- - Øn\v A\p-kr-X-ambn ASn-b- -c- ^ ns hep- hpw h [n- n- p-sim- ncn- p-i. dn -b sa v CXp-h-scbpw dn -b ssa n-\mbn \nt -]-sam pw Bcw-`n n n-s - n DSt\ AXv XpS-ßp-I. \nipxn em`n- p- -Xn\pw dn -b sa v ImeØv {]bmkw IqSmsX Pohn- p-hm Bh-iy-amb XpIbv pw CXv Bh-iy-am-Wv. F{X t\csø CXv Bcw-`n- p- pthm A{Xbpw \ -Xm-Wv. h j-߃ \ofpwtxmdpw Cc- -s -cp- -Øns ( timw]u- nw-kv) B\p-Iqeyw e`n- p- p. sndp- -Ønse sndnb XpI Imew \ofpwtxmdpw henb XpI-bmbn amdp- p. ISØn\pw ]p\-c-h-tem-i\w \nt -]-Øn\p am{x-a IS-Øn\pw ]p\-c-h-tem-i\w thww. ]e Bh-iy- Øn\pw e y-øn-\p-ambn ] Ime-ß-fnte-bv p-ap-ff IS-ß-fp- m-bn-cn- pw. NneXv Zo L-Im-e-Ønepw a p NneXv a[y-im-e-øn-epw {lkz-im-e-øn-ep-apffhbm-bn-cn- pw. ]t F m IS-ßfpw Hcp t]mse-b-. hm jni ]en-i-bpss ASn-ÿm-\- Øn Cu IS-ß-fpsS ] ni Xbm-dm- p- I-bmWv BZyw th -Xv.- hfsc Db ]en-i-bp-ff IS-߃ F{Xbpw thkw Ah-km-\n- n- p-i. Ccp-]Xpw Ccp-]-Øn- \mepw ix-am\w ]en-i-bp-ff IS-߃ \nev p-tºmƒ GsX- nepw BkvXn-bn \nt ]w \S-Øp- -Xn A -an-. CØcw kml-n-cy-ap-s - n Unt mkn v Ah-km-\n- n v ISw AS p Xo p- -XmWv _p n-]-c-amb \o w. Bh-iy-an- mø A u- p- Iƒ Imcy-ambn Hm -td v snøp- n- mø A u- p-iƒ Ds - n AXv Ah-km- \n- n- p-i. ImcWw Hmtcm A u v sabn-s -bn snøp-hm Nm Pp-Iƒ \evti- -Xmbn hcpw. \nkq-v-amb \nch[n Nm Pp-Iƒ _m p-i-fn-ep- v. _m v {]Xn-amkw1 cq] Nm Pv snbvxm t]mepw ap Xp h j-am-ip-tºmƒ \n߃ p \jvs-am-ip- Xv ( ]Øp ixam\w \nc- n ) 2400 cq]-bm-wv. Ipd- Xv Bbncw cq]-sb- nepw A u- n an\naw _me kv kq n- -W-sa- Xv Hm an- p-i. s]cn-kvtim v si.-b.-_n-pn-tam a v [\-Imcy e y-߃ G hpw AXym-h-iy-Im-cy-߃ Ign- m ASp-ØXv a v [\-Imcy e yß-fm-wv. hml\w hmß, hosv hbv, Ip n-i-fpss ]Tn v, Ah-cpsS hnhm-lw, hntz-iøv Ah-[n- mew sneh-gn- XpSßn F pw e y-amwv ]q Øn-I-cn-t - Xv AXn-\mbn ]vfm snøp-i. Pohn-X-Øns hnhn[l -ß-fn t\sn-sb-sp-t Imcy-߃ IpSpw-_- Ønse a v AwK-ß-fp-ambn tn v N snbvxp Xocp-am-\n- p-i. CXnse G hpw {]bm-k-i-c-amb Imcyw Ch-bvt m-tcm- n\pw F{X-am{Xw XpI am n hbv -Wsa- -Xm-Wv. AtX-t]mse Xs FhnsS \nt -]n- -W-sa- Xpw Xocp-am-\n-t Imcy-am-Wv. ]W-s -cp w F{X henb kºm-zy-øn-t bpw aqeyw tnm Øn- f-bpsa Xv a\-kn h p-thww \nt ]w \S-Øp-hm. a v hm n ]d- m ÿnc-\n-t -]-Øn\pw a pw e`n- p ]en-i-\n-c v IjvSn v ]W-s -cp- sø t\cn-sp-hmt\ klm-bn- p- p-f-fp. AXn-\m [\-Imcy e yw F msw v IrXy-ambn \n -bn- -Ww. AXv IpSpw-_-Øn-ep-ff F m-hcpw Adn- ncn- p-ibpw thww. GXp BkvXn-bmWv \nt -]-Øn\v sxc-s -Sp- p- psh- Xv dnkiv FSp- p-hm-\p-ff tijnsb ASn-ÿm-\-am- n-bm-bn-cn- -Ww. F{X-Imew-sIm v Cu e yw t\s-w-sa- Xpw \nt -]mkvxn sxc-s -Sp- p- -Xns\ kzm[o-\n- p kwk-xn-bm-wv. hnz-kv[s klmbw Htcm Bh-iy-Øn\v F{X XpI hibn-cp-ø-w-sa v Xocp-am-\n- p-hm km[n- p- n-s - n Hcp hnz-kv[s klmbw txsp-hm Xocp-am-\n- p-i. ani ^n\m jy ]vfm\ v \nßsf klmbn- p-hm Ign-bpw. tumivs Btcm-Ky- Im-cy-ß-fn klm-bn- - -Xp-t]m-se. [\-Imcy e y-߃ hni-z-ambn ]Tn- p-ibpw AXv t\sp-hm \oßsf klmbn- p-ibpw snøpw. CØ-c-Øn \nc- -c-ambn Cu Imcy-߃ ]n p-s-cp-i-bm-sw- n Xo bmbpw h j-߃ Ign-bp- -txmss \nßfpss [\-Imcy e y-߃ Hs m- mbn t\sp-hm km[n- pw.

8 8 a p- -h p simspøv [\n-i-\m-hpi G hpw IqSpX Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S- Øp Pohn a\p-jy-\m-wv. F m Cu temiøp- m-ip {]iv\-ß-fn \men ap n-s bpw ImcWw Bi-b-hn- \n-abw Xs -bm-wv. Hcm-fns Bi-b-hn- \nab-km-a yhpw as m-cm-fns Bib-hn-\n-a-b-ti-jn-bn- m-bvabpw kaq-l- Øn {]iv\-am-ipw. AXp-sIm- mwv kwkm-cn- p- Xn\p apºv tiƒ pi, Fgp-Xp- -Xn\p apºv Nn n- pi F nh Bi-b-hn-\n-a-b-Øn kp{]-[m-\-amsw p ]d-bp- -Xv. kwkm-cn- p-i-sb- Xv sne-hm- p- -Xn\p Xpey-amb {]hr-øn-bm-wv. a\- n-ep Bi-bßfmWv \ΩpsS kwkm-c-øns i n-t{km-x- v. AXmbXv ]Ww sne-hm- p- -Xp-t]mse, a\- n-ep Bi-b-߃ kwkm-c-ambn \mw sne-hm- n-s m- n-cn- p- p. Bi-b߃ IqSp-X-ep- -h \ mbn kwkm-cn- pw. \ mbn kwkm-cn- p- -h a p- -hsc kzm[o-\n- pw.. CXp-t]m-se-bmWv ]Ww sne-hm- p- -Xpw. sne-hm- p- - Xn\p apºv kºm-zn- ncn- -Ww. a\- n Bib߃ \nd v kwkmcn- p- -Xp-t]mse, Bh-iy-Øn\p ]Ww kºm-zn- -tijw btyjvsw sne-hm- p-i. kºm-zn- msx sne-hm- m XpS-ßn-bm HSphn Zmcn{ZyØn Ah-km-\n- pw. AXv ]W-am-bmepw kvt\l-ambmepw _lp-am-\am-bmepw Aßs\ Xs. F mwv Zmcn-{Zyw? ssz\w-zn- \m-h-iy-߃ v sne-hm m ]Wan- mø Ah-ÿ-sb-bmWv \mw km[m-c-wbmbn Zmcn-{Zyw- F p ]dbp- -Xv. sim n-bn Hcp aq v InS- p-apdn ^vfm v hmßm ]mßn- mø Bsf Zcn-{Z-s\ p ]d-bn. ]t F pw Hcp t\cwt]mepw IrXy-ambn Blmcw Ign- m hgn-bn- mø Bƒ Zcn-{Z-\m-Wv. F m kmº-øn-i-ambn am{x-a Hcmƒ Zcn-{Z-\m-hp-I. kvt\- lw, hm -eyw, \, _lp-am\w F n-ß-s\-bp \ KpW-ß-fpsS Imcy-Ønepw Nne Zcn-{Z-cm-Wv. C -d KpW-ß-ƒ IqSp-X-embn kºm-zn- mt\m kq n p hbv mt\m Ah Xbm-dm-hp-I-bn-. ssibn-ep-s - n t mepw as m-cmƒ p \ In Xm\pw. ]t temiøp- -sx mw Cßp t]mcs F m-bn-cn pw at\m-`mhw. H p-an- m-ø-h-\, adn v IqSp-X thw-sa v AXym Øn-bp- -h-\mwv bym Zcn-{Z F v skt\ ]d n- p- v. Btem-Nn p t\m q, \n߃ Zcn-{Z-\mtWm? [\-hm-\m-bn-cn- p-i-sb- Xv F mh pw kt m-j-am-wv. btyjvsw snehm- m [\w ssibn-ep- m-i-wta F mwv F m-h-cp-ssbpw {]m -\. t {X-Øn A \ Ign- p- Xpw ] n-bn sagp-ip-xncn IØn- p- Xpw Cu {]m -\-tbm-ss-bm-wv. cmhnse apx cm{xn hsc Ahn-sS-bp-an-hn-sSbpw HmSn \S- p- Xpw Cßs\ [\w D m- m-\m-wv. Cßs\ D m- p- -X- msx AXn-semcp `mkw a p- -h v simsp- m F{Xt] Xbm-dm-Ipw? F n\v Cuiz-c\p t]mepw a\ p \ndsb simsp- m asn-bmwv ]e pw. t\ -s - nbnensm cq]-sb-sp- m t]m - n ssibn- m, AXv Hcp cq]-øp- mtwm A p cq]-øp- mtwm F v ssisim v cl-kyambn XncpΩn t\ m-ø-h Ipdhv. cq]- q-sn\p ap n sagp-ip-xncn IØn- m Xocp-am-\n- m AXv Ipd- -hn-e-bn IqSp-X sagp-ip-xn-cn-bp IqSmWv hmßp-i. ]Ww Ipd p snehm- n, sagp-ip-xn-cn-bpss FÆw Iq n- m- Wn v I Ømhns\ I_-fn- n- m-\mwv {iaw. FdnIv t{^mw F a\:-im-kv{x- ]d- n- p- v. ssibn [mcm-fap- -h-\ [\n-i, adn v a p- -h v IqSp-X \ Ip- -h-\mwv F v. \n߃ v Fs - nepw Hcp [\n-i-\m- Im Ign-bptam F v Btem-Nn- p-t\m- pi. Cß-s\ -\ I-W-sa- n, F pw \ In-s m- n-cn- -W-sa- n, AXn\v ]Ww tht F p Nne tnmzn pw. thww. F m AXv FhnsS \n p hcp- p-sh v IrXy-ambn Adn- ncn pibpw th-ww. AX-dn- mte \ΩpsS -sn-e-hn-s\- p-dn v hy -am-b -t_m- [-ap- m-iq. ]t an Bfp-Isf kw_- n- n-s-tøm-fhpw, FhnsS \nt m ]Ww hcp- p, Fß-s\tbm ]Ww t]m-ip p F Ah-ÿ-bm-Wv. C n Fs kw_- n- n-stømfw Aß-s\-sbm- p-an F p ]dbm `mhn- p-i-bm-twm? \n q. Hcp Imcyw snøq. _m n \nt -]-ap-s - n, Hcp ]co- -Wm w, AXn \n v Ccp-]- Xn-\m-bncw ]n h-en v t]m n-en- p-sim- p -\-S- p t\m q. ]camh[n c m-gvn- p- n B ]Ww Xo n-cn pw F p-d- m-wv. sne-hn-s\- p-dn v IrXy-ambn IWs -gp-xp Hcm-f-s - n, c mgvn Ign-bp-tºmƒ ssibn-en-cp Ccp-]- Xn-\m-bncw cq] Fßs\ Xo p F m-tem-nn- p-tºmƒ Aº-c p t]mipw. AsX-ßs\ Xo p F v HscØpw ]nsnbpw ImWn-. ImcWw hc-hn\p \n n-x-amb Hcp hgn-bp- v, ]t sne-hn\p Hcmbncw hgn- I-fm-Wp- -Xv. \mw t]mepw Nn n- mø hgn-i-fn-eq-ss-sbms ]Ww t]mipw. Xs ASpØ tumf FhnsS \n p hcp p F -dn-bm-øh-\v an- -t mgpw Xs ASpØ tumf GXp hgn t]mipw F pw [\-hm-\m-bn-cn- p-i-sb- Xv F m-h pw kt m-j-am- Wv. btyjvsw sne-hm- m [\w ssibn-ep- m-i-wta F mwv F m-h-cp-ssbpw {]m -\. t {X-Øn A \ Ign- p- Xpw ] n-bn sagp-ip-xncn IØn- p- Xpw Cu {]m -\-tbm-ss-bm-wv. cmhnse apx cm{xn hsc Ahn-sS-bp-an-hn-sSbpw HmSn \S- p- Xpw Cßs\ [\w D m- m-\m-wv. Adn-bn Fs mcp snm p- v. temi-øp sxmæqdp ix-am\w t]cpss Imcy-Ønepw Ah-cpsS ]WØns t{kmx v sxmgn-em-wv. tpmen snøp- Xn-eq-sS-bm-Wv Ah-cpsS ] ]W-sa-Øp- -Xv. Hm Ωn- p-i. Cßs\ tpmen snøm-\p Ignhp \jvs-s -Sp- -txmss \nß-fpss ] ]Ww hcp- Xpw \ne-bv pw. AXp- m- Im-Xn-cn- -W-sa- n F pw tpmen sntø n hcpw. tpmen snøww F p ]d- m as m-cmƒ p th n Pohn-Xmh-km\w hsc tpmen snøww F an-. dn -b sa m-ip txmss IrXy-amb amk-h-cp-am\w \nebv pw F -dnbmw \n߃ v. F p snøpw \n߃? dn b sa n\p tijhpw Hcp \n n-x-am-kh-cp-am\w e`n- -Ø- -hn-[-ap kºm- Zy-]- Xn-I-fn \s mcp XpI \nt - ]n pw At? In n-s m- n-cp hcpam\w Ipd-bmsX \ne-\n Øp- -XmWv \nß-fpss ]n osp tpmen. CØcw tpmen-i-sfm pw snømxncp- m hchp \ne-bv pw. Dd- v. AtXmsS sne-hm- m-\p Ignhpw \in- pw. am\-kn-i-ssh-i-ey-ap- -h-cpss ] epw ]Ww \n n-. DZm-l-c-W- Øn\v s]mß w t]mep D mzw ]nsns]- m ssibnep ]W-a-{Xbpw [mcmfn-ø-øn-\mbn sne-hm- n-øo pw. ImcWw Aß-s\-bp- -h v F n\v, Fßs\ sne-hm- Ww F v bp n]q hw Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp- m Ignbn-. hnjm-z-tcm-kw- _m-[n- mepw CXp Xs -bmwv Ah-ÿ. hnjmzw ]nsn-s]- m Bfl-tNm-Z\ \in- pw. Bfl-tNm- Z\ \in- m tpmen snøm-\p D mlw C m-xm-ipw. AtXmsS hcp-am- \hpw \ne-bv pw. ]Ww _p n-]q hw ssiimcyw snøp- -sx-ßs\ F p ]ecpw tnmzn- m-dp- v. AXn\v IrXy-amb am K-߃ ]d-bm-\m-in-. ImcWw Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cpsSbpw hy n-xz-l-s-\, hcp-am-\-t{km-xv, {Ib-io-ew, kmaq-ln-i\ne, -_- - ߃ F n-h-sbms hyxy-kvx-am-wt m. amkw ap -Ø-ømbncw cq] iº-fap Hcp sf. n s{]m^-j-\-ens kmaq-ln-i-\n-e-bm-bn-cn- n t m Ccp-]- Øn-\mep timsn cq] hm jni hcp-am- \-ap Abm-fpsS -I-º\n kn.-c.-bp-ts- Xv. F nepw ]Ww ssiimcyw snøp- -Xn-\p s]mxp-hmb Nne Imcy-߃ ]d-bmw. * sne-hm pw apºv, \nß-fpss ssibn F{X ]W-ap v F v hy - ambn a\- n-em- p-i. * ssz\w-zn-\- sn-e-hp-iƒ v Bh-iy-amb ]Ww ssibnep-s v Dd- m- p-i. * as -hn-ss- \n-s - nepw ]Ww In m-\p-s - n AXv \n n-x-k-a-bøp Xs hmßww. * ]Ww Fßs\ sne-hm- Ww F Xp kw_- n v kmºøn-i-hn-z-kv[- cpss D]-tZiw BcmbWw. * ]WØns t{kmx v iq\y-am- ImsX t\m p-i. * ssibn-e ]W-Øns sndnsbmcp `mkw kaq-l-ønse ]mh-s - h mbn \o n-h-bv p-i.

