# DEFINITION OF MOMENTS OF INERTIA FOR AREAS, RADIUS OF GYRATION OF AN AREA

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1 DEFINITION OF MOMENTS OF INERTIA FOR AREAS, RADIUS OF GYRATION OF AN AREA Today s Objectives: Students will be able to: a) Define the moments of inertia (MoI) for an area. b) Determine the moment of inertia of basic shapes.

2 READING QUIZ 1. The definition of the Moment of Inertia for an areainvolves an integral of the form A) x da. B) x 2 da. C) x 2 dm. D) m da. 2. Select the SI unitsfor the Moment of Inertia for an area. A) m 3 B) m 4 C) kg m 2 D) kg m 3

3 APPLICATIONS Many structural members like beams and columns have cross sectional shapes like an I, H, C, etc.. Why do they usually not have solid rectangular, square, or circular cross sectional areas? What primary property of these members influences design decisions?

4 DEFINITION OF MOMENTS OF INERTIA FOR AREAS 1cm (A) 10cm 10cm 1cm 3cm (B) 10cm (C) 3cm Consider three different possible cross sectional shapes and areas for the beam RS. All have the same total area and, assuming they are made of same material, they will have the same mass per unit length. For the given vertical loading P on the beam, which shape will develop less internal stress and deflection? The answer depends on the MoIof the beam about the x-axis. It turns out that Section A has the highest MoIbecause most of the area is farthest from the x axis. Hence, it has the least stress and deflection. x R P S

5 DEFINITION OF MOMENTS OF INERTIA FOR AREAS The moments of inertia for the entire area are obtained by integration. I x = A y 2 da ; I y = A x 2 da For the differential area da, shown in the figure: d I x = y 2 da, d I y = x 2 da, and, d J O = r 2 da, where J O is the polar moment of inertia about the pole O or z axis. J O = A r 2 da = A ( x 2 + y 2 )da = I x + I y The MoI is also referred to as the second moment of an areaand has units of length to the fourth power (m 4 or in 4 ).

6 y y RADIUS OF GYRATION OF AN AREA (Section 10.3) k x A A x For a given area A and its MoI, I x, imagine that the entire area is located at distance k x from the x axis. 2 Then, I x = k x A or k x = ( I x / A). This k x is called the radius of gyration of the area about the x axis. k Y x Similarly; 2 k Y = ( I y / A ) and k O = ( J O / A ) The radius of gyration has units of length and gives an indication of the spread of the area from the axes. This characteristic is important when designing columns.

7 Moment of Inertia of Some Basic Geometric Shapes

8 PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM FOR AN AREA & MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR COMPOSITE AREAS Today s Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Apply the parallel-axis theorem. 2. Determine the moment of inertia (MoI) for a composite area.

9 READING QUIZ 1. The parallel-axis theorem for an area is applied between A) An axis passing through its centroid and any corresponding parallel axis. B) Any two parallel axis. C) Two horizontal axes only. D) Two vertical axes only. 2. The moment of inertia of a composite area equals the of the MoI of all of its parts. A) Vector sum B) Algebraic sum (addition or subtraction) C) Addition D) Product

10 APPLICATIONS Cross-sectional areas of structural members are usually made of simple shapes or combination of simple shapes. To design these types of members, we need to find the moment of inertia (MoI). It is helpful and efficient if you can do a simpler method for determining the MoIof such cross-sectional areas as compared to the integration method.

11 APPLICATIONS (continued) This is another example of a structural member with a composite cross-area. Such assemblies are often referred to as a builtup beam or member. Design calculations typically require use of the MoIfor these cross-sectional areas.

12 PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM FOR AN AREA (Section 10.2) This theorem relates the moment of inertia (MoI) of an area about an axis passing through the area s centroidto the MoI of the area about a corresponding parallel axis. This theorem has many practical applications, especially when working with composite areas. Consider an area with centroid C. The x' and y' axes pass through C. The MoIabout the x-axis, which is parallel to, and distance d y from the x ' axis, is found by using the parallel-axis theorem.

13 PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM (continued) I X = A y 2 da = A (y' + d y ) 2 da = A y' 2 da + 2 d y A y' da + d y2 A da Using the definition of the centroid: y' = ( A y' da) / ( A da). Now since C is at the origin of the x' y'axes, y' = 0, and hence A y'da = 0. Thus I X = I X ' + A d y 2 Similarly, I Y = I Y ' + A d X 2 and J O = J C + A d 2

14 MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR A COMPOSITE AREA (Section 10.4) A composite areais made by adding or subtracting a series of simple shaped areas like rectangles, triangles, and circles. For example, the area on the left can be made from a rectangle minus a triangle and circle. The MoIabout their centroidalaxes of these simpler shaped areas are found in most engineering handbooks as well as the inside back cover of the textbook. Using these data and the parallel-axis theorem, the MoIfor a composite area can easily be calculated.

