]cn-ÿnxn `oi-c-cpss. ap -dn-bn- p-iƒ \evin ]W-\bw 5. a kq `mkyamiptam? 10. C y v Bizmkambn {IqUv hne VOL. 8 ISSUE 6 JUNE PRICE Rs.

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1 1 ap -dn-bn- p-iƒ \evin ]W-\bw 5 ]cn-ÿnxn `oi-c-cpss a kq `mkyamiptam? 10 Cc VOL. 8 ISSUE 6 PRICE Rs. 10/- C y v Bizmkambn {IqUv hne 19

2 2 ]n n ÿm]nx Xmev]-cy- m temi-øns hnhn[ `mk-ß-fn {]Xn-Zn\w 15 Zi-e w Iyq_nIv ao Pew sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs -bn-ens DXv]- -߃ D]- tbm-kn v ip o-i-cn- p- p- v. CØ-c-Øn-semcp Iº\n ]cn-ÿnxn hncp- -amwv F p ]d-bp- -Xn F mwv hkvxp-x-bp-f-f-xv ]cn-ÿn-xn-sb- p-dn v Bcpw Nn n- m-xn-cp ImeØv AtX- q-dn v Btem-Nn- p- Ibpw AXn-\m-h-iy-ap-ff temtim-øc DXv]- -ap- m- p-ibpw snbvx sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs -bn-ens amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS Fkv F iin-[-c I Ø tnmzn- p- p.? Iº-\n-bpsS DXv]- -߃ GsXm-s -bmwv? * 1989 C tim ]-td v snbvx sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs bn kv {][m-\-ambpw \n an- p- Xv kn - niv dqs -bn, s^dniv Ivtfmssd-Uv, s^dkv Ivtfmssd-Uv, kntamivkv F n-hbmwv DXv]m-Zn- n- p- -Xv. C v Pohn-X-Øns F m taj-e-i-fnepw ` Ww sxm v _ln-cm-imi bm{x, km -sse v XpS-ßn-b-h-bn D]-tbm-Kn- p- sss m- \nbw sa -ens DXv]m-Z-\-Øn\v Bh-iy-amb Akw-kvIr-X-h-kvXp-hmWv kn - niv dqs -bn apx Ch Ib n Ab p XpS-ßn. s^dniv Ivtfmssd-Uv, s^dniv IvtfmssdUv F nh Pew iq o-icn- p- -Xn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn- p- p. CXn hnj-a-b-ambn H pan. aen- \-P-esØ ip o-i-cn- p- -h-bmwv Ch c pw. ss m-\nbøns Awiap-f-f-Xn-\m CXns ip o-i-cw i n G hpw ani- -Xm-Wv. sss m- \nbw Abn-cn \n p e`n- p s^dkv IvtfmssdUpw s^dniv P-3 kn Fw B F ]cn-ÿnxn `oi-c-cpss Cc iin-[-c I Ømbv v kz]v\-߃ [mcmf-ap- v. kz]v\-߃ hnev m-\p-ap- v. AXnsem v bmym y-am-b-t mƒ sim -bn Hcp hyh-km-b-ime Db p-h- p. sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs -bn kv enan- -Uv. C\nbpw [mcmfw kz]v\-߃ _m nbp- v. kn Fw B Fen \n v ticfsø Hcp hyh-kmb {i m-ti-{µ-am n am p-i. `mhn-bpss teml-ambn amdp sss m-\nbw ASn-ÿm-\-am n tic-f-øn \nc-h[n hyhkm-b-߃ hf Øn-sb-Sp- p-hm kwcw-`-isc klm-bn- p-i kn Fw B Fenvvvvv\v XpS- -ans - nepw DXv]m-Z\w XpS-ßn-bXv emwv. FIvkvt]m v Hdn-b vuv bqwn mwv. Ct mƒ Ccp-]Xmw h j-øn-tebv v IS- p Iº\n cmpym- c \ne-hm-c-ap-ff kn - niv dqs -bn \n an- p sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs -bn enan- Uv {]h Øn-\-Øns Ccp-]Xmw h jøntebv v IS- -tºmƒ {]Xn-h jw S temtim-øc kn - niv dqs -bnepw S s^dniv IvtfmssdUpw S s^dkv IvtfmssdUpw S sktamivkpw \n an- p- p. Iº-\n-bnse Poh-\- m-cpss FÆw 500-tebv v Db n- p- v. Hmkvt{S-en-b, anun CuÃv, bp Fkv XpSßn temi-øns hnhn[ `mk-ß-fn {]Xn-Zn\w 15 Zi-e w Iyq_nIv ao Pew sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs -bn-ens DXv]- -߃ D]-tbm-Kn v ip o-i-cn- p- p- v. hfsc I i-\-amb ]cn-tim-[-\-iƒ p tijta cmk-h-kvxp- ƒ bp Fkv t]mep-ff cmpy-߃ Cd- p-axn snøp-i-bp-f-fp. Aß-s\-bp-ff Hcp cmpyw ip o-i-c-w-øn\v D]-tbm-Kn- p hkvxp- ƒ tic-f-øn Peip o-i-cww \S-Øptºmƒ aen-\o-i-cww \S-Øp- p-sh p ]d- m Bcp hniz-kn- pw {]h Ø\w XpS-ßp-tºmƒ ]Xn- \m-bncw S kn - niv dqs -bnepw S s^dniv IvtfmssdUpw 1000 S sss m-\nbw Utbm-Ivssk-Up-am#n-bp-cp p DXv]m-Z-\-ti-jn. kn Fw B Fens hchv \nc-h[n A\p-{K-l-ß-fmWv tic-f-øn\v sim p-h- - Xv. AS p ]q -ens h n \n n-cp Sn kn kn v Poh h p. hn]-wn-bn msx In p hnebv v hnevt n h n-cp sslt{um-ivtfm-dniv Bkn-Um-bn-cp p kn Fw B Fens Akw-kvIr-X-h-kvXp- -fn-sem- v. as m v C y sdb F Øv aqeyh [\ hcp-ømsx, Xp -amb hnebv v Ib n Ab- n-cp C an-ss\ v BWv. Ch-bn \n v DXv]m-Zn- n- p- txm `mhnbpss teml-ambn amdn-s m- n-cn- p sss m- \nbw temlhpw sss m-\nbw Utbm- IvsskUpw DXv]m-Zn- n- p-hm-\m-iy-amb kn - niv dqs -bn, temisø aen-\-p-esø ip Pe-am n am p-hm klm-bn- p s^dniv/ s^dkv Ivtfmssd-Up-Iƒ, Ifn-a- Æn\v ]I-c-am-bp-ff kntamivkv F n-h-bm-wv. Ch-sb mw H -s - n as mcp hn[-øn ]cn-ÿnxn kulrz DXv]- -ß-fmWv Xm\pw. kns niv dqs -bn-en\v tic-f-øns hyh-kmb hf n-bn \n Wm-bI ] m-wp- m-ip-hm t]mip- -Xv.

3 3 CXn \n v DXv]m-Zn- n- mhp sslssiv sss m-\nbw teml-øn\v Pohn-X- Øns F m taj-e-i-fnepw D]-tbm-K-ap- v. hnam-\-߃, tdm - p-iƒ, D]-{K-l-߃ XpSßn lrz-b-hm hv, F v, ] v XpSßn am n hbv m-hp ico-c-`m-k-ß-fpss \n am- W-Øn\p sss m-\nbw D]-tbm-Kn- p- p. sss m-\nbw teml-øns `mc- p-dhpw kpc- nxxzhp-amwv CXn\v Imc-Ww. SqØv t]ãv, ]uu, kuµ-cy-h [I hkvxp- ƒ, sncn- v, t], ajn, _mkv XpS-ßnb \nxy-po-hn-x-øn th p \nch[n DXv]- -ß-fn sss m-\nbw Utbm- IvsskUv ]ns v Bh-iy-am-Wv. ASp-Ø-L- -Øn-ep-ff \mt\m sss m- \nbw \nxy-po-hn-x-øn am{x-a sslssiv taj-e-bnepw h am- -Øn\v hgn-sbm-cp- p- - Xm-Wv. Hcp kwÿm-\-øns Cu hyhkmb km[y-x-i-fmwv C mø ]cn-ÿnxn {]iv\-ß-fpss t]cn ]c-ÿnxn `oi-c _µn-bm- n-bn-cn p Xv. s^dkpw s^dn pw aen-\-pe ip o-i-c-w-øn\v G hpw tbmpn- -sx v Atacn- hm h Ivkv Atkm-kntb-j km y-s - Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p s^dniv/ s^dkv Ivtfmssd-Up-Iƒ Hmkvt{S-en-b, ] nta-jy, bqfkv XpSßnb \nc-h[n hniknx cmpy-ß-fn D]-tbm-Kn- p- p- v. sss m-\nbw Abncn \n v DXv]m-Zn- n- p s^dkv/ s^dniv Ivtfmssd- Up-Iƒ v ta Gdp-sa- -Xp-X-s bmwv kn Fw B Fens\ temi-øn\v {]nb-s - -Xm- n-b-xv. \qdp ix-am\w Ib- p-axn bqwn- mbn amdp-hm-\p-ap-ff Imc- Whpw AXp-X-s. CXv ]cn-ÿnxn kulrz DXv]- -as - n, hnjmw-i- Øns IWn-I-sb- n-ep-ap-s - n, hni-knx cmpy߃ Hcp Xc- Ønepw ChbpsS Cd- p-a-xn A\p-h- Zn- p-itbm D]-tbm- Kn- p-hm A\paXn \evip-itbm t]mep-an-. Ip n-isf-s m p ]Wnsb-Sp- n- p-sh p Is -Øn-bm hsc B DXv]- ß-fpsS Cd- p-axn \ntcm-[n- p cmpy-ß-ƒv hnjøns Hcwiw I m t]mepw Cd- p-axn A\p-h-Zn- pi! AXpw IpSnsh w ip o-i-cn- p-hm! temim-tcmky kwl-s-\-bp-ambn tn p {]h Ø- p F Fkv F^v C \m-j-w Iº-\n-bpsS DXv]- ߃ v k n-^n-t -j \evin-bn- p- v. IpSn-sh cmk-h-kvxp- F \nebn kp-c- n-x-am-sw- mwv k n-^n-t j. Gjy-bn Cu k n-^n-t -j Dff GI Iº-\nbpw kn Fw B Fem- Wv. Iº-\n-bpsS as mcp Dt]m-Xv]- amb kntamivkv CjvSnI/HmSv \n am-w- Øn\v Bh-iy-amb If-a-Æns ]I-c- m-c Bbpw If-dnwKv hkvxp-hmbn D]- tbm-k-s -Sp-Øm-sa pw ti{µ-k mcns Kth-jW ÿm]-\-amb \mj-w C Ãn- yq v Hm^v C Unkn-]vf-\dn kb kv B Uv ssivt\m-fpn I p-]n-s- n- p- v. Cu kmt -XnI hnzy D]-tbm-Kn- mwv Iº\n kntamivkv Ivtf \n an v hnx-cww snøp- -Xv. asæ-sp- p- -Xp-aqe-ap-ff ]mcn-ÿni {]iv\-߃ v Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc ]cn-lmcw ImWp-hm\pw CXp klm-bn- pw. IpSn-sh- -Ønse B sk- \niv temlw \o n- -f-bp-hm kntam- Ivkv D]-tbm-K-{]-Z-am-sW pw Is -Øn- ]n n ÿm]nx Xmev]-cy- m P-2 IvtfmssdUpw a v coxn-bn DXv]m-Zn- n- p- -h-tb- mƒ sa -s KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap-f-f- Xm-bn- mwv Ata-cn- hm h Ivkv Atkm-bn-tb-j hy -am- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. Peip- o-i-c-w-øn\v D]-tbm-Kn- p s^dniv IvtfmssdUv Fßs\ s]cn-bm-dns\ aen-\- am- pw. hntz-iøv h hne In p Cu DXv] w shdpsx ]pg-bn-te-b v Hgp- nhn-sp-hm km[n- ptam? hntz-i-tøbv v Ib n Ab-bv p- - XpsIm p Xs AXns KpW-\n-e-hmcw Duln- m-hp- -tx-bp-f-fp. hni-kzc cmpy-ßfn \n v hni-knx cmpy-ß-fn-tebv v Ib- p-axn \SØWsa- n, AXpw cmk-h-kvxp- ƒ, ]cn-tim-[-\-iƒ F{X I -i-am-bn-cn- p-sa v Btem-Nn- m-hp- -tx-bp-ffp. ]ns Fs kao-]-\-sa- Xv ]cn-ÿn- Xnsb If- -s -Sp-Ø-cp-sX- m-wv. AX-\m aen-\o-i-cww XS-bp-hm Bh-iyamb F m Imcy-ßfpw snøp- p. aen-\o-i-cww D m-hp- p-sh- -XpsIm v hyh-kmbw XpS-ßm-Xn-cn- p-hm km[n- p-tam. Aß-s\-bm-bm hni-k-\-ap- m-iptam? hnzym-`ymkw e`n \ΩpsS Ip n- Iƒ v tpmen e`n- ptam? aen-\o-i-cww Ipd-bv p-hm As - n Hgn-hm- p-hm imkv{xsø Iq p-]n-sn p Bh-iy-amb \S- ]-Sn-Iƒ FSp- p-i-sb- -Xm-Wv. A msx hyh-km-b-߃ ths p hbv p-i-b-. Iº\n Bh-iyamb F m aen-\o-i-cw \nb-{ W \S-]-Sn-Ifpw FSp-Øn- p- v. Chief Editor Dr. P.K. Abraham Editor In Charge: Joy Philip Managing Editor Jayesh.V.Sudhakar Media Consultancy Current Business Inc. Iº-\n-bpsS timºu- n ] - dn-ifpw a pw Irjn snøp- p- v. AXpt]m-b-Kn- mwv Im o-\n ` -W-ap- m- p- -Xv. Iº-\n-bnse F m-hcpw AhnsS-\n- mwv ` Ww Ign- p- -Xv.? DXv]- -߃ v ]cn-ÿnxn kul ± k n-^n- - p-iƒ D v? * bp Fkv BWv s^dniv IvtfmssdUv aen\ Pe ip o-i-c-w-øn\v s^dniv/ s^dkv Ivtfmssd-Up-Iƒ ani- -Xm-sW v Is -Øn-b-Xv. Be-Øn\v ]Icw CXv ]n osv temi-saßpw D]-tbm- Kn p XpS-ßn. Iº-\n-bpsS DXv]- -Øn\v bp Fknse F Fkv F^v C \m-j- W-ens k n-^n-t -j e`n- n- p- v.- ` y kpc-, IpSn-sh- w, Pe ip o- I-cWw XpS-ßn-b-h-bn k n-^n-t -j \evip ÿm]-\-am-wn-xv. temim-tcmky kwl-s-\-bp-ambn kl-i-cn p {]h Øn- p F Fkv F^v C \m-j-w I i-\-amb ]cn-tim-[-\-iƒ p tijamwv k n-^n-t -j \evip-i. temiøv 39 Iº-\n-Iƒ mwv s^dni/ s^dkv Ivtfmssd-Un\v Cu k n-^n-t -j-\p-f-f-xv. AXn Hcp Iº- \n-bmwv sim n an\-d kv B Uv dqs bn. Gjybn F Fkv F^v k n- ^n-t -j e`n- n- p-ff GI Iº-\n-bpw CXm-Wv. s^dkv Ivtfmssd-Uns Imcy- Øn temi-ønse G hpw ani F p Iº-\n-I-fn-sem- m-wv. hfsc I i-\-amb ]cn-tim-[-\- Iƒ pti-j-amwv Cu k n-^n- v F F^v kv \evip- -Xv. At] XpSßn k n-^n- v \evip- -Xp-h-sc-bp-ff Ggp LS-ß-fneqsS IS- p-t]m-bmse DXv]- ߃ v k n-^n- v \evip-i-bp-f-fp. Hcn- k n-^n- v e`n- m F Fkv F^v F m-h jhpw hm jni ]cn-tim- [\ \S-Øn hne-bn-cp-ø \S-Øpw. Npcp- -Øn Iº-\n-bpsS F m DXv]- ßfpw BtKmf \ne-hm-c-øn-ep-f-f-xm-wv.? s]cn-bm aen-\o-i-c-w-øn Iº-\n-bmWv apjy-{]-xn-sb p Iº-\ns -Xntc ]cn-ÿnxn {]h Ø-I XpSsc-Øp-Ssc Btcm-]-W-ßfpw dnt m p- Ifpw Db Øp- p- t m? AXn Ig- ºpt m? * Iº-\n-bpsS DXv]- -߃ BtKmf \ne-hm-c-ap-f-f-xm-wv. AXv bp Fknepw Hmkvt{S-en-b-bnepw Kƒ^nepw shffw ip o-i-cn- p-hm D]-tbm-Kn- p- p. Cu DXv]- -߃ Fß-s\-bmWv ]pg sh sø aeo-\-am- p-i. C mø Imcyw Ds p hcp-øn, `oi-cm- -co w krjvsn- v Iº-\nsb XI m-\p-ff ÿm]n-x-xm-ev]-cy- m-cpss e y-amwv Hcp `mkw ]cn-ÿnxn {]h Ø-I-cn-eqsS ]pd-øp-h-cp- -Xv. Iº-\n-s -Xn-tc-bp-ff ]cn-ÿnxn {]h Ø-I-cpsS B{I-a-W-Øn\v aq IqSn-bXv F m-wv Icn-a-W J\-\- Øn\v At] \evin-b-t mƒ apx-em- Wv. AXm-hs s]mxp-ta-j-e-bp-ambn kl- I-cn- p-ff Hcp {]h Ø-\-am-bn-cp- p. CXn\p apºpw s]cn-bm Nph- p-ibpw a -߃ NØp s]mßp-ibpw snbvxn- p- v. ssek kn\v At]- n- -t mƒ apx-emwv Iº-\n-s -Xntc Bkq-{Xn-Xamb ]cn-ÿnxn B{I-aWw XpS-ßn-b-Xv. Fs FXn Øm ]Ww In p-sa hnnm-c-øm-em-wv. As - n tic-f-ønse kpe-`-amb Icn-a-W Akw-k-k-IrX hkvxp-hmbn ChnsS hyh-km-b-߃ D m-h-cp-sx B{K-ln- p tem_n-bp-tsbpw Icn-a-W I S-Øp-Im-cp-tSbpw ssii-fn \n v ]Ww In p- -Xp-sIm- m-wv. A msx ]cnÿnxn kvt\lw sims m- p-a-. Cu ]cn-ÿn-xn- m-cpss Ct m-gsø kmº- ØnI ÿnxn ]cn-tim-[n- p-i-gn- m C mcyw a\-kn-em-ipw. s]cn-bm \ndw amdn Hgp-Ip- -Xns Imc-W-amb hyh-km-bsø kw_- n v B[n-Im-c-amb ]T\ dnt m p-i ^ben e`yas - mwv ticf tã v aen- \o-i-cw \nb-{ W t_m Uv Adn-bn- n- p-f-f-xv. \ndw am sø pdn v ]Tn- phm cq]o-i-cn aƒ n Unkn-]vf-\dn ÃUn Soan\v t_m Uv saº sk{i- dn \evinb t\m o-kn 2006 Unkw-_ 14- \v D mbn- p-ff \ndw-am- -Øn\v _n\m\n kn pw 2007 Unkw-_ hsc-bp-ff \ndw am - Øn\v ^mivspw Imc-W- m-cmwv F mwv ]d- n- p-f-f-xv. Geq FS-bm taj-ebn-ep-ff F m Iº-\n-Iƒ pw aen-\o-icw \nb-{ W kwhn-[m-\-߃ Ds pw t_m Uv ]d-bp- p. CXmWv hkvxp-x. k Fw B Fens DXv]- -߃ hfsc ]cn-ÿnxn kulrz DXv]- -ß-fm-Wv.? Iº-\n-bpsS hni-k\ ]cn-]m-sn- Iƒ? * s]mxp-ta-j-e-bp-ambn IqSn-t v kwbp kwcw`w XpS-ßp- -Xn-\p-ff ] Xn Hcn-SØpw FØn-bn- n-. Icn-a-W J\\w snbvsx-spøv aqey-h [nx DXv]- -߃ \n an- p ] -Xn-bm-Wn-Xv. J\- \-Øn-\p-ff ssek kv At]- -bn Ct mgpw Xocp-am-\-am-ImsX InS- p-i-bm- Wv. ^etam Icn-a-W I - -SØp hym]-i-am-wv. Kh-s n-s, P\-ß-fpsS kº-ømwv Cßs\ simf-f-b-sn- -s -Sp- -Xv. kn Fw B F a{x-a-, Nh-dbnse si Fw FwF pw C y sdb Fb Øp-sa mw CXn-s\-Øp-S v Xf-cp- I-bm-Wv. tic-f-øn\v G hpw hni-k\ km[y-x-bp-ff hyh-km-b-ß-fn-sem- mwv [mxp-j-\-\-hpw-a-\p-_ hyh-km-b-ßfp-sa- mwv ap cmjv{s-]xn tum F ]n sp A_vZpƒ Imemw A`n-{]m-b-s - -Xv. kwÿm-\-øns X\-Xmb [mxp-k-ºøv ( Icn-a-W ) D]-tbm-Kn v hyh-kmb ]ptcm-kxn t\sphm ticfw {ian- -Wsa pw At±lw ]e-x-hw \n t±-in- n- p- vṅpcp- -Øn kwÿm-\-øns hyh-kmb hni-k\ km[y-x-bmwv cmjv{sob t\xr-xz-øns Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp- p-hm-\p-ff Ah-[m-\-X-aqew \jvs-am- p- -Xv. Icn-a-W tem_n-iƒ pw AhtcmSv tn p \nev p Nne cmjv{so-b- m pw ]cn-ÿn-xn- m pw am{xamwv t\ w. \jvs-s -Sp- Xv P\-߃ pw. ]Tn- p-h-cp ]pxnb Xe-ap-d-bv p-am-wv. ASn-ÿm\ hyh-kmbw hf mse kmº-øni hf bpw A\p-_ hyhkm-b-ßfpw sxmgn krjvsn-bp-ap- m-ip- I-bp-f-fp. Icn-a-W ASn-ÿm-\-am n sss m-\nbw A[n-jvTnX hyh-km-b߃ p-ff km[yx A\- -am-wv. ` yh-kvxp- ƒ apx tkmfm- c bm{x-bn hsc sss m-\nbw \n Wm-bIw ] p hln- p-i-bm-wv. Ir{Xna ap v Ac-s v XpSßn sshzy-imkv{x cwkøv Ht sd D]-tbm-KamWv sss m-\n-b-øn-\p-f-f-xv. hyh-km-b-tøm-sp-ff kao-]\w amd- Ww. I j-i Irjn snbvxv DXv]mZ\w kaq-l-øn\v \evip- p. AXp-X-s -bmwv hyh-km-bhpw snøp- -Xv. Pohn-X-Øn-tebv v B[p-\nI Imcy-߃ sim p-h-c-ww. F nte h [n- p-h-cp P\-߃ v Ah-cpsS ASn-ÿm-\m-h-iy-߃ \nd-th- p-hm km[n- p-i-bp-f-fp.