9 ªqNo-]v- I-º-\n-I-fpw- {]-Ir-Xn- \n-b-a-hpw- 9 k-ao-]-im-e-øv- ]p-xp-x-e-ap-d-bn -s - - H-cp- \-S-s - I-a v- ti- p- ""kn-\n-a-bn - I- Øn-\n - p-tºmƒ- X-s - C-Xn-s\m-cp- a-dp-h-iw- Iq-Sn-bp-s - v- F-\n- -dn-bmw.- \msf- F-\n- v- {]m-b-am-hp-sa- pw,- kn-\n-abn- m-xm-hp-sa-s m-s - I- -dn- p-x-s bm-wv- Rm - Po-hn- p- -Xv.- a-e-bm-f-øn-se- B-Zy- X-e-ap-d-bn -s - - B- A-`n-t\- Xm-hn-s - hm- p-iƒ- R-m - F-t m-gpw- Hm - m-dp- v.- B-Zy-X-e-ap-d-bn -s - -Xp-sIm- v- X-s - X-߃- v- F- -m-e-hpw- kn-\n-a-bp- m-hp-sa- v- A-t±-lw- [-cn- p-t]m-bs{x-''- A-\p-`-h-߃- D- -Xp-sIm- m-hmw- ]p-xp-x-eap-d- A-ev-]w- I-cp-X-tem-Sp-Iq-Sn- X-s -bm-wv- ap-t m- v- \o-ßp- -sx- v- txm- p- p.- C-Xv- kn-\n-a- m -t m- G-sX- n-epw- H-cp- {]-txy-i- hn-`m-k-øn -s - -h -t mam{xw- _m-[-i-am-b- H-cp- Im-cy-a-.- k-c-f-a-m-b- `m-j-bn - ]-d- m - {]-Ir-Xn- \n-b-aw- X-s -bm-wn-xv.- C- v- I-Øn-\n - p- -Xv- \m-sf- A-kv-X-an- pw.- F- m - F-{X-t] - C-Xv- b-ym - -Øn - a-\- n-em- n-bn- p- v.- GXm-bm-epw- Hml-cn- hn-]-w-n-bn-se- \n-t -]-Icn - H-cp- hn-`m-k-sa- n-epw- C-\nbpw- C-Xv- a-\- n-em- n-bn- n- - F- v- hy- -am-wv.- H-cp- Im-e-Øv- ªq-Nn-]v- K-W-Øn -s - -Xp-sIm- p- am-{xw- a-s m- pw- t\m- msx- C- pw- I-Æp-a-S- v- B- I-º-\n-I-fn - am-{xw- \n-t -]n- p- -h-cp- v.- F- m - C-h- F- pw- ªq-Nn-]v- I-º-\n-I-fm-bn- Xp-Scp-tam?- I-gn- -Im-eØv - \n-t -]-I - v - \ -In-b- t\- w- `m-hnbn-epw- C-h-bv - m-h -Øn- -m-\m-ip-tam?- C-\n- ªq-Nn-]v- I-º-\n-I-sf- p-dn- v.- -D-b-c-w- Iq-Spw-tXm-dpwho-gv-N-bp-sS- B-Lm-X-ta-dpw- F- v- A-dn-bm-Ø-h-cm-cp- v.- C-Xv- A-dn-bm-hp- -h - X-s -bm-wv - Cu- I-º-\n-I-fp-sS- am-t\-pv -sa p- I-fpw.- A-Xp-sIm- v- X-s - A-h - sx- v- k-ω -±-Øn-em-Ip- pap- v.- H-cp-]-cn-[n-h-sc- Cu- k-ω -±w- \- -Xm-Wp-Xm-\pw-!- X-o - -bm-bpw- ªq- Nn-]v- I-º\n-Iƒ- v- a- v- I-º-\n-I-sf- A-t]- n- v- Nn-e- Im-cyß-fn-se- nepw- ta -ss - D-s - v- ]-d-bm-sx- h-ø.- X-ß-fp-sS- D-ev-]- -߃- vam - - v- eo-u - F- - ]-cn-th-jw- si-m- v- H-c-f-hv- h-sc- hn-e- F-{X-sb- v- Xo-cp-am-\n- m - C-h - m-hp- p.- A-Xp-t]m-se- X-s - C-tX- I-cp-Øv- D-]-tbm-Kn- v- an-i- - hn-ebn - A-h - v- th- p- - A-kw-kv-Ir-X-km-[-\-߃- X-c-s -Sp-Øm-\pw- C-h - mhp- p.- C-Xn-\m - t{]m-^n- v- am -Pn - Ir-Xy-am-bn- Im-Øp-kq- n- m - C-h - mhpw- F- -Xp-X-s -bm-wv- H- m-a-sø- t\- w.- I-kv- -ta-gv-kn-s - C-S-bn - h -jm-h -j-ß-fm-bn- \n-e-\n- p-t]m-cp- - {_m -Uvte-m-b - n-bp-ss- ^-ew- t\-cn- v- e-`n- p- -Xpw- C-Ø-cw- I-º-\n-Iƒ- p-x-s.- ]-et m-gpw- Nn-e- km-[-\-߃- hm-ßp-hm - B-tem-Nn- p-tºmƒ- \-Ωp-sS- a-\- n - Nne- I-º-\n-I-fp-sS- D - -ß-fm-hpw- sx-fn-bp-i.- G-sX- n-epw- H-cp- t_-_n- t{]m-u- Œv- hm-ßp- -X-n-s\- p-dn- v- B-tem-Nn- p-t\m- q.- tpm- -k - B v- tpm -k - F- - I-º-\n-bp-sS- t]-cv- sx-fn- p-h-cp- -Xv- k-xy-øn - \mw- t]m-epw- A-dn-bp- n-.- C-Xn-\v -Kp-W-߃- c- m-wv.- hn- p-h-c-hv - Iq-Sp- p- F- -Xm-Wv - H- m-a-tø-sx- n c- m-a-tø-xv- a- -cn- m - a-s m-cp- I-º-\n- cw-k-øp-h-cm - a-sn- -pw- F- -Xp-X-s bm-wv.- I-m-jv- ^v-tfm- C-Ø-cw- I-º-\n-I-fp-tS-Xv- an-i- -Xm-bn-cn- pw- F- -Xm-Wv- F-Sp- Øp]-d-tb- - a-s m-cp- Kp-Ww.- ln-µp-ÿm - en-h-dn-s - D - - -߃- hm-ßp- - sn-dp-in-s- I- -h-s- m - v- C- Xn-s - A - w- F-fp- -Øn - t_m-[y-am-ipw.- C-X-c- I-º-\n-Iƒ- am-k-ß-tfm-fw- {I- Un- v- \ -Ip-tºmƒ- C-Ø-cw- I-º-\n-I-fp-sS- km-[-\-߃- e-`n- -W-sa- n - ]-Wwap -Iq - \ -IWw- F- -Xm-Wv- \n-b-aw.- Xo - -bm-bpw- _m- n - \n-t m- C-X-c- [-\- Im-cy-ÿm-]-\-ß-fn - \n-t m- ]-Ww- I-S-sa-Sp-t - - B-h-iyw- h-f-sc- I-p-d-bp- p- F- -Xv- ]-tcm- -am-b- a-s m-cp- t\- w.- C-\n- C-Ø-cw- I-º-\n-Iƒ- v- ]-Ww- B-h-iyw- h- m-tem?- A-t m-gpw- _m- p-i-fn - \n- pw- a- pw- G- -hpw- an-i- - ]-en-i-\n-c- n - tem e-`y-am- m - Cu- I-º-\n-Iƒ- m-hp- p.- kw-k-xn- C-ß-s\-sbm-s -bm-sw- n-epw- Cu- am - - v- eo-u jn- v- F- me-hpw- Xp-S-cm - Cu- I-º-\n-Iƒ- {]-h -Øn- p-sim-t -bn-cn- pw.- H-cp- {]-txy-i- "se-h-en '- F-Øn- -gn- m - ho- pw- A-tX- \n-c- n - (]-g-b-\n-c- n )- h-f-cm-\m-hn- - F- -Xp- X-s - H- m-a-sø- kw-k-xn.- hn- p-h-c-hn-s - em-`-øn-s - dn-t - Hm-^v- Im- -n- -en-s - sbm-s - A-\p-]m-Xhpw- h-f - -bpw- t\m- n- I-gn- - Im-eØvap-t dn-s m- n-cp- - Hm-l-cn- hn-e- C-tX- \n-c- v- `m-hn-bn - Xp- S-cm-\m-hm-sX- h- m -;- A-Y-hm- h-f -t - n-s - - H-cp- kq-n-\- sb- n-epw- e-`n- m - ]-g-b- B-th-iw- Im-Wn-s - n-cn- n-.- ]-gb-im-e-øv- I-Øn- \n- v,- ]n - m-e-øv- \n-dw- a-ßn-b- I-º-\n-Ifpw- H- pw- {i- n- mw.- t]-gv -k-w - I-ºyq- - cw-k-sø- sf-_n-fw- F- - t]-cv - B - s - n-epw- a-m-bv- m-\m-hp-sa- v- H-cp- ]-Xn- m- p- ap -]v- B-cpw- Nn- n- n- p-t]m-ep-ap- m-hn-.- ]n - m-e-øv- F- v-]n-bpw- su- psam-s - A-c-ß-Øv - B-Sn-Øn-an -Ø-t mƒ- sf-_-n-f-ωn-\v - H mwÿ-m-\w- A-Sn-b-d-sh-t - n-h- p.- H-cp- ap-dn- p- n - D - m-z-\- hpw- ho-so-ho-sm- -cw- hn-]-w-\-hpw- \-S-Øn- ap-t -dn- H-Sp-hn- - am - - v- Io-g-S- n-b- hm-jnw-kv- ]u-u - \n -Ω.- B-Zy- Im-e-Øv- {i- n- n-cp-s - n - hn-e- Ip-d- - hm-jnw-kv- ]u-u - sk-kv-sa n-epw- a- m-cpw- A-Sp-Øpt]m-ep-sa-Øm-Xn-cn- m - ln-µp-ÿm - bq-wn-en-h - F- - I-º-\n- m-tb-s\-!- F- m - Cu- sk-kv-sa n-se- am - - v- "\n -Ω'- I-ø-S- p- p-sh- - ]q -Æ- t_m-[y-w- h- -Xn-\pti-jw- am-{x-am-wv- ln-µp-ÿm - en-h - hn-e- Ip-d- - {_m -Um-b- "ho '- am- - - n- sim- p-h- -Xv.- ]-t - A-Xn-t\m-S-I-w- "\n -Ω'-bp-sS- hm -jn-i- hn- p-h-c-hv- 200 tim-snbpw- ]n- n- n-cp- p.- k-zm-k-a-b-hpw- Pm-K-cq-I-c-s - n - am - - n-se- {]-Y-a-ÿm-\w- \ne-\n -Øp-I- F- -Xv- G-sd- hn-j-a-i-c-am-b- kw-k-xn-x-s -bm-wv.- A-Xn-s\- mƒ- hn-ja-i-c-am-b- kw-k-xn- I-gn- - h -j-ß-fn-se- hf - m-\n-c- v - \n-e-\n -Øp-I- F- -Xm-Wv.- C-Xv- Xn-cn- -dn- - N-n-e- {]-ap-j- I-º-\n-Iƒ- a- p- Nn-e- cw-k-ß-fn-te- v- I-S- v- A-hn-sSsh- n-s m-sn- ]m-dn- -Xn-\p-w- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃- G-sd-bp- v.- "kn-k-c- v'- cw-k-sø- ap-º- m-cm-b- sf.-sn.-kn- X-s - D-Zm-l-c-Ww.- A-hn-sS-bp- - h-f - m- km-[y-x- Ip-d-s - p- a-\- n-em- n-b- I-º-\n- F-^v-Fw-kn-Pn,- A-{Kn- _n-kn-\-kv- tlm- - A-ß-s\- ssi-h- v- hn-p-b-n- - ta-j-e-iƒ- H- -\-h-[n.- C- m-c-w-øm - H- p-am-{xw- Cu- I-º-\nbp-sS- Hm-l-cn-bp-S-a-Iƒ- v- A-h-cp-sS- aq-eyw- h -[n- n- m-\p-am-bn.- H- p-iq-sn,- C- -se- ªq-Nn-]v- A- m-xn-cp- - I-º-\n-I-fm-Wv- C- v- ªq- Nn-]v- B-bnam-dn-b-Xv.- H-cp- Im-e-Øv- sh-dpw- km-[m-c-w- I-º-\n-I-fm-bn-cp- - C-h-bp-sS- t]m-se- X- s - h-f - m- km-[y-x- \n-e-\n - p- - H- -\-h-[n- I-º-\n-Iƒ- C- p-ap- v.- C-Ø-cw- I- º-\n-Iƒ- I-s -Øn-bp- - \n-t -]-am-hpw- Hm-l-cn-hn-]-W-n-bn-se- \n-t -]-I-\v- C-\nbp- - \m-fp-i-fn - ]-c-am-h-[n- t\- w- D- m- p-i- F- -Xn - X - -an-.- \nipxnhcp-am-\-e yw sx p p Pn Un ]n hf ix-am-\-øntebv v Xmgp-sa v Kh-s v Xs hne-bn-cp-ønb kml-n-cy-øn \S- p-h jsø hcp-am-\ e yw t\sm Ign-bn-s - v IW- m- -s -Sp- p. {]Xy- ]tcm \nipxn hcp-am-\-øn e y-an- n-cn- p- -Xn-t\- mƒ timsn cq] Ipd-bp-sa- mwv Ct mƒ IW- m- p- -Xv. {]Xy \nipxn hcpam-\-øn timsn cq]-bpss Ipdhpw ]tcm- -\n-ip-xn-bn-\-øn timsn cq]-bpss Ipd-hp-amWv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. {]Xy- -\n-ipxn hcp-am\w: G{]n \hw-_ Imebfhn {]Xy- -\n-ipxn hcp-am\w ix-am\w hf -tbmss timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. CXv _P v FÃnta- mb timsn cq]-bpss 47.5 ixam-\ta BIp- p-f-fp e w timsn cq] {]Xy- -\n-ip-xn- hcpam-\-amwv e y-an- n-cn- p- -Xv. ap h jsø hcp-am-\-tø- mƒ 25 ix-am\w IqSp-X. G{]n - -\-hw-_ Ime-b-f-hn ]ncn p In n-b samøw {]Xy- -\n- IpXn hcp-am\w 3.25 e w timsn cq]- bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnse 3.04 e w timsn cq]-bmbn-cp- p. samøw hcp-am-\-øn 7.14 ix-am\w h [- \tb Df-fp-sh- nepw s\ v hcp-am-\-øn ix-am\w h [-\-t\sn-bn- p- v. tim ]-td v taj-e-bnse em`hf KWy-ambn Ipd- Xv Iº\n \nipxn hcpam\ hf sb _m[n- n- p- v. Iº\n hcpam-\ambn G{]n \-hw-_ Ime-b-f-hn e`n v 2.05 e w timsn cq]-bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-se 1.99 e w timsn cq]-tb- mƒ 3 ix-am\w am{xw IqSp- X. F m hy n-kx BZm-b-\n-IpXn hcp-am\w Cu Ime-b-f-hn ix-am\w hf -tbmss 1.19 e w timsn cq]-bn-se- Øn-bn- p- v. kzøp \nipxn 27.1 ix-am\w hf -tbmss 619 timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. tim ]-td v taj-e-bnse Xf Hmlcn hn]-wn-tbbpw _m[n- n- p- v. Hmlcn CS- ]msp \nipxn Cu Ime-b-f-hn ap h jsø 3343 timsn cq]-bn \n v 27.1 ix-am\w Ipd-thmsS 2914 timsn cq]- bn-se-øn-bn- p- v. kº-zvl-s-bpss Xf {]Xn-^-en- n- p- -XmWv aq mw Izm -dn Iº-\n-Iƒ AS ap Iq \nip-xn (Pq, sk]v w- _, Unkw-_, am v amk-ß-fn \mev KUp- -fm-bn- mwv Iº-\n-Iƒ \nipxn ASbvt - -Xv). kmº-øni hf ]Øph jsø G hpw Ipd Izm hf -bn-em-wv. Pq sk]v w-_ Izm dnse hf 5.3 ix-am-\-am-wv. CtXmsS A [-hm jni hf 5.4 ix-am-\-øntebv v Xmgv p ix-am\w hf t\sn-bn-cp- p. ap Iq \nip-xn-b-shns\ tim ]-td v taj-e-bpss am{x-a kº-zvl-s-\-bp-tsbpw Btcm-KysØ kqnn- n- p _mtcm-ao- -dm-bn- mwv ImW- m- p- -Xv. Cu Xf Iº-\n-I-fpsS em`- Ønepw Zriy-am-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ]W-s cp- -Øn-s\-Xn-tc-bp-ff t]mcm- -Øns `mkambn dnk hv _m v ]en-i-\n-c- p-iƒ Db Øn-bXv Iº-\n-I-fpsS ]eni _m[yx KWy-ambn h [n- n- Xpw em`sø _m[n- p. ap Im-e-ß-fn Iº- \n-i-fpss em`-øn-ep- mb hf C m- Xm-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv s aq mw Izm -dn Iº- \n-i-fpss ap Iq hcp-am-\-øn Xf bmwv ImW-s - -Xv. ap \n-c-bn-ep-ff 100 Iº-\n-I-fpsS ap Iq \nipxn hcp-am-\- Øn 15 ix-am\w hf -bmwv ap h jsø- mƒ D m-b-xv. CXn _m nw-kv [\-Im-cy-ta-J-e-bmWv IqSp-X XpI \nip- Xn-bmbn AS- -Xv. s]mxp-ta-je ÿm]-\-amb F sf kn 10 ix-am\w IqSp-X \nip-xn-b-s- p timsn cq]-bmwv Iº\n \nip-xnbmbn \evin-b-xv. ap h j-antx Ime-bf-hn-enXv 1166 timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. F m Fkv _n sfbpss \nip-xn-b- Shv t\cnb txmxn Ipd v 1701 timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. 29 tims cq]-bpss Ipd-hv. F m sf kn sf kn sf _m v 35 ix-am-\hpw F v Un F^v kn _m v 11 ix-am-\hpw Sn kn kn 50 ix-am-\hpw IqSp-X \nipxn aq mw Izm -dn AS- n- p- v. AtX-k-abw Sm Ãoens \nip- X-b-Shv 1090 timsn cq]-bn \n v 529 timsnbmbn CSn- p. dne-b kv C U-kv{Sokv 10 ix-am\w A[nIw \nip-xn-b-s- p. F nepw \S- p-h jw e y-an- n-cn- p 5.7 e w timsn cq] {]Xy- -h-cpam\w t\sm Ign-bp-sa- mwv [\-a{ n ]n NnZw-_cw Bfl-hn-izmkw {]I-Sn- n- p- - Xv. NnZw-_cw {]Xo {]I-Sn- n- p- p-s - nepw apjy kmº-øni D]-tZ-jvSm-hmb clpdmw cmp\v A{X Bfl-hn-izmkw t]mcm. {]Xy- -\n-ipxn e yw t\spi _p n-ap- m-sw- mwv At±-l-Øns hnenbn-cp-ø. ImcWw {]Xy- -\n-ip-xn-bpss hen-sbmcp ] v Iº-\n-I-fnƒ\n- mwv e`nt - -Xv. B taje Xf -bn-em-bxv \nipxn hcp-am-\sø _m[n- n- p- v. ]tcm \nipxn: G{]n HIvtSm- _ Ime-b-f-hn ]tcm- -\n-ipxn hcpam\w 17 ix-am\w hf -tbmss 2.57 e w timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. hm jni hf e y-an- n-cn- p- Xv 27 ix-am-\-am-wv. IÃwkv, FIvssk-kv, tkh\ \nip-xn-iƒ hgn \S- p-h jw 5.05 e w timsn cq] ]ncn- p-hm-\mwv _P- n ]d- n- p-f-f-xv. \S- p-h jw IÃwkv hcp-am-\-ambn 1.87 e w timsn cq]bpw FIvsskkv hcp-am-\-ambn 1.93 e w timsn cq]bpw tkh\ \nip- Xn-bmbn 1.24 e w timsn cq]-bp-amwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv.

