Sequence comparison: Score matrices. Genome 559: Introduction to Statistical and Computational Genomics Prof. James H. Thomas

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1 Sequence comparison: Score matrices Genome 559: Introduction to Statistical and omputational Genomics Prof James H Thomas

2 FYI - informal inductive proof of best alignment path onsider the last step in the best alignment path to node a below This path must come from one of the three nodes shown, where X, Y, and Z are the cumulative scores of the best alignments up to those nodes We can reach node a by three possible paths: an A-B match, a gap in sequence A or a gap in sequence B: seq B X Z seq A match gap Y gap a The best-scoring path to a is the maximum of: X + match Y + gap Z + gap BUT the best paths to X, Y, and Z are analogously the max of their three upstream possibilities, etc Inductively QED

3 Local alignment - review A G T A G T d = -5 A A G A F i 1, j 1 0 s x i, y j F i, j 1 d G F i 1, j d F i, j (no arrow means no preceding alignment)

4 Local alignment Two differences from global alignment: If a score is negative, replace with 0 Traceback from the highest score in the matrix and continue until you reach 0 Global alignment algorithm: eedleman- Wunsch Local alignment algorithm: Smith- Waterman

5 dot plot of two DA sequences overlay of the global DP alignment path

6 Protein score matrices Quantitatively represent the degree of conservation of typical amino acid residues over evolutionary time All possible amino acid changes are represented (matrix of size at least 20 x 20) Most commonly used are several different BLOSUM matrices derived for different degrees of evolutionary divergence DA score matrices are much simpler (and conceptually similar)

7 # BLOSUM lustered Scoring Matrix in 1/2 Bit Units # luster Percentage: >= 62 BLOSUM62 Score Matrix regular 20 amino acids ambiguity codes and stop

8 Hydrophobic Amino acid structures Polar harged phenylalanine F

9 BLOSUM62 Score Matrix Good scores chemically similar Bad scores chemically dissimilar

10 Amino acid structures Hydrophobic Polar harged glycine G H H SH H cysteine histidine H H alanine A H H 3 OH serine S H H 3 valine V H OH lysine K H H 3 threonine T H H 3 arginine R H H leucine L tyrosine Y H OH H 3 H 3 O isoleucine I H H 2 aspartate D H H 3 H asparagine H 2 glutamate E methionine M H S H 3 glutamine Q H O H O + H H 2 O - O - O H + 3 H 2 + proline P H H tryptophan W H

11 Deriving BLOSUM scores Find sets of sequences whose alignment is thought to be correct (this is partly bootstrapped by alignment) Measure how often various amino acid pairs occur in the alignments ormalize this to the expected frequency of such pairs randomly in the same set of alignments Derive a log-odds score for aligned vs random

12 Example of alignment block (the BLO part of BLOSUM) 31 positions (columns) 61 sequences (rows) Thousands of such blocks go into computing a single BLOSUM matrix Represent full diversity of sequences Results are summed over all columns of all blocks

13 Pair frequency vs expectation Actual aligned pair frequency: q ij 1 T c where cij is the count of ij pairs and T is the total pair count ij this is called the sum of pairs (the SUM part of BLOSUM) Sample column from an alignment block: D E D D D etc Randomly expected pair frequency: e p p aa a a e p p p p 2p p ab a b b a a b where pa and pb are the overall probabilities (frequencies) of specific residues a and b 6 D-D pairs 4 D-E pairs 4 D- pairs 1 E- pair (a multiple alignment of sequences is the equivalent of all the pairwise alignments, which number ()(-1)/2)

14 Log-odds score calculation (so adding scores == multiplying probabilities) s ij log 2 q e ij ij For computational speed often rounded to nearest integer and (to reduce round-off error) they are often multiplied by 2 (or more) first, giving a half-bit score: matrixscore (rounded) 2log 2 q e ij ij (computers can add integers faster than floats)

15 BLOSUM62 matrix (half-bit scores) ( 9 half-bits = 45 bits ) Frequency of residue over all proteins: (you have to look this up) Reverse calculation of aligned - pair frequency in BLOSUM data set: - q e cc cc thus e cc q cc

16 onstructing Blocks Blocks are ungapped alignments of multiple sequences, usually 20 to 100 amino acids long luster the members of each block according to their percent identity Make pair counts and score matrix from a large collection of similarly clustered blocks Each BLOSUM matrix is named for the percent identity cutoff in step 2 (eg BLOSUM70 for 70% identity)

17 Probabilistic Interpretation of Scores (ungapped) matrixscore (rounded) 2log 2 By converting scores back to probabilities, we can give a probabilistic interpretation to an alignment score q e ij ij (BLOSUM62) this alignment has a score of 16 ( ) by BLOSUM 62, meaning an alignment with this score or more is 2 8 (256) times more likely than expected from a random alignment FIAP FLSP this 15 amino acid alignment has a score of 75, meaning that it is ~10 11 times more likely to be seen in a real alignment than in a random alignment(!!) VHRDLKPELLLASK VHRDLKPELLLASK ( )

18 Randomly Distributed Gaps if then p g P( g k 1 ) (probability of a gap at each position in the sequence) k, P( g 2 ) k 2,, P( g n ) k n [note - the slope of the line on a log-linear plot will vary according to the frequency of gaps, but it will always be linear]

19 Distribution of real alignment gap lengths in large set of structurally-aligned proteins log-linear plot owhere near linear - hence the use of affine gap penalties (there ideally would be several levels of decreasing affine penalties)

20 Summary How a score matrix is derived What the scores mean probablistically Why gap penalties should be affine

Sequence comparison: Score matrices

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