4 4 tim ]-td v tkmjy sdkvt]m kn-_-fn n F hm p tic-f-ønse tim ]-td v temiw tiƒ p- -Xn\v apºpxs kmaqly-t a ]cn-]m-sn-iƒ v Nq m ]nsn Ncn-{X-amWv sim n an\- d kv B Uv dqs -bn enan- -Un- \p-f-f-xv. AXn G hpw henb anj- \m-bn-cp p awvue ai-c-hn-f v ImeØv a\p-jy-hn-k Py-Øn aen- \o-i-cn- -s ]ºsb ip -am- phm-\p-ff {iaw. ]º-bn-tebv v Hgp- In-sb-Øp RpW-ßm-dn-emWv kn Fw B F kup-\y-ambn s^dkv IvtfmssdUv D]-tbm-Kn v ip o-i-cww \S-Øn-b-Xv. CXn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn- Xv ]cn-ÿnxn kulrz DXv]- -amb sslt{u- Uv \mt\m sss m-\nb AS-ßnb s^dkv IvtfmssdUv BWv. tic aen-\o-i-cw \nb-{ W t_m Uv, h\w hip- v, tzhkzw t_m Uv, CdntK-j hip- v, s]mxp-p-\m-tcmky hip v XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS ta t\m- -Øn-emWv CXp \S- m- n-b-xv. kn Fw B F \S- m- nb Cu ] Xn h hnp-b-am-bn-cp- p-sh v ]{ mw \nb-a-k-`-bn a{ n Adn-bn- n-cp- p. F m ]cn-ÿnxn ÿm]nx Xmev]-cy- m-cpss kω ±w aqew ]º Ivfo\nwKv ] Xn Dt]- n- p-sh- nepw IW- p-iƒ F pw kxy-ambn \nev pw. ticf aen-\o-i-cw \nb-{ W t_m Uns IW- p-i-f-\p-k-cn v ip o- I-c-Ww-\-SØ h j-øn RpW-ß-fm-dn ]n F v aqeyw D timfnt^mw Bbpw HmIvkn-Ps Afhv Dw BsW v Is -Øn-bn-cp- p. XpS ip o-i-cww \S-ØmØ CXv bym-{i-aw Dw Dw ]qpy- Øn\p Xmsgbpw BsW v t_m Uv Is -Øn-bn-cp- p. Irjn- G hpw {][m-\-am-sw v Ip n-i-fn t_m[-h-xvi-cww \S-Øp- - Xn-\mbn Iº-\n-bpsS t\xr-xz-øn ISbn- p- v. ani {]h Ø-\-^ew {]h Ø\w XpS-ßn-bXp apx Iº\n em`-ho-xhpw a pw \evin-t m-cp- p I n Cjyp \S-Ønb Iº- \n v 32 Cc n At]- -I-fmWv e`n- -Xv. _n Fkv C, F Fkv C FIvkvtN- p-i-fn enkv p snbvxn- p-ff Iº-\nbpsS Hml-cn v Ct mƒ 160 cq] hne-bp- v. Hcp h j- m-esø Db hne 347 cq]bpw Ipd hne 138 cq]-bp-am- Wv. kwÿm\ k m-cn\v Cu Iº-\nbn 14 ix-am-tømfw Hmlcn ] m-fn-øap- v. Iº\n 2013 am n-e-h-km-\n 12 amk- m-eøv timsn cq] hn p-hchpw ( ap h jw timsn cq]) timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw ( timsn cq]) t\sn-bn- p- v. Hmlcn aqe-[- \-amb 7.83 timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[-\- Øn C ]n Fkv cq]-bm-wv. AXmbXv Ct m-gsø hne-bn ]n C 2.81 cq]- bm-wv. ]pkvx-i-aqeyw 0.99 cq]-bm-wv. F nepw Iº\n 80 ix-am\w kvs]j Unam v Dƒs ss 100 ix-am\w Unhn- U Uv {]Jym-]n- n- p- v. Akw-kvIr-X-hkvXp-hns hne- -b- hpw e`y-x- p-d-hpamwv Iº-\n-bpsS C -gn h jsø {]h Ø\sØ _m[n- Xv. Ahm Up-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnxn `oi Iº-\n-s -Xntc B -Sn- -tºmgpw G hpw ane-\o-i-c-w- \n-b-{ -W-Øn\v \S- n-em- nb {]h Ø- \-߃ IW- n-se-spøv kwÿm-\-a-en-\o- I-cW \nb-{ W t_m Uv \evip FIvk-e kv Ahm Uv XpS -bmbn Iº-\n v e`n- p-t]m-cp- p. AtX-t]mse kwÿm\ ^mivs-dokv B Uv t_mbne hip v G s -Sp-Øn-bn- p-ff ticf tã v tk^v n FIvkve kv Ahm Upw Iº-\n v e`n p t]mcp- p. Ib- p-a-xn- p-ff ti{µ-k m-cns Ah Uv \nc- cw Iº-\n v e`n p t]mcp- p. CsX mw ImWn- - Xv Iº-\n-bpsS KpW- \n-e-hmcønep-ff {]h Ø-\-ß-sf-bm-Wv. Iº-\-bpsS 20 h jsø {]bm-w- Øn-\n-Sn-bn ]cn-ÿnxn `oi-c-cpss Ht sd B{I-a-W-߃ p hnt[-b-am-bn- p- v. s]cn-bm Nph- m AXp Iº-\nbpsS Npa-en hogp Ah-ÿ. CsX mw XpS-ßn-bXv J\\ ssek kn-\mbn At] \evin-bt mƒ apx-em-wv. CXn-\mbn Kh-s pambn tn v kwbp kwcw`w {]Jym- ]n- p-ibpw snbvxp. ssek kv Imcy- Ø C\nbpw Xocp-am-\-am-bn- n-. ssek kv e`n- m Iº-\n-bpsS {]h Ø-\-߃ v ]pxnb am\w e`n- pam-bn-cp- p. Icn-a-W J\\w snbvxv sss m-\nbw temlw DXv]m-Zn- n- p- -Xph-sc-bp-ff kwtbm-pnx ] -Xn-bmWv Iº\n kwbp- -kw-cw-`-ambn Dt±-in- n-cp- -Xv. tic-f-øns hyh-km-b-`q-]sw am na-dn- p-hm XpS-ßp ka-b-ømwv I]S ]cn-ÿnxn {]iv\-߃ Db Øn I - -SØv Icn-a-W tem_n Iº-\n-bpsS hf sb hgn ap n- p-hm {iaw XpSßn-b-Xv. s]cn-bm-dns t]cp ]d mwv Iº-\n-s -Xntc I]S ]cn-ÿnxn {]h Ø-Isc Db Øn-s m- p-h- -Xv. F m hkvxpx F mwv? s]cn-bm-dn Iº\n DXv]m- Z\w Bcw-`n- - -Xn\p apºp-xs \ndw am hpw a y- p-cp-xnbpw kw`-hn- - p- v \v apºv \S-Øb ]T-\-ß-fn \n p s]cn-bm-dns ASn-Ø- nse snfn-bnepw thº-\m v Imb-ent bpw Xoc- -S-ent bpw ASn-Ø- nse snfn-bnepw hnhn[ temlmw-i-ß-fp-ts km n[yw Is -Ønbn- p v Ccp-ºv, amwk-\okv XpS-ßn-b-hbpw snfn-bn Is -Øn-bn- p- v. ]cn-ÿn-xn- m D -bn- p ]e {]iv\-ßfpw hkvxp-x-iƒ p \nc- m-ø-xm-sw- mwv dn m Up-Iƒ kqnn- n- p- -Xv. kn Fw B Fens kaqly {]Xn-_- X RpW-ßm-dn ip o-i-cwøn\v tijw ß- q ] m-b-øn lcnx _me I ji kwlw cq]o-i-cn- n- p- v. CXphsc ]Xn-\-øm-bn-c-Øn cw ^e-hr- ssø-i-ifpw I -hr- -ssø-ifpw Iº\n hnx-cww snbvxn- p- v. IqSmsX ] - dn hnøpw hfhpw hnx-cww snbvxp-t]m-cp- p. CXn \n- p-ff hnf-hv Iº\n hne-bvs -Sp- p-ibpw \ coxbn {]h Øn- p- -h v Ahm Upw \evin hcp- p. F m h jhpw ] - dn hnøpw hfhpw \evin hcp- p. IS-ß- q ] m-b-ønse F m kviqfnepw kup-\y-ambn D -`- Ww, ]T-t\m-]-I-c-W-߃ XpS-ßn-bh \evint m-cp- p. ÿe-hm-kn-i-fmb \n [-\-cmb s] Ip- n-i-fpss hnhm-l-øn\p Iº\n [\-k-lmbw \evin-t m-cp- p. ]mh-s - -h v NnIn e`y-am- phm Iº\n Ht sd Imcy-߃ snbvxpt]m-cp- p. Beph Kh-s v Bip-]- {Xn-bn \evinb Ubm-en-knkv bqwn v \n [-\-cmb tcmkn-iƒ v F{X-am{Xw {]tbm-p-\-s -Sp- p-sh v ]d-tb- -Xn cq]bv v Ubm-en-knkv km[y-am- Ip p Chn-sS. IS-ß- q ] m-b-øn\v Bw_p-e kv, Beph Xmeq v Bip- ]-{Xnbn ªUv _m v, _n\m-\n-]pcw ss{]adn sl Øv sk -dn-tebv v acp v, Beph Bbp th-zm-ip-]-{xn-bn NnIn m D]-I-c-W-߃ XpS-ßn-bh \evip- p. kn Fw B Fepw ] mbøv {]kn-u v, {]Xn-] t\xmhv, a v AwK-߃ F n-h-c-s-ßnb tkmjy t^md-amwv tkh-\-߃ e`y-am- p- -Xv. as m v Du P-kw-c- -W-cw-K-Øp-ff kpo-h-amb {]h Ø-\-am-Wv. Iº\nbnse Poh-\- m pw a v s]mxpÿm-]-\-߃ pw tkmfm hnf- p-iƒ \evin-bxp hgn Aº-Xn-\m-bn-c-Øn cw bqwn v sshzypxn e`n- p-hm km[n- n- p- v.

