# Minimax reference point approach and its application for multiobjective optimisation

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3 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± incorporated into a large multiobjective decision support system (DSS) (Sen and Yang, 1995; Yang and Sen, 1996b) where several multiple criteria decision analysis methods are employed in an integrated manner, including the traditional goal programming method (Charnes and Cooper, 1977), the minimax method (Lightner and Director, 1981; Steuer and Choo, 1983), Geo rionõs method (Geo rion et al., 1972) and the ISTM method (Yang et al., 1990). The rst two methods are based on distance measures and the last two methods are of an interactive nature based on implicit trade-o analysis. The new approach developed in this paper is a kin to the rst two methods. It takes advantages of the two traditional methods but is equipped with its own features. A ship design model is examined to demonstrate these features using the enhanced DSS. This simulation study is also intended to demonstrate the potential application and implementation procedures of the new approach. 2. Minimax reference point formulations 2.1. Direct minimax reference point formulation A multiobjective optimisation problem may be represented as follows: max f x ˆ f 1 x f k x 1a x ˆ x 1 x 2 x n Š T ; X ˆfxjg j x 6 0; h l x ˆ0; j ˆ 1;...; m 1 ; l ˆ 1;...; m 2 g; 1b 1c 1d where f i x is the ith objective function, x j the jth decision variable and X the feasible decision space. g j x and h l x are inequality and equality constraint functions. The feasible objective space is then given by f X. Suppose an aspiration level (targeted value or goal) for an objective f i x is provided, denoted by ^f i. A reference point is then represented by ^f ˆ ^ f 1 f2 ^ f ^ k Š T : 2 In this section, it is assumed that the best compromise solution is the one that is the closest to the reference point. This assumption will be relaxed to handle more general preferences in next sections. Under this assumption and using 1-norm to measure distance, it is easy to show that the best compromise solution can be generated by solving the following minimax problem: min r s:t: x i fi ^ f i x 6 r; i ˆ 1;...; k; 3 where x i P 0 is de ned as ^x i = x i with x i being a normalising factor and ^x i a relative weight for an objective f i x. If the reference point is given as the ideal point taking the best values of all objectives, then the absolute value sign in the objective constraints of problem (3) is not needed and the problem degenerates to a traditional minimax problem. Formulation (3) is a non-smooth optimisation problem. To facilitate the solution of the above problem using existing mathematical programming algorithms, we transform the non-smooth problem to two new formulations, each of which has its own features and drawbacks. In formulation (3), a non-smooth objective constraint x i jf ^ i f i x j 6 r can be simply replaced by the following two equivalent smooth constraints: x i f ^ i f i x 6 r; 4a x i ^ f i f i x 6 r: 4b A new formulation equivalent to formulation (3) can then be constructed directly using Eq. (4a) and (4b) as follows: min r x i ^ f i f i x 6 r; 5a

4 544 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 x i ^ f i f i x 6 r; i ˆ 1;...; k; 5b d i ˆ 0; 13 5c ; d i P 0: 14 which is a smooth mathematical programming problem and can be readily solved using existing optimisation software packages Deviation variable based minimax reference point formulation It should be noted that the underlying preference assumption we made in formulation (5a)±(5c) is that the best compromise solution is the one in the feasible decision space that is closest to the designated reference point in the sense of 1-norm. In many decision situations, however, the decision maker may wish to express his preferences in more exible ways as will be discussed in the section ``Minimax goal programming''. Based on this understanding, we introduce deviation variables to transform formulation (3) to another formulation di erent from formulation (5a)±(5c). First, let us introduce the following deviation variables: ˆ 1 n 2 d i ˆ 1 n 2 where d i ^ f i x f i ^ f i x f i ^ f i ^ f i o f i x ; 6 o f i x ; 7 is a deviation variable, representing the degree to which f i x over achieves f ^ i, and di denotes the degree that f i x under achieves f ^ i. Obviously the following conclusions are true: > 0 and d i ˆ 0 if f i x > ^ f i ; ˆ 0 and d i > 0 if f i x < ^ f i ; ˆ 0 and d i ˆ 0 if f i x ˆ ^ f i : Eqs. (6)±(10) can be transformed to the following equivalent: d i ˆ ^ f i x ; 11 f i d i ˆ f i x ^ f i ; 12 Combining problem (3) with Eqs. (11)±(14), we obtain the following smooth minimax reference point formulation based on the introduction of deviation variables: min r x i d i 6 r; i ˆ 1;...; k; 15a d i ˆ f i x ^ f i ; i ˆ 1;...; k; 15b d i ˆ 0; i ˆ 1;...; k; 15c ; d i P 0; i ˆ 1;...; k; 15d x 2 X: 15e In problem (15a)±(15e), there are 3k additional constraints added to the original constraint set X. Formulation (15a)±(15e) is more exible in representing preferences than formulation (5a)±(5c) as will be made clear in Section 2.3. However, the former requires the non-linear complementarity condition (15c). If the original multiobjective problem (problem (1a)±(1d)) is linear, then problem (5a)±(5c) is linear, and so is problem (15a)±(15e) except that Eq. (15c) is non-linear. Fortunately, in this case problem (15a)±(15e) can be solved using a modi ed simplex method with d i and di not selected as basic variables simultaneously. If problem (1a)±(1d), is non-linear, then both formulations (5a)±(5c) and (15a)±(15e) are ordinary non-linear programming problems and may be solved using for example sequential linear or quadratic programming techniques. It is easy to show that the traditional minimax (ideal point) formulation is a special case of formulation (5a)±(5c) or (15a)±(15e). In fact, if ^f 1 f2 ^ f ^ k are assigned to the best values of the corresponding objectives, we always have f i x 6 f ^ i for any x 2 X. Therefore, constraint (5b) becomes redundant, d i 0 and di ˆ f ^ i f i x in formu-

