Forward-Active Terminal Currents

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Forward-Active Terminal Currents"

Transcription

1 Forward-Active Terminal Currents Collector current: (electron diffusion current density) x (emitter area) diff J n AE qd n n po A E V E V th e W (why minus sign? is by def. positive-in, opposite to x direction) ase current: (reverse-injected hole diffusion current density) x(emitter area) (minus sign again reflects positive-in convention for vs. x direction) diff J pe AE qd p p neo A E V E V th ( e 1) W E

2 Forward-Active Current Gains Emitter current: Kirchoff s current law --> -( ) diff diff ( J n J pe )A E qd p p neo A E qd n A n po E e V E V th W E W The ratio of collector current to the magnitude of the emitter current is defined as alpha-f qd n n po A E W qd p p neo A E qd n A α F n po E W E W α F --> 1... typically, α F 0.99.

3 Current Gains (cont.) The ratio of collector current to base current can be found in terms of α F : 1 α F I α C F α F Solving for as a function of, we find that α F I β 1 α F F. A typical value is β F with an uncertainty of /- 50% since it is a sensitive function of the parameters and internal dimensions of the JT.

4 The Saturation Region V CE(sat) 0.1 V (approx) from the characteristics --> both the emitter-base and the base-collector junctions are forward-biased Law of the Junction --> find minority carrier concentrations in the emitter, base, and the collector p ne (x) n p (x) p nc (x) emitter base collector edge of n buried layer W E x E x E 0 W W x C x electrons from -E junction electrons from -C junction oth junctions are injecting and both are also collecting... since the electric field in the depletion region remains in the same direction under forward bias. Separate the electron diffusion current in the base into two components: one due to the emitter-base junction (with zero bias on the base-collector junction) and the other due to the base-collector junction: diff J n n po ( e V E V th 1) n po ( e V C V th 1) qd n qd W n W

5 Ebers-Moll Model Electron diffusion current in the base: multiply by the emitter area I diff I S ( e V E V th 1) I S ( e V C V th 1) I 1 I 2 Emitter current : three components 1. - I 1 due to injection of electrons from the emitter-base junction, 2. - I 1 / β F due to reverse injection of holes into the emitter, and 3. I 2 due to collection of electrons from the base-collector junction. 1 I 1 ( I 1 β F ) I I1 I β 2 F I1 I α 2 F Collector current : three components (by symmetry) 1. - I 2 due to injection of electrons from the base-collector junction, 2. - I 2 / β R due to reverse injection of holes into the collector, and 3. I 1 due to collection of electrons from the emitter-base junction I 2 I 1 I I 1 β I2 I R β I2 R α R β R α R / ( 1 - α R ) is the reverse current gain

6 Ebers-Moll Model (cont.) Standard form for Ebers-Moll equations: define two new constants Emitter current: S I S / α F and S I S / α R, S ( e V E V th 1) α R S ( e V C V th 1) Collector current: α F S ( e V E V th 1) S ( e V C V th 1) The collector current and the emitter current represent two diodes with currentcontrolled current sources coupling the emitter and the collector branches

7 Carrier Fluxes in Saturation oth junctions injecting and collecting; holes injected into collector recombine with electrons upon reaching the n buried layer For bias condition shown, > 0... injection from emitter-base junction still dominates. (could have 0 or even < 0) hole diffusion flux n polysilicon n emitter majority hole flux from base contact n buried layer n-type collector minority hole diffusion flux majority electron flux from collector contact to recombine with hole diffusion flux,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, majority electrons electron diffusion p-type base majority electron flux from collector contact supplying injection into base majority electron flux to collector contact

8 Ebers-Moll Equivalent Circuit C α F I F I R Diode Currents: I F S (e V E V th 1) I R S (e V C V th 1) I F α R I R E This model for the JT applies to general device structures, with the four parameters S, S, α F, and α R being linked by reciprocity α F S α R S I S Ebers-Moll must be simplified for hand calculation

9 Forward Active Model I R is negligible --> can neglect current through -C diode C I F α F C α F I F I R E Emitter current control I F α R I R C β F E E ase current control Eliminate forward-biased diode by replacing with a 0.7 V battery: β F - _ 0.7 V C _ 0.7 V C β F E E

10 Saturation Include both diodes in the circuit... both as batteries C _ 0.7 V _ 0.1 V E note that the batteries make the controlled current sources irrelevent to the circuit.

11 Small-Signal Model of the Forward-Active npn JT Transconductance (same concept as for MOSFET): g m i C v E Ebers-Moll (forward-active): i C I S e v E V th i C i C i c slope g m V E V E v be v E V E v E Evaluating the derivative, we find that g m I S V E V th e V th V th

12 Input Resistance The collector current is a function of the base current in the forward-active region (recall β F ). At the operating point, we define β o i C i and so i c β o i b. (Note that the DC beta β F and the small-signal β o are both highly variable from device to device) Since the base current is therefore a function of the base-emitter voltage, we define the input resistance r π as: 1 r π i v E i i C i C v E gm β o Solving for the input resistance r π β o β o V th g m ktβ o q For a high input resistance (often desirable), we need a high current gain or a low DC bias current.

