Chapter 12. Rotation of a Rigid Body


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1 Chapter 12. Rotation of a Rigid Body Not all motion can be described as that of a particle. Rotation requires the idea of an extended object. This diver is moving toward the water along a parabolic trajectory, and she s rotating rapidly around her center of mass. Chapter Goal: To understand the physics of rotating objects.
2 Chapter 12. Rotation of a Rigid Body Topics: Rotational Motion Rotation About the Center of Mass Rotational Energy Calculating Moment of Inertia Torque Rotational Dynamics Rotation About a Fixed Axis Static Equilibrium Rolling Motion The Vector Description of Rotational Motion Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body
3 Chapter 12. Reading Quizzes
4 A new way of multiplying two vectors is introduced in this chapter. What is it called? A. Dot Product B. Scalar Product C. Tensor Product D. Cross Product E. Angular Product
5 A new way of multiplying two vectors is introduced in this chapter. What is it called? A. Dot Product B. Scalar Product C. Tensor Product D. Cross Product E. Angular Product
6 Moment of inertia is A. the rotational equivalent of mass. B. the point at which all forces appear to act. C. the time at which inertia occurs. D. an alternative term for moment arm.
7 Moment of inertia is A. the rotational equivalent of mass. B. the point at which all forces appear to act. C. the time at which inertia occurs. D. an alternative term for moment arm.
8 A rigid body is in equilibrium if A. B. C. neither A nor B. D. either A or B. E. both A and B.
9 A rigid body is in equilibrium if A. B. C. neither A nor B. D. either A or B. E. both A and B.
10 Chapter 12. Basic Content and Examples
11 Rotational Motion The figure shows a wheel rotating on an axle. Its angular velocity is The units of ω are rad/s. If the wheel is speeding up or slowing down, its angular acceleration is The units of α are rad/s2.
12 Rotational Motion
13 EXAMPLE 12.1 A rotating crankshaft QUESTION:
14 EXAMPLE 12.1 A rotating crankshaft
15 EXAMPLE 12.1 A rotating crankshaft
16 EXAMPLE 12.1 A rotating crankshaft
17 EXAMPLE 12.1 A rotating crankshaft
18 Rotation About the Center of Mass An unconstrained object (i.e., one not on an axle or a pivot) on which there is no net force rotates about a point called the center of mass. The center of mass remains motionless while every other point in the object undergoes circular motion around it.
19 Rotation About the Center of Mass The center of mass is the massweighted center of the object.
20 Rotational Energy A rotating rigid body has kinetic energy because all atoms in the object are in motion. The kinetic energy due to rotation is called rotational kinetic energy. Here the quantity I is called the object s moment of inertia. The units of moment of inertia are kg m2. An object s moment of inertia depends on the axis of rotation.
21
22 EXAMPLE 12.5 The speed of a rotating rod QUESTION:
23 EXAMPLE 12.5 The speed of a rotating rod
24 EXAMPLE 12.5 The speed of a rotating rod
25 EXAMPLE 12.5 The speed of a rotating rod
26 EXAMPLE 12.5 The speed of a rotating rod
27 EXAMPLE 12.5 The speed of a rotating rod
28 Torque Consider the common experience of pushing open a door. Shown is a top view of a door hinged on the left. Four pushing forces are shown, all of equal strength. Which of these will be most effective at opening the door? The ability of a force to cause a rotation depends on three factors: 1. the magnitude F of the force. 2. the distance r from the point of application to the pivot. 3. the angle at which the force is applied.
29 Torque Let s define a new quantity called torque τ (Greek tau) as
30 EXAMPLE 12.9 Applying a torque QUESTION:
31 EXAMPLE 12.9 Applying a torque
32 EXAMPLE 12.9 Applying a torque
33 EXAMPLE 12.9 Applying a torque
34 Analogies between Linear and Rotational Dynamics In the absence of a net torque (τnet = 0), the object either does not rotate (ω = 0) or rotates with constant angular velocity (ω = constant).
35 ProblemSolving Strategy: Rotational Dynamics Problems
36 ProblemSolving Strategy: Rotational Dynamics Problems
37 ProblemSolving Strategy: Rotational Dynamics Problems
38 ProblemSolving Strategy: Rotational Dynamics Problems
39 EXAMPLE Starting an airplane engine QUESTION:
40 EXAMPLE Starting an airplane engine
41 EXAMPLE Starting an airplane engine
42 EXAMPLE Starting an airplane engine
43 EXAMPLE Starting an airplane engine
44 Static Equilibrium The condition for a rigid body to be in static equilibrium is that there is no net force and no net torque. An important branch of engineering called statics analyzes buildings, dams, bridges, and other structures in total static equilibrium. No matter which pivot point you choose, an object that is not rotating is not rotating about that point. For a rigid body in total equilibrium, there is no net torque about any point. This is the basis of a problemsolving strategy.