5 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± lation (15a)±(15e). Formulations (5a)±(5c) and (15a)±(15e) are then equivalent to the following ideal point formulation: min s:t: r x i f ^ i f i x 6 r; i ˆ 1;...; k; x 2 X: 16 Note that an optimal solution of problem (16) is an e cient solution of problem (1a)±(1d) if all x i are positive or if the optimal solution is unique (Steuer and Choo, 1983). However, an optimal solution x of problem (5a)±(5c) or (15a)±(15e) is not guaranteed to be always e cient. For example, the optimal solution will be an inferior solution if the reference point ^f ˆ ^ f1 f2 ^ f ^ k Š T happens to be an interior point of problem (1a)± (1d). In general, x may be an inferior solution if all deviation variables d i and di i ˆ 1;...; k are zero at x. If a reference point is assigned northeast of the e cient frontier of problem (1a)± (1d), it can be shown that an optimal solution of problem (15a)±(15e) is an e cient solution of problem (1a)±(1d). Instead of proving the above conclusion and developing rules for guiding the assignment of reference points, an auxiliary problem as de ned below is designed to check whether an optimal solution of problem (5a)±(5c) or (15a)±(15e) is ef- cient. If not, an e cient solution will result from solving the following problem: 2.3. Geographic interpretation of the above formulations In Fig. 1, a two-objective optimisation problem is illustrated and the shaded area is the feasible objective space as denoted by f X. The curve gcd (the northeast boundary of f X ) constitute the e cient frontier which is non-convex. The e cient solutions on the curve fab form the non-convex part of the frontier. Such solutions can never be identi ed by using the simple weighting method. A reference point is de ned by f ^ ˆ ^ f ^ 1 f2 Š. In Fig. 1, the contour of a traditional goal programming problem is as shown by a diamond with f ^ as its centre. Solving the problem is equivalent to expanding the diamond around the reference point f ^ until it just touches the feasible objective space f X. It is clear from Fig. 1 that if the reference point is located northeast of the ef- cient frontier and f ^ 1 6 f 1 ; f2 ^ 6 f 2, then solving the traditional goal programming problem can only identify either solution A 0 or B 0 whatever weights ^x i P 0 i ˆ 1; 2 may be assigned. Similarly, the contour of 1-norm is as shown by a rectangle with f ^ as its centre. Solving problem (3), ((5a)±(5c) or (15a)±(15e)) is equivalent to expanding the rectangle around the reference point f ^ until it just touches the feasible objective space. It is clear from Fig. 1 that any e cient solution on the curve A g0 B 0 can be identi ed by solving problem max X k iˆ1 x i y i s:t: f i x f i x P y i ; i ˆ 1;...; k; 17 y i P 0; i ˆ 1;...; k; where x is an optimal solution of problem (15a)± (15e) and y i an auxiliary variable to be maximised. Let x T y 1 y k Š T be the optimal solution of problem (17). If x i > 0 and all y i are zero, then x is e cient. Otherwise, x is an inferior solution. However, the resultant optimal solution x of problem (17) is an e cient solution dominating x (Yang et al., 1990; Yang, 1999). Fig. 1. Interpretation of weighted 1-norm and 1-norm methods.

6 546 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 (3) with regulating x i i ˆ 1; 2. From Fig. 1, it is also clear that if the reference point is assigned to satisfy f ^ 1 P f1 ; f2 ^ P f2, then formulation (3) will be equivalent to the ideal point formulation. 3. Minimax goal programming In formulations (5a)±(5c) and (15a)±(15e), it is assumed that the best compromised solution is the one that is closest to the reference point. This assumption is now dropped to accommodate di erent types of preferences for developing minimax goal programming models. In this section formulation (15a)±(15e) is modi ed to construct non-preemptive and preemptive minimax goal programming models Non-preemptive minimax goal programming In non-preemptive goal programming, all goals are of roughly comparable importance. Some objectives may be required to be as close to their goals as possible, referred to as two-sided goals. However, other objectives may be required to be above their respective goals, called upper one-sided goals, or below their respective goals, called lower one-sided goals (Hillier and Lieberman, 1990). In this section, we develop non-preemptive models based on the minimax reference point formulation. If objective l is required to be maintained at its targeted level fl ^, then both deviation variables d l and dl need be minimised and Eq. (15a) becomes x l d l x l d l 6 r; 18 where x l is relative importance (penalty) for the over-achievement of the goal fl ^ and x l for the under-achievement. The index set of all such objectives is given by I ˆfljf l x ˆ ^ f l is required; l ˆ 1;...; kg: 19 If objective i is required to be achieved above its goal level fi ^ as far as possible, then only di needs to be minimised and Eq. (15a) becomes x i d i 6 r: 20 The index set of all such objectives is given by I P ˆfijf i x is required above f ^ i as far as possible; i ˆ 1;...; kg: 21 If objective j is required to be achieved below its goal level fj ^ as far as possible, then only d j needs to be minimised and Eq. (15a) becomes x j d j 6 r: 22 The index set of all such objectives is given by I 6 ˆfjjf j x is required below f ^ j as far as possible; j ˆ 1;...; kg: 23 To summarise the above discussions, we formulate a non-preemptive minimax goal programming model as follows: min r x l d l x l d l 6 r for l 2 I ˆ; 24a x i d i 6 r for i 2 I P ; 24b x j d j 6 r for j 2 I 6 ; 24c d i ˆ f i x ^ f i ; i ˆ 1;...; k; 24d d i ˆ 0; i ˆ 1;...; k; 24e ; d i P 0; i ˆ 1;...; k; 24f x 2 X: 24g If all objective functions and constraint functions are linear, the above problem is linear except constraint (24e). Fortunately, problem (24a)±(24g) can still be solved using a modi ed simplex method with and d i not selected as basic variables simultaneously. If all the goals are fully achievable, at an optimal solution of problem (24a)±(24g) we will have