13 Output Resistance The Ebers-Moll model has perfect current source behavior in the forward-active region -- actual characteristics show some increase: V An V CE Why? ase width shrinks due to encroachment by base-collector depletion region Approximate model: introduce Early voltage V An to model increase in i C Model: i C I S e v E V th v CE V An Output resistance: 1 r o i C v CE V An

14 Numerical Values of Small-Signal Elements i b i c base collector v be v π r π g m v π r o v ce emitter Transconductance: 100 µa, V th 25 mv --> g m 4 ms 4 x 10-3 S Note: g m varies linearly with collector current and is independent of device geometry, in contrast to the MOSFET Input resistance: β o 100, 100 µa, V th 25 mv --> r π 25 kω Output resistance: 100 µa, V An 35 V --> r o 350 kω V An Early voltage increases with increasing base width and decreases with decreasing base doping.

figure shows a pnp transistor biased to operate in the active mode

figure shows a pnp transistor biased to operate in the active mode Lecture 10b EE-215 Electronic Devices and Circuits Asst Prof Muhammad Anis Chaudhary BJT: Device Structure and Physical Operation The pnp Transistor figure shows a pnp transistor biased to operate in the

More information

EE105 - Fall 2006 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits

EE105 - Fall 2006 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits EE105 - Fall 2006 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Jan M. Rabaey (jan@eecs) Lecture 21: Bipolar Junction Transistor Administrative Midterm Th 6:30-8pm in Sibley Auditorium Covering everything

More information

Lecture 17 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Forward Active Regime

Lecture 17 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Forward Active Regime Lecture 17 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Forward Active Regime Outline The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT): structure and basic operation I V characteristics in forward active regime Reading Assignment:

More information

Recitation 17: BJT-Basic Operation in FAR

Recitation 17: BJT-Basic Operation in FAR Recitation 17: BJT-Basic Operation in FAR BJT stands for Bipolar Junction Transistor 1. Can be thought of as two p-n junctions back to back, you can have pnp or npn. In analogy to MOSFET small current

More information

Lecture 17. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation. Outline

Lecture 17. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation. Outline Lecture 17 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation Outline Regimes of operation Large-signal equivalent circuit model Output characteristics Reading Assignment: Howe and Sodini; Chapter

More information

Biasing the CE Amplifier

Biasing the CE Amplifier Biasing the CE Amplifier Graphical approach: plot I C as a function of the DC base-emitter voltage (note: normally plot vs. base current, so we must return to Ebers-Moll): I C I S e V BE V th I S e V th

More information

BJT - Mode of Operations

BJT - Mode of Operations JT - Mode of Operations JTs can be modeled by two back-to-back diodes. N+ P N- N+ JTs are operated in four modes. HO #6: LN 251 - JT M Models Page 1 1) Forward active / normal junction forward biased junction

More information

Device Physics: The Bipolar Transistor

Device Physics: The Bipolar Transistor Monolithic Amplifier Circuits: Device Physics: The Bipolar Transistor Chapter 4 Jón Tómas Guðmundsson tumi@hi.is 2. Week Fall 2010 1 Introduction In analog design the transistors are not simply switches

More information

Institute of Solid State Physics. Technische Universität Graz. Exam. Feb 2, 10:00-11:00 P2

Institute of Solid State Physics. Technische Universität Graz. Exam. Feb 2, 10:00-11:00 P2 Technische Universität Graz nstitute of Solid State Physics Exam Feb 2, 10:00-11:00 P2 Exam Four questions, two from the online list. Calculator is ok. No notes. Explain some concept: (tunnel contact,

More information

Electronic Circuits 1. Transistor Devices. Contents BJT and FET Characteristics Operations. Prof. C.K. Tse: Transistor devices

Electronic Circuits 1. Transistor Devices. Contents BJT and FET Characteristics Operations. Prof. C.K. Tse: Transistor devices Electronic Circuits 1 Transistor Devices Contents BJT and FET Characteristics Operations 1 What is a transistor? Three-terminal device whose voltage-current relationship is controlled by a third voltage

More information

Lecture 18 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation April 19, 2001

Lecture 18 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation April 19, 2001 6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and ircuits - Spring 2001 Lecture 18-1 Lecture 18 - The ipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation April 19, 2001 ontents: 1. Regimes of operation. 2. Large-signal

More information

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 17. Bipolar Transistor Injection Models