45 ProblemSolving Strategy: Static Equilibrium Problems
46 ProblemSolving Strategy: Static Equilibrium Problems
47 ProblemSolving Strategy: Static Equilibrium Problems
48 ProblemSolving Strategy: Static Equilibrium Problems
49 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip? QUESTION:
50 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip?
51 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip?
52 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip?
53 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip?
54 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip?
55 EXAMPLE Will the ladder slip?
56 Balance and Stability
57 Rolling Without Slipping For an object that is rolling without slipping, there is a rolling constraint that links translation and rotation:
58 Rolling Without Slipping We know from the rolling constraint that Rω is the centerofmass velocity vcm. Thus the kinetic energy of a rolling object is In other words, the rolling motion of a rigid body can be described as a translation of the center of mass (with kinetic energy Kcm) plus a rotation about the center of mass (with kinetic energy Krot).
59 The Angular Velocity Vector The magnitude of the angular velocity vector is ω. The angular velocity vector points along the axis of rotation in the direction given by the righthand rule as illustrated above.
60 Angular Momentum of a Particle A particle is moving along a trajectory as shown. At this instant of time, the particle s momentum vector, tangent to the trajectory, makes an angle β with the position vector.
61 Angular Momentum of a Particle We define the particle s angular momentum vector relative to the origin to be
62 Analogies between Linear and Angular Momentum and Energy
63
64 Chapter 12. Summary Slides
65 General Principles
66 General Principles
67 Important Concepts
68 Important Concepts
69 Important Concepts
70 Important Concepts
71 Applications
72 Applications
73 Applications
74 Chapter 12. Clicker Questions
75 The fan blade is speeding up. What are the signs of ω and α? A. B. C. D. ω is positive and α is positive. ω is positive and α is negative. ω is negative and α is positive. ω is negative and α is negative.
76 The fan blade is speeding up. What are the signs of ω and α? A. B. C. D. ω is positive and α is positive. ω is positive and α is negative. ω is negative and α is positive. ω is negative and α is negative.
77 Four Ts are made from two identical rods of equal mass and length. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the moments of inertia Ia to Id for rotation about the dotted line. (a) (b) (c) A. Ia > Id > Ib > Ic B. Ic = Id > Ia = Ib C. Ia = Ib > Ic = Id D. Ia > Ib > Id > Ic E. I > I > I > I Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing c as Pearson b AddisonWesley. d a (d)
78 Four Ts are made from two identical rods of equal mass and length. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the moments of inertia Ia to Id for rotation about the dotted line. (a) (b) (c) A. Ia > Id > Ib > Ic B. Ic = Id > Ia = Ib C. Ia = Ib > Ic = Id D. Ia > Ib > Id > Ic E. I > I > I > I Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing c as Pearson b AddisonWesley. d a (d)
79 Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the five torques τa τe. The rods all have the same length and are pivoted at the dot. (a) (b) (c) (d) Α. A. B. C. D. (e)
80 Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the five torques τa τe. The rods all have the same length and are pivoted at the dot. (a) (b) (c) (d) Α. A. B. C. D. (e)
81 Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the angular accelerations αa to αe. A. B. C. D. E.
82 Rank in order, from largest to smallest, the angular accelerations αa to αe. A. B. C. D. E.
83 A student holds a meter stick straight out with one or more masses dangling from it. Rank in order, from most difficult to least difficult, how hard it will be for the student to keep the meter stick from rotating. (a) (b) (c) A. c > b > d > a B. b = c = d > a C. c > d > b > a D. c > d > a = b E. b > d > c > a (d)
84 A student holds a meter stick straight out with one or more masses dangling from it. Rank in order, from most difficult to least difficult, how hard it will be for the student to keep the meter stick from rotating. (a) (b) (c) A. c > b > d > a B. b = c = d > a C. c > d > b > a D. c > d > a = b E. b > d > c > a (d)
85 Two buckets spin around in a horizontal circle on frictionless bearings. Suddenly, it starts to rain. As a result, A. The buckets speed up because the potential energy of the rain is transformed into kinetic energy. B. The buckets continue to rotate at constant angular velocity because the rain is falling vertically while the buckets move in a horizontal plane. C. The buckets slow down because the angular momentum of the bucket + rain system is conserved. D. The buckets continue to rotate at constant angular velocity because the total mechanical energy of the bucket + rain system is conserved. E. None of the above.
86 Two buckets spin around in a horizontal circle on frictionless bearings. Suddenly, it starts to rain. As a result, A. The buckets speed up because the potential energy of the rain is transformed into kinetic energy. B. The buckets continue to rotate at constant angular velocity because the rain is falling vertically while the buckets move in a horizontal plane. C. The buckets slow down because the angular momentum of the bucket + rain system is conserved. D. The buckets continue to rotate at constant angular velocity because the total mechanical energy of the bucket + rain system is conserved. E. None of the above.
= o + t = ot + ½ t 2 = o + 2
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