10 10 hne- p-dhpw KpW-ta- bpw tum ]n si G{_lmw em`w e y-a-. I -hs Xmev]-cy-hpan-. hne- p-dhv, KpW-ta F o c v hm p-iƒ I kyq-a s^uns _nkn- \kv {Km^v Hmtcm h jhpw api-fntebv v Db Øp- p am v Ahkm-\n- p-tºmƒ sim n Bÿm-\-ambn {]-h Øn- p I kyq-a s^uv 1312 timsn- cq] hn p-h-c-hp-ff Iº-\n-bmbn Db n-cn- p- p. tic-f-ønse D]-t`m r kl-icw kwl-ß-fpss As Ivkv s^u-tdj-\mbn 1965 cq]w sim ticf tã v I kyq-a tim Hm -td- ohvkv I kyq-a s^u-td-j kv enan- Uv F I kyq-a s^uv Hcp ]t cmpysø G hpw henb kl-i-cw dos -bn snbn-\pi-fn-sem- mb I kyq-a s^uv amdn-bn-cn- p- p. kl- I-W-kw-L-߃ m-h-iy-ap-ff hkvxp- fpss samø-hym-]m-chpw DXv]m-Z-\hpw am\p-^m-ivn-dnw-kp-sam- -bmwv e y-an- mwv {]h Ø\w XpS-ßn-b-sX- nepw Imem- -c-øn dos -bn snbn-\mbn amdp-i-bm-bn-cp- p. kwÿm-\sø 14 Pn - I-fn \n- p-ff kl-i-cw I kyq-a GXp N - q- nepw amt\-pvsas ssien D]-tbm-Kn- m ^ew In p-sa v I kyq-a s^uv sxfn-bn- p- p. A I kyq-a s^uns amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS-dmbn FØnb tum dnpn Pn \mb-cpss amt\-pvsa v sshzkv[yw sxfnbn- p- p. kl-i-cw hip- ns Iogn-, Kh-s v ÿm]-\-ß-fnse F m Ae-k-X-tbmSpw IqSn \oßp I kyq-a s^uns Xe- Øv tum dnpn FØn-bXv 2006 HIvtSm-_-dn-em-Wv. Kh-s v N - q-sn \n- p-sim- p-xs I kyq-a s^un\v ]pxn-sbmcp Znim-t_m-[hpw Du P-kz-e-Xbpw ]I p \evip-hm Ign- -txmss AXv hf m- p-xn- n-tebv v \oßn. ap qdp timsn cq] Np -f-hn \oßn-bn-cp ÿm]\øns hn p-h-chv ASpØ A p-h jw-sim v 1000 timsn Ihn- p. \mev]xp h j-øn BZy-ambn em`-øns XpS Im-e-ßfpw krjvsn- p. \S- p-h jw timsn cq]- bmwv hn phchv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. kz w Imen \nev p- p-sh p am{x-a-, s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bnse hne-\ne-hmcw \nb-{ n- p- -Xn KWy-amb ] pw hln- p- p. Kh-s ns [\klm-btam k_vknuntbm IqSmsX kºq W kl-i-cw s]mxp-hn-x-cw kw{º-zmbamb \ ] Xn cq]-s -Sp- Øp bxv\-øn-emwv I kyq-a s^upw tum dnpn \mb-cpw sim w Pn -bn P\n- p. tum dnpn Pn \mb, amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS, I kyqa s^uv {InkvXp cmpv sslkviq-fn kviqƒ hnzym-`ymkw ]q Øn-bm- n. sim w Fkv F timf-pn \n v {]o -Un- {Knbpw Sn si Fw F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv timf- Pn \n v knhn F Pn-\o-b-dnw-Kn H mw IvfmtkmsS Un{Knbpw FSp-Øp lnµp-ÿm I kv{s-ivj Iº-\n-bn knhn F Pn-\o-b-dmbn tn p Pe-tk-N\ hip- n tn At±lw Fw _n F FSp-Øp Imen- v bqwn-th-gvkn- n-bn \n v amt\-pvsa n ]n F vunbpw FSp-Øp. Kh-s v Un m vsa p-i-fnse C ^ ta-j ssivt\mfpn Cw]vfn-sa-t -j F -Xm-bn-cp p hnj-bw Pe-tk-N\ hip- n \n v I kyq-a s^un-tebv v su]yq-t -j-\n FØp-I-bm-bn-cp- p. s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bnse hne \nb-{ -W-Øn-\mbn \nc-h[n ] -Xn-Iƒ \S- m- nb At±lw ÿm]-\sø em`-øn-tebv v FØn- p- hn[-øn _nkn- \-kp-iƒ ]p\ {I-ao-I-cn- p. C -gn Bdp h j- m-eøv Fgp-]-Ø-øm-bn-ctØmfw s^b ss{]kv N -I-fmWv D h kok-wn Xpd- n- p-f-f-xv. samss_ {Xnth-Wn-Ifpw ^vtfm nw-kv{xn-th-wn-ifpw Dƒs ss \qx-\m-i-b߃ \S- m- n. a -cm-[n-jvtnx tem Øv ]nsn p \nev -W-sa- n AXym-[p-\nI kt -X߃ D]-tbm-Knt axn-bm-iq. C y-bn BZy-ambn tim Hm -td- ohv ÿm]\w AXn sc Iogn-ep-ff bqwn- p-isf sf Sn s\ v h nwkn sim p-h- n-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. IqSmsX Poh-\- m v Iw]yq- ]cn-io-e\w \evip-hm\pw At±lw ad- n-. cmp{io \mb-cmwv `mcy, _nkn-\kv A\-en-Ãmb cmlp, hnzym nbmb Pm\In F n-h a -fm-wv. kwl-߃ AwK-am-bn- p-ff I kyqa s^-uns aqe-[\w 56.5 timsn cq]- tbm-f-am-wv. AUz. tpmbn txmakv {]kn-u pw tum dnpn Pn \mb amt\-pnwkv Ub-d- IvS-dp-ambn {]h Øn- p I kyq-a s^uv ASpØ A p h j- m-etøbv v h hni-k-\-]- -Xn-I-fmWv Xbm-dm- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. I kyq-a s^uns\ Hcp kºq W kl-i-cw s]mxp-hn-x-c-w- ÿm]-\-ambn Db Øp- I-bmWv e yw. C ybv p amxr-i-bm- m-hp Hcp ticf {_m Uv. DZm-c-h-XvI-c-W-Øns \mfp-iƒ FØn-b-tXm-sS-bmWv I kyq-a s^un\v ]pxnb hf mzni ssih- - Xv. AXp-hsc ]c-º-cm-kx ssien-bn apt m p t]mip-i-bm-bn-cp- p {XnthWn {_m Un kq am - p- Ifpw tãmdp-ifpw Bcw-`n- p. XpS AtX {_m Un Nne DXv]- -߃ hn]-wn-bn FØn p XpS-ßn. kq tãmdp-ifpw {_m Uv DXv]- -ß-fp-a-Sßnb {XnthWn hnwkv, \oxv saun-, \oxn Kymkv, hntz-i-a-zy-hn-`m-kw, {XnthWn t\m v _p v Unhn-j.Iw]yq- tãj-\dn/ sf Sn Unhn-j. ldn Idn akm-e, an\-d hm XpS-ßn- ]Øp _nkn-\kv Unhn-j-\p-I-fp-ff Iº-\n-bmb I kyq-a s^uv Db n-cn- pibmwv. \ ] Xn C y-bn-em-zy-ambn kl-i-c-w-s]m- Xp-hn-X-cW kw{_-zmbw \S- m- p- - Xn\pff {ia-øn-emwv I kyq-a s^uv. Hcp ]t tic-f-øns cmpy- Øn-\p-ff kw`m-h-\-bm-bn-cn- p-sa v {]kn-u v tpmbn txmakpw amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS dnpn \mbcpw Nq n- m- p- p. C -gn G{]n-en Bcw-`n \ tãmdp-iƒ Bcw-`n p Ign- p. \S- ph jw 2000 \ tãmdp-iƒ Bcw-`n- phm-\mwv Dt±-in- p- -Xv. s]mx-hn-]-wn-bnse hne-tb- mƒ 20 ix-am\w Ipd v ]Øv C\w \ntxym- ]-tbmk km[-\-߃ hnev p-hm Dt±in- p- p. ]Øp ix-am\w hne- p-dhn \oxn C\-ßfpw e`n- pw. cmpysø F^v Fw kn Pn Iº-\n-IfpsS DXv]- -ßfpw e`n- pw. Hcp tãmdn GXm v DXv]- -߃ e`n- pw. Hcp amk- m-eøv H -hn-e-bmbn-cn pw CXns {]txy-i-x. Zpcp-]- tbmkw XS-bp- -Xn-\mbn \ tãmdp-ifn-eq-ss-bp-ff hnev]\ tdj Im Uv D]- tbm-kn v \nb-{ n- p- p- v. ]Øv \ntxym-]-tbm-k-km-[-\-ß-fpss Imcy-ØnemWv \nb-{ -W-ap- m-hp-i-sb v tpmbn txmakv Ad-bn- p. Pb Acn, a Acn, Ipdh Acn ] -km-c, ] -cn, shfn-s -Æ, apf-iv, sndp-]-b, Dgp- v, a n, ]ncn-b apfiv XpS-ßnb ]Øn-\-ß-fmWv 20 ix-am\w hne- p-d-hn e`n- p-i. Hcp IpSpw-_- Øn\v Hcm-gvN-bn e`n- p Cu hkvxp- -fpss Af-hpw \nb-{ n- n- p- v. hne- p-dhv I kyq-a s^uns hchv s]mxp hn]-wn-bnse hnesb \nb-{ n- p-hm klm-bn- p- p-s v amt\- PnwKv Ub-d-IvS dnpn \mb Nq n- m- p- p. s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bnse hne-tb- mƒ ]Øp ix-am\w hne- p-d-hn-\mwv DXv]- -߃ hn -gn- p- -Xv. aq p Xcw kq am - p-i-fmwv I kyq-a s^uv \S-Øp- -Xv. {Kma {]tz-i-ß-fn {XnthWn tãmdp-ifpw A [-\-K-c-ß-fn NXp-c-{i-b-Sn-b-ff kq am - p-ifpw h \K-c-ß-fn sakm kq am - p-ifpw \SØn hcp- p. Chbv p ]pdta samss_ {XnthWn tãmdp-iƒ, ^vtfm nwkv tãmdp-iƒ XpSßn-b-hbpw Bcw-`n- p. Ct mƒ 70 samss_ {XnthWn tãmdp-iƒ kwÿm-\-øns hnhn[ `mk-ß-fn {]h Øn- p- p- v. Unkw-_-tdmsS AXv 100 Bbn Db Øp-hm Dt±-in- p- - Xmbn \mb Adn-bn- p.ho p-ap- -sømcp {Xnth-Wn-bpsS `mk-ambn ASpØ Unkw- _-dn\v apºv kwÿm-\sø F m \ntbm- P-I-a-WvU-e-ß-fnepw Ipd- Xv Hcp k -cn- p {Xnth-Wn-sb- nepw Bcw- `n- p-hm-\mwv e y-an- n-cn- p- Xv. aq v ^vtfm nwkv {XnthWn kq tãmdp-ifpw Bcw-`n- pw.

11 I -k-yp-a - s^-uv- {]-kn-u v- A-Uz.- tpm-bn- txm-a-kvi n-bm n I kyq-a s^uv 11 I kyq-a s^uns as mcp ani kwcw-`-amwv \oxn saun- tãmdp-iƒ. Fw B ]ntb- mƒ ix-am\w hne- p-d-hn acp p hnev p ] -Xn-bm- Wn-Xv. Ct mƒ 93 \oxn saun- tãmdp- Iƒ I kyq-a s^uv t\cn v \S-Øp- p- v. c v h j-øn-\p-f-fn 200 tãmdp- I-fmbn Db Øpw. A p-h j- m-eøv 500 tãmdp-iƒ Xpd- m-\mwv e y-a- n-cn- p- -Xv. a v kl-i-c-w-kw-l-߃ hgn \m\q-tdmfw Hu vse- p-iƒ hgn \ymb-hnebv v acp- p-iƒ e`y-am- p- p. \ne-hn Bdv saun- shb lukp-iƒ Dff Iº\n ]me- m pw IÆq-cnepw Cu h jw Hmtcm saun- shb lukv Bcw-`n- pw. ] - -dn-iƒ e`y-am- p p ÿe kui-cy-ap-ff {XnthWn tãmdp-iƒ \oxn tãmdp-iƒ, samss_ bqwn- p-iƒ F nh hgn ] - dn hnxcww \S-Øp-hm I kyq-a s^uv Xbm-sd-Sp- p-i-bm-wv. AXns `mk-ambn IÆqcpw Xriqcpw Fd-Wm-Ip-fØpw Xm]- \n-b-{ nx tkmuu-wp-iƒ Bcw-`n- phm Dt±-in- p- -Xmbn tpmbn txmakv Adn-bn- p. tic-f-ønse ] - dn Irjn- Im-cn \n v \ymb-hn-ebv v ] - -dn-iƒ kw`-cn- p-hm\pw Dt±-in- p- p. kok- Wn a v kwÿm-\-ß-fn \n v ]e hyrvp-\-߃ kw`-cn- p-hm\pw Ah Cu tkmuu-wp-iƒ kq n- p-hm\pw Dt±-in- p- -Xmbn tpmbn txmakv ]d- p. tkmuu \n am-w-øn\v 7 timsn cq] snehv {]Xo- n- p- p. {XnthWn an\-d hm Ign i_cn ae kok-wn I kyq-a s^uv ]pd-øn-d- nb {XnthWn {_m Uv an\-d hm h hn- P-b-amWv t\sn-b-xv. Npcp-ßnb amk߃sim v sh w hnev]\ hgn 4 timsn cq] hn p-h-chv t\sp-hm Ign- - Xmbn {]kn-us tpmbn txmakv ]d- p. G -hpw Ipd hne-bn hev p an\-d hm dpw {Xnth-Wn-bm- Wv.-a v {_m Up-Isf At]- n v 3 cq] Ipd- mwv {XnthWn hm hnev p- sx v tpmbn txmakv Nq n- m- n. an\- d hm taj-e-bnse NqjWw Ahkm-\n- n- m-\mwv I kyq-a s^uv Cu taj-e-bn-tebv v IS- -sx v tum dnpn \mb ]d- p. h [n kzoim-cyx IW- n-se- SpØv `mc-x- p-g-bpss XocØv {]Xn-Zn\w en tijn-bp-ff an\-d hm ]vfm v ÿm]n- p- -Xn-\pf \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoi-cn- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. kvyew Is -Ønbn- p- v. Pe-Øns KpW-\n-e-hmc ]cntim-[-\bpw ]q Øn-bm-bn- p- v. kz w Imen I kyq-a s^uv Ac \q m- p- Im-esØ {]h Ø-\Øntebv v IS- p- I-bm-sW- nepw ]pxnb \q m- n-emwv kz w Imen \nev p-hm XpS-ßn-b- Xv. Ign Hcp Zi-I-X-Øn-\p-f-fn h hf -bmwv hn p-h-c-hnepw A m-zm-b- Ønepw Iº\n t\sn-b-xv timsn cq] hn p-h-chpw 13.3 timsn kºq W kl-i-cw s]mxp-hn-x-cw irwje e yw cq] \jvs-hp-am-bn-cp Iº\n timsn Iq] A m-zmbw t\sn kz w Imen \S p XpS-ßn. ]n osv Xncn p t\mt n h n- n timsn cq] hn p-h-chpw 2.47 timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw t\sn. sxm -SpØ h jw hn p-h-chv Bbncw timsn Ihn- p.a m- Zmbw 3.24 timsn cq]-bpw hn ph-chv timsn cq]bpw A m-zmbw 2.26 timsn cq]-bp-am-bn. C -gn kmº-øni h j-øn hn p-h-chv 1312 timsn cq]-bn-tebv v Db n- p- v. {]h Ø-\-em`w A p timsn cq]-bm- Wv. A p h jw-hsc hn p-h-chv 300 timsn cq]-bn HXpßn \nev p-i-bm-bncp- p-sh v {]k-us tpmbn txmakpw amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS tum dnpn \mbcpw Nq n- m- p- p.\s- p-h jw timsn cq] hn p-h-c-hmwv e y-an-sp- sx v tpmbn txmakv ]d- p. {Xnth-Wn, \, \oxn {_m Uv Cu aq p {_m Up-I-fnepw ]pxnb ]pxnb DXv]- -߃ hn]-wnbn FØn- p- -Xn-\p-ff {ia-øn-emwv I kyq-a s^uv. F^v kn sf, \mj- W tim Hm -td- ohv I kyq-tagvkv s^u-td-j XpS-ßn-b-h-bn-eqsS ti{µk m-cns ` y-s]m-xp-hn-x-cw hip v e`y-am- p Adnbpw ] -cnbpw kl-c-i-c-w-ta-j-e-bnse an p-i-fn kwkvi-cn v e`y-am- p tkm s Ivkv Acn F nh \ Acn, \ ] cn F o {_m Up-I-fn kl-i-cw s]mxp-hn-x-cw ti{µ-ß-fn-eqss hnxcww snøpw. tic-f-øn \n v kw`-cn- p s\ v IpØn Acn-bm n {Xnth-Wn {_m Uv s\bn-an hn]-wn-bn FØn- pw. ticf-øn \n v kw`-cn- p sim{] shfn- -Æ-bm n {XnthWn {_m Un Ct mƒ hn p-h-cp- p v. kl-i-c-w-ta-je-bnse hnhn[ GP kn-i-fp-ambn kl- I-cn v B, dh, ssaz, Idn-s]m-Sn-Iƒ Xp- S-ßn-b-hbpw {Xnth-Wn {_m Un I kyq-a s^uv hn]-w\w snøp- p- v. shfn-s Æ D{X-]m-Z\w h [n- n- p- -Xns `mk-ambn IÆq-cn sim{] kwkvi-cn v shfn-s -Æ-bm- p-hm-\p-ff ]vfm v ÿm]n p hcn-i-bm-wv. sim w Pn -bn Hcp timsn cq] aps- n tkmxºv \pdp v ^mivsdn Bcw-`n- pw. I kyq-a s^uv Ip w-ip-f-øp- \n v {XnthWn {_m Un timfpv t\m v _p v hn]-wn-bn FØn- pw. Ct mƒ Ip w-ip-føv t\m v _p v tãj-wdn Unh-j {]h Øn- p- p- v. Ch-bpsS {]h Ø\w hn]p-eo-icn phm Dt±-in- p- p. ip{iqj ssl ssiv em_v BXp-c-tk-h\ taj-e-bnse Nqj-W- Øn-s\-Xntc \oxn saun- tãmdp-ambn cwk-sø-ønb I kyq-a s^uv F m Pn m Bÿm-\-ß-fnepw ip{iqj F t]cn Ivfn\n- et_m-d- -dn-iƒ Bcw- `n- pw. Be- p-g-bnse Imbw-Ip-fØpw Xriq-cnse tit -cn-bn-ep-amwv BZy Ivfn\n- p-iƒ {]h Øn p XpS-ßp-I. tic-f-øns kl-i-cw {]ÿm-\- Øn \n- v Bth-ihpw Adnhpw {]tnm- Z-\hpw Dƒs m v apt m p t]mip I kyq-a s^uv C ybv v amxr-ibm-ip-i-bm-wv. \ ] -Xn-bn-eq-sS. cmpysø BZysØ kºq W kl- IcW s]mxp-hn-x-cw kw{º-zmbøn\v CXn-eqsS I kyq-a s^uv \mµn Ipdn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ASpØ A p-h jtø-bv p-ff ] -Xn-sb- p-dn v I kyqa s^uv {]kn-u v AUz. tpmbn txmakv tum ]n si G{_-lm-apambn ] p hbv p- p. kl-i-c-w-ta-j-e-bnepw cmjv{so-b- Ønepw a v P\-Iob {]iv\-ß-fnepw ]Xn- m- p-i-fpss {]h Ø\ ]cn-n-b-hqambmwv tpmbn txmakv ]pxnb I kyqa s^uns\ \bn- p-hm- FØp- -Xv. AXn-\m Xs I kyq-a s^uv ]pxnb hf m- p-xn- n-em-wv.? ]W-s -cp- -Øn-t bpw hne- b- -Øns bpw kzx-{ -hn-]-\n-bp-tsbpw Cu A co- -Øn I kyq-a s^uns {][m\yw? * s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bnse hnebn kzm[o\w snep-øp-hm I kyq-a s^un\pw AXns hn]-w\{irwjebv pw Ign- n- p-f-fxv \nkvx -am- Wv. em`w e y-a- m-ø-xn-\m \ma-am- {X-amb am Pn-\n \ DXv]- -߃ G hpw Ipd hne-bn hn]-wn-bn FØn- p-hm Ign-bp- p. CXv Xo bmbpw s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bnse hnesb \nb- { n- p- -Xn ] p hln- p- p- v. Htc KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap-f-f, Htc km[-\-øn\v c p hne F ÿnxn A[n-I-Imew \ne-\-ev p-i-bn-. Ipd hne-bntebv v D]-tbm- m- fpw hn]-wnbpw FØn-t -cpw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Ign Hcp h j- m-eøv I kyq-a s^uv ] o-cm-bnc-øn-e-[niw hne- -b hncp hn]-wn- Iƒ \S-Øn. Cu h jw CØ-c-Øn-epff hn]-wn-iƒ Xpd- p-hm-\mwv Dt±-in- p- -Xv.? D]-t`m r kwÿm-\-ambn pw I kyq-a s^uns hf A{X hep-x- t m? * icn pw ]d- m Bfp-Iƒ I kyq-a s^uns {]h Ø-\-ß-sf- p-dn v t_m[-hm- m-cmbn hcp- -tx-bpf-fp. I kyq-a s^uv F p ]d- m KpWw Ipd- Xpw hne Ipd- - Xp-amb Ft m G m-sm-wt Bfp-Iƒ Icp-Xn-bn-cp- p-f-fp. F m Ct m-gxv amdp- I-bm-Wv. am{x-hp-a {_m Uv F \nenbn-tebv v Db-cp-I-bmWpXm\pw timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp p I kyqa s^uns hn p-h-c-hv. AXm-bXv {]h Øn\w XpS-ßn40 h jw ]q Ønbm- n-b-t mƒ. F m XpS p-ff A p-h j- m-eøv hn p-hcv 1000 timsn Ihn- p. XpS -bmbn em`-øn-tebv pw IS- p. AXm-bXv {]Xn-h jw hf 30 ix-am-\-tøm-fw. Cu hf GXp dos bn snbn-\n-\mwv D m-bn- p-f-f-xv. C -gn h j-øn 1312 timsn cq] hn p-h-chpw 5 timsn cq] {]h Ø\ (ti-jw- t]-pv- 13)-