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 17. Bipolar Transistor Injection Models LC 3908, Physical lectronics, Lecture 17 Bipolar Transistor njection Models Lecture Outline Last lecture looked at qualitative operation of the BJT, now want to develop a quantitative model to predict

More information

Lecture 18 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation. November 10, 2005

Lecture 18 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation. November 10, 2005 6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and ircuits - Fall 2005 Lecture 18-1 Lecture 18 - The ipolar Junction Transistor (II) ontents: 1. Regimes of operation. Regimes of Operation November 10, 2005 2. Large-signal

More information

Lecture 17 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Forward Active Regime. April 10, 2003

Lecture 17 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Forward Active Regime. April 10, 2003 6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 17-1 Lecture 17 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor (I) Contents: Forward Active Regime April 10, 2003 1. BJT: structure and basic operation

More information

Lecture 27: Introduction to Bipolar Transistors

Lecture 27: Introduction to Bipolar Transistors NCN www.nanohub.org ECE606: Solid State Devices Lecture 27: Introduction to ipolar Transistors Muhammad Ashraful Alam alam@purdue.edu Alam ECE 606 S09 1 ackground E C E C ase! Point contact Germanium transistor

More information

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) - Introduction

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) - Introduction Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) - Introduction It was found in 1948 at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. It is a three terminal device and has three semiconductor regions. It can be used in signal amplification

More information

6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits

6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits Page 1 of 1 YOUR NAME Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.12 Electronic Devices and Circuits Exam No. 1 Wednesday, October 7, 29 7:3 to 9:3

More information

Chapter 13 Small-Signal Modeling and Linear Amplification

Chapter 13 Small-Signal Modeling and Linear Amplification Chapter 13 Small-Signal Modeling and Linear Amplification Microelectronic Circuit Design Richard C. Jaeger Travis N. Blalock 1/4/12 Chap 13-1 Chapter Goals Understanding of concepts related to: Transistors

More information

Digital Integrated CircuitDesign

Digital Integrated CircuitDesign Digital Integrated CircuitDesign Lecture 5a Bipolar Transistor Dep. Region Neutral Base n(0) b B C n b0 P C0 P e0 P C xn 0 xp 0 x n(w) b W B Adib Abrishamifar EE Department IUST Contents Bipolar Transistor

More information

Charge-Storage Elements: Base-Charging Capacitance C b

Charge-Storage Elements: Base-Charging Capacitance C b Charge-Storage Elements: Base-Charging Capacitance C b * Minority electrons are stored in the base -- this charge q NB is a function of the base-emitter voltage * base is still neutral... majority carriers

More information

Holes (10x larger). Diode currents proportional to minority carrier densities on each side of the depletion region: J n n p0 = n i 2

Holes (10x larger). Diode currents proportional to minority carrier densities on each side of the depletion region: J n n p0 = n i 2 Part V. (40 pts.) A diode is composed of an abrupt PN junction with N D = 10 16 /cm 3 and N A =10 17 /cm 3. The diode is very long so you can assume the ends are at x =positive and negative infinity. 1.

More information

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 18. The Early Effect, Breakdown and Self-Heating

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 18. The Early Effect, Breakdown and Self-Heating ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 18 The Early Effect, Breakdown and Self-Heating Lecture Outline Previous 2 lectures analyzed fundamental static (dc) carrier transport in the bipolar transistor

More information

(e V BC/V T. α F I SE = α R I SC = I S (3)

(e V BC/V T. α F I SE = α R I SC = I S (3) Experiment #8 BJT witching Characteristics Introduction pring 2015 Be sure to print a copy of Experiment #8 and bring it with you to lab. There will not be any experiment copies available in the lab. Also

More information

Spring Semester 2012 Final Exam

Spring Semester 2012 Final Exam Spring Semester 2012 Final Exam Note: Show your work, underline results, and always show units. Official exam time: 2.0 hours; an extension of at least 1.0 hour will be granted to anyone. Materials parameters

More information

Final Examination EE 130 December 16, 1997 Time allotted: 180 minutes

Final Examination EE 130 December 16, 1997 Time allotted: 180 minutes Final Examination EE 130 December 16, 1997 Time allotted: 180 minutes Problem 1: Semiconductor Fundamentals [30 points] A uniformly doped silicon sample of length 100µm and cross-sectional area 100µm 2

More information

Bipolar junction transistor operation and modeling

Bipolar junction transistor operation and modeling 6.01 - Electronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 8 - Bipolar Junction Transistor Basics - Outline Announcements Handout - Lecture Outline and Summary; Old eam 1's on Stellar First Hour Eam - Oct. 8, 7:30-9:30

More information

ECE-342 Test 2 Solutions, Nov 4, :00-8:00pm, Closed Book (one page of notes allowed)