5 5 ap -dn-bn- p-iƒ \evin ]W-\bw {]Xo- n- Xp kw`-hn- p. \b-]-en-i-\n-c- p-i-fn Im ixam\w dnk hv _m v sh n- p-d- p CXp aq mw Xh-W-bmWv ]en-i-\n-c- n Ipdhv hcp-øp- -Xv. ]en-i-ip-d- p-sh- nepw, C\n ]eni-\n-c- n Abhp hcp-øp-hm-\p-ff A -co w ]cn-an-x-am-sw piqsn Xs Ah-km-\-tØXpw A m-a-tø-xp-amb hm jni ]W-\-b-Øn dnk hv _m v Kh W Zphvdn kp -dm-hp ]d- phbv p p. C\n Kh-s v `mk-øp- \n p IqSp-X \S-]-Sn-Iƒ D m-bm am{xta ]en-i-\n-c v Ipd-bv m-\m-ipsh pw At±lw Iq n-t p- p. Npcp- -Øn ]W-s -cp- `oj-wnbp-tsbpw hf -bnse Xf -bp-tsbpw CSbn-ep-ff _me knwkv \S-]-Sn-bmWv kp dmhp kzoi-cn- n- p-f-f-xv. dnt]m-\n-c v (_m- p-iƒ ti{µ _m n \n v FSp- p hmbv]bv v CuSm- p ]en-i) 7.25 ix-am-\-hpw dnthgvkv dnt]m ( _m p-iƒ ti{µ _m n\v \evip hmbv]bv v e`n- p ]eni) 6.25 ix-am-\-hpam-bn. CtXmsS dnt]m, dnthgvkv dnt]m \nc- p-iƒ 2011 sabv 3se \nc- p-i-iƒ v H -sa-øn-bncn- p-i-bm-wv. F m ]W-e-`yX h [n- n- p kn B B ( _m p-iƒ ti{µ-_m- n kq n-t XpI) am - an- msx 4 ix-am-\-øn \ne-\n Øn \p-ti-j-ap-ff G hpw Ipd \nc- n-emwv kn B B. ]W-s -cp w `oj-wn-xs ]W-s -cp- -amwv Ct mgpw dnk hv _m ns apjy Sm K- v. ]Ws -cp w kl-\ob \ne-bmb 4 ix-am-\- tø- mƒ Db -Xm-sW- nepw Ipd-bpsa {]Xo h jm-h-km-\-tømss Ab-hp-ff ]W-\bw kzoi-cn- p-sa kqn\ kp -dmhp \evip- p. ]W-s cp w ASpØ am n 5 ix-am-\-am-ipsa pw 5.5 ix-am-\-øn\p Np -f-hn \S- p-h jw \oßp-sa- pw dnk hv _m v Npcp- -Øn C y kº-zvl-s-\sb own- n- p Imcy-ß-fnte-bv p-ff hnc Nq- epw F p-sim v ]eni Ipd-bv \bw C y kº-zvl-s-\sb icn-bmb hf Zni-bn sim p-sn-s -Øn- phm ]cym-]vx-am-hn-s pw ]W-\-b-ØeqsS dnk hv _m v Kh W Zphvdn kp -dmhp hy -am- p- p. dnk hv _m v Kh W kp -dmhp IW- m- p- p. s]mxp-hmb ]W-s cp w Ipd- p-sh- nepw ` y-hn-e- b w Db \ne-bn Xs -bm-wv. ]Ws -cp `ojwn i -ambnøs \ne- \n-ev p-i-bm-wv. BtKm-fhpw, A`y- -chp-amb \nc-h[n A]-I-S-߃ \ne-\nev pbpw snøp- p. ASp-Ø-Im-eØv Itam-Un- n-i-fpss kº-zvl-s-\-bnse 4 dnkvip-iƒ \b-]-en-i-\n-c- p-i-i-fn Im ix-am\w sh n- p-dhv hcp-øn-sb- nepw C y kº-zvls\ t\cn-sp \mev dnkvip-iƒ ]W-\-b-Ø-eqsS dnk hv _m v Hm^v C y Kh W Un kp -dmhp apt m p hy -am- p- p. `mhn-bn ]eni \nc p Ipd-bv p-hm-\p-ff ]cn-an-x-i-sf- p-dn- p-ff ap dn-bn- p-iq-sn-bm-wn-xv. 1. kº-zvl-s\ t\cn-sp G hpw henb dnkvimwv Id v A u v IΩn. AXv Ncn-{X-Ønse G hpw Db \ne-bn FØn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. kl-\ob \ne-sb- Xv Pn Un ]nbpss 2.5 ix-am-\-am-wv. hnzi Sw k hokv snøp-hm Ign-bmØ ÿnxn-bn-tebv v CXv cmpysø X n-hn-spw. 2. henb Id v A u v IΩn kº-zvl-s\ t\cn-sp dnk-ip-iƒ ]pd- Øp-sIm- p-h-cpw. CXv hntz-i-øp-\n- p-ff ]W-sam-gp v C m-xm- p-sa p am{xa ]pd-tø-bv p- aqe-[\w t]mip- -Xn\pw CS-bm- pw. Ct m-gsø BtKmf ]W-e-`y-X-bn am -ap- m-bm AXv C y-bpƒs -ss-bp-ff Fa PnwKv kº- ZvL-S-\-I-fn-te-bv p-ff ]W-sam-gp v Ipd-bv pw. 3. _nkn-\kv tim ^n-u kv Ipd- Xpw _nkn-\knse e`-a- X CSn- Xpw \nt ] at\m-`m-hsø _m[n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. tamiamb KthsW kv, A\p-aXn e`n- p-hm-\p-ff Xmakw XpS-ßnb ]e Imc-W߃sIm pw hyh-kmb \nt -]-I \nt ]w Xma-kn- n- p-itbm am n hbv p-itbm BWv. Ak v Izmfn n Ipd-bp- -Xn-\m hmbv] \evip- -hcpw dnkviv Hgn-hm- p- -Xns `mk-ambn hmbv]bv p \nb-{ Ww G s -Sp-X-Xp-Ibm-Wv. 4. kº-zvl-s-\-bnse e`y-x- p-dhv ]W-\-b-Øns Imcy- -Xsb Ipdbv p-i-bmwv. ` y-hn-e-i-fnse Db, Xmßp-hn-e-bnse h [-\, IpXn- p-bcp Iqen XpS-ßn-b-h-sb mw hne- -b- -Øn\v Imc-W-am-Ip-I-bm-Wv. dnk hv _m v ]W-\bw XobXn dnthgvkv dnt]m FkvF B knb B dnt]m 2013 sabv ( 0.25) 7.25 ( 0.25) (am -an- ) 2013 am v (am -an- ) 6.50 ( 0.25) 7.50 ( 0.25) P\p-hcn ( 0.25) 7.75 ( 0.25) ( 0.25) 2012 Unkw-_ hne-bn-ep mb XI bv v henb ]c- K-W-\-sbm pw \evip-hm kp -dmhp Xbm-dm-bn- n-. ]W-s -cp- -Ønse Ct mgsø XmgvN XmevIm-en-I-am-sW hnebn-cp-ø Xs -bmwv Imc-Ww. kº-zvl-s-\-bpss G hpw henb dnkvipi-fn-sem v Id v A u v IΩnbm-sW v dnk hv _m v ap -dn-bn v \evip- p. CXn\p ]Ww Is -Øp-I-sb- -XmWv ]W-\-b-Øns G hpw henb i{xp-sh v dnk hv _m v A`n-{]m-b-s - Sp- p. ]W-s -cp w Db Øp- -Xn hensbmcp ] mwv Id v A u v IΩn- p-f-f-xv. hf m-{]-xo Ipdhv \S- p-h jhpw kmº-øni hf -bn henb {]Xo ths - mwv ]W-\bw \evip kqn-\. kmº- ØnI hf sb Xzcn-X-s -Sp-Øp-hm Ign-bp- sx pw snøp-hm Xbm-dmsW p kqnn- n- p-sim pxs kp dm-hp ap \ne-]msv Bh Øn- p-i-bmwv hm jni ]W-\-b-Øn snbvxncn- p- -Xv Kh-s v kmº-øni hf bv v Bh-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ssis m-f-f-ww. ]en-i-\n-c- p-ifpss sh n- p-dhv kº-zvl-s-\sb DW Øp-hm ]cym- ]]vx-a-s - mwv kp -dmhphns \ne- ]m-sv. Ipd- p-t]mb \nt ]w Db Øphm se ]W-\bØn\m-bn- n-. ASn-ÿm-\-ku-I-cy-ta-J-e, ssa\nwkv Dƒs ss \nc-h[n taj-e-i-fn \nt - ]-Øn\v XS-k-ambn \nev p Ht sd kwk-xn-iƒ ]cn-l-cn- ØnS-tØmfw Imew ]W-\-bØn\v Imcy-ambn H pw snøm-\n-. D]-t`m r Unam pw \nt ] {]h Ø-\-ßfpw kw`-hn- m am{xta kº-zvl-s-\bpss hf sb Xzcn- X-s -Sp-Øm-\m-Iq. _nkn-\kv taj-e-bptsbpw D]-tbm- m- -fp-tsbpw Bfl-hnizmkw G hpw Xmgv \ne-bn-em-wv. CXn-\mbn Kh-s v kmº-øni hf bv p {]Xn-_- -ambn \nev p LS-I-ßsf C m-xm- p-ibpw `c-ww Imcy- -ahpw kpxm-cy-hp-am- p-i-bpw thww. kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ thk-øn apt m sim p-t]m-i-ww. \nt ]w h -[n- Ww. AXp-hgn Bh-iy-Øn\v hcp-am\w Kh-s n\v e`y-hp-am-iww. AXp kw`-hn- p- n-s - n e y-an- n-cn- p [\-IΩn FØnt -cqi bmym y-øn \n v hfsc AI-se-bm-bn-cn- pw. {]txy-in pw ` yk-_vknun Db-cp kml-n-cy-øn. dnk hv _m ns hf m hne-bn-cp-ø \evip kqn\ Xs [\-IΩn A ߃ t\sp- -Xn-te-b- p-ff {]bm-k-ønte- m-wv. \S- p-h jw Ign- -h j-tø- mƒ Aev]w IqSn sa -s hf -tb ( 5.7 ix-am-\w) dnk hv _m v {]Xo- n- p- pf-fp. a kq km[m-c-w-t]mse e`n- p-ibpw Im jni hf sa -s - Sp-Ibpw snøp-sa {]Xo- -bmwv CXn\p ]n n. F m \S- p-h jw Pn Un ]n hf 6.4 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- psa v {][m-\-a-{ n-bpss kmº-øni D]- tzi Iu kn dnk hv _m v \bsø kzmkxw snbvxp-sim v Bh Øn p ]d-bp- p. Ign sk]v w-_-dn FSpØ \S-]-Sn-Ifpw _P v \S-]-Sn-Ifpw cmpysø 6.4 ix-am\w hf -bn-tebv v \bn- p-sa- mwv Iu kn snb am kn cwk-cm-ps hne-bn-cp-ø. [\- Im-cy-a-{ m-ebw ]d-bp- Xv hf 6 ixam-\-ø\p Xmtgbv p t]mip-i-bn-s - mwv. F m cwk-cm-pt bpw [\-Imcy-a-{ m-e-b-øn-t bpw Bfl-hn-izmkw ]pe Øp-hm dnk hv _m v Xbm-d. F m hymh-km-bn-i-ta-j-e-bnse {]h Ø\w Ct mgpw Xf -bn Xs XpS-cp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. ImcWw ]pxnb \nt ]w FØp- n-. AtX-kabw \ne-hn-ep-ff ] -Xn-Iƒ ]e Imc- W-ß-fmepw \S- m- m-\m-im-xn-cn- p-ibpw snøp- p. e`yx h [n- - -Ww. kº- ZvL-S-\-sb DXv]m-Z-\- -a-am- -Ww. a - c- -ax Iq -Ww. Cs - n hf ho pw Xmtgbv v t]mipw. ho pw ]Ws -cp w Xe-s]m- pw.cxn-s\ m ]cn-lmc-ambn kp -dmhp Bh Øn- p Hcp Imcy-ap- v. Kh-s v kmº-øni hf Xzcn-X-s -Sp-Øp-hm ]cnjvimc\s-]-s-iƒ p FSp- p-ibpw thkw Iq p-ibpw snø-ww. Npcp- -Øn ] v Kh-s ns tim n Xs bmsw pw kp dmhp hy -am- p- p. ASpØ \o w \S-tØ- Xv Kh-s m-wv. AXn\p ]n pw \evip hn[-øn Im ix-am\w \nc v Ipd-hn\v Kh W Xbm-dmbn Ft -bp-f-fp. ImØn-cn mw Kh-s v F p snøp-sa- v.

6 6 ]W-s -cp w kl-\ob \ne-bn C y Id v A u v dnk hv _m ns kl-\ob \ne-bmb 5 ix-am-\-øn\p Xmtgbv v G{]nen ]W-s -cp w Xmgv n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. CXv kº-zvl-s-\-bn sim p-h-cp Bizmkhpw {]Xo- bpw Gsd-bm-Wv. ]W-s cp w Xmgp kml-n-cy-øn ]en-i- \n-c- p-iƒ sh n- p-dhv \SØn kº-zvl- S-\-bpsS hf bv v dnk hv _m v IcptØ-Ip-sa v hyh-km-b-tem-ihpw Khs pw {]Xo- n- p- p. km[m-c-w- mcpss {]Xo- bpw AXm-Wv. Pq 17- se ]W-\-b-Øn ]en-i-\n-c v Ipd-bv phm dnk hv _m v Xbm-dm-Ip-sa v `qcn- ] w t]cpw {]Xo- n- p- p. ]W-s -cp w G{]n amk-øn 4.89 ix-am-\-am-wv. ap h j-antx Imeb-f-hn-enXv 7.25 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. 41 amksø G hpw Xmgv ]W-s -cp- am-wn-xv. am n 5.96 ix-am-\hpw s^{_p-h-cn-bn 7.28 ix-am-\hpw P\ph-cn-bn 6.62 ix-am-\-hp-am-bn-cp p ]Ws -cp- w. amh-^m-ivn-dnwkv taj-e-bnse ]Ws -cp w am nse 4.07 ix-am-\- Øn \n v 3.41 ix-am-\-ambpw Ipd- n- p- v. I kyq-a ss{]kv C suivkv ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep-ff ]W-s -cp w 13 amksø G hpw XmgvN-bmb 9.39 ixam-\-øn FØn-bn- p- v. am n-enxv ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. ` y-h-kvxp- -fpss hne-s -cp w \K-c-ta-J-e-bn ixam-\hpw {KmaoW taj-e-bn ixam-\-hp-ambn Ipd- n- p- v. ] - -dn-ifpss hne-bn-ep- mb CSn-hmWv ` y-hkvxp- -fpss hne kqnn-i-bnse ]W-s cp w Ipd- -Xv. I kyq-a ss{]kv kqnn- I-bn ` y-h-kvxp- ƒ v 45 ix-am\w shbn-t Pv D v. C -\-hne kqnn-i-b- Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep-ff ]W-s -cp w 8.31 ixam-\-øn \n v 8.10 ix-am-\-ambn Xmgv n- p- v.` y, C \ hne- pd-hns\m w BtKmf hn]-wn-bn Itam-Un n hne- Iƒ Ipd- Xpw ]W-s -cp w Ipd-bphm klm-bn- n- p- v. {]txy-in pw {IqtUm-bn-ens hne. C y-bpss Bhiy-Øns 80 ix-am-\-øn-e-[niw {IqtUmbnepw Cd- p-axn snøp-i-bm-wv. CØ-c- Øn Cd- p-axn snøp C \w Cd- p-axn sne-hn-t\- mƒ Ipd hnebv v \evti n hcp- Xphgn h k_vkun _m[y-x-bmwv Kh-s n\v hcp-øn-bn-cp- -Xv. CXv Is -Øm-\mbn ]Ww IS-sa-Sp-t ÿnxn-bn-emwv Khs v. Db [\-I-Ωnbpw ]W-s -cp- -hpamwv ^ew. Cu ÿnxn p am w hcp-øp-hm Itam-Un- n-bpss hne- pdhpw Kh-s ns kmº-øni ]cnjvim-c-ßfpw klm-b-i-am-ipw. s{_ v {IqtUm-bn _mc-en\v 103 tumf-dn\v Np -f-hn \nev p-i-bm-wv tumf-dn \n v Xmgp-I-bm-bn-cp p CXv. sf sf ]n hf 2.5% ]W-s -cp w (ix-am-\-øn ) h jw amkw samøw-hne I kyq-a 2012 G{] sabv Pq Pqsse HmKÃv sk]v w HIvtSm \hw-_ Unkw P\p-hcn s^{_p am v G{]n kºzvl-s-\-bpss Xncn- p-h-cp-hns\ kqnn- n- p-sim v hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m- Z\w XpS -bmb aq m-asø amkw hf ImWn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv am nse hf 2.5 ix-am\amwv. s^{_p-h-cn-bn-enxv 0.46 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. P\p-h-cn-bn 2.4 ix-am-\-hpw. ap h jw am nse hf 2.8 ix-am- \-am-bn-cp- p. AXn-\-Sp-tØ-bv mwv C gn am n hf FØn-bn- pf-f-xv. am\p-^m-ivn-dnw-kv, sshzypxn taje-bpss hf -bmwv hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m- Z\ hf IcpØp ]I -Xv. hn]-wnbpss {]Xo ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p HIvtSm-_-dn-\p-ti-j-ap-ff G hpw sa -s hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\ hf bm-wn-xv. {]Xo \evip- Xv am\p-^m-ivndnwkv taj-e-bpss hf -bm-wv. hymkmbn-tim-xv]m-z\ kqnn-i-bn 75 ix-am\w shbn-t -Pp-ff am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv taje am n 3.2 ix-am\w hf ( ap h jw 3.6 ix-am-\w) t\sn-bn p- v. am\p-^m-ivndnwkv taj-e-bnse 22 taj-e-i-fn ]søæw am n t]mko- ohv hf t\sn-bn- p- v. am\p-^m-ivn-dnw-kn-s\m w Im n- KpUvkv taje 6.9 ix-am\w hf t\sn-bn- p-f-fxpw hyh-km-b-ta-je-bpss Xncn- p-h-c-hns\ kqnn- n- p- p. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn 20.1 ixam\w Npcp-ßp-I-bm-bn-cp- p. I kyq-a KpUvkv ( 1.6 ix-am-\w), I kyq-a t\m Uyqd-_nƒkv ( 6.5 ix-am-\w), t_kniv KpUvkv ( 2.6 ixam-\w) XpS-ßn-bh am n hf t\sn. F m I kyq-a Uyqd-_nƒkv 4.5 ix-am\w Npcp-ßp-I-bmWv snbvx-xv h jsø hf shdpw Hcp ix-am-\-am-wv. ap h j-antx Imeb-f-hn-enXv 2.9 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. am\p- ^m-ivn-dnwkv taj-e-bnse hf Cu Ime-b-f-hn 3 ix-am-\-øn \n v 1.2 ix-am-\-ambn Ipd- p. sshzypxn DXv]m- Z\ hf 4 ix-am-\-amwv. ap h janxv 8.2 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. C y kº-zvl-s-\-bpss G hpw Ib- p-axn sa -s -Sp p Ib- p-axn hcp-am-\- Øn 1.76 ix-am\w CSnhp ImWn- p-sh- nepw hcpw-am-k-ß-fn Ib- p-axn sa s -Sp-sa kqn\ \evin G{]n t\cnb hf ImWn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. XpS bmb \mem-asø amk-amwv Ib- p-a-xnh-cp-am-\-øn hf -bp- m-ip- -Xv G{]n-en Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w 1.68 ix-am\w hf -tbmss 2416 timsn tumf-dn-se-øn. ap h j-antx Ime-bf-hn-enXv 2376 timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. F m Cd- p-axn ix-am\w h [- \-tbmss 4195 timsn tumf-dn-seøn ( ap h jw 3780 timsn tumf ). G{]nense hym]m-c-iωn 1780 timsn tumfdmbn ( ap h jw G{]n-en 1404 timsn tumf ). {IqtUm-bn Cd- p-axn G{]n-en 3.92 ix-am\w h [n v 1408 timsn tumfdm-bn. {IqtUm-bn CXc DXv]- -ß-fpsS tami-amb ÿnxn Ign- p-sh v am nse hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\ hf kqn\ \evip- -Xmbn C -twman-ãp-iƒ A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. F m am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv taj-e-bpss hf Ign \nc-h[n h jsø XmgvN-bn-emsW- Xv Atemkc-ap- m- p- -Xm-Wv. sxmgn krjvsn-bn h {]m[m-\y-amwv am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv taj-e-bv p-f-f-xv. AXn- \m am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv taj-e-bpss hf C ysb kw_ n n-s-tømfw AXn{][m-\-am-Wv. hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]m-z\ hf ( am v) taje am\p-^m-ivn-dnwkv 3.2 % 3.6 % sshzypxn 3.5 % 2.7 % ssa\nwkv 2.9 % 1.1 % t_kniv KpUvkv 2.6 % 1.1 % Im n- KpUvkv 6.9 % 20.1 % C ao-un-b v KpUvkv 0.2 % 0 % I kyq-a KpUvkv 1.6 % 1.1 % Cd- p-axn 14.9 ix-am\w h [-\-tbmss 2786 timsn tumf-dm-bn. apjy-im-cww kz W Cd- p-a-xn-bn-ep- mb h [-\-bm- Wv. kz Ww, sh n XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS Cd- p-a-xn- 138 ix-am\w Db -tbmss 310 timsn tumf-dn \n v 750 timsn tumfdn-se-øn. kz W-hne Ipd-bp kml- N-cy-Øn {ItaW kz W Cd- p-axn Ipd-bp-sa- mwv s^u-td-j Hm^v C y FIvkvt]m Svkv Hm K-ss\-tkj {]kn-u v d^ojv Al-Ω-Zns {]Xo se Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w timsn tumf-dm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-enXv timsn tumf-dm-bncp- p. C -gn h j-øn e y-an- n-cp- Xv timsn tumf-dm-wv. AtX kabw Cd- p-a-xnbpw Ipd- p. Cd- pa-xn-bn timsn tumf-dmwv {IqtUmbn Cd- p-a-xn- mbn \ntbm-kn- -Xm-Wv. tkh-\-ta-j-e-bn \n- p-ff Ib- paxn timsn tumf-dm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn-te-Xn-t\- mƒ 4.7 ix-am\w IqSp-X-em-Wv. BZy-]-Ip-Xnbn Cu taje 20.4 ix-am\w Npcp-ßemWv ImWn- -Xv. c mw ]Ip-Xn-bn Xncn- p-h-cn-i-bm-bn-cp- p. tkh\ Cd- pxn 1.7 ix-am\w Npcpßn 8050 timsn tumf-dm-bn. \S- p-h jw timsn tumf Ib- p-a-xn-bmwv hmwn-py-a-{ m-ebw e y-an-sp- -Xv. F m 20 ix-am\w hf -tbmss timsn tumf hcpam\w t\sm Ign-bp-sa v Ib- p-a-xn-ta- J-e-bn-ep-f-f-h {]Xo- n- p- p. Khs v {]Jym-]n ]pxnb Ib- p-axn t{]m m-l\ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ aqew e yw t\sp-hm Ign-bp-sa v Ah IW- m- p- p. Pn Un ]nbn Ib- p-axn taj-ebpss kw`m-h\ 13.8 ix-am-\-am-wv. AXn- \m Xs Ib- p-axn taj-e-bpss hf kº-zvl-s-\-bpss hf bv v A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. C y F m-asø i n temisø G hpw i -cmb cmpyß-fn C ybv v F mw ÿm\w. -tem- IsØ kv{sm -PnIv hnz-kv[cpw Kth-jW hnz-kv[cpw tn p \S-Ønb ]T-\-Øn Xbm-dm- nb 27 i -cm-b-cm-py-ß-fpss ] n-i-bn-emwv C ysb F mw ÿm\øv {]Xn-jvTn- n- p-f-f-xv. \yqu ln-bnse ^ut -j t^m \mj-w skiyqcn n dntk n-\p-th n \S-Ønb ]T-\- amwv cmpy-i- n-i-fpss ] ni Xbm-dm- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. P\-kw-Jy, C \ skiyqcn- n, ssivt\m-f-pn- Im -_n-fn n XpSßn- \nc-hn[n kqnn-i-ß-fpss ASn-ÿm- \-Øn-emWv ] ni Xbm-dm- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. 5 timsn p api-fn-ep-ff P\-kw-Jy, timsn tumfdn\p api-fn-ep-ff Pn Un ]n, 500 timsn tumf-dn\p api-fnepff {]Xn-tcm[ _P v XpS-ßn-b-hbpw i - cmb cmpy-ßsf sxc-s -Sp- p- -Xn-\pff kqn-i-ß-fn Dƒs -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. ] n-i-bn H mw ÿm\w bp Fkn- \m-wv. c mw ÿm\øv ssn\bpw. ssn\-tb- mƒ F m taj-e-i-fnepw hfsc apºn-emwv bp Fkv. Npcp- - Øn bp Fkns\ sh p-hm X cmpy-߃ ASp-Ø-Im-e-sØßpw Db p-h-cn-i-bn-s p ]T\w ]d-bp- p. C y-bpss kmº-øni {]m]vxn F mw ÿm\øpw ssk\ni {XmWn Ggmw ÿm\-øp-am-wv. kmt -Xn-I-tijn-bn ]Xn-t\gmw ÿm\hpw F\ Pn skiyq-cn- n-bn Ccp-]-Xmw -ÿm-\-hp-am- Wv. C ysb At]- n v ssn\-bpss ÿm\w hfsc Db-c-Øn-em-Wv. a\p-tjyti-jn-bn ssn\-bpss kvtim 100 BsW- n C y-bpss kvtim 87.5 BsW ]T\w hne-bn-cp-øp- p. hnzym- `ymkw e`n sxmgn i n-bpss Imcy- Øn ssn\-bp-tsxv 100 BsW- n C y-bp-tsxv 16 BWv. CSnhv 36% cmpysø Iº-\n-Iƒ aqe-[-\-hn-]-wn-bn \n v timsn cq]-tbmfw kzcq-]n- p. CXv ap h jantx Ime-b-f-hnse timsn cq]tb- mƒ 36 ix-am\w Ipd-hm-Wv. Hmlcn aqe-[-\-tø- mƒ su v D]-I-c-W-߃ hgn-bmwv CXn \s mcp ] pw Iº- \n-iƒ kzcq-]n- -Xv. su v D]-I-c-W-߃ hgn timsn cq]-bmwv kzcq-]n- -Xv. Ah-Imi Hmlcn \evin 8945 timsn cq] kzcq-]n- p C\o-jy ]_vfniv Hm^ hgn 6529 timsn cq]-bmwv kzcq- ]n- -Xv. ap h jw 34 Cjyp-hgn kzcq- ]n- Xv 5904 timsn cq]-bm-wv.