12 12 {]Xo- -tbmss tebv v 2012 \nt -]-I v tami-am-bn se XI -bn \n v \ms-io-b-amb Xncn- p-h-chmwv hn]wn \S-Ønb-Xv. \nt -]-I-cpsS kº-øv 27 ixam\w Db -tbmss 68 e w timsn cq]- bn - F-Øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. c mw ]Ip- Xn-bn Kh-s v {]Jym-]n kmº- ØnI ]cn-jvim-c-ß-fpw h j-øns Bcw`w apx Hgp-In-sb-Ønb hntz-i- \n-t -]hpamwv \nt -]-Isc IqSp- X kº- -cm- n-b-xv. kmº-øpihf kw_- n Bi- fpw Db-cp [\-I-Ωnbpw Id v A u v IΩn-bp-sams \ne-\n-ev ptºmgpw i -amb ip`-{]-xo- -tbm-ssbmwv \nt -]-I s\ hn v tebv v IS- p- -Xv Ah-km-\n- p-tºmƒ \nt - ]-I-cpsS kºøv timsn cq]- bm-bn-cp- Xv 2012 Unkw-_ 21- -se-øptºmƒ 14.5 e w timsn cq]-bpss h [-\-tbmss timsn cq]-bn-se- Øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv sk skivkv kqnni 24 ix-am\w Ipd- p-sh- n 2012 AXn\p FXn Znibn-em-bn-cp- p. sk skivkv kqnni 2011 Ah-km\ hy]m-c-zn-\-ønse t]mbn n \n v t]mbn v Db -tbmss t]mbn nse-øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. h [\ ix-am-\w. \n^v n kqnni Cu Ime-bf-hn t]mbn n \n v t]mbn n \n v t]mbn ntebv pw Db p. \n^v n-bnse t\ w ix-am-\-am-wv. Ipd-bp hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z- \hpw CSn-bp Ib- p-axn hcp-am-\hpw h [n- p [\-I-Ωnbpw Dƒs -sstami-amb F m kmº-øni kqn-\itfbpw BtKmf kº-zvl-s-\-bnse Xf -tbbpw Ah-K-Wn- p-sim- mwv C y Hmlcn Cu t\ -ap- m- n-b-xv. hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\- ߃ C y Hmlcn hn]wn \nt -]- Øn-\mbn hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\- ߃ p Xpd- p-sim-sp-ø-xn-\p-ti-j-apff G hpw Db c m-asø \nt - ]-amwv Ah ChnsS \S-Øn-b- Xv. Unkw-_ 21 hsc Ah C y Hml-cnbn timsn cq]-bpss s\ v \nt ]w \S-Øn. CXn\p apºv \S-Ønb timsn cq]-bm-bncp p dn m Uv.C y-bpss Zo L-Im-eh-f -bn-ep-ff {]Xo- -bmwv hntz-i-\nt -]-I-ÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS \nt -]-Øn- \p-ff Imc-Ww. ]W-\-bhpw ]W-s -cp- hpw Unkw-_ 18- se ]W-\-b-Øn ]en-i-\n-c v Ipd-bv p-hm dnk hv _m v Hm^v C y Xbm-dm-bn-s - nepw AXp hn]-wn-bpss at\m-`m-hsø H pw _m[n- n-. ]W-s -cp- -Øn \n v hf -bntebv v {i ]Xn nt ka-b-am-sb v dnk hv _m v Kh W Xs hy -am- n-b-xv hn]wn apjhn-ebv v FSp-Øp. P\p-h-cn- 29- se kmº-øn-im-h-tem-i-\-øntem \memw Izm -dntem ]en-i-\n-c v Ipd- p XpSßp-sa v hn]wn Icp-Xp- p. dnt]m \nc v 8 ix-am-\-ønepw dnthgvkv dnt]m 7 ix-am-\-ønepw kn B B 4.25 ix-am-\-ønepw am -an- msx \ne- \n Øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. \hw-_-dn ]W-s -cp w 7.24 ixam-\-am-wv. HIvtSm-_-dn-enXv 7.45 ix-am- \-hpw. ]Øp-am-k-Øn-\n-S-bnse G hpw ]W-s -cp- -\n-c- m-wn-xv. ASpØ 2 3 amk-øn-\p-f-fn ]W-s -cp w anx-amb \ne-bn FØp-sa- mwv dnk hv _m v A`n-{]m-b-s - -Xv. Unkw-_ 18- se ]W- \-b-øn Abhp hcp-øp- Xn-s\- pdn- p-ff kqn\ dnk hv _m v \evintb- pw.aspø 2 3 amk-øn-\p-f-fn ]W-s -cp w anx-amb ÿnxn-bn-tebv v \oßp-sa v dnk hv _m v {]Xo- n- p- p. _m nwkv t`z-kxn _n ]m esa v ]mkm- n-bxpw ]cn-jvim-c-߃ Hcp ]Sn IqSn apt m p sim p-t]m-bncn- p-i-bm-wv. ]pxnb _m p-iƒ v ssek kv \evip- -Xn-\p-ff hgn CtXmsS sxfn- n-cn- p-i-bmw.v C jpd kv s] j _n, em Uv AIznkn-j _n XpS-ßnb _P v ktω-f- \-Øn ]mkm- p-sa v NnZw-_cw hy -am- n-bn- p- v. hf m {]Xo Ipd p Ah-km\w Khs pw hf {]Xo Ipd- p.- hf ixam-\-øn-\n-s-bn-em-bn-cn- psa- mwv [-\-Im-cy-a-{ m-eb-øns A [-hm jni kmº-øni dnhyp-hn ]d- n- p-f-f-xv. F m [\-IΩn Pn Un ]nbpss 5.3 ix-am-\-øn Xs ]nsn p \ndp-øp-hm Ignbp-sa pw {]Xo- n- p- p. _P- n 7.6 ix-am\w hf -bm-bn-cp p IW- m- n-bn-cp- -Xv. \S- p-h j- Øns BZy-]-Ip-Xn-bn 5.4 ix-am-\-amwv hf. ASpØ ]Ip-Xn-bn Ipd- Xv 6 ix-am\w hf t\sn-bmse 5.7 ix-am\w hf ssih-cn- m-\m-iq kmº-øni hf 6.5 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. \S- p-h jsø hf 5.8 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- p-sa- mwv dnk hv _m v {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. ]W-s -cp w ASpØ am t mss ix-am-\-am-bncn- p-sa pw A [-hm jni dnhyp-hn ]d-bp- p. hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\w HIvtSm-_- dn 8.2 ix-am\w hf t\sn. {]Xo- n- n-cp- Xv 5 ix-am-\-øn-\-sp-øm-bncp- p. sk]v w-_-dn 0.7 ix-am\w \yq\-h-f -bm-bn-cp p.]xn-\m-dp-amksø G hpw Db hf -bm-wn-xv. am\p-^m-ivn-dnw-kns Xncn- p-h-c-hmwv G hpw {it -b-amb kwk-xn. HIvtSm- _-dnse hf 9.6 ix-am-\-am-wv. sk]v w-_-dn 1.5 ix-am\w \yq\ hf ImWn ÿm\-øm-wn-xv. F m Ct m-gsø hf XpS amk-ß-fn \ne-\n-ev p-tam-sb- mwv Adn-tb- -Xv. ImcWw Hmt m Dƒs -ssbp-ff ]e taj-e-i-fn- \n pw FØnbn- p-ff IW- p-iƒ Xf -bp-ts-xm-wv. F m-bmepw hymh-km-bn-i-h-f -bnse Xf t_m w Hu v Bbn F p-x-s bmwv s]mxp-th-bp-ff hne-bn-cp-ø. \b-]-c-ambn Imcy-amb ]cn-jvim-c߃ Kh-s v `mk-øp-\n p D m-bns - n t]mepw C y anx-amb hf t\sp-sa v tumbnjv _m v hnebn-cp-øp- p. C y kº-zvl-s\ t_m w Hu v Bbn-cn- p-i-bmwv. i - amb ]cn-jvi-cw \S-]-Sn-Iƒ D m-bm AXv Ct m-gsø Xncn- p-h-c-hn\v Icp- Øm-Ip-Ibpw IqSp-X \nt ]w FØp- Hmlcn hn]wn Hmlcn hn]wn tpmbn ^nen v Ibpw snøpw. ASp-Ø-h jw Ib- p-axn sa -s -Sp-sa pw tumbnjv _m v hnebn-cp-øp- p. AtX-k-abw C y-bpss \S- ph jsø Pn Un ]n hf 5.4 ix-am- \-am-bn-cn- p-sa v tam K Ãm en hnen-bn-cp-øp- p. t\csø 5.1 ix-am\w hf -sb- mwv Ah IW- m- n-bn-cp- -Xv. sk]v w-_-dn Ah-km-\n Izm dn {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ sa -s hf ImgvN h -XmWv tam K Ãm en FÃn-ta v Db Øp-hm Xbm-dm-b-Xv. c mw Izm -dnse hf 5.3 ix-am-\- am-wv. BZy-]-Ip-Xn-bnse hf 5.4 ixam-\-am-wv. Cu Zi-I-Ønse G hpw Ipd Izm hf -bm-wv. dos -bnenw-knse t\cn- p-ff hntz-i-\n-t -]w, Pn Fkv Sn, t\cn v k_vknun \evip- - Xv, ka nx Nc v CS-\mgn XpS-ßnbhpw a v kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-ßfpw kmº-øni hf sa -s -Sp-Øp-sa v tam K Ãm en hnen-bn-cp-øp- p. C y HmsS C -twm-aniv ]h lukmbn amdp-sa v bp Fkv \mj-w C n-e-p kv Iu kn {]Xo- n- p p. ssn-\-bpss C sø ÿnxn-bm-bn-cn pw C y-bp-ts-xv. CXv C y ]m n-ÿm\v ap n FØn pw HmsS ssn\-bpss C sø hf ( 8 10 ix-am-\w) Hcp hnzqc Hm a am{xam-bn-cn- pw. temi-ønse G hpw hebn kmº-øn-i-i- n-sb \ne-bn ssn\ At mgpw C y-bpss apºn-embn-cn- pw. F m Ccp cmpy-ßfpw XΩnep-ff hyxymkw Ipd- p-h-cn-i-bm-bncn pw 2030 apx C -en-p kv dnt m v ]d-bp- p. Ib- p-a-xnbpw hy]m-c-i-ωnbpw Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w \hw-_-dn 4.17 ix-am\w CSn-thmsS 2220 timsn tumf-dm-bn. AtX-k-abw Cd- p-axn 6.35 ix-am\w hf -tbmss 4150 timsn tumfdn-se-øp-ibpw snbvxp. hy]m-c-iωn 1928 timsn tumf-dm-wv. XpS -bmb GgmasØ amk-amwv Ib- p-axn hcp-am-\- Øn CSn-hp- m-ip- -Xv. bp Fkv, bqtdm-]y taj-e-bpss Xf -bmwv Ib- p-axn hcp-am-\sø _m[n- -Xv. G{]n \hw-_ Ime-b-f-hn Ib- p-axn hcpam\w 5.95 ix-am\w CSn-thmsS timsn tumf-dm-bn. Cd- p-axn Cu Imeb-f-hn 1.58 ix-am\w CSnthmsS timsn tumf-dm-wv. hym]m-c-iωn timsn tumf-dm-wv. {IqtUm-bn Cd- paxn am{xw BZy F p amk- m-eøv 10.8 ix-am\w Db -tbmss timsn tumf-dm-wv. ap h j-anxv 9930 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. Id v A u v IΩn 3.5 ix-am-\-øn HXp n \ndp-øp-hm k m e y-an-sp- p-s - nepw AXv 4 ix-am-\-øn\p api-fn-tebv p \oßpsa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. C y-bpss hym]m-c-iωn Bi- -bp-w Øp hn[- Øn Db -Xm-sW v BtKmf \nt - ]-I-ÿm-]-\-ambn s\mapc A`n-{]m-b-s - Sp- p. [\-IΩn \nb-{ n pw \S- p-h jw [\-IΩn 5.3 ix-am- \-Øn HXp n \n Øp-hm Khs v {]Xn-RvPm-_- -am-sw v [\-Imcy-a-{ m-ebw td nwkv GP kn-bmb aquo-kn\v Dd p \evin-bn- p v. [\-I- Ωnbpw Id v A u v IΩnbpw Ipd- p-sim- p-h-cn-i-bmwv Ks ns e y-sa pw C\n Cu h jw Khs n\v A[nI IS-sa-Sp v Bh-iy-ans pw a{ m-ebw hy -am- n-bn- p- v. F m [\-IΩn 5.5 ix-am-\-øntebv v \oßp-hm-\p-ff km[y-x-bmwv A\-en-Ãp-Ifpw a v kzx{ C -twman-ãp-ifpw ImWp- -Xv. dnk hv _m pw Cu `mk-ømwv \ne-sim- p- -Xv. [\- IΩn 5.5 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Db-cp-hm- \p-ff km[yx Gsd-bm-sW- mwv B _n sf su]yq n Kh W kpss_ tkmi-c hnen-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. CXv ]Ws -cp- -Øn i -amb kω ±-ap- m- p- -Xmbpw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. [\-a{ n _P- n 5.1 ix-am\w [\-I- Ωn-bmWv {]Xo- n- n-cp- -Xv. XpS v AXv 5.3 ix-am-\mbn ]pxp- p-i-bm-bncp- p. \nipxn hcp-am\w G{]n - -\-hw-_ Ime-b-f-hn {]Xy \nipxn hcp-am\w ixam\w hf -tbmss timsn cq]- bn-se-øn. CXn A n aq pw Iº\n taj-e-bn \n- mwv e`n- n- p-ffxv. tami-amb kmº-øni hf bnepw s\ v SmIvkv hcp-am\w h [n- Xv Kh-s n\v Bfl-hn-izmkw ]I-cp- p. \S- p-h jw e y-an- n-cn- p 5.70 e w timsn cq] t\sm Ign-bp-sa v Kh-s v Bfl-hn-izmkw {]I-Sn- n- p p. {]Xy- -\n-ipxn hcp-am\w XpSp- p-ff amk-ß-fn sa -s -Sp-sa- mwv Kh-s v {]Xo-. \S- p-h j- Øn CXp-hsc timsn cq] do^ v \evti- -Xmbn h n- p- v. Unkw-_ 15- \v Iº-\n-Iƒ-A-S ap Iq \nipxn hcp-am\w 7.5 ix-am\w hf t\sn-bn- p- v timsn cq]- bmwv ap Iq \nip-xn-bmbn Iº-\n-Iƒ AS- -Xv. \nipxn ]cn-jvi-cww apjy AP- -bm-sw v kqn\ \evin [\-a-{ me-b-øns D]-tZ-i-I-\mbn \nipxn hnz- Kv[ ]m Y-km-cYn tjmans\ \nb-an- n-cn- p-i-bmwv. bp ]n F Khs ns apjy ]cn-jvim-c-ß-fn-sem- mbn-cp p \nipxn ]cn-jvimc \S-]-Sn-Iƒ. ]t CS-h-gn-bn AXv Xf p \oßp- I-bm-bn-cp- p. Pn Fkv Sn \S- m- p- - Xn tjmans ]cn-nbkºøv apx q- mipw. Pn Fkv Sn kw_- n v BZy dnt m v Xbm-dm- n-bxv tjmw Bbn-cp- p. {]my-ani hn]wn {]my-ani hn]wn ]Xnsb Db p XpS-ßn. sib-dns ]_vfniv