7 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± d l ˆ dl ˆ d j ˆ di ˆ 0 for all l 2 I ˆ, i 2 I P and j 2 I 6. If in this case the optimal solution of problem (24a)±(24g) is not unique, we could attain the decision makerõs most preferred solution by solving the following problem: X X max x i x j d j i2i P i2i 6 d j ˆ f i x ^ f i for i 2 I P ; 25a ˆ f j x ^ f j for j 2 I 6 ; 25b ; d j P 0 for i 2 I P ; j 2 I 6 ; 25c f l x ˆ ^ f l for l 2 I ˆ; 25d x 2 X: 25e Combining problem (24a)±(24g) with problem (25a)±(25e) the non-preemptive minimax goal programming model can be summarised as follows: min P 1 r P 2! X X x i x j d j i2i P i2i 6 s:t: constraints 24a to 24g ; 26 where P 1 and P 2 are priority weights and P 1 P 2. Obviously, if the rst priority problem has a unique optimal solution, then the second priority problem does not need to be solved Preemptive minimax goal programming In preemptive goal programming, there is a hierarchy of priority levels for the goals, so that the goals of primary importance receive rst-priority attention, those of secondary importance receive second-priority attention, and so forth. Such a problem arises when one or more of the goals is clearly far more important than the others. One way of solving an preemptive minimax goal programming problem is to solve a sequence of problem (15a)±(15e) or (24a)±(24g) which may be referred to as sequential minimax goal programming. At the rst stage of the approach, the only goals included in problem (15a)±(15e) or (24a)±(24g) are the rst-priority goals. That is, we rst attempt to solve the following problem: min r x i x i d i 6 r; i 2 I f ; 27a d i ˆ f i x ^ f i ; i 2 I f ; 27b d i ˆ 0; i 2 I f ; 27c ; d i P 0; i 2 I f ; 27d 27e where I f denotes the index set of all objectives with the rst-priority goals. Note that in (27a)±(27e) only two-sided goals are listed. Suppose ~x; d ~ i ; d ~ i for i 2 I f are the optimal solution of problem (27a)±(27e). If the optimal solution is unique, it will be adopted as the best compromise solution without considering any additional goals. However, if there are multiple optimal solutions, we move to the second stage by adding the second-priority goals to problem (15a)±(15e) or (24a)±(24g) and keeping the rst-priority goals at the levels they have achieved at the rst stage. Let I s denote the index set of all objectives with the second-priority goals. We then attempt to solve the following problem: min r x i x i d i 6 r; i 2 I s ; 28a d i ˆ f i x ^ f i ; i 2 I s ; 28b d i ˆ 0; i 2 I s ; 28c