7 7 ayqnz ^ v \nt ]w t\cn- m-ip-tºmƒ Hm F UUv ayqnz ^ v ] - Xn-I-fn \nt -]-I v t\cn v \nt ]w \S-Øp- -Xn\v ( Ub-dIvSv ]mfv ) Ahk-c-sam-cp-ßn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. F nepw CXns Hcp {]tbm-p-\-sø- n Ct mgpw \nt -]-I Bi-b- p-g- -Øn-em-Wv. t\cn p \nt ]w \S-Øp- -Xp-sIm- p-ff {]tbm-p-\-sø- p-dn v A -cm-wv. Ct mgpw ]g-b-co-xn-bn \nt ]w XpScp- -h-cmwv `qcn-]- -hpw. F mwv Ub-dIvSv ]vfm? GXm\pw amkw apºv Hmlcn hn]wn sdkp-te- -dmb skiyq-cn n FIvkvtN v t_m Uv Hm^v C y ( sk_n) Hcp DØ-chp ]pd-s -Sp-hn- p. Ak v amt\-pvsa v Iº-\n-Iƒ ]pd-ønd- p F m ] -Xn-Iƒ pw c v Hm]vj-\p-Iƒ \nt -]-I p ap n hbv -Ww. H v Ct m-ƒ XpS p t]mcp coxn. c v Ub-dIvSv ]vfm P\p-hcn H p apx sk_n-bpss DØchv \ne-hn hcp-ibpw snbvxp. Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\n \nt ]w \S- Øp-tºmƒ FIvkvs] kv tdtjym Ipdbp- p. CXp Zo L-Im-e-Øn sa -s dnt e`y-am- p-sa p IW- m- p- p. Ak v amt\-pvsa v Iº-\n-Iƒ pw \nt -]-I-\p-an-S-bn a[y-h Øn-Iƒ Bcp-an- m-ø-xmwv FIvkvs] kv tdtjym Ipd-bp-hm Imc-Ww. AXm-bXv UbdvIvSv ]vfm\n \nt -]-I t\cn v \nt ] ] -Xn-I-fn \nt -]n- p-ibmwv. km[m-cw \nt -]-co-xn-bn \nt ]w \S-Øp- Xv GP dv hgntbm t{_m -tdpv ÿm]-\-߃ hgntbm BWv. Ak v amt\-pvsa v Iº-\n-Iƒ Ah-cpsS \nt ] ] -Xn-Iƒs m w Ub-dIvSv F p IqSn Ct mƒ tn p- p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v F v Un F^v kn CIzn n t{kmøv Hcp ] -Xn-bm-sW p Icp-Xp-I. Ub-dIvSv Hm]vj-\n CXv F v Un F^v kn CIzn n t{kmøv- - Ub-dIvSv F v tcj-s -S-Øn-bn-cn- pw. IvtfmkvUv F UUv ^ p-iƒ, FIvk-tN v t{suuv ^ v F nh HgnsI-bp-ff F m Hm F UUv ayqnz ^ v ] -Xn-Ifnepw Ub-dIvSv ]vfm \nt -]w \S-Ømw.2013 P\p-hcn H n-\ptijw ]pd-øn-d- n-bn- p-ff F^v Fw ]n Ifnepw t\cn v \nt ]w \S-Ømw. FIvkvs] kv tdtjymbpw dnt Wpw dnt Imem-h[n \ne-hn-ep-ffxv Ub-dIvSv 10 h jw cq] cq] 20 h jw cq] ayqnz ^ p-i-fpss FIvkvs] kv tdtjym Zo L-Im-e-Øn e`n- p dn -Wns\ kzm[o-\n- p {][m\ LS-I-ß-fn-sem- m-wv. FIvkvs] kv tdtjym-bn hcp sndnb Ipdhv Zo L-Im-e-Øn e`n- p dnt -Wn henb am -ap- m- p- p. Ub-dIvSv CIzn n ] -Xn-I-fn km[m-c-w-tb- mƒ ix-am\w Ipd-hmWv FIvkvs] kv tdtjym-bn D m- p- -Xv. Hcp DZm-l-cWw t\m mw. {]i-kvx-amb Hcp ^ ns ] -Xn-bpsS FIvkvs] kv tdtjym 1.78 ix-am-\-am- Wv. CXv Ub-dIvSv C sh-ãvsa v ] - Xn-bn 1.19 ix-am-\-ambn Ipd-bp- p. AXm-bXv 0.59 ix-am-\-øns hyxym-kw. CXv ] -Xn-bpsS F F hnbnepw hyxymkw hcp-øp- p. F F hbn Hcp h j- m-eøv ix-am\w hsc hyxymkw hcp-sa- mwv IW- m- p- - Xv. CXv Xo mbpw hen-sbmcp XpI-bm- Wv. {]txy-in pw Zo L-Im-e-Øn ]h Hm^v timºu- nw-kns B\p-Iqeyw IW- n-se-sp- p-tºmƒ. FIvkvs] kv tdtjym-bn HgnsI Ct m-gpff ]vfm\pifpw Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\p- Ifpw XΩn bmsxmcp hyxym-k-hp-an-. kº-øn-ep- m- p am w t\cn pw A msx-bp-apff ] -Xn-Ifn FIvkvs] kv tdtjym XΩn 0.5 ix-am-\-øns hyxym-k-ap-s p Icp-Xp-I. CXv 10, 20, 30 h j- m-eøv kº-øn F v am w hcp-øp-sa v ]cntim-[n- mw. Ch-bn Zo L-Im-e-Øn 10 ix-am\w hm jni dnt e`n- p- p-sh p Icp-Xp-I. Hcp \nt -]-I 5000 cq] {]Xn-amkw Fkv sf ]n coxnbn \nt ]w \S-Øp- p-sh p Icp- Xp-I. ]Øp-h j-im-em-h-[n-bn t]mepw \ne-hn-ep-f-f coxn-tb- mƒ cq] Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\n A[nIw e`n- p- p. Imem-h[n \ofpwtxmdpw hyxymkw IqSn hcp- p. ]h Hm^v timºu- nw-kns ampniv {]I-S-\-amWv CXn\v Imc-Ww. ct m aqt m h j-tøbv p \nt ]w \S-Øp- -hsc kw_- n- n-s-tømfw CXn\v A{X {]m[m\yw {]Xy- -Øn txm m-\n-s-bn-. api-fn ]d DZm-lc-W-Øn \n v Ub-dIvSv ]vfm kºøv krjvsn-bn D m- hyxymkw a\- kn-em-b-t m. s]cn-kvtim v si.-b.-_n-pn-tam F m e`n- p tkh-\-߃ IW- n-se-sp- p-tºmƒ Cu XpI Dt]- n- p- -Xn Ipg- -an-s p txm p- h v \ne-hn-ep-ff coxn-bn XpS pw \nt -]n- mw. F m GP v {]txy-iambn Hcp tkh-\hpw \evip- n-s - n Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\n-tebv v amdmw. B p \nt -]n mw GXp \nt -]-I\pw Ub-dIvSv ]vfm coxn tbmpn- p-sa v s]mxp-hmbn ]d-bm-sa- nepw F m-h pw AXp tbmpn- -W-sa- n-. ImcWw GXp ] Xn sxcs -Sp- -W-sa p \n n-bn- p-hm-\pw AXv {Ia-ambn ]p\-cm-tem-n-\bv p hnt[- b-am- p-hm-\p-ff Ignhpw \nt -]-I-\p- m-bn-cn- -Ww. sxc-s -Sp v sx n-sb p I m AXns\ \nt -]-ti-j-c- Øn \n v am p-hm-\p-ap-ff tijn-bp- mbn-cn- -Ww. ]e Iº-\n-I-fn \n v tbmpn ] -Xn-Iƒ Is -Øp-hm Ignb-Ww. CØ-c-Øn tbmpn ] -Xn-Iƒ sxc-s -Sp- p-hm k-a-b-an- m-ø-hcpw ani ayqnz ^ v D]-tZ-i-I-cp-ap-f-f-h Ub-dIvSv ] -Xn-bn-tebv v amdp- -Xn\v apºv c m-a-sxm- p-iqsn Btem-Nn- p- Xv \ -Xm-Wv. \nt ]w Fßs\ \SØmw ayqnz ^ v \nt -]-Øn-\mbn At] ]qcn- n- p-tºmƒ Ub-dIvSv ]vfm F Hm]vj-\n SnIv snbvxm axn-bm-ipw. AtXmsS Ub-dIvSv ]vfm hn`m-k-øn \nt ]w Dƒs -Spw. Cßs\ SnIv snbvx At]- -bn FPt m a v hnx-c-w- mtcm Ah-cpsS timuv tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bm t]mepw Abmƒ v IΩo-j e`n- p-i-bn-. GP ns timuv tcj-s -Sp-Øp timf- Øn Ub-dIvSv Fs -gp-xn-bmepw \nt ]w Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\n s Spw. UbdIvSv F p tcj-s -Sp-Øm-Xn-cn- p-ibpw AtX-k-abw FP kn timuv C m-xn-cn- p-ibpw snbvxmepw \nt ]w UbdIvSv ]vfm\n-emhpw ]cn-k-wn- -s -Sp-I. Ak v amt\-pvsa v Hm^o-kn t\cn-s -Øntbm CØcw F Fw kni-fpss _m v Hm^okv ]m SvW am hgntbm t\cn v \nt ]w \S-Øp-hm km[n- pw. C s\ v hgn Hm sse-\n \nt ]w \S-Ømw. \ne-hn-ep-ff ayqnz ^ v \nt - ]-߃ Hmt m-am- n- mbn Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\ntebv p am p-hm km[n- p-i-bn-. CXn- \mbn {]txyi At] \evti- -Xmbn hcpw. F Fw knbn \n v CXn-\p-ff At] mt^mw In pw. AXn-\mbn At] FgpXn \evi-ww. GP p-hgn snbvxn- p-ff Fkv sf ]n \nt ]w Ub-dIvSv ]vfm B p- - Xn\pw At] \evi-ww. F m F Fw knbn \n v t\cn v Fkv sf ]n FSp-Øn- p-s - n 2013 P\p-hcn H n-\pti-j-ap-f-fh Ub-dIvSv Bbn am pw. F m P\p-hcn H n\p apºp-f-fxpw t\cn v FSp-Øn- p-f-f-xp-amb ] -Xn-Iƒ km[m-c-w-t]msesb IW- m- p-i-bp-ffp. \nipxn em` ayqnz ^ v ] -Xn- I-fmb C F Fkv Fkn\v aq ph jsø tem v C ]ocn-buv Df-f-Xn- \m B Ime-b-f-hn Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\ntebv v am p-hm km[n- p-i-bn-. tem v C ]ocn-buv Ah-km-\n- -tijw Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\n-tebv v am mw. GP p-am hgn FSp-Øn-cn- p ayqnz ^ v ] -Xn-Iƒ Ub-dIvSv ]vfm\n-tebv v am p-tºmƒ FIvkn v temuv \evti- -Xmbn hcpw. F m F Fw knbn \n v t\cn- mwv FSp-Øn- p-f-f-sx- n FIvkn v temuv \evimsx Ub-dIvSv ]vfm B mw. \nipxn _m[yx Nne tikp-i-fn \nipxn _m[y- X-bp-ap- m-ipw. \ne-hn-ep-ff ] -Xnbn \n v Ub-dIvSv πm\n-te-bv p-ff am sø dnuw-]vj Bbn- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. AXm-bXv 12 amk-øn Xmsgbp-ff ] -Xn-Iƒ dnuow snøp-tºmƒ aqe- [-\-h-f D m-bm {l{k-ime \nipxn \evti- -Xmbn hcpw. CIzn n kvioap-iƒ v 15 ix-am-\-amwv {lkz-ime-aq-e-[\ hf m-\n-ip-xn. aq p ixam\w skkpw \evi-ww. CIzn- n-bn-xc ] -Xn-Iƒ v 30 ix-am-\-amwv aqe-[-\- h-f m-\n-ip-xn. Hcp h jw ]q Øn-bm- nb CIzn n ] -Xn-Iƒ v aqe-[-\-hf m \nip-xn-bn-. F m CIzn- n-bn- Xc ayqnz ^ v ] -Xn-Iƒ 10 ixam\w \nipxn \evi-ww. C U-Ivtk-j D]-tbm-Kn- p-i-bm-sw- n 20 ix-am-\- amwv \nip-xn. CIzn- n-bn-xc ] -Xn-I-fn \nipxn _m[yx hfsc Db -XmsW p ad- m-xn-cn- p-i. Hm sse- \nt ]w Ak v amt\-pvsa v Iº-\n-I-fpsS sh_vssk- p-i-fn-eqss \nt -]-I v ayqnz ^ v ] -Xn-Iƒ hmßm km[n- pw. CXn\v B Iº-\n-bn \n- p-ff t^mfntbm \º thww. \ne-hn \nt -]-ap-f-f-h v t^mfntbm ]n e`n- n- p- m-ipw. A m-ø-h v si ssh kn t^m am-en n ]q Øn-bm n Ign-bp-tºmƒ ]n e`n- pw. Hm sse hgn Fkv sf ]n \nt -]hpw \S-Ømw. AXn\v \nc-h[n Hm]vj-\p-I-fp- v.- tk-hnwkvkv A u- n \n pw Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIv Ivfnb-dnwKv k hokv hgntbm Ub-dIvSv su_n v hgntbm \nt ]w \S-Ømw. t]mãv tu Uv sn p-i-fmwv as mcp coxn.