13 (t]-pv \n- v)- em`hpw t\sn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. \S- ph jw hn p-h-chv timsn cq]bv n CS-bn-em-bn-cn- pw. AXm-bXv D]-tbm- m- ƒ n-s-bn IqSp-X kzoim-cyx I kyq-a s^un\pw {Xnth- Wn, \, \oxn {_m Up-Iƒ pw D mbn-cn- p- p. hne am{x-a-, KpW-ta- bpw Cu kzoim-cy-xbv v Imc-W-am-Wv. DØc-hm-Zn-Xz-s kl-i-cw ÿm]-\-sa \nen-bnepw em`w am{xw e y-am n {]h Øn- m-ø-xn-\mepw DXv]- -ß-fpsS KpW-\n-e-hm-c-Øn\v {]m[m\yw \evip v D]-t`m- m- ƒ Icp-Xp- p.? IWy-kyq-a s^uns Cu Zi- I-Ønse hf? * Cu Zi-I-Øns XpS w Dd Im hbv]p-i-tfm-ss-bm-wv. ASpØ A p-h j me-tøbv v \nc-h[n ] - Xn-IƒX-bm-dm n {]h Ø\w XpS-ßn-bn- p- v. AXn G hpw {][m-\-s - -XmWv \ ] -Xn. Hcp dos -bn snbn F \ne-bn i -amb {_m Umbn \ amdp-hm t]mhp-i-bm-wv. Ct mƒ 1700 Hmfw \ tãmdp-iƒ Bcw-`n p Ign- p. Unkw-_-tdmsS AXv 2000 Bbn Db Øpw. CXns tpmen-iƒ ]q Øn-bmbn hcn-i-bm-wv. A p-h jw-sim v ]Xn-\m-bncw \ tãmdp-i-fmwv e y-an- n- p-f-f-xv. Hcp \ tãmdn\v 5 e w cq] snehv {]Xo- n- p- p. CXn aq p e w cq] ASnÿm\ kuicy hni-k-\-øn-\m-wv. CXv C y-bpss s]mxp-hn-x-c-w-ta- J-e-bn henb am -Øn\v hgn sxfn- pw.-k-l-i-c-w-ta-j-e-bn cmpysø 2013 Unkw-_-tdmsS C y _ vam v kqnn-i-bmb sk skivkv t]mbn n\p api-fn-se-øp-sa v t{_m nwkv ÿm]-\-amb _m v Hm^v Ata-cn sadn en v AXns C y kv{sm Pn dnt m n ]d-bp- p hn]wn 13 ix-am\w Db t\spw. Khs v FSpØ i -amb ]cn-jvicw \S-]-Sn-Iƒ hn]-wn v sama w \evin-bn-cn- p-i-bm-sw v dnt m v A`n- {]m-b-s -Sp- p. henb kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ kw`-hn- n-s - nepw C y anxamb hf t\sp-sa v tumbnjv _m v dnt m v ]d-bp- p. D]-t`mKw C y-bn i -am-sw- -XmWv CXn\p Imc-W-ambn tumbnjv _m v ]d-bp- -Xv IpXn- p-b-cp-hm-\p-ff A co w Dcn-Øn-cn-bp-I-bm-sW v kn sf Fw _n C y Xe-h tzthjv Ipam Icp-Xp- p. ASpØ h jw C ysb kw_- n- n-s-tømsf ]p\ \n am-w- Øns Ime-am-sW- n temi-øn\v ÿnc-x-bpss ka-b-am-bn-cn- pw. CXv C y-bn C -twm-aniv _qw sim p-h-cpw At±lw ]d-bp- p. ASpØ Izm -dn dnk v kok Bcw-`n- p- -Xn\v apºv Hcp apt w IqSn At±lw {]Xo- n- p- p CIzn- n-bpss h j-am-sw v C -twm-aniv ssswkv \u t{_m amcpss CS-bn \S-Ønb k th-bn ]dbp- p. k th-bn ]s -SpØ t{_m am-cn 88 ix-am-\hpw CIzn- nbn \n v 2013 ani dnt e`n- p-sa v Icp-Xp- p. ]{ v ix-am-\- amwv ÿnc \nt -]m-kvxn-i-fn \nt ]w \S-Øm in]m i snøp- - Xv. hcp h jw \n^v n 6200 t]mbn n\v api-fn-se-øp-sa v 75 ixam\w t]cpw Icp-Xp- p. CIzn- n-bn \n v ASpØ h jw ix-am\w dnt {]Xo- n- m-sa v 57 ix-am\w t] Icp-Xp- p. ASpØ 1 2 amk- m-eøv C y hn]-wn-bn IqSp-X apt w {]Xo- n- m-sa tam n-em Hmkzmƒ ^n\m jy k ho-k-kns tpmbn v amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS cmwtzhv AK hmƒ hniz-kn- p- p. Kh-s v {]-Jym-]-\-ß-fmWv h]wn v Du Pw Cjyp-hn\v 41 Cc n At]- -IfmWv e`n- -Xv e w Hml-cn- Iƒ mbn timsn Hml-cn-Iƒ p-ff At] e`n- p. ss{]kv _m Uv cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. Unkw-_ 12- \v Ah-km-\n ]n kn Pzt -gvkns sf ]n H.bv v 6.7 ix-am\w Ccn n At]- -Iƒ In n. `m Xn C {^m-ss- ns I n Cjyp c mw Znhkw ]q Øm-bb-t mƒ 1.21 Cc n At]- -Ifv e`n- n- p- v. s]mxp-ta-je ÿm]-\-ambn F Fw Un knbpss ]Øp ix-am\w ( timsn Hml-cn-Iƒ) Kh-s v tãmiv FIvkvtNRvNv hgn hn v 5900 timsn cq] t\snbn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. P\p-hcn 15- \v F Sn ]n knbpss 9.5 ix-am\w Hmlcn \evin timsn cq] t\sp-hm\pw Khs pw e y-an-sp- p. \S- p-h jw timsn cq]-bmwv Kh-s v e yw. CXp-hsc 980 timsn cq]-bmwv Hmlcn hnev]\ hgn e`n- n- p-f-f-xv. hn]wn CtX \ne-bn \oßn-bm e yw t\sp-hm km[n- p-sa- mwv Icp-Xp- -Xv. [\-IΩn Ipd-bv p-hm Kh- Wvsa n\v CXv Bh-iy-am-Wv. C y dmen XpScpw kzx{ A\-enÃpw ^Ãv Kvtfm_ ÿm]-i-\p-amb i i abpss A`n-{]m-b-Øn C y hn]-wnbnse dmen tebv pw XpS-cp-sa- m- Wv. {_niv cmpy-ß-fn G hpw ani {]I-S\w C y-bp-ts-xm-bn-cn- p-sa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. BtKmf Hmlcn hn]wn {]bm-k-i-c-amb A -co- -Øn-eqsS \oßp-tºmƒ C y ani {]I-S-\-am-bn-cn pw ImgvN hbv p- I. kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ v Poh h -txmss C y hf -sb- p-dn- v BtKm-f-X-e-Øn-ep-ff at\m-`m-hhpw amdn. sp ]n tam K, tkmƒuvam kmnvkv, _m v Hm^v Ata-cn sadn en v XpS-ßnb BtKmf \nt -]-Iÿm-]-\-߃ hcpw h j-ß-fn C y ani hf t\sp-sa v {]Xo Adnbn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. hntz-i-\n-t -]-Iÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS C y Hml-cn-I-fn-tebv p-ff \nt ]w XpS-cp-I-bm-sW- Xpw {i n-t - -Xm-sW v At±lw A`n-{]mb-s -Sp- p. kºq W kl-i-cw s]mxp-hn-x-cw irwje e yw BZysØ kºq W s]mxp-hn-x-cw ] -Xn-bm-bn-cn- pw. Kh-s n \nt m a v GP kn-i-fn \nt m k_vkn-unsbm pw kzoi-cn- msx s]mxp-hn-]-wntb- mƒ 10 ix-am-\-sa- nepw hne Ipd v DXv]- -߃ e`y-am- p ÿm]\w am w hcp-øpw. AXm-bXv ]W-s -cp- sø t\cn-sp-hm D]-tbm- m- ƒ v I kyq-a s^unse hmß-ep-sim v km[n- pw. \ ] -Xn-bpsS cq]-an-xm-wv. kl- I-c-W-ta-J-e-bnse hnhn[ GP kn-iƒ kl-i-cn v krjvsn v cq]-s -Sp-Øn-bn- pff hn]-w\{irwj-e-bmwv CXns \s - v. \oxn tãmdp-iƒ, k hokv kl-icw _m p-iƒ, {]my-ani kl-i-c-w-kw- L-߃ XpS-ßn-bh \S-Øp tãmdp- Iƒ, {XnthWn irwj-e-iƒ \S-Øp tãmdp-iƒ, I kyq-a s^uv t\cn- p \S-Øp tãmdp-iƒ F n-ßs\ aq p Xc-Øn-ep-ff dos -bn t]mbn p-i-fmwv Cu hn]w\ irwj-e-bn-ep-f-f-xv. Ct mƒ 1700 Hmfw \ tãmdp-iƒ Bcw-`n p Ign- p. Unkw-_-tdmsS AXv 2000 Bbn Db Øpw. CXns tpmen-iƒ ]q Øn-bmbn hcn-i-bm-wv. A p-h jw-sim v ]Xn-\m-bncw \ tãmdp-i-fmwv e y-an- n- p-f-f-xv. \ tãmdp-i-fn {]Xn-Z\w cq] hn p-h-chv e`n- m \jvs-an- msxbmipw. ]co- -Wm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn Bcw-`n tãmdp-i-fn cq]-bpss hn p-h-c-hp- v. Xt±i kzbw-`-cw ÿm]-\-߃, kl-i-cw ÿm]-\-߃, k m, A [ k m ÿm]-\-߃ XpS-ßnb \evip-i. C y hn]-wn-bpss \ne i w C y Hml-cn-I-fnse apt w ASp-Ø-h jhpw XpS-cp-sa v tdmbnt gvkv k th ]d-bp- p. kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ \S- m- p-hm-\p-ff Khs ns {iahpw ]en-i-\n-c v Ipdbp-hm-\p-ff km[y-xbpamwv C y hn]-wnsb Db-c-Øn-se-Øn- p-i. Pq amk-tømss sk skivkv t]mbn nepw 2013 Ah-km-\-tØmsS t]mbn n-ep-sa-øp-sa- mwv k th ]d-bp- -Xv. Ipd hf m-\nc- nepw Db ]W-s -cp- -Ønepw Id v A u v IΩn F n-h-bv n-sbnepw Pq apx C y Hmlcn ani t\ -ap- m- p-sa- mwv k th ]d-bp- Xv P\p-h-cn-bnse t]mbn mwv sk sk-ivkns dn m Uv Db-cw. P\p-h-cn-tbmsS \n^v n kqnni 6000 t]mbn v IS- p-sa v Hml-cn-hn- ]-Wn-bnse kzx{ A\-en-Ãmb Aw_-cojv _enk A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. IqSp-X ]cn-jvim-c-߃ FØn-s m- ncn- p-i-bm-wv. CXp hn]-wn v IcpØp ]I-cp-sa v At±lw Iq n-t p- p. {lkz-im-e-øn sk skivkv kqnni t]mbn nepw t]mbn n\v CSnbnepw I tkm-fn-tu-j-\p-ff {ia-ønem-sw pw At±lw ]d-bp- p C y hn]-wn v dok-w- _nƒ h j-am-bn-cn- p-sa v B sian Im n- amt\-pvsa ns lntc thzv A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. h\y-amb hyxn-bm- \-߃ D m-bn pw ix-am\w dnt e`n- p Dw tami-am-bn-cn- p- I-bn se IqSpX sa -s apt - -Øn-\p-ff Iew Hcp-ßpsa- mwv At±-l-Øns {]Xo-. {]Xo \evin kº-zvl-s-\-bnse \nt ]w ix-am\w hf tbmss e w timsn cq]-bn-se-ønb-xmbn ]m e-sa cn A^-tbgvkv a{ n cmpohv ipivf ]m e-sa n -A-dn-bn- p. AtX kabw C y kmº-øni hf ÿncx t\sn-bn-cn- p- -Xmbn No^v C -twm-aniv AssUz-k h NXp-c-{i-bSn ÿew hms-i-bn- msx e`y-am- n-bm I kyq-a s^uv t\cn v \ tãmdp-iƒ Bcw-`n- pw NXp-c-{i-bSn ÿew \evinbm an\n {Xnth-Wn tãmdpw 1000 NXpc-{i-b-Sn p api-fn ÿew \evin-bm en n {XnthWn kq am pw Bcw- `n- pw.? \ tãmdp-ifn DXv]- -߃ ]cn-an-x-am-bn-cn- ptam? * GsXmcp dos -bn IS-bnepw In p- -Xp-t]mse F m-øcw \ntxym-]- tbmk km[-\-ßfpw \ tãmdp-i-fn e`y-am-wv. CXn ]Øv \ntxym-]-tbmk ÿm]-\-߃ v 20 ix-am\w hne- p-dhn e`n- pw. CXns Afhv tdj Im Uv D]-tbm-Kn v ]cn-an-x-s -Sp-Øn-bncn- p- p. a p-ff \oxn C\-߃ s]mxphn-]-wn-bn-te-xn-t\- mƒ 10 ix-am\w hne Ipd- mwv \evip- -Xv. timkvsa- n-ivkv, kvt j-\-dn, hnhn[ F^v Fw kn Pn Iº-\n-I-fpsS DXv]- -߃ XpS-ßn-b-hsb mw \ tãmdn e`n- pw. CXn\v s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bn-te-xn-t\- mƒ hne- pd-hm-bn-cn- pw. GXm v km[m-\- ߃ tãmdn-eqss e`n- pw. Hcp amk- Øn hne ÿnc-am-bn-cn- pw.? a v ] -Xn-Iƒ? * t\csø kqnn- n- -Xp-t]mse kl-i-cw s]mxp-hn-x-cw irwje i n-s -Sp-Øp- -Xns `mk-ambn 10 \oxn tkmuu-wp-ifpw 20 {XnthWn tkmuu-wp-ifpw 30 \ ]m nwkv sk - 13 clpdmw cmp ]d-bp- p. Cu hf sb i n-s -Sp-Øp-hm Khs v \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoi-cn- p-h-cn-ibmwv t]mbn v ASpØv A{]-Xo- n-x-ambn H pw kw`-hn- p- n-s - n sk skivkv kqnni Xma-kn-bmsX t]mbn n\v api-fn FØp-sa v \nt -]-I-hn-Z-Kv[-\mb ctajv Zam\n A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Itam- Un- n hne, ]en-i-\n-c v XpS-ßn-bh Ipd-bp- Xv _pƒ apt - -Øns c mw ]mz-øn-em-wv. s^{_p-h-cn-bntem am ntem _P- n-\p-ti-jtam CXp kw`hn- p-sa v At±lw Iq n-t p- p. Nne Hml-cn-I c pw aq pw Cc- n-bmbn- p- v. IcSn hn]-wn-bn AXv Hcn- epw kw`-hn- p-i-bn-. ^m a, aounb, I kyq-a skivs XpS-ßn-b-hbmWv _pƒ hn]-wn v t\xrxzw \evip- -Xv. Hmtcm XmgvN-bnepw Hml-cn-Iƒ hmßn-s m v \oßp-hm-\mwv s{iun v kpkn-bpss Gjy ]kn-^niv CIzn n kv{sm -PnÃpw Kvtfm_ Fa PnwKv am vkv CIzn n kv{sm -Pn- Ãp-amb i n inhbv v \nt -]-I p \evip-hm-\p-ff D]-tZ-iw. C y Zo L-Ime _pƒ tamunte v IS- n-cn- p-i-bm-sw v {]ikvx \nt -]-I cmtijv Pp Pp hme A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Kh-s v Ahkm\w {]h Øn- p-hm Xocq-am-\n- p. temi-sam- msi ]en-i-\n-c v G hpw Xmgv \ne-bn XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv. AXp hgn ]W-e-`yX hfsc Db p \nev p- I-bm-Wv. bqtdm- n Hcp Xc-Øn-ep-ff Bfl-hn-izmkw Xncn p h n-cn- p- p. Hcp cmpyhpw bqtdm-tkm hn p-t]m- Ip-sa v Ct m-ƒ Bcpw {]Xo- n- p- n-. BtKmf kº-zvl-s\ Iptd- qsn ÿncx t\sp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. C y-bn-em-is ]eni \nc v Ipd-bp-hm t]mip-i-bm-wv... Pp Pq hme ]d-bp- p. \n^v n kqnni Xma-kn-bmsX \mep-h jsø t{sunwkv td n\v ]pd-øp-h-cp-sa pw At±lw Icp-Xp- p t]mbn n\v api-fntebv v \oßn-bm 6800 t]mbn ntebv v \oßpw. Zo L-Im-e-Øn Fkv sf ]n \nt -]-Øn\v Xp\n- m ix-am\w dnt t\sm Ign-bpsa pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. dp-ifpw Bcw-`n- pw. ]e-t mgpw tkmuu- Wp-I-fpsS ]cn-an-xn-bmwv tãmdp-i-fn bym-k-abw km[m-\-߃ C m-xm-im Imc-Ww. Cu tempn-ãniv {]iv\w ]cnl-cn- m snehp Ipdbv mw Imcy- a-xbpw Iq mw. Bfp-I-fpsS hnizm-khpw t\smw. as mcp {][m-\-s ] Xn {Xnth- Wnsb Hcp {_m Uv F \nen-b ticf-øn am{x-a kwÿm-\-øn\p ]pdøpw Kƒ^v cmpy-ß-fnepw Ah-X-cn- n- p-i-sb- -Xm-Wv. CXn-\mbn F m kwÿm\ Xe-ÿm-\-ß-fnepw {Xnth-Wn kq am - p-iƒ ÿm]n- p-hm Dt±in- p- p. CXn-eqsS tic-f-øns X\- Xmb DXv]- -ßfpw {Xnth-WnbpsS {_m Uv DXv]- -ßfpw hn -gn- phm km[n- pw. CXp kw_- n v N -Iƒ \S p hcn-i-bm-wv. SqdnÃv ti{µ-ß-fn Ipd snehn Xmak kuicyw \evip hn{ia-ti-{µ-߃ Bcw-`n- pw. {XnthWn KÃv lukv F t]cn. Kpcp-hm-bq-cn BZysØ KÃv lukv Xpd- n- p- v. IqSp- X KÃv lukp-iƒ Xpd- p-hm Dt±in- p- p. I kyq-a s^uns ]p m- p-]- Sn-bnse kz w ÿeøv h nwkv hna kv tlmã Bcw-`n- p-hm Dt±in- p- p. ti{µ- kw-ÿm\ k m-cpifpss kmaq-lni t a hip- ns klmb-tøm-ss-bmhpw CXm-cw-`n- p-i.

14 14 Get Out of Your Comfort Zone... Be a Learner! (David Cote Businessman, President and CEO of Honeywell, delivered the commencement address at University of New Hampshire, 21 May 2011) Life will happen to you, whether you try to guide it or not, so you might as well try to influence the outcome. You have to know what you want and you have to be willing to go after it! Welcome to the graduates, the students, their parents, the teachers, and other guests. And thank you President Huddleston for this wonderful honorary degree. Being here today is a singular honor for me because it is two days shy of thirty-five years ago when I was sitting where you are today. Wondering how my life would unfold. Glad to be done with school and excited and apprehensive about the future. In a poignant reminder of how sweet life can be, my Mom, my oldest son Ryan, and many of my family were in the audience thirty-five years ago and they are in the audience today... now accompanied by my youngest son, John. Pretty darned cool. There is a certain irony in the receipt of this honor though, given that it took me six years to complete a four year degree and that in my Sophomore year I was asked by the Assistant Dean of Students to no longer live on campus because while there was no particularly telling event, she didn t like that I was what she termed a general troublemaker. Many Commencement speakers address a topic of global significance, however, given input from many of you, it seemed more useful to provide a perspective on how I went from being in the audience thirty-five years ago to being up here today. Of the 186 student s received, 119 requested some form of life advice and the remaining 67 provided me with all different kinds of advice with my favorite being those explaining money was unimportant. While I agree money is not the only thing, I d also say that those of you expressing that opinion... clearly do not have kids yet. And if you still don t understand, I m certain your parents can explain it to you. To begin, it might be useful to tell you a bit about that six-year college stretch, my career in general, and the things I think I learned along the way. Not having a clear sense of what I wanted to do after graduation from high school in New Hampshire, even though I d been accepted at UNH, I took the $100 won as a high school scholarship plus some money set aside, bought a $395 seven-year-old car and told my parents I wasn t going to college. I worked with my Dad as a mechanic for a few months then drove off to Michigan. Spent a few months working there Dave M. Cote as a mechanic, a carpenter s apprentice, and doing odd jobs before realizing, after a year of Dave Cote is chairman and CEO of Honeywell, a $37 billion diversified technology and manufacturing leader, serving customers worldwide with aerospace products and services; control technologies for buildings, homes and industry; turbochargers; and performance materials. He was elected president, CEO, and a member of Honeywell's Board in February 2002, and named chairman of the Board on July 1, Under Cote's leadership over the past decade, Honeywell has delivered strong growth in sales, earnings per share, segment profit, and cash flow. Honeywell has great positions in good industries and more than 50 percent of the company s sales are outside the U.S. Honeywell s growth is driven by technologies that address global macro trends such as safety, security, energy efficiency and generation, and globalization. The company s nearly 140,000 employees, including more than 20,000 scientists and engineers, are focused on developing innovative products and solutions that help Honeywell s customers and their customers improve performance and productivity. In 2010, Cote was named by President Barack Obama to serve on the bipartisan National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. Cote was named co-chair of the U.S.-India CEO Forum by President Obama in 2009, and has served on the Forum since July In 2007, Cote received the Corporate Social Responsibility Award from the Foreign Policy Association, and in 2001, he received the Peter G. Peterson Award for Business Statesmanship from the Committee for Economic Development (CED) and the Distinguished Achievement Award from B nai B rith International in He is a graduate of the University of New Hampshire, where he earned a bachelor's degree in business administration. In 2009, Cote was made an honorary professor at the Beihang University of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Beijing, China, and in 2011, Cote received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from his alma mater. Cote is a member of the Board of Directors of JP Morgan Chase and is an advisor to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. trying, that I had zero aptitude for manual labor. Drove back to New Hampshire in June and applied for a six-year tour in the US Navy on a nuclear submarine. Passed all tests but my friends started the verbal pummeling with Six years under water... you ll go crazy. Decided they were right and the day before swearing in called the recruiting officer, and after assurances he couldn t send the cops after me, told him I wasn t coming. In July, at loose ends, and having been told that it was too late to apply to UNH for September admission, I took a drive to Durham, found the office for the Director of Admissions, Gene Savage, and refused to leave until he saw me. After a couple of hours of waiting, Gene agreed to see me. I told my story and he agreed to let me in that September if I would immediately complete an application and send it to him personally. I did and he let me in... a very nice guy! After two years in school, but tired of never having any money, I went to work as an hourly employee full-time on the night shift at a factory making jet engine parts while also continuing full-time at UNH during the day. After a few months of that and midway through my junior year, decided with a buddy that the path to true riches was in commercial fishing! An early insight to my business acumen! During that second semester, earned a I was happy I passed and my Mom was disgusted. I quit school again while keeping the job working nights, we bought a 33 foot fishing boat and spent the next few months fishing off the coast of Maine... barely breaking even. My buddy got married, and his wife having more sense than the two of us, encouraged him to quit... so we sold the boat. Shortly thereafter, I got married, had my son Ryan 10 months later, and got the responsibility wits scared out of me. That night job would never pay for all of this. I needed to become responsible. Returned to school days, continued working nights, and finally graduated with my degree six years after first starting. Having spent the last 2 ½ years as an hourly employee but now armed with a degree, got a job in GE management, hoping some day I could just make $20,000 a year so I could support my family. Had a daughter, got divorced, got married again, and had my son John. Spent the next 23 years focusing on GE as a career, progressing through financial and general management roles in businesses like Plastics, Jet Engines, and Consumer Electronics, and culminating as President and CEO of the Major Appliances business. In 1999, joined TRW, a $17 billion Cleveland company and became CEO. I joined Honeywell in 2002 and became CEO. Since that time, we have taken Honeywell from a $23 billion

