# CHAPTER OBJECTIVES CHAPTER OUTLINE. 4. Axial Load

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1 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Determine deformation of axially loaded members Develop a method to find support reactions when it cannot be determined from euilibrium euations Analyze the effects of thermal stress 1 CHAPTER OUTLINE 1. Saint-Venant s Principle 2. Elastic Deformation of an Axially Loaded Member 3. Principle of Superposition 4. Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Member 5. Thermal Stress 2 1

2 4.1 SAINT-VENANT S PRINCIPLE Localized deformation occurs at each end, and the deformations decrease as measurements are taken further away from the ends At section c-c, stress reaches almost uniform value as compared to a-a, b-b c-c is sufficiently far enough away from P so that localized deformation vanishes, i.e., minimum distance SAINT-VENANT S PRINCIPLE General rule: min. distance is at least eual to largest dimension of loaded x-section. For the bar, the min. distance is eual to width of bar This behavior discovered by Barré de Saint-Venant in 1855, this the name of the principle Saint-Venant Principle states that localized effects caused by any load acting on the body, will dissipate/smooth out within regions that are sufficiently removed from location of load Thus, no need to study stress distributions at that points near application loads or support reactions 4 2

3 4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Relative displacement (δ) of one end of bar with respect to other end caused by this loading Applying Saint-Venant s Principle, ignore localized deformations at points of concentrated loading and where x-section suddenly changes ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Use method of sections, and draw free-body diagram σ = P(x) A(x) ε = dδ dx Assume proportional limit not exceeded, thus apply Hooke s Law σ = Eε P(x) A(x) = E dδ ( ) dx dδ = P(x) dx A(x) E 6 3

4 4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER En. 4-1 L δ = 0 P(x) dx A(x) E δ L = displacement of one pt relative to another pt = distance between the two points P(x) = internal axial force at the section, located a distance x from one end A(x) = x-sectional area of the bar, expressed as a function of x E = modulus of elasticity for material ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Constant load and X-sectional area For constant x-sectional area A, and homogenous material, E is constant With constant external force P, applied at each end, then internal force P throughout length of bar is constant Thus, integrating En 4-1 will yield En. 4-2 δ = PL AE 8 4

5 4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Constant load and X-sectional area If bar subjected to several different axial forces, or x- sectional area or E is not constant, then the euation can be applied to each segment of the bar and added algebraically to get δ = PL AE ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Sign convention Sign Positive (+) Negative ( ) Forces Tension Compression Displacement Elongation Contraction 10 5

6 4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Procedure for analysis Internal force Use method of sections to determine internal axial force P in the member If the force varies along member s strength, section made at the arbitrary location x from one end of member and force represented as a function of x, i.e., P(x) If several constant external forces act on member, internal force in each segment, between two external forces, must then be determined ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Procedure for analysis Internal force For any segment, internal tensile force is positive and internal compressive force is negative. Results of loading can be shown graphically by constructing the normalforce diagram Displacement When member s x-sectional area varies along its axis, the area should be expressed as a function of its position x, i.e., A(x) 12 6

7 4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Procedure for analysis Displacement If x-sectional area, modulus of elasticity, or internal loading suddenly changes, then En 4-2 should be applied to each segment for which the ty are constant When substituting data into euations, account for proper sign for P, tensile loadings +ve, compressive ve. Use consistent set of units. If result is +ve, elongation occurs, ve means it s a contraction 13 EXAMPLE 4.1 Composite A-36 steel bar shown made from two segments AB and BD. Area A AB = 600 mm 2 and A BD = 1200 mm 2. Determine the vertical displacement of end A and displacement of B relative to C. 14 7

8 EXAMPLE 4.1 (SOLN) Internal force Due to external loadings, internal axial forces in regions AB, BC and CD are different. Apply method of sections and euation of vertical force euilibrium as shown. Variation is also plotted. 15 EXAMPLE 4.1 (SOLN) Displacement From tables, E st = 210(10 3 ) MPa. Use sign convention, vertical displacement of A relative to fixed support D is δ A = PL AE [+75 kn](1 m)(10 6 ) = [600 mm 2 (210)(10 3 ) kn/m 2 ] [+35 kn](0.75 m)(10 6 ) + [1200 mm 2 (210)(10 3 ) kn/m 2 ] [ 45 kn](0.5 m)(10 6 ) + [1200 mm 2 (210)(10 3 ) kn/m 2 ] = mm 16 8

9 EXAMPLE 4.1 (SOLN) Displacement Since result is positive, the bar elongates and so displacement at A is upward Apply Euation 4-2 between B and C, δ A = P BC L BC A BC E = [+35 kn](0.75 m)(10 6 ) [1200 mm 2 (210)(10 3 ) kn/m 2 ] = mm Here, B moves away from C, since segment elongates PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION After subdividing the load into components, the principle of superposition states that the resultant stress or displacement at the point can be determined by first finding the stress or displacement caused by each component load acting separately on the member. Resultant stress/displacement determined algebraically by adding the contributions of each component 18 9