8 8 Up C v bpth-gvkv (Un sf ssh) Hmlcn Kth-jWw Hml-cnbn \nt -]n- p-tºmƒ F\n v txm p- Xv a m-cp-tsbpw D]- tziw apj-hn-ebv v FSp- -cp-sx- m-wv. hfsc sa -amwv Nne Hml-cn-Iƒ F Fs Nne kplr-øp- -fpss A`n-{]mbw ti v Hcp ImeØv Rm Ah hmßn-bncp- p. ]t, Hsc-Æw-t]mepw Dt±-in sa -ap- m- n-bn-s p am{x-a Ahbn NneXv \jvs-øn Iem-in- p-ibpw snbvxp. AtXm-Sp-IqSn hmßp- -Xn\v apºv Hml-cn-tbbpw Iº-\n-sb- p-dn psams Ad- -Xn-\p-tijw am{x-ta B Hml-cnbn \nt -]n q Fs mcp Xocp-am-\- Øn-se-Øn. F mw sa -am-sw- -. F mepw Aßs\ \nt -]n- -Xn GXm v 90 ix-am-\hpw tami-a- mø t\ w D m- n-ø- p. ]pxnb `mj-bn ]d- m Un sf ssh ( Up C v bpthgvkv sk ^v) ssien-bn hnizkn- m-\mwv F\n- njvsw! î CXp ]d p \ndp-øp-tºmgpw Cu taj-e-sb- p-dn v ]cn- m-\-ap-ff kplr-øp- fpss D]-tZ-i-amtWm ]ng- -sx v At±lw hy -am- n-bn-cp- n-.-t\-sm-\mb A\p-`h-Øn \n v Aß-s\-bp-f-f-h-cp-tS-Xm-bncn- n F p-thww A\p-am-\n- m. ]t Cu Zpc\p-h-`-h-ßfn IqSn Hcp KpW-ap- m-bn. A\p-ti-j-ap-ff hmßep-iƒ p apºv Iº-\n-tbbpw Hml-cntbbpw ASp-Ø-dn-bp-hm Cu \nt -]- I {i n- p. Aßs\ ASp-Ø-dn-bm {ian- -Xn \n pw a\-kn-em- p-hm km[n- p- Xv Ct±-l-Øn\v Cu cwk-hpambn ASpØ _ -ap-s - p-x-s -bm- Wv. ]t BZy-Im-e-hm-ß-ep-Iƒ v kup-\y-ambn D]-tZiw \evin-b-htcm? Hmlcn hn]-wn-bn ]Xn-hp- -sffmcp Iem-]-cn-]m-Sn-X-s -bm-wn-xv.- am - ns ]q m-eøv GXm-s m Hml-cn-I-fptSbpw hne h [n- p-sim- n-cn- p Ahk-c-Øn Nne- Cßs\ Ah-X-cn- pw. ìign- -bmgvn Rm Cu Hmlcn hmßn CubmgvN Cc n hnebv p hn p. AXn\p apºv hmßnb Hmlcn ]t, A{X sa w X n-. c mgvn ImØn-cn-t n h p 80 ix-am\w h [-\-hn-\v. î In nb em`-øns IqsS Ipd p ssibn \n p IqSn C p X n-hn-sp-tºmƒ Cu ]l-b\v \Ω-tfm-SnXv t\csø ]d- p-iq-sm-bn-cpt m? Aß-s\-sb- n Chn-sS-\n p t^m awokv \Ωfpw D m- p-i-bn- m-bncpt m Fs ms Nn n p IÆp X n-bn-cn- p tiƒhn- m-cs ap n-te-bv mwv Hcp tnmzyw h p hogp- -Xv. ìhmlcn \nt -]-Øn-se-ß\m Xmev]-cy-apt m? î Xmev]-cy-ap-t m-sb-t m, Ft mƒ \nt -]n-s p tnmzn- m t]msc F ]cp-h-øn-en-cn- p ]mh-øn-t\m-smwv Cu tnmzyw hcp- -sx v Hm -Ww.- tiƒhn- m-c-\n \n pw A\p-Iq-e-amb adp-]sn e`n- p- -txmss Aß-s\-sb- n Cu Hml-cn-bn H p \nt -]n p t\m q. Fs A`n-{]m-b-Øn tami-a- mø dnt Ww In Ww Ft m at m Dff Hcp D]-tZ-ihpw DS-\Sn e`n- pw. BZy-ambn ti B Hml-cn-bpsS t]sc-ßm\pw adp- p-t]m-bmtem F p t]sn v At mƒ Xs AXv hmßp-hm t{_m sd hnfn p ]dbpw B ]mhw. ]nt Znhkw apx hne Cc- ntbm F p t\m m\pw XpS-ßpw. Dt±-in sa w Ipd- p-\m-fsø ImØn-cn- n-s\m-sphnepw Dt±-in sa w D m-imsx hcptºmƒ Cu Hmlcn hmßm ]d kplr-øns\ hnfn- -t\z-jn- pw. ìfbv AXv Ipg- -an-, CsXmcp temwkvtsw hyqhn-emwv A m Hml-cn-bn \nt - ]n- m ]d- -sxt m Cu Hmlcn Hcp Id-Ivj ]mx-bn-em-wt m at m ]d v Biz-kn- n- -s -Sp Cubmƒ Ipd- p-\mƒ IqSn A -a-\mbn ImØn-cn- pw. ]n o-ss-t mtgm `mky-ap-s - n Aev]w Db hne-bn hn v ]n amdm\pw A{Xbv p `mky-an- m-ø-bm-f-sw- n \jvs-øn hnevt n hcn-ibpw snøp-tºmƒ t]mepw Xm GXp Iº- \n-bpss Hml-cn-bmWv hmßn-b-sxt m Cu Iº-\n-bpsS tim _nkn-\kv Fs t m Iº\n hf -bpss AYhm Xf -bpss ]mx-bn-emtwm Fs m pw Abmƒ Bdn-bp- p- m-hn-. î Abmƒ am{x-a-, ]e-t mgpw Cu Hmlcn hmßp-hm Abmƒ p \n t±iw \evinb kplr-øn\pw Cuhn[ Imcyß-sf- p-dn v Adn-hp- m-hn-. am - ns hk- -Im-eØv ]e-cmepw ]d- pti Imcy-ß-fmhpw bmsxmcp ]nip- pan- msx a p-f-f-h pw ]I p \evis -Sp- -Xv. Adns m Adn-bm-sXtbm Hmlcn hn]-wn-bn Cßs\ \nt ]w XpSvßp- -htcm XpS-cp- -htcm Ipd-h! BZyw kwkm-cn- -bmƒ Xs kz w sxc-s -Sp- p-i-fn 90 ix-am-\hpw hnpbn- p-sh p ]d-bp-tºmƒ Abmƒ v Cu taj-e-sb- p-dn v kmam\y ]cn- m-\- ap-s p thww A\p-am-\n- p-hm. F m AØ-c-Øn-semcp FIvkvt]mj Cu taj-e-bn C mø Hcmƒ Un sf ssh ( Up C v bpthgvkv sk ^v) ssien A\p-h Øn- p-hm {ian- m AXv Bfl-l-Xym-]-c-am-bn-cn- pw. hnhn[ Iº-\n-I-fpsS _me kv jo p-iƒ IrXyambn A]-{K-Yn- p-i, _me kv jo nse hnhn[ kwjy-ifpw A\p-]m-X-ßfpw am{xw IÆ-S p hniz-kn- msx Ahbnse F m Ifn-Ifpw a\-kn-em- p-i. Cu Iº\n {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn- p hyhkm-b-ta-j-e-bpss hf m km[yx ]cntim-[n- p-i, i -amb a -c-apb Øp FXn-cm-fn-Iƒ Cu Iº-\n- pt m F dnbp-i, Ah Db Øn-tb- m-hp ISpØ a -c-ø ]nsn p \nev p-hm\pff {XmWn amt\-pvsa v ssiv\n- ^n\m kv sskup-i-fn Hm p-i Un sf ssh ssien-bn Hml-cn-Iƒ sxc-s -Sp- p-tºmƒ ]nwt - m-hp G hpw hnenb A_ w CXm-Wv. Hcp ImeØv ani hne-bn hym]mcw snbvs - p-sim- n-cp Hcp Hmlcn Ct mƒ Xmgv hne-bn hym]mcw snø-s -S p. A v Db hne-bn hym]mcw snø-s -Sm-\p- mb kml-n-cytam C v Xmgv hne-bn hym]mcw snøp- -Xn-\p-ff Imc-Wtam ]cn-tim-[n- msx CsXmcp ani Ah-kc-am-sW p Icp-Xp-I-bm-Wv. Cu Iº-\n- pt m F p ]cn-tim-[n- p-i. Ch-sbms B\p-]m-Xn-I-ambn hnhn[ Iº-\n-Isf ^n snbvsx- Sp- pi hnnm-cn- p- {X Ffp- -am-bn-cn- p-i-bn! sh Xv amt\-pvsa n-s tbm sjb t{_m nwkv Iº-\n-bp-sStbm dntk hnwkn tpmen snøp- -h-tcmsv tnmzn- m C mcyw t_m[y-am-ipw. Cßs\ h dntk pw Bsc- nepw Up C v bpthgvkv sk ^v ssien-bn snøp- pt m? Cu ssien A\p-I-cn- p `qcn-]- -Øn-t bpw DØcw C F p Xs -bm-hpw. ]ecpw snøps mcp A\m-en-knkv Cu Hml-cn-bpsS Ign- - Ime hne hyxn-bm\w ]cn-tim-[n- p-i F Xp am{x-am-wv. F nt m hnhn[ Ime-ß-fn \ne-\n- n-cp IqSnb hnebpw Ipd hnebpw lrzn-ÿ-am- p- p. H w Ct m-gsø hne Ch-bpambn Xmc-Xayw snbvxp-t\m- p- p. F p-sim- mwv Cu Hml-cn-bpsS hne IqSn-b-sXt m Ipd- -sxt m F ]c-a-{]-[m-\-amb kwk-xn-bm-is hni-ie\w snø-s -SmsX t]mip- p. hn]-wnbn Un sf ssh ssien A\p-I-cn- p \nt -]-I p ]nw-t - mhp G hpw henb A_- hpw CXp Xs -bm-wv. CØcw ssien A\p-I-cn- p- -Xn\v apºv CXn ]Xn-bn-cn- p A]-I-S߃ a\-kn-em- n, apºv ]d Imcy߃ A]-{K-Yn- m-\p-ff Ign-hp-s p ]q W-amb hnizmkw Ds - n Ipd ] w AØ-c-Øn-semcp Ignhv X\n v D m- n-sb-sp- m-\m-hp-sa hnizm-k-ap-s - n Cu ssien-bn-eqss \nt ]w \S-Ømw. X\n v CØcw Imcy-߃ hni-i-e\w snøp-hm-\p-ff ka-btam ]cn- m-\tam Cs txm Ds - n Cu taj-e-bnse hnz-kv[-cpss A`n-{]m-b-߃ apj-hnebv v FSptØ axn-bm-iq. ]t CØcw A`n-{]m-b-ß-fn IÆ-S p hnizkn pw apºv Ch v Cu taj-e-bn th {X ]cn- m-\-ap-s p Dd p hcp-ø-w-sa p am{xw. Hm p-i Un sf ssh ssienbn Hml-cn-Iƒ sxc-s -Sp- p-tºmƒ ]nw-t - m-hp G hpw hnenb A_ w CXm-Wv. Hcp ImeØv ani hne-bn hym]mcw snbvs - p-sim- ncp Hcp Hmlcn Ct mƒ Xmgv hnebn hym]mcw snø-s -S p. A v Db hne-bn hym]mcw snø-s -Sm- \p- mb kml-n-cytam C v Xmgv hnebn hym]mcw snøp- -Xn-\p-ff Imc- Wtam ]cn-tim-[n- msx CsXmcp ani Ah-k-c-am-sW p Icp-Xp-I-bm-Wv. Iº-\n-bp-sS, hyh-km-b-ta-j-e-bp-ss, kº-zvl-s-\-bpss Ct m-gsø Ah-ÿsb- p-dn p Adn-bmsX ]ecpw ( F mh-cp-a- ) Un sf ssh ssien-bn snøp- -Xv. F m ]e-t mgpw Cu Hmlcn ta -d- -h-bpss GsX- nepw H n-s tbm As - n F m- n-s tbm tamiw {]I-S-\-Øm-emhpw Xmtgbv p hcp- -Xv. CsXm- p-a-dn-bmsx Hcn- I ani hne-bn Xmakwhn\m Cu Hml-cn-Iƒ FØn-s m- p-sa p \n\ v Ah hmßp \nt -]-I v Gsd \mfsø ImØn-cn- n-\p-ti-jhpw Aßs\ kw`-hn- msx hcp-tºmƒ Hcp ]t Hmlcn hn]-an-bnse Xs {]Xo \jvs-s -t - m-sa- -XmWv Un sf ssh ssien- A\p-I-cn- p-tºm-gp- m-ip G hpw henb A]-I-Sw.

9 9 ]Ww \ Ip kpjw sf]nf timgbmwv Ct mgs Ø Xmcw. e ߃ Ifn mcpss ] epw timsniƒ hmxphbv]pim cpss ] epw. Unssk\ hkv{xß ƒ hmßm {ioim v 1.95 e w cq] aps nsb pw ImapIn v AºXn\m bncw cq] hnebp samss_ t^m hmßns mspøpsh pw Z ln s]meokns hmzw. CXp kxyamsw n C{Xb[nIw ]Ww aps ptºmƒ {ioim n\p In p kpjsa v? HØpIfn v henb XpI In ptºmƒ Ifn mc\v In p kpjsa v? CXn\ w ]Ww e`n mepw kpjw ]Ww \ Inbmepw kpjw F t? temiøv ]Wa msx Cßs\ as mcp hkvxphpt m? ]Ww F meøpw a\p-jys\ tamln- n- n- p hkvxp-hmsw p ]dbmdp v. ]t BXy- n-i-hn-i-i-e-\-øn ]W-a tamln- n- p- -sx v hy- - -am-ipw. ]pø t\m psi pisfspøv awøp t\m ptºmgpw teml\mwbßfpss Inep w tiƒ ptºmgpw kpjw In p hcp mimw. F m Cu kpjw imcocniambn A\p`hthZy a. ]W-tØmSp _ -s -SpØn \mw Nn n- p kpjm-\p-`h-ß-fm-wh. ]Ww \ In-bm e`n p kpjßsf pdn v \ΩpsS a\ n ap Iqdmbn Ibdn nb Nne [mcwifmwv Cu kpjm\p`høn\p ImcWw. Cu ap [mcwifns ntem? F{X ]Ww In nbmepw H pan. A p hb n\p Xmsg {]mbap Hcp Ip ns ssibn t\m psi piƒ v ISemkns (ISemkv F msw v AXn\p Xncn dnbm\mhn t m) hnet]mepw Cs t m pi. At mƒ Imcyan{Xtb D p. ]Ww simsp ptºmƒ CØcw ]e kpjmhÿifpw e`n p psh v F m-hcpw hnnm-cn- p- p. Ipsdsbms A\p`hn dn XmImw. ]t `qcn`mkhpw ti dnhmwv. temiønse G hpw cpnnicamb ` Ww Xmbvem Unse akmam IdnbmsW v knf F {Smhens Hcp dnt m n I p. CXp Ign n n Ø Bsc nepw AXv kωxn p Xcptam? ]t ]d p ti Adnhp h v Nnesc nepw AXv kωxn pw. ]Ww kpjw \ Ipsa k ]hpw Cßs\ Xs bmwv. _m k{º-zmb-øn\p ]Icw \mwb-hy-hÿ hcp- -txmss-bmtwm ]WsØ kpj-hp-ambn _ -s -Sp-Øn- Øp-S-ßp- -Xv? A. s\ pw txßbpw hospw ]dºpsams \ In ]Icw kv{xokpjw txsnbncp IYIƒ a\pjy\p mbncp Imew apx s bp v. ]Icw \ Im \mwbap mbn pw, hntzitkm pw kvt{]bpsams ssiam w snbvxv C pw ]ecpw kpjw txsp p t m. ssiam w snøp Xv \mwbambtxmss simsp hmß Ffp amip p F p am{xw. {Koknse _miv{sn-b-bn \n p cmpm- - m-cmwv temiøv BZy-ambn \mwbßfn Ah ]pd-øn-d- p `cwm[nimcnifpss Nn{X-ßfpw t]cp-ifp-sams Dƒs -Sp-Øn-b-sX v Ncn{Xw ]d-bp- p. ]e XcØnep \mwb߃ `mcxøn ]WvNpw \nehnep mbncp psh nepw Ae- Ivkm- N{I-h ØnbmWv CØcw \mw-b-߃ DØtc Uybn {]Nm-c- Øn-em- nbxt{x. snºnepw sh nbnepw Xo Ø \mw-b-߃ {]Nm-c-Ønep- -Xn-\- p-dn v IuSn-eys A -imkv{x-øn ]d-bp- p- v. Kp]vX-cm-P-hwi-Øns {]Xm-]-Im-eØv cmpm- - m-cpss Nn{X-߃ simønb \mw-b-߃ ]pdøn-d- nbxmbn sxfnhpiƒ e`n n p v. kap-{z-kp-]vx\pw N{µ-Kp- ]vx c m-a\pw C m-cy-øn ap n \n p- p. Kp]vX-cm-Pm- - m, N{Ih ØnamcpsS cq]߃ simønb kz W-\m-W-b-߃ ]pd-øn-d- nbncp psh Xn\v sxfn-hp-ifp- v. Z n-w-`m-c-xøn B ka-bøv kz Ww snºv \mw-b-߃ {]NmcØnep- m-bn-cp- p-h-t{x. ]Ww (kºøv) kpjhmk\ IfpsS {]XoIamWv. C mcyøn at sxmcp cmpyøn\pan mø A`n\nthiw C Uym m pt m? AXn-a-t\m-l-c-ambn ]Wn-Xo Ø B`-c- W-ßfpw a pw AWn-bp- -Xn C Uym- m v {]txyi Xm -]-cy-ap-s v sakkvx-\okv tcj-s -Sp-Øp- p- v. ]gb-ime kmln-xy-ir-xn-i-sf mw P\- ß-fpsSkpJ-hm-k-\-I-sf- p-dn- p ]cm-a- i߃ Dƒs m p- -h-bm-wv. AXym-[p-\n-Isa p \mw hnh snøp k{º-zm-b-øn-ep Hs m kpjt`mkhkvxp-h-iiƒ pw kam\ambsx mw c m-bncw h j߃ - p-døpw C Uybn {]m_- ey-øn-ep- m-bn-cp- p-sh- -Xn\v ]gb-ime {KŸ-߃ km yw hln- p- p. bt{ m-]-i-c-w-ßfpw Iw]yq- dpw addpw F Dt±in- p- -Xv. kpj- \p-`-h-øn-\p-th- n-bp- -sx- mw. ]pxnb \q m- n-se-øp-tºmgpw kpjw Fßs\ h n n mw F mwv F m-hcpw At\z-jn- p- - Xv. [\ap m- p Xe-t m-dmwv (Money Brain) ]pxnb ImeØv kp{]ow F v KpNn-tbmWn ]d- n- p- v. H p-an- m-bva-bn- \n v kº- ]Ww A[n-I-ap- m-ip-tºmƒ `bhpw IqSn hcpw. At mƒ \mw AwK-c- -Isc hbv p- p. It m, ]Ww A[n-Iam-b-Xp-sIm- p Ipg- -amwxv. \nc-ønse H p-an- mø bmn-i\v Hcp B[n-bpan. ]t, ]Ww \ Ip kpjsø n bmni\pw kz]v\w ImWp p.v Xo. Øns A[n-Xy-I-bn-te v IpXn- p-b-cp- Ibpw AXn-\-\p-k-cn PohnXw \bn- p- Ibpw snbvx hy n-bmwv KqNn-tbm-Wn. AsX. kv{xoi-co-c-øns hsn-hp-iƒ sh Nz kpjm-\p-`hw {]Zm\w snøp hkvxp-hm-sw v sxfn-bn s] vlukns {]km-[m-i-. am lm- -\n Ccp-]-Øo-cm-bncw NXp-c-{i-bSn hen- -ap ]Sp-Iq- _wkv-fm-hn-emwv KpNn-tbmWn Xmakn- n-cp- -Xv. `uxn-item-i-ønse F m kpj-ku-i-cy-ß-fpssbpw A[n-Xy-I-X-bn. ]t C s\ ns hc-thm-sp-iqsn, s] lukv {]kn- o-i-cn- p- -Xnepw amz-i-amb Nn{X-߃ btyjvsw e`n- psa p h -txmss A -Sn-{]-kn- o-i-cww \n tø n h p. Hcp Imcyw hy amwv. Ime-{]-hml-Øn XI-cmØ ku`m-ky-ß-sfm- pan-. As - n, k ]߃ amdpsa p ]dbmw. AºXp sim w apºv ^nb v Im hmßp- Xv eivj- -dn-bmbn Icp-Xp-am-bn-cp-s - n Ct m? bym - Øn ]W-a Cu am -ap- m- n-b-xv. kpj-sø- p-dn- p k -ev]-ß-fm-wv amdn-b-xv. a\p-jys hnim-k-sa p ]d-bp- Xv Cu am -sø-bm-wv. kpj-ku-i-cyß-fpss am -sø-bmwv hnim-k-sa p ]dbp- -Xv. At mƒ C p ImWp- sxm pa kpjw. AXns hym]vxn amdp-i-bm-wv. \qdp h j-߃ p-tijw Im Xs -bm-iptam \ΩpsS {]n-b-s kzim-cy-hm-l-\w F pd n. Fs mw kui-cy-ß-tf s -Sp-Øn-bmepw Im \nc-øn-eq-ss -Hm-Sn- m-\m-hn F Hchÿ -h-cpw. At mƒ BIm-i-ØneqsS ]d p \S- p- -Xns\ p-dn- mipw Nn. c p t] v ]d- m-hp sndnb BImibm- \- -߃ hcpw. AXv kz -am-bp- -XmWv kº-øns as mcp e -W-ambn