ECE-342 Test 2 Solutions, Nov 4, :00-8:00pm, Closed Book (one page of notes allowed) ECE-342 Test 2 Solutions, Nov 4, 2008 6:00-8:00pm, Closed Book (one page of notes allowed) Please use the following physical constants in your calculations: Boltzmann s Constant: Electron Charge: Free

More information

Chapter 9 Bipolar Junction Transistor

Chapter 9 Bipolar Junction Transistor hapter 9 ipolar Junction Transistor hapter 9 - JT ipolar Junction Transistor JT haracteristics NPN, PNP JT D iasing ollector haracteristic and Load Line ipolar Junction Transistor (JT) JT is a three-terminal

More information

BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model

BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model Conservative Bias Design (1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Rule) Bias Design Example Small-Signal BJT Models Small-Signal Analysis 1 Emitter Feedback Bias Design R B R C V CC R 1 R

More information

Lecture 15 - The pn Junction Diode (I) I-V Characteristics. November 1, 2005

Lecture 15 - The pn Junction Diode (I) I-V Characteristics. November 1, 2005 6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Fall 2005 Lecture 15-1 Lecture 15 - The pn Junction Diode (I) I-V Characteristics November 1, 2005 Contents: 1. pn junction under bias 2. I-V characteristics

More information

The Devices. Jan M. Rabaey

The Devices. Jan M. Rabaey The Devices Jan M. Rabaey Goal of this chapter Present intuitive understanding of device operation Introduction of basic device equations Introduction of models for manual analysis Introduction of models

More information

Memories Bipolar Transistors

Memories Bipolar Transistors Technische Universität Graz nstitute of Solid State Physics Memories Bipolar Transistors Technische Universität Graz nstitute of Solid State Physics Exams February 5 March 7 April 18 June 27 Exam Four

More information

Introduction to Power Semiconductor Devices

Introduction to Power Semiconductor Devices ECE442 Power Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits Introduction to Power Semiconductor Devices Zheng Yang (ERF 3017, email: yangzhen@uic.edu) Power Semiconductor Devices Applications System Ratings

More information

Introduction to Transistors. Semiconductors Diodes Transistors

Introduction to Transistors. Semiconductors Diodes Transistors Introduction to Transistors Semiconductors Diodes Transistors 1 Semiconductors Typical semiconductors, like silicon and germanium, have four valence electrons which form atomic bonds with neighboring atoms

More information

Current mechanisms Exam January 27, 2012

Current mechanisms Exam January 27, 2012 Current mechanisms Exam January 27, 2012 There are four mechanisms that typically cause currents to flow: thermionic emission, diffusion, drift, and tunneling. Explain briefly which kind of current mechanisms

More information

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 19. BJT Base Resistance and Small Signal Modelling

ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 19. BJT Base Resistance and Small Signal Modelling ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 19 BJT Base Resistance and Small Signal Modelling Lecture Outline Lecture 17 derived static (dc) injection model to predict dc currents from terminal voltages This

More information

Semiconductor Physics and Devices

Semiconductor Physics and Devices The pn Junction 1) Charge carriers crossing the junction. 3) Barrier potential Semiconductor Physics and Devices Chapter 8. The pn Junction Diode 2) Formation of positive and negative ions. 4) Formation

More information

Lecture 35 - Bipolar Junction Transistor (cont.) November 27, Current-voltage characteristics of ideal BJT (cont.)

Lecture 35 - Bipolar Junction Transistor (cont.) November 27, Current-voltage characteristics of ideal BJT (cont.) 6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2002 Lecture 35-1 Lecture 35 - Bipolar Junction Transistor (cont.) November 27, 2002 Contents: 1. Current-voltage characteristics of ideal BJT (cont.)

More information

L03: pn Junctions, Diodes

L03: pn Junctions, Diodes 8/30/2012 Page 1 of 5 Reference:C:\Users\Bernhard Boser\Documents\Files\Lib\MathCAD\Default\defaults.mcd L03: pn Junctions, Diodes Intrinsic Si Q: What are n, p? Q: Is the Si charged? Q: How could we make

More information

ELECTRONICS IA 2017 SCHEME

ELECTRONICS IA 2017 SCHEME ELECTRONICS IA 2017 SCHEME CONTENTS 1 [ 5 marks ]...4 2...5 a. [ 2 marks ]...5 b. [ 2 marks ]...5 c. [ 5 marks ]...5 d. [ 2 marks ]...5 3...6 a. [ 3 marks ]...6 b. [ 3 marks ]...6 4 [ 7 marks ]...7 5...8

More information

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Solving Ebers-Moll Problems

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Solving Ebers-Moll Problems C 305: Fall 016 ipolar Junction Transistors: Solving bers-moll Problems Professor Peter ermel lectrical and Computer ngineering Purdue University, West Lafayette, N USA pbermel@purdue.edu Pierret, Semiconductor

More information

6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits

6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits Page 1 of 12 YOUR NAME Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits FINAL EXAMINATION Open book. Notes: 1. Unless