10 4.3 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION Conditions 1. The loading must be linearly related to the stress or displacement that is to be determined. 2. The loading must not significantly change the original geometry or configuration of the member When to ignore deformations? Most loaded members will produce deformations so small that change in position and direction of loading will be insignificant and can be neglected Exception to this rule is a column carrying axial load, discussed in Chapter STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER For a bar fixed-supported at one end, euilibrium euations is sufficient to find the reaction at the support. Such a problem is statically determinate If bar is fixed at both ends, then two unknown axial reactions occur, and the bar is statically indeterminate + F = 0; F B + F A P =

11 4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER To establish addition euation, consider geometry of deformation. Such an euation is referred to as a compatibility or kinematic condition Since relative displacement of one end of bar to the other end is eual to zero, since end supports fixed, δ A/B = 0 This euation can be expressed in terms of applied loads using a load-displacement relationship, which depends on the material behavior STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER For linear elastic behavior, compatibility euation can be written as F A L AC AE F B L CB AE = 0 Assume AE is constant, solve euations simultaneously, L CB F A = P( ) L L AC F B = P( ) L 22 11

12 4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Procedure for analysis Euilibrium Draw a free-body diagram of member to identigy all forces acting on it If unknown reactions on free-body diagram greater than no. of euations, then problem is statically indeterminate Write the euations of euilibrium for the member STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER Procedure for analysis Compatibility Draw a diagram to investigate elongation or contraction of loaded member Express compatibility conditions in terms of displacements caused by forces Use load-displacement relations (δ=pl/ae) to relate unknown displacements to reactions Solve the euations. If result is negative, this means the force acts in opposite direction of that indicated on freebody diagram 24 12

13 EXAMPLE 4.5 Steel rod shown has diameter of 5 mm. Attached to fixed wall at A, and before it is loaded, there is a gap between the wall at B and the rod of 1 mm. Determine reactions at A and B if rod is subjected to axial force of P = 20 kn. Neglect size of collar at C. Take E st = 200 GPa 25 EXAMPLE 4.5 (SOLN) Euilibrium Assume force P large enough to cause rod s end B to contact wall at B. Euilibrium reuires + F = 0; F A F B + 20(10 3 ) N = 0 Compatibility Compatibility euation: δ B/A = m 26 13

14 EXAMPLE 4.5 (SOLN) Compatibility Use load-displacement euations (En 4-2), apply to AC and CB δ B/A = m = F A L AC AE F A (0.4 m) F B (0.8 m) = N m Solving simultaneously, F B L CB AE F A = 16.6 kn F B = 3.39 kn THERMAL STRESS Expansion or contraction of material is linearly related to temperature increase or decrease that occurs (for homogenous and isotropic material) From experiment, deformation of a member having length L is δ T = α T L α = liner coefficient of thermal expansion. Unit measure strain per degree of temperature: 1/ o C (Celsius) or 1/ o K (Kelvin) T = algebraic change in temperature of member δt = algebraic change in length of member 28 14

15 4.6 THERMAL STRESS For a statically indeterminate member, the thermal displacements can be constrained by the supports, producing thermal stresses that must be considered in design. 29 EXAMPLE 4.10 A-36 steel bar shown is constrained to just fit between two fixed supports when T 1 = 30 o C. If temperature is raised to T 2 = 60 o C, determine the average normal thermal stress developed in the bar

16 EXAMPLE 4.10 (SOLN) Euilibrium As shown in free-body diagram, + Fy = 0; F A = F B = F Problem is statically indeterminate since the force cannot be determined from euilibrium. Compatibility Since δ A/B =0, thermal displacement δ T at A occur. Thus compatibility condition at A becomes + δ A/B = 0 = δ T δ F 31 EXAMPLE 4.10 (SOLN) Compatibility Apply thermal and load-displacement relationship, 0 = α TL FL AL F = α TAE = = 7.2 kn From magnitude of F, it s clear that changes in temperature causes large reaction forces in statically indeterminate members. Average normal compressive stress is F σ = = = 72 MPa A 32 16

17 CHAPTER REVIEW When load applied on a body, a stress distribution is created within the body that becomes more uniformly distributed at regions farther from point of application. This is the Saint-Venant sprinciple. Relative displacement at end of axially loaded member relative to other end is determined from L δ = 0 P(x) dx A(x) E 33 CHAPTER REVIEW If series of constant external forces are applied and AE is constant, then PL δ = AE Make sure to use sign convention for internal load P and that material does not yield, but remains linear elastic Superposition of load & displacement is possible provided material remains linear elastic and no changes in geometry occur 34 17

18 CHAPTER REVIEW Reactions on statically indeterminate bar determined using euilibrium and compatibility conditions that specify displacement at the supports. Use the load-displacement relationship, δ = PL/AE 35 CHAPTER REVIEW Change in temperature can cause member made from homogenous isotropic material to change its length by δ = α TL. If member is confined, expansion will produce thermal stress in the member If loading in bar causes material to yield, then stress distribution that s produced can be determined from the strain distribution and stress-strain diagram 36 18

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