IW- m- p-i. ]Ww ssiimcyw snøp-i-sb p ]dbp-tºmƒ \ΩpsS ssibn-eqss ]Ww IS p t]mhp-i-sb v A -ap- v. ]WsØ ssibn-eqss IS-Øn-hn-S-W-sa- mwv a\x-i n ]cnio-e-i ]d-bp- - Xv. ]Ww ssibnse-sp- -Ww. ASp Ww. AXp I v B\-µn- -Ww. ]Ww kt mj-ambn ssiimcyw snø-ww. ]t Ct mgpw A[nIw ]Ww \ap v Xpd lrz-b-tømss ssiimcyw snøm-\m-hptam F p kwi-b-am-wv. \ap v `b-am-wv. ASpØp \n p Bƒ X n-s m pt]m-iptam F `bw. A ]w tkm]y-ambt \mw ]Ww FÆn t\m p- -Xv? ]Ww A[n-I-ap- m-ip-tºmƒ `bhpw IqSn hcpw. At mƒ \mw AwK-c- -Isc hbv p- p. It m, ]Ww A[n-Iam-b-XpsIm- p Ipg- -amwxv. \nc-ønse H p-an- mø bmn-i\v Hcp B[n-bpan. ]t, ]Ww \ Ip kpjsø n bmni\pw kz]v\w ImWp p.v Xo. ]n ]n F^n\v ]eni Ipdbpw sndp-ins kºmzy ] -Xn-I-fpsS ]en-i-\n-c- n G{]n H p apx t\cnb Ipdhv hcp-øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm- Wv. ]pxp- nb \nc- -\p-k-cn v ]_vfniv s{]mhn-u Uv ^ v (]n ]n F^v), ko\n-b kn n-k tkhnwkvkv kviow XpS-ßn-b-hbv v 0.1 ix-am\w ]eni Ipd-bpw [\-Imcy h jw apgph\pw ]pxnb ]en-i-\n-c v _m[-i-am-bncn- pw. C\n 2014 G{]n-en-emWv C\n ]en-i-\n-c v ]p\- -cn-tim-[n- p-i. ]n ]n F^ns ]enk 8.8 ix-am-\-øn \n v 8.7 ix-am-\-am- Ipw. ko\n-b kn n-k tkhnwkvkv kvioans ]en-i-\n-c v 9.3 ix-am-\-øn \n v 9.2 ix-am-\- am-ipw. Cu ] n-x-iƒ p am{x-a-, t]mtãm-^okv kºmzy ] -Xn-Iƒ p ]eni Ipd-bpw. F m tkhnwkvkv Unt m-kn v \n] v \mep ix-am-\- Ønepw Hcp h jsø ÿnc-\n-t - ]-Øn-\p-ff \nc v 8.2 ix-am-\-ønepw am -an- msx \ne-\n Øn-bn- p- v. A p-h jsø Imem-h-[n-bp-ff t]mtãm-^okv {]Xn-amk hcp-am\ ] - Xn-Iƒ v ( awxven C Iw kviowkv) 8.4 ix-am\w ]eni In pw. ]Øp-h jw Ime-hm-[n-bp-ff \mj-w tkhnwkvkv k n-^n- - n\v 8.8 ix-am\w ]eni In p-tºmƒ A ph j- m-e-h-[n-bp-ff F Fkv kn v 8.5 ix-am\w ]eni In pw. Ch-bpsS ]en-i-\n-c- n 0.1 ix-am\w Ipdhv hc- Øn-bn- p- v. ]W-s -cp w Ipd- -Xn-s\-Øp- S v dnk hv _m v Hm^v C y \b- ]-en-i-\n-c- p-i-fn sabv aq n\v 0.25 ix-am\w Ipdhv hcp-øn-bn-cp- p. CXns NphSp ]nsn- mwv sndp-ins kºm-zy-ß-fpss ]eni Ipd-bv p-hm Kh-s v Xocp-am-\n- -Xv. kmº-øni hf Ipd-hmb kml-n-cy-ønepw ]W-s -cp w kl-\o-b-\n-e-bmb 5 ixam-\-øn\p Xmtgbv v FØn-bXpwaqew hcpw Izm -dp-i-fn dnk hv _m v ]en-i-\n-c v Ipd-t - p-sa Imcyw IqSn IW- n-se-sp-ømwv ]n ]n F^v ]eni \n -bn- p-f-f-xv. ]n ]n F^n\v 0.1 ix-am\w ]eni Ipd- p-sh- nepw Cu su v D]-I-c-W-Ønse \nt ]w Ct mgpw a v ]exn-t\- mfpw ani- -XmWv. ]n ]n F^ns \nip-xn-bm-\p-iq-ey-߃ AXns\ hfsc BI j-i-am- p- p. Zoc L-Ime \nt -]-Øn\v CXp G hpw tbmpn- -Xp- X-s. ImcWw Kmc n-bp-ff \nipxn _m[y-x-bn- mø a v CØcw D]-I-c-W߃ hnc-f-am-sw- -Xp-Xs Imc-Ww. \nipxn clnx t_m p-i-fn \n- p-ff hcp-am\w Atß-b w ix-am-\-am-iptºmƒ ]n ]n F^n \n v e`n- p- Xv 8.7 ix-am-\-am-wv. ]n ]n F^n \n- p-ff ]enibv pw \nip-xn-bn-.

10 10 a kq sa- mwv At±-l-Øns hne-bn-cpø. Z n-tw- y-bnepw km[m-c-w-t]mse ag In p-sa- p IW- m- p- p C ybnse 36 sa o-dn-tbmf-pn- k_vun-hn-j-\n 23 FÆ- Øn ( samøw Jc `qan-bpss 67.3 ixam-\w) km[m-c-w-bntem AXn-e-[n-Itam ag In n. ]Xn-aq-s -Æ-Øn ( Jc-`q-anbpsS 32.7 ix-am-\w) ag- p-d-hmwv A\pa kq ag ( ) h jw e`n ag hyxnbm\w* an n ao ixam\w * Ime-b-f-hnse Zo L-Ime icm-icn ag 888 an n-ao- -dm-wv. hcƒ -bpss Ime-߃ ( ) 1957, 1965,1966, 1968, 1972, 1974, 1979, 1982, 1985, 1986, 1987, 2002, 2004, 2009 sndnb Ip n ( kv]m\o-jn F \nt\m) CØ-hW ]kn-^n v kap- {ZsØ Akm-[m-c-W-ambn NqSp ]nsn- n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. AXns ^ew Nne-bn- S-ß-fn hcƒ bpw Nne-bn-S-ß-fn agbp-am-wv. sndnb Ip n-bpss hnirxn C ybv v A\p-{Klw sim p-h-cn- I-bm-Wv. C y-bpss Imcy-Øn F \nt\m I o-j-\p-iƒ \yq{s-em-sw- mwv BZy hne-bn-cp-ø. AXv km[m-c-wt]mse C y-bn a kq e`n- phm CS-bm- pw. C y ao n-dn-tbm-f-pn- Un m vsa v ( sf Fw Un) G{]n 26- \v \S-Ønb BZy {]h-n\w ]d-bp- Xv C y-bn 2013 kok-wn km[mc-w-t]mse a kq e`n- p-sa- m-wv. I j-i v CsXmcp \ hm Øbm-WvċmPy-Øn\v CXv \ hm Ø-bm-Wv. hyh-km-b-øn\v CXv \ hm Øbm-Wv... sf Fw UnbpsS {]h-n-\-a-\p-kcn v Pq H n\v Bcw-`n v sk]v w-_ 30- \v Ah-km-\n- p a kq kok- Wn Zo L-Ime ( ) icm-icn agbmb an n-ao- -dns 98 ix-am-\- tømfw ag In p-sa- m-wv. Zo L-Ime icm-i-cn-bpss ix-am-\w-sø-bmwv C y km[m-cw ag-bmbn ImWp- -Xv sf Fw Un {]hnn Xv 99 ixam\w ag-bm-sw- nepw e`n- Xv an n ao ag-bm-wv. Zo L-Ime icm-i-cn-bpss 92.9 ix-am-\w. cmpyøv s]mxpth km[m-c-w-t]mse ag In p-sa- nepw ticfw, I Wm-S-Iw, Xan-gv\mSv Dƒs -S-bp-ff Z n-tw- y-bn ag Ipd-hm-bn-cn- p-sa- mwv hne-bn-cp-ø. As - n ag-sb- Øm Xma-kn- p-sa- mwv {]h-n-\w. a kq-wns hchv km[m-cw sabv 21- \v a kq B U-am Zzo]-k-aq-l-ß-fn-se-Øp- Ibpw Pq H n\v C y h I-c-bn-se- Øp-I-bp-amWv ]Xn-hv. d_, Im n, txbne DXv]m-Z-\-ta-J-e-I-fmb Z n-twani a kq cmpy-øns Im jn-i-ta-j-esb am{x-a kº-zvl-s-\-bpss at\m-`mhw Xs am pw. Pn Un ]nbn Im jn-i-ta-j-ebv v 15 ix-am\w ] m-fn-ø-ta-bp-f-fp-sh- nepw {KmaoW taj-e-bnse 60 ix-am-\-tømfw t] Im jn-i-ta-jesb B{i-bn- mwv Ig-bp- -Xv. {KmaoW taj-e-bn hcp-am\w sa -s -Sp- Xv F^v Fw kn Pn, Hmt m, hfw XpS-ßnb \nch[n hyh-km-b-ta-j-e-i-fn `mkyw sim p-h-cpw. y-bn FØp a kq ASpØ 10 Znh-k- m-eøv ] na _wkmƒ Dƒs - S-bp-ff Acn-bp-Xv]m-Z-\-ta-J-e-I-fn-tebv v IS- pw. ]Xn-\ p Znh-k-Øn-\p-ff cmpy- Øns ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw `mkøv a kq FØpw. Pq aq mw hm-c-øn tkmbm-_o DXv]m-ZI {]tz-i-ß-fmb at[y- y-bnepw Pqsse BZy-hm-c-tØmsS ]cpøn DXv]-Z-\-ta-J-e-bmb ] n-ta- ybnepw a kq FØpw. Pqsse a[y-tømss AXv 32.9 e w NXp-c{i Intem-ao- hnkvxo W-ap-ff cmpy-sam- msi FØp-Ibpw snøp- p. ag-bpss ]ptcm-kxn A\p-k-cn v Im jn-i-tpm-en- Iƒ \S- p-ibpw snøp- p. PqWn-epw Pqsse-bnepw \S- p Im jni {]h Ø-\-ß-fn \n- mwv cmpy-øns Im jn-tim-xv]m-z-\-øns ]Ip-Xnbpw e`y-am-ip- Xv sf Fw UnbpsS G hpw HSp-hnesØ hne-bn-cp-ø-e-\p-k-cn v \S- p-kok-wnse a kq sabv 17- \v B Uam \nt m-_m Zzo]p-I-fnepw _wkmƒ Dƒ -S-enepw FØn-bn- p- v. km[m-c- Wbv v aq p Znhkw aptº-bmwv a kq ChnsS FØn-bn- p-f-f-sx- nepw C ym h I-c-bn FØpI Pq aq n-\m-wv. km[-c-w-tb- mƒ c p Znhkw sshin Pq aq n-\v ticf-xo-cøv a kq FØp-sa- mwv sf Fw UnbpsS hne-bn-cp-ø. F m Hcp hn`mkw sf Fw Un imkv{x- -cpss hne-bn-cp-ø-en a kq sabv 28- \v ticf XocØv FØp-sa- m-wv. a kq-wns apt m-snbm-bn- hs p ]Sn- m-d, a[y C y-bn NqSv 45 Un{Kn-bn-tebv v Db n- p- v. Cu ka-bøv Ic-bn NqSp IqSn-bmte ag-ta-l߃ IS-en \n v Ibntebv v FØp-I-bp-f-fp. ASp-Ø-bnsS t\ mfns Xe-ÿm-\-amb ImTva p-hn \S kuøv Gjy ss a v Hu vep t^mdw ( kmkvtim-^v) hnebn-cp-ø A\p-k-cn v C y h Ic-bn km[mc-w-t]mse a kq e`n- p-sa- m-wv. F m Z ntw- y-bpss ]e `mk-ßfnepw ag km[m-c-w v Xmsg-bm-bn-cn- p-sa pw Nne a kq hkvxp-x-iƒ km[m-cw a kq % km[m-c-wbv p api-fn % A[n-I-ag 110 %-v \v api-fn km[m-c-wbv v Xmsg % hcƒ 90 % \v Xmsg * \p-tijapff 25 h j- m-e-b-f-hn 12 h j-amwv sf Fw UnbpsS Imem-hÿ {]h-n\w icn-bm-bn- p-f-f-xv. * emwv C y G hpw henb hcƒ I -Xv. A v a kq ag-bn 30 ix-am\w Ipd-hm-Wp- m-b-xv. * 30 h j-øn-\p-f-fnse G hpw henb hcƒ -bmwv A\p-`-h-s - -Xv. ag- pdhv A\v\v 21.8 ix-am\w Ipd-hm-bn-cp- p. * km[m-cw sabv Ah-km\ hmc-øn B Uvam \nt m- _m-dnepw Pq H n\v ticf XocØpw FØp- p. * Ime-b-f-hnse Zo L-Ime icm-icn ag 888 an n ao -dm-wv. Ah ap -dn-bn v \evip- p t\- mƒ sa -s a kq {]Xo- n- m-sa v C y ao nb-tdm-f-pn- Un m -sa v (sf Fw Un) Ub-d-IvS P\-d F Fkv dmtøm ]d-bp- p ix-am\w ag e`n- p-sa p sf Fw Un IW- m- n-bn-cp- p-sh- nepw e`n- Xv 92.9 ixam-\-amwv ix-am\w ag In p-

11 11 `mkyamiptam? `-h-s - Xv. km[mcw ag e`n- p-tºmgpw cmpy-øns Nne `mk-ß-fn ag- p-dhv D m-hm-dp- v. CXn\v apºv cmpy-sam m-si- hcƒ t\cn-ts n h p. A v a kq ag 21 ix-am\w Ipd- mwv In n-b-xv. ap -Xph j-øn-\p-f-fnse G hpw ISpØ hcƒ -bm-bn-cp p CXv. F n pw Im jni taje 0.8 ix-am\w hf t\sn-sb- -XmWv AXn-i-b-I-c-am-bn- p-f-f-xv. BtKmf GP kn-iƒ simdnb apx bqtdm- v, bp Fkv hsc-bp-ff cmpym- c Imemhÿm {]h-n\ Un m p-sa p-iƒ \S- p- a ko-k-wn C ybn sa -s ag e`n- p-sa v {]h-nn- p- p. Ign h jw km[m-c-w-tb- mƒ Ipd ag-bmwv e`n- -Xv. AXpw Imew sx n. {]Xn-Iq-e-amb F \nt\m LS-I-߃ H pw-x-s -bn- m-ø-xmwv sa -s ag e`n- p-hm Imc-W-sa v Cu GP kn-iƒ A`n- {]m-b-s -Sp- p. a kq km[m-c-w-t]mse e`n- p-sa- mwv simdn-b-bnse F ]n C kn ss ta v sk hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. a kq km[mc-wtbm AtX- mƒ sa tam BIm-\p-ff km[yx hfsc Gsdbm-sW v bqtdm-]y sk t^m aounbw td v shx t^m ImÃv hne-bn-cp-øp- p. simfw-_n-b-bnse C \m-j-w dntk v C Ãn- yq v Hm^v ss ta#vdv B Uv skmssk- n-bpss {]h-n-\-ønepw C y-bn-sem- msi ag e`n- p-sa- m-wv. a kq {][m\w cmpysø 121 timsn P\-ß-fn 60 ix-am-\-tømfw PohnXhrØn- mbn B{i-bn- p Im jn-i-ta-j-e-bpss P-18 `t ym-xv]m-z\w sa -s Spw ani ag In n-bm \S- p-h jw Pn Un ]n hf Ign h jsø 5 ix-am-\-øn \n v 6.4 ix-am-\-øntebv v Db-cp-sa- mwv {][m-\-a-{ nbpss kmº-øni D]-tZ-iI Iu knens hne-bn-cp-ø. Im jni hf Cu kml-n-cy-øn \S- p-h jw 3.5 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Db-cp-sa pw Iu kn hne-bn-cp-øp- p. ap h j-anxv 1.8 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. Ign h jw alm-cm-jv{s, KpPdm-Øv, I Wm-SI XpS-ßnb kwÿm- \-ß-fn hcƒ A\p-`-h-s - n pw ` y-[m-\y-ß-fpss DXv]m-Z\w 25.4 timsn SÆn-se-Øn. G{]n H n\v cmpy-øns tkmuu-wp-i-fn timsn S [m\y-ti-j-c-ap- v. CXn Acn-bpsS tijcw timsn SÆpw tkmx-ºn-t Xv SÆp-amWv hcƒ D m-b-t mƒ ] -kmc DXv]m-Z-\sØ _m[n- p- Ibpw BtKmf ] -kmc hne 30 h jsø G hpw Db -bn FØp- Ibpw snbvxp. C y-bpss Cd- p-a-xnbmw v CXn\v Imc-Ww. samøw [m\y-ß-fpss DXv]m-Z\w Zi-e w SÆm-Ip-sa- mwv Im jn-i-a-{ m-e-b-øns aq mw AUzm kv FÃn-ta v IW- m- p- -Xv. ap h j-tø- mƒ 3.96 Zie w S Ipd-hv. Acn, skdn-b, aqwkv XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS DXv]m-Z\w Ipd- -XmWv [m\y-ß-fpss Afhv Ipd-bphm Imc-Ww. AcnbpsS DXv]m-Z\w 1.09 Zwi-e w SÆns Ipd-thmsS Zi-e w SÆm-Ip-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. akv muv DXv]m-Z\w ap h j-tø- mƒ 0.8 Zi-e w sa s v 7.4 Zi-e w SÆpw aqwkv DXv]m- Z\w 0.45 Zi-e w S Ipd v 1.18 Zie w SÆp-am-Ip-sa v IW- m- p- p. ]bdp-xv]- -߃, FÆ- p-cp- ƒ XpSßn-b-h-bpsS DXv]m-Z\w \S- p-h jw sa -s -Sp-sa- mwv FÃn-ta v ]d-bp- -Xv. F m ]b-dp-xv]- -ß-fpsS DXv]m- Z\w ap h j-tø- mƒ 0.91 Zi-e w sa -tømss 18 Zi-e w SÆm-Ip-sa v IW- m- p- p. FÆ- p-cp- -fpss DXv]m- Z\w 0.9 Zi-e w h [-\-tbmss 30.7 Zie w SÆn-se-Øp-sa- mwv FÃn-ta- v. tkmbm-_o DXv]m-Z\w 14.1 Zi-e- hpw ( Zi-e w) \ne- -Se DXv]m-Z\w Zi-e hpw ( Zi-e w) SÆm-Ip-sa p IW- m- p- p. ]cpøn DXv]m-Z\w ap h jsø 35.2 Zi-e w s_bn-en \n v ( 1 s_bn = 170 Intem-{Kmw) 33.8 Zi-e w s_bn Bbpw NWw DXv]m-Z-\w11.13 Zie w s_bn-en \n v ( 1 s_bn = 180 Intem-{Kmw) 106 Zi-e w s_bn Bbpw Ipd-bpw. Acn: PqWn a kq FØp- txmss Z n-tw- y-bnepw Ing- -t\- y- bnepw s\ v hnx-bv pw. \S- p-h jw PqWn Ah-km-\n- p Im jni kok-wn Zi-e w Acn DXv]m- Z-\-amWv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. C y Acn Ib- p-a-xn v Hcp \n-{ -Whpw h n- n-. B{^n-, ] n-ta-jy, bp Fkv, bqtdm v Im jn-tim-xv]m-z\w ( Pqsse Pq ) (Zi-e w S ) C\w hyxn-bm\w ( %) ]ƒkv FÆ- - pcp Acn tkmxºv ` y-[m\yw ]cpøn skdn-b Icnºv NWw * Ah-km\ FÃn-ta aq mw AUzm kvuv FÃn-ta v F n-h-s-ß-fn-tebv v Acn Ib n Abbv p- p- v. ] -kmc: \S p Im jni kok-wn ( 2013 sk]v w-_ 30 hsc) 24.3 Zi-e w ] -kmc DXv]m-Zn- n- phm Ign-bp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- - Xv. CXv hm jni Unam- mb 23 Zi-e- -tø- mƒ IqSp-X-em-Wv DXv]m-Z\w 20 Zi-e w SÆmbn Ipdbp-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. Ign c p h jhpw C y ] -kmc Ib- p-axn snbvxn-cp- p. temi-ønse G hpw henb c m-asø ] -kmc DXv]m-Z-I-cmWv C y. tkmxºv: cmpy-øns tkmxºv DXv]m-Z\w \S- p-h jw ( Pqsse Pq ) Zi-e w SÆm-bn-cn- p-sa v hne-bn-cp-øp- p. ap h jw Zie w SÆm-bn-cp p DXv]m-Z-\w. \S- p-h jw 40 Zi-e w S kw`cn phm Kh-s v Dt±-in- p- p.