More information

EE 330 Lecture 20. Bipolar Device Modeling

EE 330 Lecture 20. Bipolar Device Modeling 330 Lecture 20 ipolar Device Modeling xam 2 Friday March 9 xam 3 Friday April 13 Review from Last Lecture ipolar Transistors npn stack pnp stack ipolar Devices Show asic Symmetry lectrical Properties not

More information

Section 5.4 BJT Circuits at DC

Section 5.4 BJT Circuits at DC 12/3/2004 section 5_4 JT Circuits at DC 1/1 Section 5.4 JT Circuits at DC Reading Assignment: pp. 421-436 To analyze a JT circuit, we follow the same boring procedure as always: ASSUME, ENFORCE, ANALYZE

More information

The pn junction. [Fonstad, Ghione]

The pn junction. [Fonstad, Ghione] The pn junction [Fonstad, Ghione] Band diagram On the vertical axis: potential energy of the electrons On the horizontal axis: now there is nothing: later we ll put the position qf s : work function (F

More information

Semiconductor Junctions

Semiconductor Junctions 8 Semiconductor Junctions Almost all solar cells contain junctions between different materials of different doping. Since these junctions are crucial to the operation of the solar cell, we will discuss

More information

GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY School of Electrical and Computer Engineering NAME: GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY School of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 4430 First Exam Closed Book and Notes Fall 2002 September 27, 2002 General Instructions: 1. Write on one side of

More information

Electronic Circuits. Bipolar Junction Transistors. Manar Mohaisen Office: F208 Department of EECE

Electronic Circuits. Bipolar Junction Transistors. Manar Mohaisen Office: F208   Department of EECE Electronic Circuits Bipolar Junction Transistors Manar Mohaisen Office: F208 Email: manar.subhi@kut.ac.kr Department of EECE Review of Precedent Class Explain the Operation of the Zener Diode Explain Applications

More information

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. BJT Biasing Cont.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. BJT Biasing Cont. BJT Biasing Cont. Biasing for DC Operating Point Stability BJT Bias Using Emitter Negative Feedback Single Supply BJT Bias Scheme Constant Current BJT Bias Scheme Rule of Thumb BJT Bias Design 1 Simple

More information

Session 6: Solid State Physics. Diode

Session 6: Solid State Physics. Diode Session 6: Solid State Physics Diode 1 Outline A B C D E F G H I J 2 Definitions / Assumptions Homojunction: the junction is between two regions of the same material Heterojunction: the junction is between

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EE 105: Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Spring 2008 MIDTERM EXAMINATION #1 Time

More information

(Refer Slide Time: 03:41)

(Refer Slide Time: 03:41) Solid State Devices Dr. S. Karmalkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 25 PN Junction (Contd ) This is the 25th lecture of this course

More information

EE 3329 Electronic Devices Syllabus ( Extended Play )

EE 3329 Electronic Devices Syllabus ( Extended Play ) EE 3329 - Electronic Devices Syllabus EE 3329 Electronic Devices Syllabus ( Extended Play ) The University of Texas at El Paso The following concepts can be part of the syllabus for the Electronic Devices

More information

CLASS 3&4. BJT currents, parameters and circuit configurations

CLASS 3&4. BJT currents, parameters and circuit configurations CLASS 3&4 BJT currents, parameters and circuit configurations I E =I Ep +I En I C =I Cp +I Cn I B =I BB +I En -I Cn I BB =I Ep -I Cp I E = I B + I C I En = current produced by the electrons injected from

More information

Chapter 2 - DC Biasing - BJTs

Chapter 2 - DC Biasing - BJTs Objectives Chapter 2 - DC Biasing - BJTs To Understand: Concept of Operating point and stability Analyzing Various biasing circuits and their comparison with respect to stability BJT A Review Invented

More information

Semiconductor Physics fall 2012 problems

Semiconductor Physics fall 2012 problems Semiconductor Physics fall 2012 problems 1. An n-type sample of silicon has a uniform density N D = 10 16 atoms cm -3 of arsenic, and a p-type silicon sample has N A = 10 15 atoms cm -3 of boron. For each

More information

13. Bipolar transistors

13. Bipolar transistors Technische Universität Graz Institute of Solid State Physics 13. Bipolar transistors Jan. 16, 2019 Technische Universität Graz Institute of Solid State Physics bipolar transistors npn transistor collector

More information

Diodes. anode. cathode. cut-off. Can be approximated by a piecewise-linear-like characteristic. Lecture 9-1

Diodes. anode. cathode. cut-off. Can be approximated by a piecewise-linear-like characteristic. Lecture 9-1 Diodes mplest nonlinear circuit element Basic operation sets the foundation for Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) Also present in Field Effect Transistors (FETs) Ideal diode characteristic anode cathode

