# MATHEMATICS (IX-X) (Code No. 041)

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1 MATHEMATICS (IX-X) (Code No. 041) The Syllabus in the subject of Mathematics has undergone changes from time to time in accordance with growth of the subject and emerging needs of the society. The present revised syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in the Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. For motivating the teacher to relate the topics to real life problems and other subject areas, greater emphasis has been laid on applications of various concepts. The curriculum at Secondary stage primarily aims at enhancing the capacity of students to employ Mathematics in solving day-to-day life problems and studying the subject as a separate discipline. It is expected that students should acquire the ability to solve problems using algebraic methods and apply the knowledge of simple trigonometry to solve problems of height and distances. Carrying out experiments with numbers and forms of geometry, framing hypothesis and verifying these with further observations form inherent part of Mathematics learning at this stage. The proposed curriculum includes the study of number system, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, mensuration, statistics, graphs and coordinate geometry, etc. The teaching of Mathematics should be imparted through activities which may involve the use of concrete materials, models, patterns, charts, pictures, posters, games, puzzles and experiments. Objectives The broad objectives of teaching of Mathematics at secondary stage are to help the learners to: consolidate the Mathematical knowledge and skills acquired at the upper primary stage; acquire knowledge and understanding, particularly by way of motivation and visualization, of basic concepts, terms, principles and symbols and underlying processes and skills; develop mastery of basic algebraic skills; develop drawing skills; feel the flow of reason while proving a result or solving a problem; apply the knowledge and skills acquired to solve problems and wherever possible, by more than one method; to develop ability to think, analyze and articulate logically; 49

2 to develop awareness of the need for national integration, protection of environment, observance of small family norms, removal of social barriers, elimination of gender biases; to develop necessary skills to work with modern technological devices and mathematical softwares. to develop interest in mathematics as a problem-solving tool in various fields for its beautiful structures and patterns, etc. to develop reverence and respect towards great Mathematicians for their contributions to the field of Mathematics; to develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions; to acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in daily life; to develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS -IX Units Unit Name Marks I NUMBER SYSTEMS 08 II ALGEBRA 17 III COORDINATE GEOMETRY 04 IV GEOMETRY 28 V MENSURATION 13 VI STATISTICS & PROBABILITY 10 Total 80 UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS 1. REAL NUMBERS (18 Periods) 1. Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals on the number line through successive magnification. Rational numbers as recurring/ terminating decimals. Operations on real numbers. 2. Examples of non-recurring/non-terminating decimals. Existence of nonrational numbers (irrational numbers) such as 2, 3 and their representation on the number line. Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line and conversely, viz. every point on the number line represents a unique real number. 3. Definition of n th root of a real number. 4. Existence of x for a given positive real number x and its representation on the number line with geometric proof. 50

3 5. Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type 1 and 1 (and their combinations) where x and y are natural a+b x x+ y number and a and b are integers. 6. Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.) UNIT II: ALGEBRA 1. POLYNOMIALS (23) Periods Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial. Motivate and State the Remainder Theorem with examples. Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem. Factorization of ax 2 + bx + c, a 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem. Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Verification of identities: (x+y+z) 2 = x 2 +y 2 +z 2 +2xy+2yz+2zx (x±y) 3 = x 3 ±y 3 ±3xy (x±y) x 3 ±y 3 = (x±y) (x 2 xy+y 2 ) ± x 3 +y 3 +z 3-3xyz=(x+y+z) (x 2 +y 2 +z 2 -xy-yz-zx) and their use in factorization of polynomials. 2. LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES (14) Periods Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables. Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0. Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line. Graph of linear equations in two variables. Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously. COORDINATE GEOMETRY UNIT III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY (6) Periods The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane. 51

4 UNIT IV: GEOMETRY 1. INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID S GEOMETRY (6) Periods History - Geometry in India and Euclid s geometry. Euclid s method of formalizing observed phenomenon into rigorous Mathematics with definitions, common/ obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems. The five postulates of Euclid. Equivalent versions of the fifth postulate. Showing the relationship between axiom and theorem, for example: (Axiom) 1. Given two distinct points, there exists one and only one line through them. (Theorem) 2. (Prove) Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common. 2. LINES AND ANGLES (13) Periods 1. (Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180 O and the converse. 2. (Prove) If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are equal. 3. (Motivate) Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines. 4. (Motivate) Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel. 5. (Prove) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 O. 6. (Motivate) If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles. 3. TRIANGLES (20) Periods 1. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence). 2. (Prove) Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence). 3. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence). 4. (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle. (RHS Congruence) 5. (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal. 6. (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal. 52

5 7. (Motivate) Triangle inequalities and relation between angle and facing side inequalities in triangles. 4. QUADRILATERALS (10) Periods 1. (Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles. 2. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely. 3. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely. 4. (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal. 5. (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely. 6. (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and in half of it and (motivate) its converse. 5. AREA (7) Periods Review concept of area, recall area of a rectangle. 1. (Prove) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels have the same area. 2. (Motivate) Triangles on the same (or equal base) base and between the same parallels are equal in area. 6. CIRCLES (15) Periods Through examples, arrive at definition of circle and related concepts-radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment, subtended angle. 1. (Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse. 2. (Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord. 3. (Motivate) There is one and only one circle passing through three given noncollinear points. 4. (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely. 5. (Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. 6. (Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. 7. (Motivate) If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle. 53