12 12 ]W-s -cp IW- p-iƒ hn]-wn v XpW-bmbn ]W-s -cp w kl-\o-b-amb \ne-bntebv v Ipd- -Xn-s\-Øp-S v Pq 17- se kmº-øn-im-h-tem-i-\-øn dnk hv _m v ]en-i-\n-c v Ipd-bv psa hne-bn-cp-ø-en C y Hmlcn hn]wn _ vam v kqnn-i-iƒ 31 amksø G hpw Db-c-Øn FØn-bncn- p-i-bm-wv. Ncn-{X-Ønse G hpw Db -bn \n v GXm\pw t]mbn p-iƒ Xmsg-bm-sW- nepw an Iº-\n-I-fptSbpw Hmlcn hne-iƒ Ah-bpsS dn m Uv Db-c-Øn \n v hfsc Xmsgbm-Wv. dv mcvuv adn-i-s p t]mip-hm Xmev]-cy-an- mø hn[-øn-emwv hn]-wnbpss amt\m-`m-hw. hn]-wnsb ]pxnb Db-c-Ø-tebv v Iq n-s m- p-t]m-ip-hm Iqtd- qsn A\p-Iq-e-km-l-N-cy-߃ Hcpßs F kao-]-\-amwv hn]wn {]h Ø-I-cpsS CSbn ImWp- -Xv. sabv aq n\v dnk hv ]en-i-\n-c- n Im ix-am\w sh n- p-dhv hcp- Øn-bXv hn]-wn v {]Xo \evin. F m ]eni \nc v Ipd-bv p-hm-\pff A -co- -an-s Kh W kp dm-hp- hy- -am- p-ibpw snbvx ka-b- ØmWv ]W-s -cp w kw_- n IW- p-iƒ ]pd-øp-h- -Xv. dnk hv _m ns kl-\ob \ne-bmb 5 ix-am- \-Øn\v Xmtg-b v G{]n-ense ]W-s cp \nc v Xmgp-Ibpw \S- p-h jw km[m-c-w-t]mse a kq e`n- psa {]Xo- bpw hn]-wn-bn i - amb apt - -Øn-\mWv hgn sxfn- -Xv. ]W-s -cp w Ipd kml-n-cy-øn Pq 17- se BZy -Izm kmº-øn-imhtemi-\-øn dnk hv _m v ]eni \nc p Ipd-bv p-sa {]Xo- -bmwv hn]-wnsb \bn- p- -Xv. CtXm-sSm w {]Xo- n- -Xn-t\- mƒ Aev]w IqSn sa s Iº-\n-I-fpsS {]h Ø-\-^-ehpw hn]-wn v XpW-bm-bn. F^v F^v sf kpohw hn]-wn-bn Xncp-Ø kw`-hn- ptºm-gpw hntzi \nt -]-I kpo-h-am- Wv. sabv amk-ønse F m Znh-k- Ønepw Ah s\ v hmß-ep-im-cm-bn-cp- p. sabv 20 hsc Ah-cpsS se Ah-cpsS s\ v hcp-am\w timsn cq]-bm-bn Ag 1.39 e w timsn cq] C y Hml-cn-Iƒ hmßp-hm-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- p. BtKmf Xe-Øn \ne-\n-ev p ]W-e-`y-X-bmWv C y hn-]wn Dƒs -ss-bp-ff Fa PnwKv Hml-cn-I-fn-tebv v ]W-samgp-Ip-hm Imc-Ww. ASpØ Izm -dnepw CtX \ne XpS-cp-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. bp Fkv ASpØ Izm -dnepw Ab ]W-\bw kzoi-cn- p-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. _n Fkv C 500 Hml-cn-I-fnse hntzi-\n-t -]-I-cpsS ] m-fnøw 5 h j- Ønse G hpw Db-c-Øn FØn-bn-cn- p-i-bmwv. hn]wnaqey-øns 93 ixam-\hpw kw`m-h\ snøp- Xv _n Fkv C 500 Hml-cn-I-fmWv. cmpysø {][m-\- s 20 hyh-km-b-ta-j-e-ifpw CXn Dƒs -Sp-Ibpw snbvxn-cn- p- p. CXn hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-cpsS ] m-fnøw 22.2 ix-am-\-amwv C -gn am v 31- -\v. sshzyp-xn, t] -, tlm XpS-ßnb taj-e-i-fn-emwv G hpw IqSp-X hmß ]pxnb \nt -]-I-ÿm- ]-\-߃ C y-bn cpn-ã snbvxn- p- v. C y hn]-wn-sb- p-dn v hfsc _p ojv at\m-`m-h-amwv Ah p-f-f-xv. CXv hcpw amk-ß-fn C y Hml-cn-Ifn hntz-i-\n-t ]w h [n- p- -Xn\v CS-bm- pw. c p Zi-I-Øn \nt -]n- -Xn-t\- mƒ IqSp-X XpI Ct mƒ C y-bn \nt -]n- n-cn- p-i-bm-sw v sp ]n tam K Ak v amt\-pvsa v amt\-pnwkv Ub-d-IvS HmÃn t^msd Adn-bn- p. C y-bnse I kyq-a Unam v hfsc i -am-sw- mwv At±lw ]d-bp- -Xv. CXv sshhn-[y-am _nkn-\-kp-iƒ v h hf km[yx \evip- p-sh- mwv At±-l- Øns A`n-{]m-bw. ]en-i- \n-c pw ]W-s -cp- hpw Ipd-bp- -txmss C y-bpss kmº-øni hf m-l-s-i߃ sa -s -Sp-sa v At±lw Iq n-t p- p. ] n-ta-jy-bn \n- pff hntz-i-\n-t -]-I C y-sb- p-dn v IqSp-X _p ojv at\m-`mhw h p ]pe Øp- -h-cm-wv. sabvam-k-øn JØ- ^ut -j `m Xn Fb ss- ns 5 ix-am\w Hml-cn-I 126 timsn tumf-dn\v hmßm Xocp-am- \n- -Xv. bqwn-eo-h Hm Hm^-dn-eqsS lnµp-ÿm bqwn-eo-h-dn Hmlcn ] m-fnøw Db Øp-hm- \mbn 540 timsn tumf-dmwv aps- p-hm Dt±-in- p- -Xv. FXn-bmSv hnam-\- -º\n C y hnam-\- -º-\n-bmb sp v Fb th-kns Hmlcn-Iƒ 60 timsn tumf-dn\v hmßn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-av. Sm bpw knwk- q-cnse Fb Gjybpw kwbp- -ambn hnam\n º\n Bcw-`n- p-hm\pff {]my-ani \S-]-Sn-Iƒ XpS-ßn- -gn- p. hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\-߃ hmß-ep-im-cm-sw- nepw C y- kº- ZvL-S-\-bpsS Zu _-ey-߃ amdmsx \nt -]-I-cn Bfl-hn-izmkw XncnsI hcn-s - mwv A\-en-Ãp-I-fpsS hne-bncp-ø. BtKmf Xe-Øn bp Fkv, Pm - \o-kv, bqtdm-]y hn]-wn-iƒ \nc-h[n hc-j-߃ p-tijw i -ambn Xncn- ph- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Ipd ]eni \nc pw Xmgp ]W-s -cp- -hp-amwv CXn\p If-sam-cp- n-bn- p-f-f-xv. bp Fkv kº-zvl-s\ Xncn- p-h-cp-ibm-sw hnebn-cp-øepw Ct m-gsø apt - -Øns ]n n-ep- v. bp Fkv Uu 22 ix-am-\hpw \mkvumiv 22iX-am-\hpw P a UmIvkv 32 ix-am-\hpw tlmt mwkv lmwkvkmwkv 22 ix-am-\hpw bp si F^v Sn Fkv C 25 ix-am-\hpw Pm -\okv \n n 72 ixam-\hpw dnt Hcp h j- m-eøv \evin-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Uuhpw Fkv B Uv ]n 500 Dw P a UmIvkpw dn m Uv Db-c-Øn FØp-Ibpw snbvxp. Cu kml-n-cy-øn C y Zo L- Im-e-Øn ani \nt -]-am-sw hntzi-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\-߃ Icp-Xp- p. Hmlcn hn]wn Hmlcn hn]wn tpmbn ^nen v temivk-`-bn-te-bv p-ff s]mxp sxc-s - Sp- n-\p-tijw C y ]pxnb _pƒ t^kntebv v IS- p-sa- mwv {]Xo- n- p- - Xv. kmº-øni ]cn-jvim-c-߃ Nne taj-e-i-fn t\cn- p-ff hntzi-\n-t -] ]cn[n Db Ø, s]t{smƒ, Uok hne \nb-{ Ww \o, XpSßnb L\m-]-c-amb ]cn-jvim-c-߃ C ybpss kmº-øni hf sb Xzcn-X-s - Sp-Øp-sa v BtKmf \nt -]-I-ÿm-]-\- amb tam K Ãm en-bpss Kvtfm_ C -twm-anãv at\mpv {][m A`n{]mb-s -Sp- p. IgnRv 8 9 amk-ß-fmbn C y \S-Øp ]cn-jvim-c-߃ cmpy-øn\v A\p-Iq-e-amb A -co w D m- n-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. \nt ]w h [n- - p- -Xn\v CXv DX-Ipsa v At±lw ]d-bp- p. aps-ßn- n-s- p ASn-ÿm-\-ku- Icy taje ] -Xn-Iƒ \S- m- p- -Xn\pw ]pxnb ] -Xn-Iƒ Bcw-`n- p- -Xnse Xmakw Hgn-hm- p- -Xn-\p-ambn [\-a-{ mebw {]txyi sk cq]n-i-cn- p-sa v [\-a{ n ]n NnZw-_cw Adn-bn- n-cn- p-ibmwv. cmpysø 28 ASn-ÿm-\-ku-Icy ] -Xn-I-fn aps-ßn- n-s- p-i-bm-wv. GXm v timsn cq]-bpss \nt ]w Dƒs -Sp- -Xm-Wn-Xv. CXn 16 FÆhpw sshzypxn taj-e-b-em-wv.cmpy-am-is cq -amb ]h I n-ep-am-wv. ]tcm \nipxn hcp-am\w \S- ph j-øns BZy-am-k-Øn t\cnb hf tb ssih-cn- p-f-fp. hcp-am\w 3.3 ix-am\w hf -tbmss timsn cq]- bn-se-øn. FIvsskkv hcp-am\w ap h j-tø- mƒ 14.7 ix-am\w Ipd- -XmWv hcp-am-\sø _m[n- -Xv. FIvsskkv hcp-am\w timsn cq]- bn \n v 9889 timsn cq]-bmbn Ipd- p. IÃwkv hcp-am\w 12.8 ix-am\w hf tbmss timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. tkh- \-\n-ipxn hcp-am\w 13.6 ix-am\w Db v timsn cq]-bm-bn- p- v. \S p-h jw 5.65 e w timsn cq]-bmwv ]tcm- -\n- IpXn hcp-am-\-ambn Kh-s v {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. ap h jsø hcp-am\w 4.69 e w timsn cq]-bm-bn-cp- p. \S- p-h jw kº-zvl-s\ Xncn- ph-cp-sa pw ix-am\w hf t\spsa pw Bkq-{X-W-h-Ip v D]m-[y- samt -IvknwKv Aep-hm-enb Bfl-hnizmkw {]I-Sn- n- p- p. hyh-kmb taje hf -bn-tebv v Xncn- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. BtKmf kº-zvl-s-\-bpss \ne sa -s - n-cn- p- p. a kq km[yx sa s ncn- p- p. CsX mw kº-zvl-s-\- bpss Xncn- p-h-c-hn\v i n Iq p-sa v Aep-hm-enb A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Ign h jw \ap p sa -amb h j-am-bn-cp- n-. F m a v ]e cmpy-ß-tf-bpw- Imƒ hfsc sa -am-bn-cp- p-sh pw Aephm-enb Nq n- m- p- p. F m hfsc sa -amb h j-tøbv v \mw IS- p-i-bm-sw v At±lw Icp-Xp- p. C y Pn Un ]n hf \S- ph jw 6.2 ix-am-\hpw Id v A u v IΩn 5 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- p-sa v C -twmaniv Xn v Sm v \mj-w Iu kn Hm^v A]vssfUv C -twm-aniv dntk ns ( F kn C F B ) G{]n Izm kmº-øn-im-h-tem-i-\- Øn ]d-bp- p. Im jn-i-ta-j-e-bnse hf -bmwv Pn Un ]n p IcpØp ]Icp-I. Im jni hf \S- p-h jw ap h jsø 1.8 ix-am-\-øn \n v 3.2 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Db-cpw. F m hyh-km-b hf- 4.4 ix-am-\-ambn Ipdbpw. ]W-s -cp w 5.9 ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- psa v kmº-øn-im-h-tem-i\w ]d-bp- p. ]{ mw ] -Xn- m-eøv 8 ixam\w Pn Un ]n hf e y-an v hntziøpw kztz-i-øp-ap-ff \nt -]Isc BI jn- p-ibpw \nt ]w t{]m mln- n- p-ibpw snbp \S-]-Sn-Iƒ v Kh-s v Bcw`w Ipdn- -Xmbp {][m- \-a{ n a tam-l knwkv ]d- p. Db kmº-øni hf bpw [\-IΩn \nb-{ n- p- -Xn\pw C y i -amb \S- ]-Sn-Iƒ FSp-Øp-h-cn-I-bmWv. \nt ]w Xzcn-X-s -Sp-Øp-hm {]txyi Im_n-\ v IΩn- n v cq]w \evin-bn- p- v [\-IΩn 3 ix-am\øn HXp n \n Øp-hm\pw Dt±-in- p- p. C y-bpss td nwkv ÿnc-x-bp-ts-xmsw pw AXn ASpØ amk- Øn am w hcp-tø- -Xn-s pw BtKmf td nwkv GP kn-bmb aquokv A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Ct m-gsø ÿnxn \n v C y sa -s -Sp-hm-\mWv km[y-x-sb pw aquokv hne-bn-cp-øp- p. \nt -]-tbm-ky-amb _n F F 3 t{kumwv Ct m-gsø C y-bpss aquokv td nw-kv. \S- p-h jw 6 ix-am\w hf {]Xo- n- m-sa v aquokv ]dbp- p. ap h j-anxv 5 ix-am-\-am-bn-cp- p. \S- p-h jw Ib- p-axn taje hf t\sp-sa v {]Xo Db n- p- v. C -gn kmº-øni h j-øn Ib- p-axn hcp-am-\-øn 4.4 ix-am\w Npcß-emWv kw`-hn- -Xv. Ib- p-axn hcp-am\w timsn tumf-dm-wv. Ib- p-a-xn- m \S- p-h jw ix-am\w hf {]Xo- n- p- p. AXm-bXv timsn tumf. bq Fkv kº-zvl-s\ hf bn-tebv v Xncn- p-h- Xv {]Xo- bv v IcpØp \evip- p. F m Khs n\v A{X {]Xo t]mcm. ]Øp ix-am\w hf -bmwv e y-an-sp- - Xv.AXm-bXv timsn Ib- p-axn hcpam-\w. P\p-hcn apx Ib- p-axn hcpam\w Hmtcm amkhpw hf t\sn hcp-

13 13 Zo L-Im-e-Øn \nt ]w C y Hmlcn hn]-wn-sb- p-dn v Zo L-Im-e-amb ImgvN- msv kzoi-cn- p-hm \nt ] hnz-kv[cpw A\-en-Ãp-Ifpw AhcpsS CS-]m-Sp-Im v D]-tZiw \evip- p. Ct m-gsø apt w \jvsw \ni-øp-hm \nt -]-Isc klm-bn- p-sa- nepw Zo L- ImeØn ani em`w t\sp-hm klm-bn- p-sa v hnz-kv[ A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Zo L-Ime\nt ]w e y-an-sp- n- m-øh v su n-tebv v \nt ]w am p- -XmWv DØ-a-sa pw hnz- Kv[ A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. \mw hen-sbmcp Zo L-Ime _pƒap-t - -Øn-em-Wv. AXv hn]wnsb AXns Ncn-{X-Ønse G hpw Db \nebv v A p-d-tøbv v FØn- p-sa v \oßp-sa v Hmlcn hym]mc hnz-kv[-\mb AXp kqcn A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Itam-Un n hnen- Iƒ Xmgv Xv C y hn]-wn-bpss c -bm-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. {IqUpw kz W-hn-ebpw CSn coxn hn]-wn-bnse _p ojvs\-kn-s\-bmwv {]Xn-^-en- n- p- -sx v At±lw ]d-bp- p. bp Fkv Dƒs -ss-bp-ff 9 hn]wn AXns Ncn-{X-Ønse G hpw Db \ne-bn FØn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. C y-bpw Cu ] n-i-bn FØp Imew hnzq-c-ø-s v At±lw Iq nt p- p. BtKmf kº-zvl-s\ km[m-cw \ne-bn-tebv v Xncn- p-h-cp- p-sh- -Xns hy -amb kqn-\-bmwv Itam- Un nifpss hen-bn-sn-hv. Hmlcn h]-wnsb kw_- n- n-stømfw AsXmcp \ hm Ø-bm-Wv. Ct m-gsø _p ojvs\kv \ne-\n-ev -W-sa- n A`y- c ÿm]-\-ßfpw ayqnz ^ p-ifpw hmß-ep-im-cm-i-wsa v t{_m -tdpv ÿm]-\-amb kn n A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. hntz-i-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\-߃ timsn cq]-bpss s\ v hmß \S-Øn-b-t mƒ A`y- c \nt -]-I-ÿm-]-\- ßfpw ayqnz ^ p-ifpw a pw timsnbne-[niw cq]- bpss Hml-cn-Iƒ hn -gn- p-i-bmwv snbvx-xv. F nepw sk skivkv ASpØ Unkw-_-tdmsS t]mbn n-se-øpsa v kn n hne-bn-cp-øp- p C y Hmlcn hn]-wn-bpss _ vam v kqnn- I-bmb sk skivkv t]mbn n\v api-fn-se-øp-sa- mwv F v Fkv _n kn C y {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. cmpy-øns Pn Un ]n hf \S- p-h jw ix-am-\-am-bn-cn- p-sa pw F v Fkv _n kn hnen-bn-cp-øp- p. C y kº-zvl-s-\- bpss G hpw tami-amb Ahÿ Ign- p-sh hne-bn-cp- Ø-emWv F v Fkv _n kn p-f-fxv. {lkz-im-e-øn s]s v t\ w {]Xo- n-t -. aq p-h j- m-eøv ani t\ -ap- m- m-sa emu 7 ^n\m jy AssUz-k-dokv ÿm]-i kptcjv kz-tkm-] ]dbp- p. `qx-im-esø \nt -]m-\p-`hw D]-tbm-Kn v Zo L-Im-e-Øn Hml-cn-bn \nt ]w \S-Øp-hm-\mWv Hm]vSna awn amt\-tpgvkv amt\- PnwKv Ub-d-IvS ] Pv axv]m \n t±-in- p- p. Ct m-gsø dmen XpS-cp-tam-sb- -d-bn. F nepw hntzi-\n-t -]-I-ÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS \nt ]w Ct m-gsø \ne-bn XpS-cp-sa p Xs -bmwv ]e A\-en-Ãp-I-fp-tSbpw hne-bn-cp- Ø. hn]wn i -am-bn-xs ASpØ GXm\pw ka-btøbv p XpS-cp-hm-\mWv km[y-x.-zo L-Ime hf kº- ZvL-S-\-bpsS Xncn- p-h-c-hns thksø B{i-bn- n-cn- pw. kmº-øni hf bpss thkw h [n- p- n-s - n hn]- Wn-bn em`-sa-sp- {]{Inb i -am-ip-sa v ]e A\- en-ãp-ifpw A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. kmº-øi hf bv p i n-iq-s-w-sa- n \nt ]w IqSp-X-embn FØ-Ww. AXn\v Kh-s v A\p-Iq-em- -co w D m-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. CS-bv p- m-ip Xncp-Ø hn]-wn v Icp-Øp- ]-I-cp-sa pw AXn `bw-th-s - p-amwv A\-en-kv p-ifp-tsbpw hn]wn {]h Ø-I-cp-tSbpw A`n-{]m-bw. BtKmf hn]-wn-bnse at\m-`m-hw, dnk hv _m v ]en-i-\n-c v sh n- p-d-bv p-sa {]Xo- -bn hn]-wbn-ep- mb _pƒ apt w C\nbpw XpS-cp-sa- mwv t{_m -tdpv ÿm]-\-amb BZnXy _n fawn {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. hn]wn h\y-amb hyxn-bm-\-ø-eqss IS- p-t]m- Ip-sa- nepw s]mxp-a-t\m-`mhw _p ojv BWv. Ab ]W-\-bhpw ti{µ _m p-i-fpss BkvXn hmßepw dnkvint\m-sp-ff \nt -]-I-cpsS at\m-`mhw h [n- n- n-cn- p-ibmwv. bqtdm-tkm-wns G hpw tami-amb Ahÿ Ign- p-sh hne-bn-cp-øepw hn]-wn-iƒ v A\p-Iq-em- co w krjvsn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. kmº-øni ]mt -Pp-Ifn \n v hf sb klm-bn- p \b-ß-fn-tebv v bqtdm tkm amt\-p am Xncn- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. BtKmf Xe- Øn hnhn[ kº-zvl-s-i-fnse dnkviv Ipd-s txm DW -txmss dnkviv FSp- p-hm \nt -]- I Xbm-dm-hp-I-bm-Wv. CXv C y-bp-sƒs -ss-bp-ff Fa PnwKv hn]-wn-i-fn-tebv v \nt -]-sa-øp- -Xn\v Imc- W-am-Ip- p. Hml-cn v A\p-Iq-e-amb kqn-\-i-fmwv hnhn- [-ta-j-e-i-fn \n v Db p-h-cp- -sx v tam K Ãm en C y-bpss amt\-pnwkv Ubm-d-IvS dnymw tzimbv A`n-{]mb-s -Sp- p. ]en-i-\n-c v sh n- p-dhv C\n kw`-hn- p-sim- n-cn psa pw At±lw ]d-bp- p. C y-bpss Id v A u v IΩn Cu [\-Im-cy-h j-øn \ Ipdhp ImWn pw. Fa- PnwKv hn]-wn-i-fn G hpw ani ]niv C ybm-sw v _m v Pqen-bkv s_b B Uv timbpss am v amxyqkv A`n-{]m-b-s -S p. ASp-Ø-Im-eØv Itam-Un- n-ifn-ep- mb hne-bn-snhv C ysb BI j-i-am- p- p. CXv C y-bpss ASn-ÿm-\-L-S-I-ßsf i n-s -Sp-Øp-I-bmsW v At±lw ]d-bp p. sxc-s -Sp v Dƒs -ss-bp-ff dnkviv \ne-\n-ev p-tºmgpw C y Hmlcn hn]wn Ipd- Xv 10 ix-am\w hf t\sp-sa v BtKmf t{_m -tdpv -ÿm-]-\-amb s{iun v kpkn hne-bn-cp-øp- p. ]en-i-\n-c- nse sh n- p-d-bv -ep-iƒ hn]-wn-bpss Db -bv p-ff cmk-xz-c-i-ambn {]h Øn- psa v s{iun v kpkn A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. I-bmWv. P\p-h-cn-bn 0.82 ix-am- \hpw s^{_p-h-cn-bn 4.23 ix-am-\hpw am n 6.97 ix-am-\hpw hf- t\sn. XpS -bmbn F p amksø Npcp-ß-en- \p-ti-j-amwv Cu hf. Ib- p-axn tajebv v Pn Un ]nbn 13.8 ix-am\w ] mfn-ø-ap- v. F m Nne tamiw hm Ø-Ifpw kº-zvl-s-\-bn \n p ]pd-øp-h-cp- p- v. tkh\ taj-e-bnse F v Fkv _n kn ] t -knwkv amt\-tpgvkv C suivkv G{]n-en 50.7 t]mbn m-bn. am n 51.4 t]mbn m-bn-cp- p HIvtSm-_-dnse 49.1 t]mbn v Ign- m G hpw Ipd kqnn-i-bm-wn-xv. kqnni 50 t]mbn n\v Xmsg-bm-sW- n Npc-ß-emWv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. 