15 STEPS FOR ANALYSIS 1. Divide the given areainto its simpler shaped parts. 2. Locate the centroid of each part and indicate the perpendicular distancefrom each centroid to the desired reference axis. 3. Determine the MoI of each simpler shaped part about the desired reference axis using the parallel-axis theorem ( I X = I X + A ( d y ) 2 ). 4. The MoI of the entire area about the reference axis is determined by performing an algebraic summationof the individual MoIs obtained in Step 3. (Please note that MoI of a hole is subtracted).

16 EXAMPLE Given: The beam s cross-sectional area. Find: The moment of inertia of the area about the y-axis and the radius of gyration k y. Plan: Follow the steps for analysis. Solution [2] [3] [1] 1. The cross-sectional area can be divided into three rectangles ( [1], [2], [3] ) as shown. 2. The centroids of these three rectangles are in their center. The distances from these centers to the y-axis are 0 in, 1.5 in, and 1.5 in, respectively.

17 EXAMPLE (continued) [1] [2] [3] Using the parallel-axis theorem, I Y[2] = I Y[3] = I Y + A (d X ) 2 = (1/12) (4) (1) 3 + (4) (1) ( 1.5 ) 2 = in 4 3. From the inside back cover of the book, the MoIof a rectangle about its centroidalaxis is (1/12) b h 3. I y[1] = (1/12) (2 in) (6 in) 3 = 36 in 4

18 EXAMPLE (continued) 4. I y = I y1 + I y2 + I y3 = 54.7 in 4 k y = ( I y / A) A = 6 (2) + 4 (1) + 4 (1) = 20 in 2 k y = ( 54.7) / (20) = 1.65 in

19 CONCEPT QUIZ 1. For the area A, we know the centroid s (C) location, area, distances between the four parallel axes, and the MoIabout axis 1. We can determine the MoIabout axis 2by applying the parallel axis theorem. d 3 d 2 d 1 A C Axis A) Directly between the axes 1 and 2. B) Between axes 1 and 3 and then between the axes 3 and 2. C) Between axes 1 and 4 and then axes 4 and 2. D) None of the above.

20 CONCEPT QUIZ (continued) d 3 d2 d 1 A C Axis For the same case, consider the MoI about each of the four axes. About which axis will the MoI be the smallest number? A) Axis 1 B) Axis 2 C) Axis 3 D) Axis 4 E) Can not tell.

21 GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Given:The shaded area as shown in the figure. Find: The moment of inertia for the area about the x-axis and the radius of gyration k X. Plan: Follow the steps for analysis. (a) (b) (c) Solution 1. The given area can be obtained by subtracting the circle (c) from the sum of the triangle (a) and rectangle (b). 2. Information about the centroids of the simple shapes can be obtained from the inside back cover of the book. The perpendicular distances of the centroids from the x-axis are: d a = 67 mm, d b = 100 mm, and d c = 100 mm.

22 GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued) 3. I Xa = (1/36) (300) (200) 3 + (½) (300) (200) (67) 2 = (10) 6 mm 4 I Xb = (1/12) 300(200) (200)(100) 2 = 800 (10) 6 mm 4 (a) (b) (c) I Xc = (1/4) π(75) 4 + π(75) 2 (100) 2 = (10) 6 mm 4 I X = I Xa + I Xb I Xc = (10) 6 mm 4 k X = ( I X / A ) A = (½) 300 (200) +300 (200) π(75) 2 = 7.234(10) 4 mm 2 k X = {799.8 (10) 6 / 7.233(10) 4 } = 105 mm

23 ATTENTION QUIZ 1. For the given area, the moment of inertia about axis 1 is 200 cm 4. What is the MoI about axis 3 (the centroidal axis)? A) 90 cm 4 B) 110 cm 4 C) 60 cm 4 D) 40 cm 4 d 2 d 1 C C A=10 cm 2 d 1 = d 2 = 2 cm The moment of inertia of the rectangle about the x-axis equals A) 8 cm 4. B) 56 cm 4. 2cm 3cm C) 24 cm 4. D) 26 cm 4. 2cm x

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