6 8. (Motivate) The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180 o and its converse. 7. CONSTRUCTIONS (10) Periods 1. Construction of bisectors of line segments and angles of measure 60 o, 90 o, 45 o etc., equilateral triangles. 2. Construction of a triangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle. 3. Construction of a triangle of given perimeter and base angles. UNIT V: MENSURATION 1. AREAS (4) Periods Area of a triangle using Heron s formula (without proof) and its application in finding the area of a quadrilateral. 2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES (12) Periods Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones. UNIT VI: STATISTICS & PROBABILITY 1. STATISTICS (13) Periods Introduction to Statistics: Collection of data, presentation of data tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms (with varying base lengths), frequency polygons. Mean, median and mode of ungrouped data. 2. PROBABILITY (9) Periods History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability. Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real - life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics). 54

7 QUESTIONS PAPER DESIGN CLASS IX Mathematics (Code No. 041) Time : 3 hrs Marks: 80 S. No. Typology of Questions Very Short (VSA) (1 Mark) Short -I (SA) (2 Marks) Short -II (SA) (3 Marks) Long (LA) (4 Marks) Total Marks % Weightage (approx.) 1 Remembering (Knowledge based % Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles or theories; Identify, define, or recite, information) 2 Understanding (Comprehension % to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase, or interpret information) 3 Application (Use abstract information % in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situation; Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 4 Higher Order Thinking Skills % (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; Organize and /or integrate unique pieces of information from variety of sources ) 5 Evaluation (Judge, and/or justify % the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) Total 6x1=6 6x2 =12 10x3 =30 8x4 = % Note: One of the LA will be to assess the values inherent in the texts. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT 20 Marks Periodical Test 10 Marks Note Book Submission 05 Marks Lab Practical (Lab activities to be done from the prescribed books) 05 Marks 55

8 COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS -X Units Unit Name Marks I NUMBER SYSTEMS 06 II ALGEBRA 20 III COORDINATE GEOMETRY 06 IV GEOMETRY 15 V TRIGONOMETRY 12 VI MENSURATION 10 VII STATISTICS & PROBABILTY 11 Total 80 UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS 1. REAL NUMBERS (15 Periods) Euclid s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of irrationality of 2, 3, 5 Decimal representation of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals. UNIT II: ALGEBRA 1. POLYNOMIALS (7) Periods Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients. 2. PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES (15) Periods Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution, consistency/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations. 3. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS (15) Periods Standard form of a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, (a 0). Solutions of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be incorporated. 56

9 4. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS (8) Periods Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the n th term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems. UNIT III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY 1. LINES (In two-dimensions) (14) Periods Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle. UNIT IV: GEOMETRY 1. TRIANGLES (15) Periods Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles. 1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio. 2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side. 3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar. 4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar. 5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar. 6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other. 7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides. 8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. 9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right angle. 2. CIRCLES (8) Periods Tangent to a circle at, point of contact 1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact. 2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal. 57

10 3. CONSTRUCTIONS (8) Periods 1. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally). 2. Tangents to a circle from a point outside it. 3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle. UNIT V: TRIGONOMETRY 1. INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY (10) Periods Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0 O and 90 O. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30 O, 45 O and 60 O. Relationships between the ratios. 2. TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES (15) Periods Proof and applications of the identity sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles. 3. HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES: Angle of elevation, Angle of Depression. (8) Periods Simple problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30 O, 45 O, 60 O. UNIT VI: MENSURATION 1. AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES (12) Periods Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60, 90 and 120 only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.) 2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES (12) Periods 1. Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone. 2. Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken). 58

11 UNIT VII: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 1. STATISTICS (18) Periods Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph. 2. PROBABILITY (10) Periods Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set notation). 59

12 QUESTIONS PAPER DESIGN CLASS X Mathematics (Code No. 041) Time : 3 hrs Marks: 80 S. No. Typology of Questions Very Short (VSA) (1 Mark) Short -I (SA) (2 Marks) 1 Remembering (Knowledge based- Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles or theories; Identify, define, or recite, information) 2 Understanding (Comprehensionto be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase, or interpret information) 3 Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situation; Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 4 Higher Order Thinking Skills (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; Organize and /or integrate unique pieces of information from variety of sources ) 5 Evaluation ( Judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) Total 6x1=6 6x2 =12 Short -II (SA) (3 Marks) Long (LA) (4 Marks) Total Marks % Weightage (approx.) % % % % % 10x3 =30 Note: One of the LA will be to assess the values inherent in the texts. 8x4 = % 60

13 INTERNAL ASSESSMENT 20 Marks Periodical Test 10 Marks Note Book Submission 05 Marks Lab Practical (Lab activities to be done from the prescribed books) 05 Marks PRESCRIBED BOOKS: 1. Mathematics - Textbook for class IX - NCERT Publication 2. Mathematics - Textbook for class X - NCERT Publication 3. Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, class IX - CBSE Publication 4. Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, class X - CBSE Publication 5. Laboratory Manual - Mathematics, secondary stage - NCERT Publication 6. Mathematics exemplar problems for class IX, NCERT publication. 7. Mathematics exemplar problems for class X, NCERT publication. 61

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