15 15 company that lost money two years in a row to a $37 billion global success story with 130,000 employees. We consistently generate strong sales, earnings, and cash flow and we are decidedly more global. The share price has also grown commensurately and one Analyst referred to us as the It Stock for Now I ve enjoyed telling you my story. Most people after all, do enjoy talking about themselves. But how does all of this relate to you? Hopefully, you can benefit from some of my lessons learned. God knows my two sons sitting in the audience today have had to hear enough about it. But please remember it s not a prescription... its advice... and it may be worth exactly what you re paying for it! So after a tumultuous beginning and a thus far successful 35-year career with various successes and failures along the way, what do I think I ve learned? It can be condensed into four major areas. First... Recognize the Importance of People and Your Own Behaviors. Be Self-Aware. Be honest with yourself and face reality. Know who you are. In your personal characteristics, what are your strengths and what are the areas where you re not so strong? You can t be good at everything so how can you fill in where you aren t? When you are younger, this is one of the toughest things to do. We are all born with different skills and aptitudes. I was fortunate to be born at a time when my skill with a pencil was valuable. A hundred years ago, I d probably just have been a bad farmer. That s not something you can control. What you can control are your behaviors, how you look at life, and how you maximize the skills you do have. Be aware of your impact on people around you. Do people feel better as a result of spending time with you? During the course of your career, your biggest accomplishments will be achieved by motivating and inspiring others. Develop personal credibility in your dealings. Do what you say is not an empty phrase. Stand for something and have values. Be open to new ideas... have opinions and state them but be willing to modify them for a better suggestion... acknowledge the contribution of others even if it s painful... it reflects on you. Recognize because someone disagrees, you don t want to make it personal. At the same time, not everyone you deal with is reasonable. There truly are zealots in the world who can see only their point of view. These people are the most dangerous and can be found in all walks of life. Be tolerant. If a decision doesn t seem right... change it! Better the embarrassment of a changed mind than the lifetime penance of a bad decision! In business and in life. Be prepared to take hits to your ego whether deserved or not. My Dad was a very proud man who could have quite a temper. He owned a service station and one day when working with him when I was about 14 I watched him take an unwarranted verbal beating from a customer. I was shocked because there was no response. When the customer left, he came back and sat next to me on the curb and said Dave, sometimes in business and in life you have to put your pride in your back pocket. Don t let anyone break you down emotionally, be able to take that hit... they will happen. Second... Get Out of Your Comfort Zone... Better Yet Get Comfortable About Being Out of Your Comfort Zone! Be a Learner! The greatest learning occurs where you re uncomfortable because you don t know it all. Push yourself. Be willing to take a chance, take a risk with something new... career, hobbies, dating, sports, whatever. It doesn t mean you should be impulsive. It does mean that you should take calculated risks. Get yourself into the arena... be a participant and not a spectator. Don t always wait for approval or perfect knowledge. Do something. Have the confidence in yourself to take that chance. If you don t, certainly others won t. And there will always be plenty of people to tell you why it won t work, including some friends and family. And sometimes they ll be right... and that s painful. As my Mom always said, Think for yourself. Just because everyone is doing something, it doesn t mean its right. Which also means you have to be able to handle rejection and failure. Successful people have failures... sometimes spectacularly embarrassing ones... but they learn from it and move on to the next success. Several times during the last 35 years, I ve thought my career or personal life was over. It is... only if you let it. Picking yourself up after a significant defeat or failure is really, really hard... and it s really, really essential. Don t let people minimize your goals or your successes... learn instead from what they re saying. There may be a bit of truth in it that can help you. Don t be discouraged by failure or rejection... learn from it! Life will happen to you, whether you try to guide it or not, so you might as well try to influence the outcome. You have to know what you want and you have to be willing to go after it! Third... Be Results Oriented, Have Goals, And Recognize That Hard Work Does Not Always Pay Off The biggest learning from the fishing boat experience was that Hard Work Does Not Always Pay Off! If you re working on the wrong thing, it doesn t matter how hard you work, nothing will ever come of it. Don t get me wrong. Hard work is important. Just make sure you re working on the right thing. If you want to get ahead, you actually have to accomplish something. If you work a hundred hours a week and nothing happened, then there is no story. The person who says but I worked really hard, still has nothing to show for it. Harsh perhaps, but very true regardless of the endeavor. I ve also always liked this definition of insanity... Doing the same thing over and over again, always expecting a different result. If you re not getting the results you wanted or expected, you have to change something. In setting your goals, recognize that it is always about trying to achieve two seemingly conflicting things at the same time. While confusing perhaps in concept, each of you will face its consequences. For example, do you want a great career or do you want a great family life? If you run an organization, do you want people empowered so those closest to the action can make decisions quickly or do you want good controls so nothing bad happens? If you run a company, do you want good short-term or do you want good long-term results? In every case, you want both... and the way to get both is to recognize the conundrum, understand where processes can be improved so you get both, and make decisions where trade-offs are needed. It s not an easy concept to understand, but it is real and you will face it. Being smart is not enough to achieve results. Plenty of smart people get beaten by others who are more hungry, take calculated risks, work harder, have better people skills, can execute better, or have more common sense. Recognize what you need in that total package to succeed. Before making any decision, get the facts as best you can. Don t just react based on what newspapers say, or your ideology. Make sure you understand the facts as both sides say them. Take responsibility for yourself. Other than a basic right to opportunity, you are not entitled to anything. No one is. My Mom certainly drilled that into us. In the Western world we oftentimes forget the reason we live so well is because our parents and grandparents worked harder than the rest of the world to get here. The more you feel entitled to things, the tougher your life will be because that s just not how the world works. Work hard... and make sure it s on the right things. Fourth... and Best of All... Enjoy Your Life! Live your life not what your parents, friends, or others think you should do. Know what you want out of life and go after it. Keep life in perspective... most crises aren t. Things do generally look better in the morning. Just by living in the United States and graduating with a degree from UNH, you are destined to live a more comfortable life than 90% of the rest of the world. It doesn t mean you shouldn t take life s problems seriously. It does mean you should keep your cool. By staying level headed and keeping problems in perspective, particularly while others are panicking or losing their cool, you ll be amazed at what you can accomplish and how you can emerge as a leader. Don t live a life of regrets... when confronted by a decision, think about how you ll feel when you re 60 years old and look back on it. If you think you ll regret not having taken the chance, don t hesitate for a moment! Remember the significance of family and friends. They make life worth living. I mentioned John and Ryan; they are the biggest accomplishment of my life. I couldn t be prouder of the men they have become. And as my Dad used to say when asked how he was, Can t complain, nobody listens! As a son hearing it 700 times, it was irritating. As an adult, I ve learned how much truth there is in it. Don t dwell on what s wrong with your life and don t hang around with people who do. If something is wrong, do something about it instead. 90% of people want to feel good about what they accomplished at work or home, hang around with those people. Not the 10% who don t even want to try. Enjoy work... it s fulfilling, there is a satisfaction in the human condition caused by the striving towards an end. Enjoy your life. Don t go through life angry or resentful. Be able to walk outside and enjoy the warmth on your face of a sunny day. Feel good about a walk on the beach, the joy of family and friends, and the feeling of accomplishment. Concentrate on the things you can control and don t waste time worrying about what you can t. I m not a traditionally religious man, but I ve always taken solace in a prayer written in 1932 by Reinhold Niebuhr of the Union Theological Seminary in New York. It reads: God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. Congratulations on your accomplishment today, good luck with your careers, and remember... enjoy your lives. Thanks for listening.

16 16 kv-t m- v- A-ssUz-kv- s^-_n - Znjva ^m a Ct m-gsø hne:116 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne: 124 cq] Xmgv hne: 33 cq] apj hne: 2 cq] em`-hoxw: 60 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: 5.56 cq] (2012 am v 31) ]n C: (2012 Unkw_ 22) hn]wn aqeyw: 948 timsn cq] ssh -an, sian- XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS CS-]m-Sp-I-fn \n- mwv tijn hcp-am-\w. Cu taj-e-iƒ hcpw Izm -dp-i-fn ani hf t\sp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Iº\n hmßnb kznkv Iº\n Im _ Awknkv Pq Izm -dn 127 timsn cq] hcpam\w t\sbn- p- v. kznkv Iº-\n-bpsS am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv hn`mkw C y-bntebv v am n-bxv ani t\ -amwv t\sn-s m-sp-ø-xv. CtX-Øp-S {]h Ø-\-em-` am Pn 2.5 ix-am-\- Øn \n v 14 ix-am- \ambn Db p. Iº-\n-bpsS ssl t]m v BIvSohv C {Ko-Un-b cv \S- p-h jw 28 timsn cq] hcp-am\w D m- n-ø-cp-sa v IW- m- p- p. \mev]xp ix-am-\-tøm-f-ap-fe am Pn Iº-\n-bpsS A m-zmbw KWy-ambn h [n- n- p-sa v Icp-Xp- p am n-e-h-km-\n kmº-øni h j-øn Iº\n timsn cq] hcp- am-\hpw 44.8 timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw t\snbn- p- v. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv bym-{iaw timsn cq]bpw 40.1 timsn cq]bpw hox-am-bn-cp- p. Cu Ime-b-fhnse C ]n Fkv 5.56 cq]-bmwv ( 4.97 cq]). Iº-\n-bpsS ]eni _m[yx ap h jsø 40.5 timsn cq]- bn \n v 57.5 timsn cq]-bmbn Db p. Hmlcn aqe-[\w timsn cq]-bm-wv. \S p h j- Øns BZy ]Ip- Xn-bn Iº\n timsn cq] hcp-am-\-hpw( timsn cq]) 17.6 timsn cq] A m-zmbhpw ( 4.78 timsn cq]) 2.18 cq] C ]n Fkpw (0.59 cq]) t\s-bn- p- v. Bdp-amk- m-esø ]eni _m[yx 23.2 timsn cq]-bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. Ign h jw c mw Izm -dn Iº\n ani t\ -am-wv A m-z-b-øn t\sn-b-xv. A m- Zmbw 40.1 timsn cq]-bmwv am n Iº-\n-bpsS ISw 302 timsn cq]-bmwv. Cu h jm-h-km-\- tømss CXn 100 timsn cq] Xncn- -Sbv p-hm Xocp-am-\n- n- p- v. Al-Ω-Zm- _mzv kvs]j C -twm-aniv tkmwnse 163 slivs ÿew CXn-\mbn hnev p-hm Dt±-in- p- p. CXp kw_- n N Ah-km\L -Øn-emWv. IqSmsX Iº\n P\-dnIv F ]n sf _nkn-\-kn {]th-in- p-ibpw bp Fkv F^v Un F^n 20 Un Fw F^p-Iƒ cpn-ã snøp-ibpw snbvxn- p- v.- CXp hgn 35 DXv]- -߃ \n an- p-hm\pw Ignbp-sa p Iº\n Is -Øn-bn- p- v. Cu DXv]- -߃ v D]-tbm- m- -tfbpw Iº\n Is -Øn-bn- p- v. I-º-\n-bpsS ssh -an Un hn`mkw ani txmxn {]h Øn- p- p. \S- p-h jsø {]Xo- nx C ]n Fkn ( 13 cq]) Iº-\n-bpsS Ct m-gsø Hmlcn hnebn ]n C 9.2 BWv h j-øn 21 cq] C ]n FkmWv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Ct m-gsø hne-bn ]n C 5.7 BWv. Iº-\n-bpsS Zo L-Im-e-Ønse F v ]n C IW- m- n-bm Hmlcn hne 168 cq]-bn-tebv v FØp-hm-\p-ff km[y-xtb-sd-bm-wv. c p h jw e y-an v \nt ]w \S-Øn-bm ani t\ -ap- m-ipw. Ign aq p Izm -dp-i-fn ani Xncn- p-h-chv \S-Ønb Znjva ^m a-kyq- n- kv hcpw Izm -dp-i-fnepw ani {]I-S\w ImgvN hbv p-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. CXv Iº-\n-bpsS Hml-cn- Isf a[y-im-e-øn BI j-i-am- p- p. acp p tncp-h-ifpw t^m ap-te-j- \p-ifpw Icm ASn-ÿm-\-Øn \n an p \evip Znjva ^m a-kyq- n- kv Icm dntk pw \SØn hcp- p. Iº- \n-bpss hcp-am-\-øns aq n c pw CØ-c-Øn-ep-ff Icm tpmen-i-fn \n- m- Wv. acp p am[y-a-߃, BIvSohv C {Ko- Un-b v, kvs]jym-en n sian- kv, X hmt gvkv s_ hmeyp ^n v\kv Ct m-gsø hne:186 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne: 223 cq] Xmgv hne: 112 cq] apjhne:10 cq] em`-hoxw: 12.5 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: 7.96 cq] (2012 am v 31) ]n C: (2012 Unkw_ 22) hn]wn aqeyw: timsn cq] cmpysø G hpw henb sl Øv sk snbn-\mb X hmt gvkv s_ hmeyp ^n v\kv enan- -Un\v cmpysø 68\K-c-ß-fn-embn 130AXym[p-\nI imj-i-fp- v. Cu imj-i-fn-se mw IqSn 1.25 e -tømfw AwK-ß-fp-ap- v apwss_-bn Pnw ÿm]n- p-sim- mbn-cp p XpS- w. Ct mƒ PnΩn\p ]pdta kv]m, Gtdm-_nIv, sl Øv I kƒ nwkv F o tkh-\-߃ Iº\n \evin hcp- p. Xm hm-t gvkv F p ]ct Adn-b-s -Sp Iº-\n v ^n v\knse G hpw ]pxnb ssivt\m-f- Pn-bpsS DS-am-I-fm-Wv. ^n v\kv hyh-kmb-ønse {_m Uv s\bn-ambn amdn-bn-cn- p p X hm-t gvkv apx Iº-\n-bpsS hn p-h-chn h Ip-Xn- mwv A\p-`-h-s - -Xv. hn p-h-chv Bdn-c- n-bn-e-[n-i-am-bn. Ct mgsø kmº-øni amµyw G hpw Ipd v _m[n- n- p-ff Iº-\n-I-fn-sem- m-wv. Ign c p-izm -dp-i-fn Iº-\n-bpsS hcp-am\w 30 ix-am-\-tømfw hf t\sbn- p- v. Iº\n h hni-k-\-amwv hcpw h j-ß-fn {]Xo- n- p- -Xv [\- Imcy h j-øn 250 PnΩp-I-fmWv e yw. Ign GXm\pw h j-ß-fnse \nt ]w Iº-\n v ani hcp-am\w t\sn-s m-sp-øp-h-cn-i-bm-wv. hcpw h jß-fn CXp h [n- p-h-cp-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. \ne-hn-ep-ff _nkn-\kv i n-s - Sp-Øp- -Xns `mk-ambn {KmaoW taje-bn ssl^n PnΩp- Ifpw apjy ti{µ-ß-fn \yqt^mw ÃptUm-b- Ifpw ÿm]n- p-hm Dt±-in- p- p. shbn v Ipd-bv p-hm klm-bn- p ti{µ-ß-fmwv \yqt^mw ÃpUn-tbm- Iƒ. \ne-hn-ep-ff PnΩp- I-fn shbn v Ipdbv p Xn\p-ff ]cn-ioe\w Ipd-bv p-ibpw AXv \yqt^mw ÃpUntbm-bn-tebv v am phm\pw Dt±-in- p- p. CXp-hgn hcp-am-\-øn 15 ix-am\w hf -bp- m-ip-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv.-k-_m-kn-Unbdn tamu, {^ss kn tamu F nh hgn-bmwv _nkn-\kv hn]p-eam- p- -Xv. aqe-[-\-s -ehv Ipd-bv p-isb- -XmWv Dt±iw 2012 am n-e-h-km-\n 12 amk- meøv Iº\n timsn cq] hn p-hchpw 19.2 timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw t\snbn- p- v timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[- \-Øn C ]n Fkv 7.96 cq]-bm-wv. Iº- \n-bpss ]eni _m[yx 7.79 timsn cq]- bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn- hn ph-chv 86.5 timsn cq]bpw A m-zmbw timsn cq]bpw C]n Fkv 6.31 cq]-bp-am- bn-cp- p timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp p ]eni-s -e-hv. \S- p-h j-øns BZy Bdp-amk- m-eøv Iº\n timsn cq] hcpam-\hpw ( 54 timsn cq]) timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw ( 9.69 timsn cq]) 5.81 cq] C ]n Fkpw (4.02 cq]) t\sn-bn- p- v. Iº-\n-bpsS ]eni _m[yx 4.0 timsn cq]-bn \n v 5.1 timsn cq]-bmbn Db p. BZy ]pip-xn-bn A m-zm-b- Øn 45 ix-am\w hf -bm-wv D mbn- p-f-f-xv. Iº\n CubnsS bqtdm- nse {]apj kvt]m Svkv, sl Øv, enj {Kq mb tuhnuv tembnuv enj-dp-ambn kv{sm -PnIv Ae-b kv D m- n-bn- p- v. C y-bn h km[y-x-bm-wp-f-f-sx- mwv tuhnuv tembnuv enj-dns hne-bn-cp-ø. _nkn-\-kn-tebv v ]pxnbxmbn aqe-[\w sim p-h-cn-i-sb e ytømss Unkw-_ Bdn\v Hml-cn-sbm- n\v cq] \evin Izmfn-ss^Uv C Ãn- yq-j-w ]vtfkvsa v hgn timsn cq] kzcq-]n- n- p- v. Iº\n CX- \mbn F p ix-am\w Hml-c-bmWv \evinb-xv. Cjyp-hn-s\-Øp-S v Iº-\n-bpsS su v CIzn n tdtjym 0.95 ix-am-\- Øn \n v 0.75 ix-am-\-ambn Ipd- n- p- v. am{x-hp-a Hmlcn hne-bn 13 ix-am-\-tømfw CSn-hp-ap- m-bn- p- v. sk]v w-_ 30- \v Iº-\n-bpsS samøw ISw 151 timsn cq]-bm-wv. 23 timsn cq]-bpss Imjv Iº-\n-bpsS ssih-i-ap- v. Iº-\n-bpsS txbvam-\w, ]en-i-s -ehv XpS-ßn-bhbpsS hf A m-zmb hf -bp-ambn t\m p-tºmƒ Ipd-hm-Wv. CXv Iº-\n-bpsS s\ v em`am Pn-\n hf -bp- m- pw. Iº-\nbpsS H ]n Fw ix-am-\-am-wv _n Fkv C kvtamƒim]v kqnn-i-tb- mƒ sa -s {]I-S\w ImgvN hbv p-hm Iº-\n v Ign- n- p- v. Iº- \n-bpss Ct m-gsø hne-bnepw ASpØ h jsø C ]n Fkpw IW- n-se-sp- ptºmƒ ]n C 11.2 BWv. CXv Iº-\n-bpsS Hml-cnsb BI j-i-am- p- p. Iº-\n-bpsS G hpw henb {]iv\w kwl-s-xn, Akw-L-S-Xn-ta-J-e-I-fn \n- pff a -c-am-wv. kº-zvl-s-\-bnse Xf sb-øp-s v hcp-am-\-øn-ep- m-ip Ipdhv Bfp-I-fpsS Xocp-am-\sØ _m[n- p-hm-\n-s-bp- v. F m ÿnxn Ct mƒ ]Xnsb amdp-i-bm-wv. F p am{x-a Btcm-Ky-Øn-ep-ff Bfp-I-fpsS DXvIWvT Xo -bmbpw Iº-\n v A\p-Iq-e-am-Wv. Iº-\n-bpsS Hmlcn 52 BgvN-bnse G hpw XmgvN-bn \n v 70 ix-am-\- tømfw Db t\sn-bn- p- v. Ct mgsø Xncp-Ø ani \nt -]-h-k-c-amwv \evip- -Xv. kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-bn \n v anuvim]v Hml-cn-bn-te-bv p-ff Iº-\nbpsS am w AXn-hn-Zq-c-Øn-e-.