More information

p-n junction biasing, p-n I-V characteristics, p-n currents Norlaili Mohd. Noh EEE /09

p-n junction biasing, p-n I-V characteristics, p-n currents Norlaili Mohd. Noh EEE /09 CLASS 6&7 p-n junction biasing, p-n I-V characteristics, p-n currents 1 p-n junction biasing Unbiased p-n junction: the potential barrier is 0.7 V for Si and 0.3 V for Ge. Nett current across the p-n junction

More information

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Saturation Region

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Saturation Region EE105 Fall 014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 1 NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Saturation Region Drain no longer connected to channel

More information

Lecture 19 - p-n Junction (cont.) October 18, Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont.) 2. pn junction diode: parasitics, dynamics

Lecture 19 - p-n Junction (cont.) October 18, Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont.) 2. pn junction diode: parasitics, dynamics 6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2002 Lecture 19-1 Lecture 19 - p-n Junction (cont.) October 18, 2002 Contents: 1. Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont.) 2. pn junction diode:

More information

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. Output Stages

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics. Output Stages Output Stages Power amplifier classification Class A amplifier circuits Class A Power conversion efficiency Class B amplifier circuits Class B Power conversion efficiency Class AB amplifier circuits Class

More information

16EC401 BASIC ELECTRONIC DEVICES UNIT I PN JUNCTION DIODE. Energy Band Diagram of Conductor, Insulator and Semiconductor:

16EC401 BASIC ELECTRONIC DEVICES UNIT I PN JUNCTION DIODE. Energy Band Diagram of Conductor, Insulator and Semiconductor: 16EC401 BASIC ELECTRONIC DEVICES UNIT I PN JUNCTION DIODE Energy bands in Intrinsic and Extrinsic silicon: Energy Band Diagram of Conductor, Insulator and Semiconductor: 1 2 Carrier transport: Any motion

More information

ECE-305: Spring 2018 Final Exam Review

ECE-305: Spring 2018 Final Exam Review C-305: Spring 2018 Final xam Review Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (SDF) Chapters 10 and 11 (pp. 371-385, 389-403) Professor Peter Bermel lectrical and Computer ngineering Purdue University,

More information

Lecture 23: Negative Resistance Osc, Differential Osc, and VCOs

Lecture 23: Negative Resistance Osc, Differential Osc, and VCOs EECS 142 Lecture 23: Negative Resistance Osc, Differential Osc, and VCOs Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley Copyright c 2005 by Ali M. Niknejad A. M. Niknejad University of California,

More information

DC Biasing. Dr. U. Sezen & Dr. D. Gökçen (Hacettepe Uni.) ELE230 Electronics I 15-Mar / 59

DC Biasing. Dr. U. Sezen & Dr. D. Gökçen (Hacettepe Uni.) ELE230 Electronics I 15-Mar / 59 Contents Three States of Operation BJT DC Analysis Fixed-Bias Circuit Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit Voltage Divider Bias Circuit DC Bias with Voltage Feedback Various Dierent Bias Circuits pnp Transistors

More information

BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model

BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model BJT Biasing Cont. & Small Signal Model Conservative Bias Design Bias Design Example Small Signal BJT Models Small Signal Analysis 1 Emitter Feedback Bias Design Voltage bias circuit Single power supply

More information

Schottky Rectifiers Zheng Yang (ERF 3017,

Schottky Rectifiers Zheng Yang (ERF 3017, ECE442 Power Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits Schottky Rectifiers Zheng Yang (ERF 3017, email: yangzhen@uic.edu) Power Schottky Rectifier Structure 2 Metal-Semiconductor Contact The work function

More information

Electronic Circuits for Mechatronics ELCT 609 Lecture 2: PN Junctions (1)

Electronic Circuits for Mechatronics ELCT 609 Lecture 2: PN Junctions (1) Electronic Circuits for Mechatronics ELCT 609 Lecture 2: PN Junctions (1) Assistant Professor Office: C3.315 E-mail: eman.azab@guc.edu.eg 1 Electronic (Semiconductor) Devices P-N Junctions (Diodes): Physical

More information

Devices. chapter Introduction. 1.2 Silicon Conductivity

Devices. chapter Introduction. 1.2 Silicon Conductivity chapter 1 Devices 1.1 Introduction The properties and performance of analog bicmos integrated circuits are dependent on the devices used to construct them. This chapter is a review of the operation of

More information

PN Junction and MOS structure

PN Junction and MOS structure PN Junction and MOS structure Basic electrostatic equations We will use simple one-dimensional electrostatic equations to develop insight and basic understanding of how semiconductor devices operate Gauss's

More information

PN Junction

PN Junction P Junction 2017-05-04 Definition Power Electronics = semiconductor switches are used Analogue amplifier = high power loss 250 200 u x 150 100 u Udc i 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 i,u dc i,u u