8 548 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 ; d i P 0; i 2 I s ; 28d f l x ˆf l ~x ~ d l ~ d l ; l 2 I f ; 28e x 2 X: 28f Note that in problem (28a)±(28f) ~ d l and ~ d l are constant. If the optimal solution of the above problem is not unique, we repeat the same process for any lower-priority goals. If the optimal solution of the lowest priority goal is not unique, we formulate problem (25a)±(25e) for this goal. When we deal with goals on the same priority level, any of the three types of goals (lower onesided, two-sided, upper one-sided) can arise. The approach for non-preemtive goal programming can then be applied. In problem (27a)±(27e) or (28a)±(28f), constraint (27a) or (28a) could be replaced by constraints (24a)±(24c) as appropriate, depending upon the types of goals. In formulating (28a)±(28f), however, constraint (28e) needs to be replaced by f l x ˆf l ~x ~ d l ~ d l ; l 2 I ˆ I f ; f l x P f l ~x ~ d l ~ d l ; l 2 I P I f ; f l x 6 f l ~x ~ d l ~ d l ; l 2 I 6 I f : analysed using the minimax reference point approach explored in the previous sections. Developing a mathematical ship design model is not a trivial task. It requires the domain speci c knowledge and the in-depth understanding of the design problem in hand. On the other hand, substantial knowledge in optimisation and decision analysis is needed to guide the modelling process. In addition, it is often the case that curve tting techniques need to be employed to smooth the relationships among certain design variables, which are otherwise represented by tables and diagrams. A ship design model was built to investigate a family of bulk carriers, ranging from 3000 to 500,000 tonnes deadweight, with speeds ranging from about 14 to 18 knots. In summary, the model includes three performance objectives: minimisation of annual transportation cost, minimisation of light ship mass, and maximisation of annual cargo. Six independent design variables are taken into account, which are ship length (L), draft (T), depth (D), block coe cient (C B ), breadth (B) and speed (V). To help the readers understand the relationships among the design variables and how the objectives and the constraints are constructed, a verbal preliminary ship design model is presented in Appendix A. More details about the modelling process can be found in the references (Yang and Sen, 1996b; Sen and Yang, 1998). 4. Multiobjective preliminary ship design 4.1. A brief description of a preliminary ship design model The detailed design of an engineering product such as a large ship is a complex process. At early design stages, however, a mathematical design model is useful for preliminary design analysis and synthesis. By examining such a model, useful guidelines can be generated for determining a preferred design space where detailed design could be carried out at later design stages. This subsection is aimed to present a verbal preliminary ship design model. This model will be transformed to a conventional optimisation problem and then 4.2. A transformed multiobjective non-linear ship design model Mathematically, the ship design model as presented in Appendix A can be transformed to a conventional multiobjective non-linear optimisation problem, consisting of three objectives f i x i ˆ 1;...; 3 and six variables x i i ˆ 1;...; 6. Table 1 lists the de nitions of the objective functions and the design variables. To represent the model in a concise way, intermediate variables are introduced in Table 2. From Appendix A, one can see that these intermediate variables provide insight into the ship design problem. In fact, designers may use some of

9 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± Table 1 De nition of objective functions and design variables Objective Variable Name De nition Name De nition f 1 x Transportation cost x 1 Length (m) (pounds/tonne) x 2 Draft (m) f 2 x Light ship mass x 3 Depth (m) (10,000 tonnes) x 4 Block coe cient f 3 x Annual cargo x 5 Breadth (m) (million tonnes) x 6 Speed (knot) Table 2 De nition of intermediate variables Intermediate variables Name De nition c 1 Displacement c 2 Power c 3 Machine mass c 4 Out t mass c 5 Steel mass c 6 Ship cost c 7 Deadweight c 8 Daily consumption c 9 Voyage cost c 10 Cargo deadweight Round trip per annum c 11 these intermediate variables to judge whether or not a generated design is preferred. Let x ˆ x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 Š T. With reference to the verbal model presented in Appendix A, it is straightforward to show that the relationships among the six design variables and the eleven intermediate variables can be summarised as follows: c 1 x ˆ1:025x 1 x 2 x 4 x 5 ; c 2 x ˆc 2=3 1 x x 3 9:8065x 1 0:5 6 b x 4 x 6 a x 4 9:8065x 1 ; 0: where b x 4 and a x 4 are auxiliary functions tted for identifying the relations between two parameters, Admiralty Coe cient and Froude Number (Yang and Sen, 1996b). b x 4 and a x 4 are quadratic functions of the design variable x 4 as follows: b x 4 ˆ 10;847:2x ;817x :32; a x 4 ˆ4977:06x :61x :51: 31a 31b Other intermediate variables are given as follows: c 3 x ˆ0:17c 0:9 2 x ; 32 c 4 x ˆ1:0x 0:8 1 x0:3 3 x0:1 4 x0:6 5 ; 33 c 5 x ˆ0:034x 1:7 1 x0:4 3 x0:5 4 x0:7 5 ; 34 c 6 x ˆ1:3 2000c 0:85 5 x 3500c 4 x 2400c 0:8 2 x ; 35 c 7 x ˆc 1 x c 3 x c 4 x c 5 x ; c 8 x ˆ0:00456c 2 x 0:2; c 9 x ˆ21;875 c 8 x 6:3c 0:8 7 x ; 38 x 6 c 10 x ˆc 7 x 2c 0:5 7 x c 8 x c 11 x ˆ 208:33 x 6 5 ; 39 1;400;000x 6 833;333:33 c 10 x 4000 x 6 : 40 Note that the above intermediate variables are all dependent variables and can be expressed as direct functions of the six independent design variables. The ship design model can now be expressed using the above variables as the following strongly non-linear, multiobjective optimisation problem: min f 1 x ˆ0:2c 6 x 40; 000c 0:3 7 x c 9 x c 11 x c 10 x c 11 x 41a min f 2 x ˆ c 3 x c 4 x c 5 x =10;000 41b