17 17 ^ v A-ssUz-kv- s^-_n - I\dm sdms_tim CIzn n ssuth-gvkn-ss^uv F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Xmgv F F hn cq] A BkvXn timsn cq] ( ) _ v am v kqnn-i _n Fkv C 200 _-dn 1 e w cq] \nt -]n- n-cp- p-sh- n AXv 5.98 e w cq]-bm-ip-am-bn-cp- p. AtX-k-abw 5 h jw apºv \nt -]n- n-cp- p-sh n 1.48 e w cq]-bm-ip-ambn-cp- p. Hmlcn hn]-wn-bpss G hpw tami-amb Ign A p h j- m-e-øpt]mepw {]Xn-h jw 8 ix-am\w dnt \evip-hm ^ n\v Ign- n- p- v. Hcp h j- m-eøv ^ v ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn ixam\w; \n^v n hcp-am\w ix-am-\w; _n Fkv C ix-am\w; Fkv sf ]n dnt ix-am\w ) aq p h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw ( Im -Kdn icm-icn 6.81 ix-am\w; \n^v n hcp-am\w 5.92 ix-am-\w; _n Fkv C ixam\w; Fkv sf ]n dnt 8.50 ix-am\w ) dnt \evin-bn- p- v. ^ v \ shbn-t Pv \evin-bn-cn- p- Xv [\-Im-cy-ta-J-e-bv m-wv. Hmlcn \nt - ]-Øn ix-am-\hpw Cu taj-e-bnemwv \S-Øn-bn- p-f-f-xv. F\ Pn (11.34 ixam-\w), ssivt\m-fpn (10.18 ix-am-\w), F^v Fw kn Pn (9.87 ix-am-\w), ssuth-gvkn-ss^uv (7.46 ix-am-\w),hmt m (6.50 ixam-\w), sl Øv sib (4.21 ix-am-\w), I kv{s-ivj (6.26 ix-am-\w), F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv (3.34 ix-am-\w), Iayq-Wn-t -j (2.93 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv apjy \nt -]-ta-j-e-iƒ. Cu taj-e-i-fn \n- p-ff Db hn]wn aqey-ap-ff Iº- \n-i-fpss Hml-cn-I-fmWv \nt -]-Øn\v sxc-s -Sp-Øn- p-f-f-xv. F v Un F^v kn _m v (7.30 ix-am-\w), sf kn sf kn sf _m v (7.17 ix-am-\w), F B Uv Snv (5.34 ix-am-\w), sf Sn kn (5.27 ix-am-\w), C t^m-knkv (5.16 ix-am-\w), dne-b kv C U-kv{Sokv (3.54 ix-am-\w), F v Un F^v kn (3.49 ix-am- \w), Sn kn Fkv (2.76 ix-am-\w), Fkv _n sf (2.58 ix-am- \w), XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv apjy \nt -]- Hml-cn-Iƒ. Hmlcn hn]-wn-bpss `mhn {]h-nn- p-hm km[n- p-bns - nepw C y kº-zvl-s-\-bpss hf hcpw h j-ß-fn Dd- mb ÿnxn-bn Iº-\n-Iƒ ani {]I-S\w ImgvN ht axn-bm-iq. AXm-bXv ^ v sxc-s -SpØ Hml-cn-Iƒ Zo L-Im-e-Øn ani hf t\sp-hm-\p-ff km[y-x-tb-sd-bm-wv. Ip n-i-fpss hnzym-`ym-kw, hnhm-lw, dn -b sa v XpSßn Zo L- Im-e-Øn kºøv Bh-iy-ap-ff Imcy-߃ mbn CXn {Ia-ambn \nt ]w \S- Ømw. GXm v {]apj -_vfq-nn]v Hml-cn-I-sf mw Xs - Hmlcn tij-c-øn Dƒs - Sp-Øn-bn- p-ff I\dm sdms_tim CIzn n ssuth-gvkn-ss^uv ^ v Cu Im -K-dnbn ani {]I-S\w ImgvN hbv p ^ p-i-fn-sem- m-wv sk]v w-_ apx chn tkm]m-e-ir-jvw-\mwv ^ v amt\-p. ]pxnb ^ v amt\- P-cpsS anihv ^ n {]Xn-^-en- m-\n-cn- p- -tx-bp-f-fp. ani- Xpw KpW-ta- p-bp-f-f-xp-amb amt\-pvsa pff Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hmlcn-I-fmWv \nt -]-Øn-\mbn sxc-s -Sp- p- -Xv. Zo L-Im-e- Øn ani dnt \evip-hm tijn-bp-ff ^ m-wn-xv. XpS- -Øn anuvim]v Hml-cn-I-fnse \nt -]-Øn-emWv XpS-ßn-b-Xv. F m Imew Ign- -txmss em Pv Im]v ^ mbn amdp-i-bmwv snbvx-xv. AXm-bXv \nt -]-Øns \s mcp ] pw h InS Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hml-cn-I-fm-emWv \nt -]n- n-cn- p- -Xv. CtXm-sSm w hfsc sshhn-[y-amb Hml-cn-ti-J-c-amWv ^ n-t - Xv. em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-Iƒ ^ n\v ÿnc-xbpw enizn-un- nbpw \evip- p. sxc-s -Sp- -s anuvim]v Hml-cn-Iƒ ani dnt Wpw \evip- p. Hmlcn \nt -]-Øn-s ix-am-\hpw em Pv Im]v Hmlcn-I-fn-emWv \nt -]n- n-cn- p- -Xv ix-am\w anuvim]v Hmlcn-I-fnepw 3.84 ix-am\w kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-I-fnepw \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p. \nt - ]-ti-j-c-øn 51 Hml-c-In-fm-Wn-t m-gp-f-f-xv. ^ ns BkvXn-bpsS ix-am- \hpw Hml-cn-bn-em-Wv. _m v Imjv D]-I-c-W-ß-fn-emWv \nt -]n- n- p-f-f-xv. {]h Ø-\-Øns ]Ømw h j-øn-tebv v IS- p ^ v ix-am\w hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v. AXm-bXv ^ v {]h Ø\w XpS-ßnb 2003 sk]v w- BIvknkv anuvim]v Pn F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Xmgv F F hn 8.76 cq] A BkvXn timsn cq] ( ) _ v am v kqnn-i _n Fkv C anuvim]v anuvim]v Hml-cn-Ifn \nt ]w \SØn Zo L-Im-e-Øn aqe-[\ hf e y-an-sp ] -Xn-bmWv BIvknkv ayqnz ^ ns BIvknkv anuvim]v t{kmøv ^ v s^{_p-h-cn-bn Bcw-`n Cu ^ v tami-a- mø dnt CXn-\Iw t\sn \nt -]-IcpsS {i -bn h n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ] Xn XpS-ßn-b-Xn ]n osv ix-am\w hm jni dnt t\sn-bn- p- v. Hcp h j- m-esø dnt ix-am-\-am-wv. _ vam v dnt BIs ix-am-\-hpw. Cu Ime-b-f-hn \n^v n t\sns m-sp-øxv ix-am-\w dnt BWv.Im -Kdn icm-icn ix-am-\-am-wv. ^ ns \nt -]-Øn-\pap v {]txy-i-x. anuvim]v hn`m-k-ønse henb Iº-\n-I-sf-bmWv \nt -]-Øn-\mbn sxc-s -Sp- p- -Xv. CXv em Pv Im]v amdp-tºmƒ e`n- p dnt hfsc hep-xm-wv. \nt -]-ti-j-c-øn 60 ix-am-\hpw CØcw Iº-\n-I-fmWv. em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-Ifn 8.61 ix-am\w \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p. kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-I-fnse \nt ]w ix-am-\-am-wv. ^ ns \nt -]-ti-j-c-øn ix-am-\hpw Hml-cn-bn \nt -]n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. tijn XpI Imjv Bbn kq n- n-cn- p- p. \nt -]-ti-j-c-ønse Hml-cn-Iƒ GsXm- -bm-sw p t\m mw. ^ v ap nb ]cn-k-w\ \evin-bn-cn- p- Xv [\-Im-cy-ta-J-e-bv m-wv. Hmlcn \nt -]-Øn ix-am-\hpw Cu taj-e-bnemwv \S-Øn-bn- p-f-f-xv. ssivt\m-fpn ( ix-am-\w), F^v Fw kn Pn (10.33 ix-am-\w), Hmt m (10.12iX-am-\w), k ho-kkv (7.9 ix-am- \w), sl Øv sib (7.37 ix-am-\w), I kv{s-ivj (6.91 ix-am-\w), F Pn-\o-bdnwKv (3.94 ix-am-\w), ssuth-gvkn-ss^uv (3.81iX-am-\w), sian- kv (1.05 ixam-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv \nt -]-ta-j-e-iƒ. CwKv sshiy (5.24 ix-am-\w), s] kn-ã v knãwkv (5.14 ix-am-\w), Ae-l- _mzv _m v (4.31 ix-am-\w), sfj tamt mgvkv (4.04 ix-am-\w), kn Fw kn (3.82 ix-am-\w), bpssw- Uv kv]ncn v (3.55 ix-am-\w), kpµcw ^n\m kv (3.14iX-am- \w), Fkv Fw F Ckpkp (2.96iX-am-\w), At{Km-sSIv (2.91 ix-am-\w), kzv`mhv F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv (2.85 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv apjy \nt -]- Hml-cn-Iƒ. \nt - ]-ti-j-c-øn 47 Hml-cn-I-fmWv \ne-hn-ep-f-f-xv. XpS- -am-sw- nepw ^ ns FIvkvs] kv tdtjym ix-am-\-am- Wv ix-am-\-hpw. h j-߃ Ign-bp- -txmss CXp Ipd- p-sim v hcphm Ign-bp-sa v ^ v amt\-p am-cmb ] Pv apcm -bpw- Pn-t\jv tkm]n-\mypw Icp-Xp- p. ]Xn-s\m p h jsø ayqnz ^ v ]cn-n-b-øn-\p-ti-j-amwv 2011 P\p-h-cn-bn ^ p amt\-p-cmbn ÿm\-ta- Xv Un Fkv ]n sadn en v, tam n-em Hmkzmƒ, bp Sn sf F Fw kn XpS-ßn-b-h-bn tpmen snbvx-xn-\p-ti-j-amwv CXnse-Øp- Xv. dnk v Akn-à mbn s\ v h Øv tãm t{_m nw-kn tpme-bn t{]h-in tkm]m-\nbpw \nc-h[n Iº-\n-I-fn {]h Øn- -ti-j-amwv 2011 G{]n-en Cu ^ n tn -Xv. ^ ns `mhn {]I-S\w {]h-nn- p-hm km[n- p-ibn-s - nepw C y kº-zvl-s-\-bpss hf -sb hnizm-k- ØnseSp-Øm ^ v Xo m-bmbpw ani {]I-S\w ImgvNh-bv m-\p-ff km[yx Gsd-bm-Wv. ^ ns ap \nc \nt -]-Hm-l-cn-I-sf mw Xs ani {]I-S\w ImgvN h p-sim- n-cn- p- -h-bm-wv. Zo L-Im-e-Øn ani dnt \evip- -Xn-\p-ff ^ ns Ignhv C\nbpw sxfn-bn-t Imcy-am-Wv. F m Aev]w dnkviv FSp- p-hm km[n- p- -h v H v ]co- n- m-hp- -XmWv Cu ] -Xn.

18 18 lnµp hf m-\n-c- n-te pff Xncn- p-t]m v? C y-bpss kmº-øni Ncn-{X-Øn hnπ-h-i-c-amb am -߃ hfsc Npcp- -am-wv. kzmx-{ y-øn\p tij-ap Bdv Zim-_vZ-ß-fn Ht m ct m am{xw. H m-a-tøxv lcnx hnπhw F v hnfn- p {Ko sdh-eyq-j. Adp-]-Xp-I-fn Bcw-`n v Fgp- ]-Xp-I-fn Xzcn-X-h-f t\sn sxmæq-dp-i-tfmss GXm v ]q Æ hf -bn-se-ønb Im jni cwksø A p-x-i-c-amb t\ -ß-sf-bmWv lcnx hnπhw F v ]d-bp- - Xv. Zi-e- -߃ ] n-wn-aqew acn- p-ho-wn-cp ma-im-esø Ft - p-ambn AXn- Po-hn- p-ibpw 120 timsn P\-߃ v ` y-kp-c Dd- m- p-ibpw snbvx Im jni hnkvabamwv shdpw 20 sim w sim v C y t\sn-b-xv. \man v 250 Zi-e w S ` y-[m-\y-߃ D m-zn- n- p- p. Icp-X [m\yw Xs 80 Zi-e w SÆn\p apifn. F m-h pw ` Ww F ` y-kp-c C v bym y-am-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. temi-ønse hfsc Npcp w cmpy-ß-fn am{xta temi-n-cn-{x-øn Cu A pxw kw`-hn- n- p- q. lcn-x-hn-π-h-øns A\p-_ -ßfm-Wv. [hf (]m ) hnπ-h-hpw, \oe (a- y- _- -\w) hnπ-h-hpw. Icn-ºn-s -bpw ]cp-øn-bp-ssbpw Ing-ßp-I-fp-sSbpw ]gw ] - -dn-i-fp-ss-bpw amwk-h-kvxp- -fpssbpw Imcy-Øn hnπ-h-i-c-amb t\ -ß-fmWv C y XpS p t\sn-b-xv. CXn\p ImcWw C y-bnse Zcn-{Z-cpw \nc- -c-cp-amb {Kmao-W B[p-\nI Irjn k{º-zm-b-߃ k m GP kn-iƒ h v \o n-b-t mƒ kzoi-cn- p-ibpw {]mh Øn-I-am- p-ibpw snbvx- Xp-sIm- mwv. Irjn B[p-\o-I-cn- m-\p D]m-[n-Iƒ, sh w, hfw, hnøv, IoS-\min-\n-, hmbv], Adn-hp-Iƒ, hn]-w\w XpSßn-bh FØn- p-sim-sp- p- -Xn am{xw k m tkh\w HXp-ßn-\n p-ibpw Irjn-bpw Irjn-`q-anbpw kzimcy hy n- Iƒ Ah-cpsS DS-a-ÿXbn \S-Øp-Ibpw snbvxp-x-sim- mwv CXv kw`-hn- -Xv. CXn \n p- - ]m-tanxm-wv. k m D m-z-\-ta-j-e-iƒ ssiø- S n hbv msx hy n-iƒ v {]h Øn- m-\p CShpw Np p-]m-spw hyh-ÿ-ifpw \ Ip-I-bmWv kmº-øni ]ptcm-k-xn v A\nhm-cy-sa- -Xm-Wv. sshin-bm-sw- nepw djy-bpw ssn\-bpw Ata-cn- bpw Cu Xncn- -dn-hn-te v FØnbncn- p- p. ]t \mtam HcSn apt m v h -Xn-\p-tijw c - Sn ]nt m v F \ne-bn-em-wv. c m-asø hnπhw C y-bpss kmº-øni cwkøv D mb c m-asø hnπh-amwv ssen-t^m dh-eyq-j. Ccp-]Xmw \q m- ns Ah-km\w hsc ssent^m Hcp B]q hkvxp-hpw ]W- m-cs BUw-_-chpw Hcp-an-\n v Bi-b-hn-\n- -a-b-øn\v awn- q-dp-iƒ ImØn-cp v Xmßm-\m-hmØ hne \ Ip-Ibpw th Hc-Xym-hiy tkh\ambn-cn- p- p. sim n-bn \n v U lnte v aq p an\n v kwkmcn m 100 cq]m AXm-bXv Hcp km[m-cw sxmgn-em-fn-bpss c p ZnhksØ Iqen. ImcWw C y ssent^m Un m vsa v F k m ÿm]-\-øns IpØ-I-bm-bn-cp p ssen-timw tkh-\w. F m Ccp-]Xmw \q m- ns Ah-km-\w ssent^m tkh\w k m kzim-cy-ta-j-e-bv viqsn hn p-sim-sp-øp. shdpw ]Øp-sIm w sim v C y-bnse ssen su kn n 80 e[n-i-am-bn. km[m-c-w- m-c-\pw kaq-l-øns G hpw Xmsg- [-\-im-kv-{xw- A-dn-bp-I- 44 tum.- ]n.-si.- G-{_-lmw n-s-bn-ep- -h-\pw F n\v `n - m p-t]mepw ssent^m kz -am- m\pw D]-tbm-Kn- m\pw C p Ign-bp- p. \ΩpsS kaq-l-øns PohnX ]ptcm-k-xn-bv pw PohnX \ne-hm-c-øn-\pw am\-kni kwxr-]vxn pw (^o KpUv) B`y- c samø - D m-z-\-øn\pw hy n-kx D m-z-\- a-xbv pw k -Xe hf bv pw (C qkohv t{kmøv) ssent^m \ Inb kw`mh-\-iƒ, kq{]ow-tim-s-xn-bpw {]Xn- ]- hpw k m HmUn- amcpw Ip m-t\zjn-ifpw ImWmsX t]mhpibpw Ah-cp-sSXmb IÆm-Sn-I-fn-eqsS Is Øn AXns\ \n -Nn- p-hm\pw \nb-{ n- p-hm\pw XpSßn-b-Xns Xn -^-e-߃ `mc-xob P\X A\p-`-hn- p-hm XpS-ßn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. kvs]iv{sw hne-iq- p- -X-\p-k-cn v ssent^m tkh-\-øn\p Nnehv IqSpw. km[m-c-w- m-c\v Xmßm-hp- -Xnepw A[n- I-hne CuSm-t - n-h-cpw. ssen-t^m tkh\ hf 2010 Øn\p-tijw ]nt m v t]mbn-cn- p- p. CXns BLmXw kakvx-ta-j-i-sfbpw apc-sn- n- p- p. kmº- ØnI hf 10 ix-am-\-øn \n v A v ix-am\w Bb-Xns {][m-\m-imcw-ß-fnsem- v CXm-Wv. ssen-t^m tkh\ h - \hpw kmºøni hf m \nc- pw ]ckv]-c -_- n-xamwv. B`y- c D m-z-\- Ønepw D m-z-\- -a-xbv pw hnh-c-kmt -XnI hnzybpw (sf.-sn) hnhc kmt - XnI hnzysb Iq n-tbm-pn- n- p Xn\p-ff {]mh ØnI LSIw ssen-t^m tkh- \-hpam-wv. c m-bn-cm-am- n\p tijw 2010 hsc CXv k m, timsxn, s]meokv, HmUn- - dv, I t{smƒ cmpn\v Iogn-e- m-xn-cp- Xn\m Hcp ssen hnπhw km[n- p. F m C v ssen-t^m ho pw Ch v Iogn-embns m n-cn- p p. CXv XpS m C y ho pw ]gb lnµp hf m \nc- n-te v (lnµp hf m-\n-c v 2 4 ixam\w) Xe-Ip-Øpw. CXv P\-ßfpw P\-{]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fpw a\-kn-em- -Ww. {]txy-in pw P\-{]-Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ. C y- m-cpss Bbp ssz Lyw Db-cp p Ign \mev]xp h j-øn-\p-f-fn C y- m-cpss Bbp ssz Ly-Øn 15 h j-øns h [-\-bp- m-bn. ]pcp-j- m-cpss Imcy-Øn 15 h jønt bpw kv{xoi-fpss Imcy-Øn 18 h j-ønt bpw h [-\-bm-wp- m-bn- p-f-fxv. AXm-bXv 40 h jw apºp-ff ]pcp-j- m-tc- mƒ 15 h jw IqSp-X Ct mgsø ]pcp-j- m Pohn- p- p. k{xo- I-fm-Is ] p-f-f-h-tc- mƒ 18 h jhpw IqSp-X Imew Pohn- p- p. C y ]pcp-j- m-cpss icm-icn Pohn- X-Imew Ct mƒ 63.2 h jhpw kv{xoifp-tsxv 67.5 h j-hp-am-wv. C y- m-cpss Bbp ssz Lyw IqSn-sb- nepw hbkp-im-eøv Btcm-Ky-ÿnXn tami-amsw- mwv ]T\w ]d-bp- -Xv. ]m n-ÿm ]pcp-j- m-cpss Pohn- X-ssZ Lyw 40 h j- m-eøv 52.4 h j-øn \n v 63.9 h j-ambn Db t mƒ kv{xoi-fpss Pohn-X-Im-e-Øn 16.7 h j-øns h [-\-bm-wp- m-b-xv. Ah-cpsS icm-icn Pohn-X-ssZ Lyw 67.8 h j-am-wv. _wkvfm-tziv ]pcp-js Pohn-X-ssZ Lyw 67.2 h jhpw kv{xoifp-tsxv 71 h j-hp-am-wv. temi P\-kw-Jy-sb-Sp- p-tºmƒ ]pcp-j- m-cpss Pohn-X-ssZ Lyw se 56.4 h j-øn \n v hb-kmbn Db n- p- v. kv{xoi-fpss icm-icn Pohn-X-Imew Cu Ime-b-fhn 61.2 h j-øn \n v 73.3 h jambn Db p. ssn\okv ]pcp-js Pohn-X-ssZ Lyw 72.9 h j-am-wv. C y ]pcp-j- m-tc- mƒ ]Øph jw IqSp-X. ssn\okv h\nx C y kv{xoi-tf- mƒ 11.5 h jw IqSp-X Imew Pohn- p- p. Ata-cn- - m-cs icm-icn Pohn-X-ssZ Lyw C y- m-tc- mƒ 13 h jw IqSp-X-em- Wv. {_n ojv saun- tp W-emb em sk- mwv Cu187 cmpy-ß-fn Cu ]T\w \S-Øn-b-Xv. temiøv G hpw IqSp-X Imew Pohn- n-cn- p- Xv P m Im-cm-Wv. Chn- SpsØ h\n-x-i-fpss icm-icn Bbp ssz Lyw 85.9 h jhpw ]pcp-j- m-cp-tsxv 80 h j-hp-am-wv. G hpw Ipd Imew Pohn- p- Xv slbvxn- m-cm-wv. Ah-cpsS icm-icn Bbp ssz Lyw ]pcp-j- m v 32.5 h jhpw kv{xoiƒ v 43.6 h j-hp-am- Wv. BtKmf P\-kwJy se 370 timsnbn \n v timsn-bmbn Db n- p- v. CXp-aqew ac-w-kwjypw h [n- n- p- v timsn P\- ߃ acn- -t mƒ AXv 5.28 timsn-bmbn Db p. A p hb-kn Xmsg-bp-f-f- Ip n-i-fpss acww se 24.9 ix-am-\-øn \n v ixam-\-ambn Ipd- n- p- v.