More information

Biasing BJTs CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 4.1 INTRODUCTION

Biasing BJTs CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4 DC Biasing BJTs CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Be able to determine the dc levels for the variety of important BJT configurations. Understand how to measure the important voltage levels of a BJT transistor configuration

More information

Tutorial #4: Bias Point Analysis in Multisim

Tutorial #4: Bias Point Analysis in Multisim SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY Tutorial #4: Bias Point Analysis in Multisim INTRODUCTION When BJTs

More information

ITT Technical Institute ET215 Devices I Unit 1

ITT Technical Institute ET215 Devices I Unit 1 ITT Technical Institute ET215 Devices I Unit 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 2, Sections 2.1-2.4 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Analog Circuits Recall ET115 & ET145 Ohms Law I = V/R If voltage across a resistor increases

More information

assess the biasing requirements for transistor amplifiers

assess the biasing requirements for transistor amplifiers 1 INTODUTION In this lesson we examine the properties of the bipolar junction transistor (JT) amd its typical practical characteristics. We then go on to devise circuits in which we can take best advantage

More information

Chapter 2. - DC Biasing - BJTs

Chapter 2. - DC Biasing - BJTs Chapter 2. - DC Biasing - BJTs Objectives To Understand : Concept of Operating point and stability Analyzing Various biasing circuits and their comparison with respect to stability BJT A Review Invented

More information

Electronic PRINCIPLES

Electronic PRINCIPLES MALVINO & BATES Electronic PRINCIPLES SEVENTH EDITION Chapter 2 Semiconductors Topics Covered in Chapter 2 Conductors Semiconductors Silicon crystals Intrinsic semiconductors Two types of flow Doping a

More information

Lecture 16 - The pn Junction Diode (II) Equivalent Circuit Model. April 8, 2003

Lecture 16 - The pn Junction Diode (II) Equivalent Circuit Model. April 8, 2003 6.012 - Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 16-1 Lecture 16 - The pn Junction Diode (II) Equivalent Circuit Model April 8, 2003 Contents: 1. I-V characteristics (cont.) 2. Small-signal

More information

II/IV B.Tech (Regular/Supplementary) DEGREE EXAMINATION. Answer ONE question from each unit.

II/IV B.Tech (Regular/Supplementary) DEGREE EXAMINATION. Answer ONE question from each unit. 14ECEI302/EC 212 1. Answer all questions (1X12=12 Marks) a What are the applications of linked list? b Compare singly linked list and doubly linked list. c Define ADT. d What are the basic operations of

More information

Whereas the diode was a 1-junction device, the transistor contains two junctions. This leads to two possibilities:

Whereas the diode was a 1-junction device, the transistor contains two junctions. This leads to two possibilities: Part Recall: two types of charge carriers in semiconductors: electrons & holes two types of doped semiconductors: n-type (favor e-), p-type (favor holes) for conduction Whereas the diode was a -junction

More information

Lecture-4 Junction Diode Characteristics

Lecture-4 Junction Diode Characteristics 1 Lecture-4 Junction Diode Characteristics Part-II Q: Aluminum is alloyed into n-type Si sample (N D = 10 16 cm 3 ) forming an abrupt junction of circular cross-section, with an diameter of 0.02 in. Assume

More information

Mod. Sim. Dyn. Sys. Amplifiers page 1

Mod. Sim. Dyn. Sys. Amplifiers page 1 AMPLIFIERS A circuit containing only capacitors, amplifiers (transistors) and resistors may resonate. A circuit containing only capacitors and resistors may not. Why does amplification permit resonance

More information

6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits Spring 2005

6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits Spring 2005 6.012 Electronic Devices and Circuits Spring 2005 May 16, 2005 Final Exam (200 points) -OPEN BOOK- Problem NAME RECITATION TIME 1 2 3 4 5 Total General guidelines (please read carefully before starting):

More information

exp Compared to the values obtained in Example 2.1, we can see that the intrinsic carrier concentration in Ge at T = 300 K is 2.

exp Compared to the values obtained in Example 2.1, we can see that the intrinsic carrier concentration in Ge at T = 300 K is 2. .1 (a) k =8.617 10 5 ev/k n i (T = 300 K) = 1.66 10 15 (300 K) 3/ 66 ev exp (8.617 10 5 ev/k) (300 K) =.465 10 13 cm 3 n i (T = 600 K) = 1.66 10 15 (600 K) 3/ 66 ev exp (8.617 10 5 ev/k) (600 K) = 4.14

More information

SOLUTIONS: ECE 606 Homework Week 10 Mark Lundstrom. Purdue University. (Revised 3/29/13)

SOLUTIONS: ECE 606 Homework Week 10 Mark Lundstrom. Purdue University. (Revised 3/29/13) ECE- 66 SOLUTIOS: ECE 66 Homework Week 1 Mark Lundstrom (Revised 3/9/13) 1) In a forward- biased P junction under low- injection conditions, the QFL s are aroximately flat from the majority carrier region

