Overview of Pilot Plant Studies

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1 Overview of Pilot Plant Studies and contributions to FNST Jon Menard, Rich Hawryluk, Hutch Neilson, Stewart Prager, Mike Zarnstorff Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Annual Meeting UCLA August 2-4, 2010

2 Motivation for Pilot Plant studies Understand parameter space of FNS-capable facilities Provide context/choices for missions and designs of FNSF Identify remaining gaps, necessary R&D Is high neutron wall loading + small net electric possible? Assess requirements for net electricity from MFE Required physics and technology performance, design How large would pilot plant devices be? Have a plan to put electricity on the grid using MFE Demonstrate fusion s viability and utility 2

3 FNSF-P Definition FNSF-P = Fusion Nuclear Science Facility Pilot A member of the FNSF family: Steady-state plasma operating scenarios Neutron wall loading 1MW/m 2 Tritium self-sufficiency Ultimately capable of higher neutron wall loading for component testing Sized to be capable of producing enough fusion power for (small) net electricity - a pilot plant Assume S&T basis between ITER and ARIES 3

4 Key pilot metric is overall electrical efficiency Q eng Q eng = η th (M n P n + P α + P aux + P pump ) P aux + P + P b + P l + P l Q eng + P pump + P sub + P coils + P control η aux η th η aux Q ( 4M n / Q + 5P pump / P fus ) = 5(1 + η QP / P ) aux extra fus η th = thermal conversion efficiency η aux = injected power wall plug efficiency Q = fusion power / auxiliary power M n gy p Blanket and auxiliary heating = neutron energy multiplier P n = neutron power from fusion P α = alpha power from fusion P aux = injected power (heat + CD + control) P pump = coolant pumping power P sub = subsystems power P coils = power lost in coils (Cu) P control = power used in plasma or plant control P extra that is not included in P inj = P pump + P sub + P coils + P control and current-drive efficiency + fusion gain largely determine electrical efficiency Q eng pump p p gp Pumping, sub-systems power assumed to be proportional to P thermal needs further research 4

5 ARIES and EU studies have explored range of technologies for blanket and divertor Plant net efficiency i 0.31/ Higher temperature enables increased thermal efficiency Plant net efficiency is defined as ratio between the net electrical power output and the fusion power 5

6 FNSF-P study exploring 3 configurations: Advanced Tokamak (AT) Most mature physics and technology data base Spherical Tokamak (ST) Most compact radially, vertical maintenance Compact Stellarator (CS) Low re-circulating power, greatly reduced disruptivity 6

7 Initial Q eng 1 design points identified for AT, ST, CS Fixed η aux = 0.4, M n =1.1, AT/CS inboard shield + blanket thickness = 1m, ST inboard shield thickness = 15cm Thermal conversion efficiencies compared: η th = 0.3 and 0.45 AT and CS pilots have fusion power = GW 0 ST is ~ 2 higherh ST pilot has highest neutron wall loading, smallest radial build CS has highest Q eng due to small power for heating and current drive Approximate, preliminary pilot size: 2/3 linear dimension of ARIES-AT, ST, CS Ongoing analysis priorities for FNSF-P size and availability Blanket radial build, pumping power Magnet current density Maintenance schemes Divertor and first wall heat flux limits Technology advances offer the most benefit. What advances should be assumed in the design? 7

8 Advanced Tokamak FNSF-P Analyses 8

9 AT size depends on achievable TF current density ARIES TF coil algorithm allows about 45 MA/m 2 average current density over the TF coil, while ITER design allows about 15 MA/m 2 Variation of the allowed j TF from ARIES to ITER shows that larger major radii are required as the ITER value is approached. Using the ITER j TF the radial build of ITER can be approximately reproduced, when ITER operating point is input. Working with MIT to develop a better understanding of what should be requirement for a pilot plant. 9