19 C\n ]cn-k-w\ hf bv v 19 dnk hv _m pw AXns Xe-h {Zphn kp -dm-hphpw Ah-cpsS hgn-bn X\n- mwv \oßp- -Xv. ]W-s -cp- -Øns\-Xn-tc-bp-ff H -bmƒ t]mcm- -Øn-emsW p thw-sa- n ]d-bmw. [\-a-{ m-e-b-tøbpw hyh-km-bta-j-e-i-tfbpw \ncm-i-s -SpØn Unkw- _ 18- se ]W-\-b-Ønepw \b]eni-\n-c- p-i-fn Ipdhv hcp-øp-hm kp -dmhp Xbm-dm-bn-. ]W-s -cp w Ct mgpw Bi- -s -Sp-Øp- -Xm-sW \ne-bn-em-sw \ne-]m-sn-emwv dnk hv _m v. F nepw ASpØ Izm apx \nc- p-ifn Ipdhp {]Xo- n- m-sa v kqn\ \evinbn-cn-in-bn p v. Ign aq p h j-am-bp-ff t]mcm- -Øns ^e-ambn ]W-s -cp Øns dnkviv Ipd-bp kml- N-cy-Øn C\n IqSp-Xembn kmº-zvl-s-\-bpss hf -bn-tebv v {i am phm Dt±-in- p- psh- mwv kp -dmhp kmº-øn-im-h-tem-i-\- Øn hy -am- p- -Xv. Unkw-_ 18- se ]W-\-b-Øn-eqsS dnk hv _m pw kp -dmhphpw Ah-cpsS kzx{ \ne-]msv Db Øn- n-sn- p-i am{xa-, C{X-\mfpw ]pe Øn-t m \ne- ]msn Dd p \nev p- p. Ign Ime-ß-fn ]W-s -cp- -Øn-s\-Xn-tcbp-ff t]mcm- -Øn dnk hv _m v H -bv mbn-cp- p. kω ±-߃ v hgßn ]eni-\n-c- p-iƒ Ipd- n-cp- p-sh- n AXv hf sb klm-bn- p-am-bn-cp- n-s pw ]Icw ]W-s -cp- sø XpW-bv p-ambn-cp- p-sh- mwv hkvxp-x. GXm-bmepw dnk hv _m ns i -amb \ne-]msv Kh-s ns\ kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ v \n _- am- n. kω ±Øn\v hg-ßmsx cmpy- Øns kmº-øn-im-tcm-ky-øn\v At±lw ap Xq w \evin. ]W-s -cp- -Øn-s\-Xn-tc-bp-ff t]mcm- -Øn-\v ti{µ-_m v ap K-W\ \evin Dd p \n p. ]W-s -cp- -Øn-s\-Xntc H - bv p-xs t]mcmsn P\p-h-cn-bn ]ei \nc v Ipd-bv p-hm-\p-ff A co w At±lw krjvsn-s -Sp-Øn-cn- p- I-bmWv. kp -dm-hp-hns \ne-]msv C ybv v Zo L-Im-e-Øn KpWw snøp-sa mwv Icp-Xp- -Xv. C y-bpss [\-Im-cym-Sn-Ød i -am- p-hm CXp klm-bn- p. dnt]m-\n-c v (_m- p-iƒ ti{µ _m n \n v FSp- p hmbv]bv v CuSm- p ]en-i) F p ix-am-\- Ønepw dnthgvkv dnt]m ( _m p-iƒ ti{µ _m n\v \evip hmbv]bv v e`n- p ]eni) 7 ix-am-\-ønepw kn B B ( _m p-iƒ ti{µ-_m- n kq n-t XpI) 4.25 ix-am-\- Ønepw am -an- msx \ne-\n Øp-I-bmbn-cp- p \p-ti-j-ap-ff \nc- nemwv kn B B. ]W-s -cp w Ipd- m 2013 P\p-h-cn am v Izm -dn \b ]en-i-\n-c- p-iƒ Ipd-bv p-sa v Pqsse-bn c mw Izm kmº-øn- Im-h-tem-I-\-Ønepw kq -dmhp hy - am- n-bn-cp- p. C\n 2013 P\p-hcn 29- -\mwv dnk hv _m ns ]W-\-b-sa-Øp-I. Ct m-gsø BtKmf kmº-øn- Im- -co- -Øn ]W-s -cp w Bi- - bp-w Øp \ne-bn Xs -bm-sw- mbn-cp p dnk hv _m ns \ne-]m-sv. Cc- - -Ωn-Iƒ Ipd-bv p-hm Khs v Bh-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ssis m-f-f-w-sa v Ign ]W-\-bß-fn-se mw dnk hv _m v Bh-iy-s - p-h-cn-i-bm-bn-cp- p. \nhr-øn-bn- msx Nne \S-]-Sn-Iƒ Kh-s v FSp pibpw snbvxp. LS-\-]-c-ambn C\nbpw am w h mse kmº-øni hf icn-bmb ]mx-bn FØp-I-bpf-fp-sh- mwv dnk hv _m v ]W-\-b- Øn-eqsS hy -am- p- -Xv. kmº- ØnI hf sb ]en-i \nc- p-iƒ sndnb txmxnte kzm[o-\n- p p psh pw dnk hv _m v hniz-kn- p- p. kmº-øni hf sb Xf Øp {][m\ kwk-xn-iƒ [\-I-Ωnbpw Id v A u v IΩn-bp-am-sW- mwv dnk hv _m pw kp -dm-hphpw Bh Øn p hy -am- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. Cc- - -Ωn-Iƒ Ipd-bvIp-I- -Xn\v Kh-s v FSp-Øn- p-ff \S-]-Sn-Isf ivfmln- p-hm dnk hv _m v ad- n- n-. C\n ]W-\-b-Øns Zni kmº- ØnI hf -bv v Du \evin-bmbn-cn- p-sa v kp -dmhp hy -am- nb-xp-xs Kh-s n-\p-ff AwKo-Im-cam-Wv. hf -bn-tebv v {i ti{µo-icn- p-hm-\p-t±-in- p ti{µ _m v CXn\p klm-b-i-amb hn[-øn hn]- Wn-bn ]W-e-`yX sa -s -Sp-Øp-hm Dt±-in- p- p. IqSmsX ]W e`yx h [n- n- p- -Xn-\mbn dnk hv _m v t_m v hmßpw. Bh-iy-sa- n kn B B 4.25 ix-am-\-øn \n v Ipdbv p-hm\pw Dt±-in- p- p. hmbv]m-hf 17 ix-am-\-ambn Ipd- n-cn- p- Xn-\m-emWv kn B Bdn am w hcp-øm-øxv. ]W-s -cp w c p amk-߃iqsn Db p \nev p-sa pw P\p-hcn apx Ipd-bp-sa- p-amwv HIvtSm-_-dse ssku kn dnk hv _m v ]d- ncp- -Xv. \hw-_-dn {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ Ipd- p-sh- nepw HIvtSm-_ ssku kns ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv dnk hv _m v \oßp- -Xv. \hw-_-dn 7.6 ix-am\w ]W-s -cp w {]Xo- n- ncp- p-sh- nepw AXv 7.24 ix-am-\-am-wv. HIvtSm-_-dn 7.45 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp p ]W-s -cp- w. F nepw dos -bn C ^vtf-j 9.9 ix-am\w F Db Xe-Øn Xs -bmwv. AtX-k-abw kmº-øni hf 5.8 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- p-sa HIvtSm-_ ssku kn dnk hv _m v Dd p \nev p-i-bm-wv. ]t AZy ]Ip-Xnbn 5.4 ix-am-\-amwv hf. dnk hv _m v {]Xo n p hf t\s-w-sa- dnk hv _m v ]W-\bw XobXn dnthgvkv dnt]m FkvF B knb B dnt]m 2012 Unkw-_ (am -an- ) 2012 HIvtSm-_ ( 0.25) 2012 sk]v w-_ ( 0.25) 2012 HmKÃv ( 1.00)4.75 (am -an- ) 2012 G{]n 17 7 ( 0.50) 8( 0.50) (am -an- ) 2012 am v ( 0.75) 2012 P\p-hcn ( 0.50) 2011 HIvtSm-_ (0.25) 8.50 ( 0.25) (am -an- ) 2011 sk]v w-_ (0.25) 8.25 ( 0.25) (am -an- ) 2011 Pqsse (0.50) 8.00 ( 0.50) (am -an- ) 2011 Pq (0.25) 7.50 ( 0.25) (am -an- ) 2011 sabv (0.50) 7.25 ( 0.50) (am -an- ) 2011 am v (0.25) 6.75 ( 0.25) (am -an- ) n c mw ]Ip-Xn-bn 6.2 ix-am\w hf t\s-ww. Db kmº-øni hf bv v ]W-\-b-Øn Abhp ht axn-bm-iq. Cu Abhv an -hmdpw 2013 P\p-h-cn-bn D m-tb- pw. A mbn-cp- p-sh- n hf m-\n-c v {]Xo dnk hv _m v Ipd-bv p-am-bn-cp- p. aq mw Izm -dn hf sa -s -Sp-sa- mwv dnk hv _m ns hne-bn-cp- Ø. AXns XpS \memw Izm dn-ep-ap- m-ipw. XpS v hf bv v ]pxnb am\w e`n- p-sa p Icp-Xp- p. Hmlcn hn]wn hfsc t]mko- ohm-bn- mwv {]Xn-I-cn- n- p-f-f-xv. P\p-hcn-bn \nc- p-iƒ Ipd-bv p-sa v hnizm-k-øn hn]wn sa -s -Sp-I-bmbn-cp- p kmº-øni hf bpw sa -s -Sp-sa v hn]wn Icp- Xp- p. AS-hp-injvS \ne Bi- -bp- W Øp \ne-bn Xs -bm-wv. {IqtUm-bn Cd- p-axn h [n- p- - XmWv {]iv\w. {IqtUm-bn hne Ipd- n pw hym]m-c- IΩn G{]n Unkw-_ Ime-b-f-hn hy]m-c-iωn Db n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. CXv AS-hp-injvS \ne-bn kω ±-ap- m- p-i-bm-wv. c mw Izm -dn C y-bn-tebv p-ff hntz-i-\m-wy-samgp v h [n- n pw cq] Zp _- e-am-ip-i-bmwv snbvxv. ImcWw Db-cp Id v A u v IΩn-bm-sW v dnk hv _m v hne-bn-cp-øp- p. Id v A u v IΩn cmpy-tøbv v ]W-s -cp w sim p-h-cp- p-sh p am{xa hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-cpsS Bfl-hn-izm-k-tØbpw _m[n- p- p. CXn-\p-ff ]cnlmcw Kh-s v `mk-øp-\n- m-wp- m-th- -Xv. Ign aq p amkambn hf sb Xzcn-X-s -Sp- Øp-hm-\p-ff \b-߃ Khs v \S- m n hcn-i-bm- Wv. CXn\p t{]m m-l-\- sa \ne-bn dnk hv _m v ]W-\-b-Øn hcpw Izm -dp-ifn ]W-\-b-Øn Abhp hcp-tø- n-bn-cn- p p. AXn-\p-ff k - X Cu ]W-\-b-Øn dnk hv _m pw kp -dm-hphpw {]Jym-]n- n-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. ]t CXv Kh-s ns\ Beky-Øn-tebv v Xf-fn-hn-S-cp-Xv. ]cn-jvimc-߃ XpS-c-Ww. \nt -]-Øn-\p-ff Ah-km\ Ah-kcw Hcp ]t Db ]en-i-\n-c- n ÿnc \nt ]w \S-Øm-\p-ff Ah-k-camWv Ct m-g-tø-xv. P\p-hcn 29 FØp- -txmss dnk hv _m v \b ]en-i-\nc- p-iƒ sh n- p-d-t - pw. Atß-b w t]mbm am v hsc Cu Ah-kcw e`n-t - pw. AXn-\p-ff km[yx Ipd- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. Unkw-_ 18- se kmº-\-øn-im-h-tem-i-\-øn ]en-i-\n-c- p-iƒ Ipd- n-s - nepw AXv ASpØ Izm -dn kw`-hn- p-sa v GXm v Dd- n- p-xs dnk hv _m v ]d- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ]ne-i-\n-c v CØ-hW Ipd-bv m-ø-xn- \m s]s v ]en-i-\n-c v CSn-bp-sa v `b-s -ts-. F m kω ±-ap-b-cp- p- v. Npcp- -Øn Db ]en-i-bn Ign Ime-ß-fn \nt ]w \S- Øm Ign-bm-Ø-h v kao-]-im-esø G hpw Ah-km-\sØ ka-b-amwv Ct mƒ C\n FØn-bn-cn- p- -Xv. Nm{InI kz`m-h-ap-ff ]eni kwhn-[m-\-øn C\n CSn-hn-\p-ff Ime-am-Wv. kº-zvl-s\ \evip kqn-\-i-fp-a-xm-wv. ]Ws -cp w ]Øp-am-ksØ G hpw XmgvN-bn-em-Wv. hcpw amk-ß-fn C\nbpw Xmgp-sa- mwv dnk hv _m v hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. kmº-øni hf sa -s p XpS-ßp-sa pw hne-bn-cp-øp- p. _m p-i-fnse ÿnc-\n-t -]-\n-c v 9 ix-am-\-øn\v Np -f-hn-em-wv. AXv ]Øp ix-am\w hsc FØn-bn-cp- p. Ign c p amk- m-eøv Iº\n Unt m-kn- p-i-fpss ]en-i-\n-c- n 0.25 ix-am-\-øns Ipdhv kw`-hn- n- p- v.

20 20 VOICE OF WEALTH January 2013 Registered No. KL/EKM/672/ Reg. No. KERBIL/ 2006/ RN Owned, Printed and Published by George Alexander Muthoot, G343, Panampilly Nagar, Kochi-36 and Printed at Cherrys Printers, for Viani Printers, Kochi. Editor In Charge: Joy Philip (Responsible for story selection)

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]cn-ÿnxn `oi-c-cpss. ap -dn-bn- p-iƒ \evin ]W-\bw 5. a kq `mkyamiptam? 10. C y v Bizmkambn {IqUv hne VOL. 8 ISSUE 6 JUNE PRICE Rs. 1 ap -dn-bn- p-iƒ \evin ]W-\bw 5 ]cn-ÿnxn `oi-c-cpss a kq `mkyamiptam? 10 Cc VOL. 8 ISSUE 6 PRICE Rs. 10/- C y v Bizmkambn {IqUv hne 19 2 ]n n ÿm]nx Xmev]-cy- m temi-øns hnhn[ `mk-ß-fn {]Xn-Zn\w 15 Zi-e

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