10 550 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 max f 3 x ˆc 10 x c 11 x =1; 000; 000; 41c x 1 6x 5 6 0; x 1 15x 3 6 0; x 1 19x 2 6 0; 41d 41e 41f x 2 0:45c 0:31 7 x 6 0; 41g x 2 0:7x 3 0:7 6 0; 41h c 0:31 7 x 6 500;000; 41i 0:63 6 x 4 6 0:75; 41j 14 6 x ; 41k x 6 0:32 9:8065x 1 0:5 6 0; 0:53x 2 0:52x 3 0:07x 5 41l 0:085x 4 0:002 x 2 5 x 2 x ; 41m x 1 ; x 2 ; x 3 ; x 4 ; x 5 ; x 6 P 0: 4.3. Extreme and e cient ideal designs 41n The proposed minimax reference point approach is well suited to dealing with the above problem. The approach has been incorporated into a multiobjective decision support system (Sen and Yang, 1995; Yang, 1999). In the system, a scalar optimisation problem is solved using a modi ed sequential linear programming solver capable of identifying oscillations around an optimal solution. Several multiobjective optimisation methods have been integrated into the system, including the traditional minimax (ideal point) method and goal programming. By optimising each of the three objectives individually, three extreme e cient designs are obtained, denoted by ^x 1, ^x 2 and ^x 3, respectively. Table 3 shows the values of the six design variables at each of the three extreme e cient designs. From these extreme designs, a payo table is constructed as in Table 4. From Table 4, we can determine the best feasible and the least preferred values of the objectives as follows: f 1 ˆ 9:4584; f 1 ˆ 17:3413; f 2 ˆ 0:7163; f 2 ˆ 9:6145; f 3 ˆ 1:2702; f 3 ˆ 0:3719: 42 Note from Table 4 that the three objectives are in con ict with one another. Minimising annual cost does not lead to the minimisation of light ship mass or the maximisation of annual cargo. On the other side, maximising annual cargo results in a heavy ship with high annual cost. If a light ship is preferred, then only low annual cargo could be achieved. It is therefore necessary to conduct tradeo analysis to nd a compromise design. The traditional minimax (ideal point) method has been widely used for conducting tradeo analysis. In reference point formulation (15a)± (15e) let fi ^ ˆ fi i ˆ 1; 2; 3. We then have the ideal point formulation (16). The weighting and normalising factor x i is de ned by x i ˆ ^x i = x i. Table 3 Extreme e cient designs for the ship design problem Extreme design Variable x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 ^x ^x ^x Table 4 Payo table for the ship design problem Extreme design Objective f 1 x f 2 x f 3 x ^x ^x ^x

11 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± The normalising factor x i is calculated by x i ˆjfi fi j. The ideal point formulation for the problem is then constructed as follows: min r s:t: 0:1269 ^x 1 f 1 x 9: r; 0:1124 ^x 2 f 2 x 0: r; 1:1132 ^x 3 1:2702 f 3 x 6 r; 43 where X is the feasible region of problem (41a)± (41n). X is de ned as follows: X ˆfxjany x ˆ x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 Š T that satisfies constraints 41d to 41n g: 44 Note that in problem (43) the two objectives f 1 x and f 2 x are for minimisation and f 3 x is for maximisation. It should also be noted that minimising f 1 x is equivalent to maximising ( f 1 x ). Solving problem (43) with all ^x i ˆ 1 i ˆ 1; 2; 3 results in the following e cient ideal design ^x 4 : ^x 4 ˆ 292:9 19:15 26:36 0:75 48:82 14:26Š T ; using the new minimax reference point approach by moving reference points and setting weights around the points. Suppose a reference point in objective space is provided at which the transportation cost is 10 pounds per tonne, the light ship mass tonnes and the annual cargo 1 million tonnes, or ^f 1 ˆ 10; ^ f2 ˆ 3; ^ f3 ˆ 1: 45 Then, problem (15a)±(15e) can be constructed as follows to search for a feasible design achieving the targeted objective values as closely as possible: min r 46a 0:1269 ^x 1 d 1 d 1 6 r; 46b 0:1124 ^x 2 d 2 d 2 6 r; 46c 1:1132 ^x 3 d 3 d 3 6 r; 46d d 1 d 1 ˆ f 1 x 10; 46e d 2 d 2 ˆ f 2 x 3; 46f f 1 ^x 4 ˆ11:55; f 2 ^x 4 ˆ30;716:95=10;000; d 3 d 3 ˆ f 3 x 1; 46g f 3 ^x 4 ˆ1;032; 415:81=1;000;000: 4.4. Compromise design via changing reference points and weights The above ideal design does not fully achieve any of the targeted values of the three objectives and may not be preferred by the decision maker. It is possible to generate other e cient designs using formulation (43) by regulating the weights ^x i i ˆ 1; 2; 3. However, it is di cult to estimate a set of weights that precisely represent the decision makerõs preferences. On the other hand, it is relatively easy to assign targeted values for the objectives. The rest of the paper is aimed to illustrate how this can be done for the ship design problem d 1 d 1 ˆ 0; d 2 d 2 ˆ 0; d 3 d 3 ˆ 0; 46h d 1 ; d 1 ; d 2 ; d 2 ; d 3 ; d 3 P 0; x 2 X: 46i 46j In problem (46a)±(46j), X is de ned in Eq. (44), f 1 x and f 2 x are for minimisation and f 3 x is for maximisation. Suppose the three objectives are of equal importance, i.e. ^x i ˆ 1 i ˆ 1; 2; 3. Solving problem (46a)±(46j) then yields the following feasible design ^x 5 : ^x 5 ˆ 304:43 18:35 25:22 0:66 50:74 14Š T ; f 1 ^x 4 ˆ10; f 2 ^x 4 ˆ3; f 3 ^x 4 ˆ1:

12 552 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 It is clear that at ^x 5 all the three objectives precisely achieve their targeted values. Although this may please the decision maker, the design ^x 5 is not e cient and there exist other designs dominating ^x 5. For instance, problem (17) can be constructed as follows with f i x replaced by f i ^x 4 : max 0:1269 ^x 1 y 1 0:1124 ^x 2 y 2 1:1132 ^x 3 y 3 s:t: 10 f 1 x P y 1 ; 3:0 f 2 x P y 2 ; f 3 x 1:0P y 3 ; x 2 X: 47 Solving problem (47) with regulating the weights ^x i can generate the e cient designs dominating ^x 5. Let ^x i ˆ 1 i ˆ 1; 2; 3 for example. We can then obtain the following e cient design ^x 6 : ^x 6 ˆ 304:92 18:52 25:46 0:65 50:82 14Š T ; At ^x 7 all the three objectives have been catered for to some extent but none of them fully achieves its targeted value. It is therefore of interest to investigate how the targeted objective values could be attained if the objectives are given di erent relative weights or priorities. Suppose the targeted value of the rst objective receives rst-priority attention and the other two objectives are of equal importance. Then the following two minimax problems can be constructed sequentially: min r 49a 0:1269 d 1 d 1 6 r; 49b d 1 d 1 ˆ f 1 x 10; 49c d 1 d 1 ˆ 0; 49d f 1 ^x 6 ˆ9:93; f 2 ^x 6 ˆ3; f 3 ^x 6 ˆ1: d 1 ; d 1 P 0; 49e Clearly ^x 6 dominates ^x 5, though there is not much di erence between the two designs. This indicates that the given reference point is an internal point of the feasible design space but very close to the e cient frontier. If the decision maker is interested in low light ship mass, he may wish to provide another reference point di erent from that given by Eq. (45), for example, ^ f 1 ˆ 10; ^ f2 ˆ 2; ^ f3 ˆ 1: 48 Similarly, a new minimax reference point problem can be constructed using the above preferences. The resultant new problem is the same as problem (46a)±(46j) except that Eq. (46f) is replaced by d 2 d 2 ˆ f 2 x 2. Solving this new problem with ^x i ˆ 1 i ˆ 1; 2; 3 leads to the following e cient design ^x 7 : ^x 7 ˆ 275:43 17:63 24:19 0:71 45:91 14Š T ; f 1 ^x 7 ˆ10:43; f 3 ^x 7 ˆ951;028:25=1;000;000: f 2 ^x 7 ˆ24;850:94=10;000; 49f min r 50a 0:1124 d 2 d 2 6 r; 50b 1:1132 d 3 d 3 6 r; 50c d 2 d 2 ˆ f 2 x 2; 50d d 3 d 3 ˆ f 3 x 1; 50e d 2 d 2 ˆ 0; d 3 d 3 ˆ 0; 50f d 2 ; d 2 ; d 3 ; d 3 P 0; 50g 50h f 1 x ˆ10 d ~ 1 d ~ 1 : 50i In Eq. (50i) d ~ 1 and d ~ 1 are the optimal solution of problem (49a)±(49f).

13 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± Solving problem (49a)±(49f) and then problem (50a)±(50i) results in the following e cient design ^x 8 : ^x 8 ˆ 280:85 17:56 24:09 0:68 46:81 14Š T ; f 1 ^x 8 ˆ10:0; f 3 ^x 8 ˆ948;109:4=1;000;000: f 2 ^x 8 ˆ25;139:74=10;000; At ^x 8, the rst objective is fully achieved but the other two objectives are both under-achieved. Let us further assume that the goal of objective 1 is given the rst priority, that of objective 2 the second priority and that of objective 3 the third priority. We can then construct three minimax problems sequentially with the rst one the same as problem (49a)±(49f) and the other two given as follows: min r 51a 0:1124 d 2 d 2 6 r; 51b d 2 d 2 ˆ f 2 x 2; 51c 52f f 1 x ˆ10 ~ d 1 ~ d 1 ; 52g f 2 x ˆ2 d 2 d 2 : 52h In Eqs. (51g) and (52g) d ~ 1 and d ~ 1 is the optimal solution of problem (49a)±(49f) and in Eq. (52h) d 2 and d 2 the optimal solution of problem (51a)± (51f). Solving problems (49a)±(49f), (51a)±(51f) and (52a)±(52h) sequentially results in a new e cient design ^x 9 : ^x 9 ˆ 256:96 16:16 22:08 0:68 42:83 14Š T ; f 1 ^x 9 ˆ10:0; f 2 ^x 9 ˆ20;000:0=10;000; f 3 ^x 9 ˆ860;809:59=1;000;000: Interestingly, at ^x 9 the goals of objectives 1 and 2 are fully achieved simultaneously. Similar sensitivity analysis can be conducted by assuming that the goal of objective 1 is given the rst priority, that of objective 3 the second priority and that of objective 2 the third priority. This assumption leads to the following e cient design ^x 10 : d 2 d 2 ˆ 0; 51d ^x 10 ˆ 301:77 18:52 25:46 0:66 50:3 14Š T ; d 2 ; d 2 P 0; 51e 51f f 1 x ˆ10 d ~ 1 d ~ 1 ; 51g min r 52a 1:1132 d 3 d 3 6 r; 52b d 3 d 3 ˆ f 3 x 1; 52c d 3 d 3 ˆ 0; 52d d 3 ; d 3 P 0; 52e f 1 ^x 10 ˆ10:0; f 2 ^x 10 ˆ29; 642:4=10;000; f 3 ^x 10 ˆ1;000;000:0=1;000;000: Thus, objectives 1 and 2 can also be achieved simultaneously. In the same way it can be shown that the goals of objectives 2 and 3 cannot be achieved simultaneously. The reference point given by Eq. (45) is inside the feasible design space. In this case the most preferred solution is entirely determined by the reference point and the relative weights ^x i play no role in this process whatever values they may take. The reference point given by Eq. (48) is outside the feasible space but fairly close to the e cient frontier. In such a case relative weights do play a part in determining the most preferred solution as demonstrated in the above analyses. Since the reference point limits the in uence of relative