10 Systems studies have identified additional important parameters that influence size and fusion power ) Fusion Power (P fus = [MW] Shield Thickness = 1.25 Shield Thickness = 1.00 Shield Thickness = Major Radius (R = [m]) (P fus = [MW W]) Fusi ion Power F div,rad = 0.70 F div,rad = F div,rad = Major Radius (R = [m]) Inboard shield thickness is a consideration for the radial build and affects machine size. Increasing the allowable heat flux to the divertor or the radiated heat fraction increases the maximum fusion powers accessible. 10

11 Comparison of AT Pilot, ITER, ARIES AT Pilot has smaller size, higher field compared to ITER-AT NOTE: tradeoff between pilot plant thermal efficiency (0.3/0.45) and physics aggressiveness. Further work underway to benchmark pilot plant calculations vs. ITER, ARIES 11

12 Spherical Tokamak FNSF-P Analyses 12

13 ST Pilot Plant study parameters, assumptions Aspect ratio 1.7 Plasma elongation 3.3 Plasma triangularity 0.6 Toroidal field at R 0 2.4T E NBI 05M 0.5MeV Non-inductive fraction 100% (BS+NBI) Scan major radius and density (Greenwald fraction) Typically choose P fusion, P NBI, Q DT to be independent of n e Vary I P and H 98 to achieve Q ENG =1, f NI =1 Offset cost of increased R 0 by reducing physics risk in Q DT : Choose ΔQ DT º -5 for ΔR 0 = +0.25m, q* > 2 limits maximum I P at low n e Solutions become more conservative as R 0 is increased Thermal conversion η=0 0.45, , Δ IB-shield =15cm, SC PF coils 13

14 Increased n e / n G reduces H 98, β N, fast ion fraction Increased R 0 reduces H 98, β N, bootstrap fraction But one disadvantage of increased density is increase in required f BS NOTE: R=2.25m* case is same as R=2.25m case but with P NBI = 40 60MW 14

15 Now focusing on ST Pilots intermediate between ST-FNSF and ARIES-ST in size, β, fusion performance Possible ST progression: DD, PMI validate, FNS, component test, Q ENG 1 15

16 Compact Stellarator FNSF-P Analyses 16

17 Stellarator Pilot builds on ARIES-CS study Reference parameters for baseline: NCSX like: 3 periods R = 7.75 m a = m n = 4.0 x m 3 T = 6.6 kev B axis = 5.7 T β = 6.4% H(ISS04) = 1.1 I plasma = 3.5 MA (bootstrap) (b t t ) Use Quasi axisymmetry i to get tokamak like k confinement 3D shaping for stability & sustainment P(fusion) = GW P(electric) = 1 GW Ignited, no external heating High ihdensity, low temperature compared to tokamaks k Only needs ~ L mode confinement 17

18 High Q Eng > 1 accessible in stellarator pilot 6 B (T) H ISS04 < 2, β max < 6% Qeng=1.1 Qeng=2 Qeng= Major Radius (m) External heating can be substantially reduced due to no-need for CD Q eng =4.4 is maximum possible with assumed efficiencies: η th =0.3, plant load is 7% of thermal power 5 4 Q eng = 1.1 All cases have P 2 div < 10 MW / m B (T) H-ISS04=2 H-ISS04=1.5 H-ISS04= Major Radius (m) Required confinement enhancement modest, sub H mode 18

19 Neutron wall loading 1 MW/m 2 for FNS testing possible in smaller major radius, higher Q eng CS Pilots 1.6 Peak Neu utron Wall Load (MW/m 2 ) H ISS04 < 2, β max < 6% Qeng=1.1 Qeng=2 Qeng= Major Radius (m) Higher wall loading possible at higher fusion power P = =2, β=6%, 2 fus 475 MW, with H ISS04 P neut >2 MW/m R/<a> = 4.5m/1m, B 0 = 5.7T 19

20 Summary There is a range of FNSF missions, varying in their benefits and risks. Net-electricity electricity mission places high value on technology advances to reduce device size and power consumption useful for any FNSF Push for smallest possible FNSF should be weighed against benefits of modest increase in size: Increased physics margin (lower H 98, β N, f BS, ) 98 N BS Increased space for magnets, blankets, divertors Ability to access physics and technology closer to reactor 20

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