More information

Mod. Sim. Dyn. Sys. Amplifiers page 1

Mod. Sim. Dyn. Sys. Amplifiers page 1 AMPLIFIERS A circuit containing only capacitors, amplifiers (transistors) and resistors may resonate. A circuit containing only capacitors and resistors may not. Why does amplification permit resonance

More information

1st Year-Computer Communication Engineering-RUC. 4- P-N Junction

1st Year-Computer Communication Engineering-RUC. 4- P-N Junction 4- P-N Junction We begin our study of semiconductor devices with the junction for three reasons. (1) The device finds application in many electronic systems, e.g., in adapters that charge the batteries

More information

Basic Physics of Semiconductors

Basic Physics of Semiconductors Basic Physics of Semiconductors Semiconductor materials and their properties PN-junction diodes Reverse Breakdown EEM 205 Electronics I Dicle University, EEE Dr. Mehmet Siraç ÖZERDEM Semiconductor Physics

More information

CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies

CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies Introduction Amplification in the AC domain BJT transistor modeling The re Transistor Model The Hybrid equivalent Model Introduction There are three models commonly

More information

Effective masses in semiconductors

Effective masses in semiconductors Effective masses in semiconductors The effective mass is defined as: In a solid, the electron (hole) effective mass represents how electrons move in an applied field. The effective mass reflects the inverse

More information

ECE 305 Fall Final Exam (Exam 5) Wednesday, December 13, 2017

ECE 305 Fall Final Exam (Exam 5) Wednesday, December 13, 2017 NAME: PUID: ECE 305 Fall 017 Final Exam (Exam 5) Wednesday, December 13, 017 This is a closed book exam. You may use a calculator and the formula sheet at the end of this exam. Following the ECE policy,

More information

Lecture 15 The pn Junction Diode (II)

Lecture 15 The pn Junction Diode (II) Lecture 15 The pn Junction Diode (II I-V characteristics Forward Bias Reverse Bias Outline Reading Assignment: Howe and Sodini; Chapter 6, Sections 6.4-6.5 6.012 Spring 2007 Lecture 15 1 1. I-V Characteristics

More information

For the following statements, mark ( ) for true statement and (X) for wrong statement and correct it.

For the following statements, mark ( ) for true statement and (X) for wrong statement and correct it. Benha University Faculty of Engineering Shoubra Electrical Engineering Department First Year communications. Answer all the following questions Illustrate your answers with sketches when necessary. The

More information

Lecture 12: MOS Capacitors, transistors. Context

Lecture 12: MOS Capacitors, transistors. Context Lecture 12: MOS Capacitors, transistors Context In the last lecture, we discussed PN diodes, and the depletion layer into semiconductor surfaces. Small signal models In this lecture, we will apply those

More information

MOS Transistor I-V Characteristics and Parasitics

MOS Transistor I-V Characteristics and Parasitics ECEN454 Digital Integrated Circuit Design MOS Transistor I-V Characteristics and Parasitics ECEN 454 Facts about Transistors So far, we have treated transistors as ideal switches An ON transistor passes

More information

A SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE. P-N Junction

A SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE. P-N Junction A SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE P-N Junction Analog Electronics Pujianto Department of Physics Edu. State University of Yogyakarta A Semiconductor Devices A Semiconductor devices can be defined as a unit which consists,

More information

Vidyalankar S.E. Sem. III [EXTC] Analog Electronics - I Prelim Question Paper Solution

Vidyalankar S.E. Sem. III [EXTC] Analog Electronics - I Prelim Question Paper Solution . (a) S.E. Sem. [EXTC] Analog Electronics - Prelim Question Paper Solution Comparison between BJT and JFET BJT JFET ) BJT is a bipolar device, both majority JFET is an unipolar device, electron and minority

More information

SEMICONDUCTORS. Conductivity lies between conductors and insulators. The flow of charge in a metal results from the

SEMICONDUCTORS. Conductivity lies between conductors and insulators. The flow of charge in a metal results from the SEMICONDUCTORS Conductivity lies between conductors and insulators The flow of charge in a metal results from the movement of electrons Electros are negatively charged particles (q=1.60x10-19 C ) The outermost

More information

Lecture 15: MOS Transistor models: Body effects, SPICE models. Context. In the last lecture, we discussed the modes of operation of a MOS FET:

Lecture 15: MOS Transistor models: Body effects, SPICE models. Context. In the last lecture, we discussed the modes of operation of a MOS FET: Lecture 15: MOS Transistor models: Body effects, SPICE models Context In the last lecture, we discussed the modes of operation of a MOS FET: oltage controlled resistor model I- curve (Square-Law Model)

More information