14 554 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 weights, however, changing the weights in this case does not lead to the signi cant changes of the solutions. In other words, given a reference point very close to the e cient frontier, the most preferred solution is insensitive to the changes of relative weights. With a reference point moving away from the e cient frontier, relative weights become increasingly more important and the most preferred solution is more sensitive to the changes of weights. For instance, suppose the following reference point is provided: ^ f 1 ˆ 9:6; ^ f2 ˆ 1; ^ f3 ˆ 1:2: 53 Note that each of the targeted values is achievable as it is not as good as the best feasible value as given in Table 2. By assuming that the three objectives are of equal importance, we can generate the following e cient solution. ^x 11 ˆ 286:15 18:75 25:78 0:75 47:69 14:07Š T ; f 1 ^x 11 ˆ11:27; f 2 ^x 11 ˆ28;814:16=10;000; f 3 ^x 11 ˆ1;010;062=1;000;000: At ^x 11, none of the three objectives achieves its targeted value. If objective 2 is regarded to be much more important than the other two objectives with ^x 1 ˆ ^x 3 ˆ 1 and ^x 2 ˆ 10, then we can obtain a new solution ^x 12 : ^x 12 ˆ 224:97 14:4 19:58 0:69 37:5 14Š T ; f 1 ^x 12 ˆ11:01; f 2 ^x 12 ˆ14;655:29=10;000; f 3 ^x 12 ˆ730;119:37=1;000;000: At ^x 12 the goal of f 2 x is much better achieved than at ^x 11 mainly at the expense of objective 3. If the goal of objective 2 is given the rst priority attention and those of objectives 1 and 3 the second with equal weights, then the following solution will be generated: ^x 13 ˆ 197:72 12:35 16:64 0:65 32:95 14Š T ; f 1 ^x 13 ˆ11:37; f 2 ^x 13 ˆ1; f 3 ^x 13 ˆ556;526:92=1;000;000: At ^x 13, the goal of objective 2 is fully achieved but that of objective 3 is poorly achieved. The above analyses show that the preferred solution becomes increasingly more sensitive to the changes of weights when a reference point moves away from the e cient frontier. From the above analyses, 13 di erent designs are generated. The most preferred solution could be one of them, depending on the decision makerõs preferences. New designs can also be generated if new preference information is provided. 5. Concluding remarks In multiobjective optimisation, the most preferred solution is dependent upon the decision makerõs preferences. Assigning targeted values (goals) to con icting objectives as well as relative weights and priority levels for attaining these goals is one of the most common ways of communicating preferences. This explains why goal programming is among the most popular multiobjective optimisation techniques. The minimax reference point approach developed in this paper provides an alternative way for multiobjective optimisation and facilitates both non-preemptive and preemptive goal programming in non-convex cases. On the other hand, like traditional minimax methods it is capable of generating any e cient solution by setting appropriate reference points and regulating weights, though additional number (up to three times the number of objectives) of constraints is incurred. The examined ship design problem is formulated as a three objective optimisation problem. It provides a fairly complex but manageable nonlinear model that could be used to test other multiobjective optimisation techniques. The numerical analyses reported in this paper illustrated the computational procedures of the minimax reference point approach, which may help the user to implement the approach. It is evident from this investigation that the approach is suited to dealing with general multiobjective optimisation problems, whether they are linear or non-linear, convex or non-convex, continuous or discrete.

15 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541± Acknowledgements The original preliminary ship design model was developed by the author when he was working at the Engineering Design Centre of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. The author is in debit to the two anonymous referees for their constructive comments on this paper. displacement ˆ 1:025 L B T C B ; running costs ˆ 40; 000 DW 0:3 ; DW ˆ displacement light ship mass; voyage costs ˆ fuel cost port cost; Appendix A. A verbal preliminary ship design model In the ship design model, the following three design objectives are taken into account: Minimisation of transportation cost (TC) annual costs transportation cost ˆ annual cargo : Minimisation of light ship mass (LSM) light ship mass ˆ steel mass outfit mass machinery mass: Maximisation of annual cargo (AC) annual cargo ˆ cargo deadweight RTPA: The terms in the objectives are de ned with regard to the six design variables as follows: annual costs ˆ capital charges running costs voyage costs RTPA; capital charges ˆ 0:2 ship cost; ship cost ˆ 1: steel mass 0: outfit mass 2400 P 0:8 ; steel mass ˆ 0:034 L 1:7 B 0:7 D 0:4 C 0:5 B ; outfit mass ˆ 1:0 L 0:8 B 0:6 D 0:3 C 0:1 B ; machinery mass ˆ 0:17 P 0:9 ; P ˆ displacement 2=3 V 3 1 b C B V = g L 0:5 a C B ; fuel cost ˆ 1:05 daily consumption sea days fuel price ; daily consumption ˆ P 0:19 24=1000 0:2; sea days ˆ round trip miles ; 24 V round trip miles ˆ 5000 nautical miles ; fuel price ˆ 100 pounds=tonne ; port cost ˆ 6:3 DW 0:8 ; RTPA ˆ 350 sea days port days ; cargo deadwight port days ˆ 2 cargo handling rate 0:5 ; cargo deadweight ˆ DW fuel carried crew; stores and water; fuel carried ˆ daily consumption sea days 5 ; crew; stores and water ˆ 2:0 DW 0:5 ; cargo handling rate ˆ 8000 tonnes=day ; where RTPA is round trip per annual, DW deadweight, g ˆ 9:8065 and a C B and b C B are tted from test data and given as follows:

16 556 J.-B. Yang / European Journal of Operational Research 126 (2000) 541±556 b C B ˆ 10; 847:2C 2 B 12; 817C B 6960:32; a C B ˆ4977:06C 2 B 8105:61C B 4456:51: A feasible design needs to satisfy the following technical requirements that are interpreted as the constraints on ship dimensions and displacement, powering and stability. A. Dimensions and displacement Length/breadth ratio L=B P 6. Length/depth ratio L=D Length/draft ratio L=T Draft constraints T 6 0:45 DW 0:31 and T 6 0:7 D 0:7: Deadweight constraint DW 6 500; 000. B. Powering Block coe cient constraints 0:63 6 C B 6 0:75. Speed constraints 14 6 V Froude number constraint V = g L 0:5 6 0:32. C. Stability Metacentric height (GM) GM P 0:07 B; GM ˆ KB BM KG; KB ˆ 0:53 T ; BM ˆ 0:085 C B 0:002 B 2 ; T C B KG ˆ 1:0 0:52 D: References Chankong, V., Haimes, Y.Y., Multiobjective Decision Making: Theory and Methodology. North-Holland, New York. Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W., Goal programming and multiple objective optimisation ± Part I. European Journal of Operational Research 1, 39±54. Geo rion, A.M., Dyer, J.S., Feinberg, A., An interactive approach for multicriteria optimisation, with an application to the operation of an academic department. Management Science 19 (4), 357±368. Hillier, F.S., Lieberman, G.J., Introduction to Operations Research, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. Jacquet-Lagreze, E., Siskos, Y., Assessing a set of additive utility functions for multicriteria decision making, the UTA method. European Journal of Operational Research 10, 151±164. Jacquet-Lagreze, E., Meziani, R., Slowinski, R., MOLP with an interactive assessment of a piecewise utility function. European Journal of Operational Research 31 (3), 350±357. Li, D., Convexi cation of noninferior frontier. Journal of Optimisation Theory and Applications 88 (1), 177±196. Li, D., Yang, J.B., Iterative parametric minimax method for a class of composite optimisation problems. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 198, 64±83. Lightner, M.R., Director, S.W., Multiple criterion optimisation for the design of electronic circuits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems 28/3, 169±179. Sen, P., Yang, J.B., Multiple criteria decision making in design selection and synthesis. Journal of Engineering Design 6 (3), 207±230. Sen, P., Yang, J.B., Multiple Criteria Decision Support in Engineering Design. Springer, Berlin. Steuer, R.E., Choo, E.U., An interactive weighted Tchebyche procedure for multiple objective programming. Mathematical Programming 26, 326±344. Vanderpooten, D., Vincke, P., Description and analysis of some representative interactive multicriteria procedures. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 12, 1221±1238. White, D.J., Weighting factor extensions for nite multiple objective vector minimisation problems. European Journal of Operational Research 36, 256±265. Wierzbicki, A.P., The use of reference objectives in multiobjective optimisation. In: Fandel, G., Gal, T. (Eds.), MCDM Theory and Application, Proceedings Hagen/ Konigswinter, F.R.G., 1979, LNEMS, vol Springer, Berlin, pp. 468±486. Wierzbicki, A.P., A mathematical basis for satis cing decision making. Mathematical Modelling 3, 391±405. Yang, J.B., Chen, C., Zhang, Z.J., The interactive step trade-o method (ISTM) for multiobjective optimisation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 20 (3), 688±695. Yang, J.B., Multiple Criteria Decision Making Methods and Applications. Hunan Publishing House, Changsha, P.R. China. Yang, J.B., Sen, P., 1996a. Preference modelling by estimating local utility functions for multiobjective optimisation. European Journal of Operational Research 95, 115±138. Yang, J.B., Sen, P., 1996b. Interactive tradeo analysis and preference modelling for preliminary multiobjective ship design. Systems Analysis, Modelling, and Simulation 26, 25±55. Yang, J.B., Gradient projection and local region search for multiobjective optimisation. European Journal of Operational Research 112, 432±459.

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