50 t]mbn n\v api-fn hf bpw. C y Pn Un ]nbpss 60 ix-am- \hpw tkh-\-ta-j-e-bpss kw`m-h-\-bm- Wv. a kq {]Xo km[m-c-w-t]mse a kq e`n- p- Xv C y-bpss D]-t`mKw h [n- - p-sa pw AXv Xf -bn-eqss \oßp cmpy-øns kº-zvl-s-\bv v ssiømßm-bn-cn- p-sa pw hne-bn-cp-ø-s -Sp- p. \S- p-h jw km[m-c-w-t]mse a kq e`n- p-sa- mwv C y ao n-dn-tbm-f-pn- Un m vsa ns BZysØ a kq {]h-n-\-øn ]d-bp- -Xv. kmº-øni hf Hcp Zi-I- Ønse G hpw Xmgv hf -bn FØn \nev p-i-bm-wv. A`y- c Unam- ns ]n _-e- Øn C ybpw sn\bpw Dƒs -ss-bpff Gjy Fa PnwKv cmpy-ß-fpss hf A\-kyqXw XpS-cp-sa v Gjy hni-k\ _m v XtI-lntIm \Imthm A`n-{]m-b-s - p. 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14 14 Live with passion and purpose (Jeffrey R. Immelt, the chairman and chief executive of General Electric, delivered the 2007 keynote address at the University of Notre Dame on May 19, ) Thank you, Father Jenkins.Congratulations to the Class of 2007, and welcome to all of your family here today.i would also like to congratulate all of the honorees, each of whom is a leader in their field.the fact that you are honoring President Coleman frommichigantells me a little something about your ability to forgive. To the faculty, let me say thanks for the doctorate.if you had seen my grades in college, you might want to take it back!this is especially sweet because we have 400 Notre Dame alums working at GE including 25 in the audience today, that also includes our CFO, Keith Sherin.You all worked really hard for your degrees, so me receiving this after being here for just a few hours really makes you mad. I want you to know that I did have to take a test to receive my doctorate.the trustees gave me a choice.i either had to: Provide a complete explanation of the universe through a unified field theory, tying together electricity, magnetism, gravity and quantum mechanics; or Throw a football farther than Brady Quinn; or Spell GE. So, you see, I did work hard to earn my honorary doctorate here today. Every one of you is extremely bright and talented.but I know that Notre Dame can be a grind.there isnt a graduate among you who hasnt struggled at some point to reach this day.maybe it was the hard work of holding down a job to make your tuition payments? or the effort required to complete courses for your major. Or, perhaps you were brought to your wits end just trying to figure out what time zone you were in around here? or, worse yet, searching for the elusiveco-eddorm at Notre Dame. I have had a life-long fascination with your school.you represent everything that is right about this country? the scholarship, the values, and the excellence.i like recruiting Notre Dame students and I like televising your games.as a young boy, growing up incincinnati; I used to hum the Notre Dame fight song while I was riding my bike to football practice.by the way, that was the closest I got to playing football here! But even with my love for your school, I must admit that giving your commencement speech is a bit intimidating because I always assume that I wasnt your first choice. For instance, I know that Bill Gates is speaking at Harvard.Stephen Colbert is speaking atknoxcollege.oprah Winfrey is athowarduniversity.bill Clinton is giving six commencement speeches this year!last year, you had the president ofireland.actually, GE is bigger thanireland, but I know you have a special, emotional connection with the Irish.Im sure there are flashier people you could have here today.but it could be worse. For instance, Kevin Federline is speaking at theuniversityofarkansas.game show host, Bob Barker, is atdruryuniversity.sanjaya fromamerican Idolis speaking at Purdue.He wasnt invited, he just shows up places. So see, it turns out Im not such a bad choice after all.actually, there are some positive aspects of having the Chairman of GE speak at your graduation.for instance, if any of you needs a large diesel locomotive right now, I can hook you up. wholesale. As the leader of NBC network and Universal Studios, I have realpower. For instance, Donald Trump works for me.the entire cast of Heroes, The Office, and Saturday Night Live? work for me.the models ondeal or No Deal? yep, me again!jerome Bettis and the entire Sunday Night Football team? also for me.and if you ever need help with anger management, Alec Baldwin works for me as well. If these credentials fail to impress you, I will shamelessly add that I can give you a job.that sure got your parentsattention. Like every CEO, I have been criticized by the best of them, from the Wall Street Journal to Fortune Magazine.You think that when you have a position of power, like a CEO, that people would be nice to you.instead, you are only a bigger target.let me read you a few letters I received just this week. Here is one about NBC. Dear Mr. Immelt, I find that NBC is too liberal.i would rather watch Fox News. This is anotherdoozy. Dear Mr. Immelt, What is wrong with my stock?by the way, you are also overpaid! And here is another one. Hey you!you never pay attention to anything I say.you are thoughtless and rude. Sorry.That is actually an from my daughter, Sarah. I have learned toroll with the punchessince I graduated from college? you will too.you are graduating from college during an interesting time.we are in the midst of unprecedented change and volatility especially when you look 10 or 20 years down the road. At a time when theu.s.faces its toughest industrial competition fromchinaandindia, our national competitiveness is challenged.our trade deficit is almost $1 trillion!this must change? and fast? or we risk losing our position in the world. We are facing record high-energy costs and volatility, created in part by geopolitical uncertainty.we do not have control over our energy future.this must change? and fast? or we will always be dependent on others for our security. Our population is aging quickly.by 2020, nearly 30% of our population will be older than 65.This will put a massive burden on our healthcare system.at the same time, we still have 45 million people who lack access to healthcare.this must change? and fast? or you will not have a healthcare safety net by the time you retire. In a period of economic prosperity and wealth creation, the bottom 25% of this country are losing ground.there is a sense that theamerican Dreamis skipping an entire segment of our population.this must change? and fast? oramericarisks losing its mantle as the land of opportunity. I know these are heavy burdens.but I dont want you to leave today feeling gloomy.in fact, I want the exact opposite.in times like these, we must remember that there are always times like these. When I graduated from college, high oil prices had pushed the economy into recession.jobs were hard to find and unemployment was over 10%.There was unrest in themiddle East.Americans were being held hostage iniran.some of these things may sound familiar. But solving these problems is your great opportunity.in this country, the next generation is always the Greatest Generation.Americans always have a sense that the future will be better than the past.the key to the American soul is optimism. Today, the people in the communities you will be joining are apprehensive.they worry about the war, their pension, the environment, or their childrens education.they want to be led.but they want a different kind of leader. They crave people who have the courage to take on tough problems, the determination to build long-term solutions, and compassion to bring people with them.you must appeal to their optimism and not their fear. To do that, you must be both great and good.we need you to compete to be your best, while maintaining your authenticity and sense of service.your life journey should have three principles: First, live with passion.passion connects the mind with the heart.i had no idea where my journey would lead when I left college.but I did know I would go at full speed.my passion today is innovation.i know that technology, creativity and risk taking can change the world. For example, innovation will create energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the same time.the challenges of energy availability, global warming, water scarcity and conservation permeate every part of the world.while government policies may differ, there is a growing consensus that technology can preserve the environment and achieve productivity at the same time. I have a passion to makeamerica energy independent.at GE, we will invest billions over the next decade to bring new innovation? wind, solar, hybrid, clean coal, new nuclear, water desalination? to the market.we have $15B of revenue in these technologies today? this could be $50B in the near future. I need your help.innovation is hard work.some of the technologies are risky.people like the status quo.government policy is uncertain.but the technologies exist to create American energy security and improve the environment by the time you are my age. Energy innovation will create a different future for you.one that is cleaner, safer and more self-reliant.it will be the foundation for national

15 15 competitiveness and job creation.but you must connect your mind with your heart.make it your passion. Second, live with purpose. Purpose turns passion into reality. Your generation, more than any other, has grown up in a digital era. You can get news on a24/ 7basis.You do something stupid on spring break and theres a video of it onyoutubeby the time you get home.the problem with the virtual world is that it is virtual.in other words? its not real. My first management job was selling plastics intexas. I know, pretty exciting stuff.i was inel Pasoon a Friday visiting a customer and our product wasnt working right.the customer was irate!so I called our factory.they told me that we couldnt get a replacement product until Monday.I spent the entire weekend fixing and packaging parts with my customer.it never crossed my mind to say to them?i cant do this; I have a college degree! Now I dont necessarily suggest this for you, but I did learn that very few jobs were beneath my dignity.i am willing to make the time for any task. Today, the source of my greatest determination is in healthcare.i know that, in my lifetime, we can treat major diseases more effectively.i also know that we can do this at lower cost.but problems like this take human intervention to drive change.thats why regular people like you and me must have a purpose to make the system better. One of the challenges were taking on at GE right now is Alzheimers disease.this is a painful fate, not only for the victims, but also for their loved ones.right now, 5 million Americans suffer from Alzheimers. By 2030, the total will reach 14 million.the cost to the U.S.healthcare systems is $100B.Theres no cure.there are only limited treatments. GE has invested billions of dollars into technology that, for the first time, will be able to diagnose Alzheimers in a living person.but more importantly, this technology will help scientists and researchers track the progress of potential new cures.if we can delay the symptoms by five years, the overall incidence would be cut in half! Can you imagine how were going to feel when we solve this problem?im confident that we will.and theres more to be done beyond that. I am the same age as most dads out there.i want all the dads to know that I administer a $6 billion research budget.my next pet project is thevirtual Colonoscopy.So dads, I have your interests close to my heart, I want you to know. Distinguish yourself through your determination.commit yourself to build competency. Have a purpose to your life.you will define your own goals.work hard and live your dreams. Jeffrey R. Immelt is the ninth chairman of GE, a post he has held since September 7, Mr. Immelt has held several global leadership positions since coming to GE in 1982, including roles in GE s Plastics, Appliance, and Healthcare businesses. In 1989 he became an officer of GE and joined the GE Capital Board in A couple years later, in 2000, Mr. Immelt was appointed president and chief executive officer. Jeffrey Immelt has been named one of the World s Best CEOs three times by Barron s, and since he began serving as chief executive officer, GE has been named America s Most Admired Company in a poll conducted by Fortune magazine and one of The World s Most Respected Companies in polls by Barron s and the Financial Times. Mr. Immelt is the chair of President Obama s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness. Immelt was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Donna Rosemary (née Wallace), a school teacher, and Joseph Francis Immelt, who managed the General Electric Aircraft Engines Division. Immelt attended Finneytown High School; he played football in college and was an offensive tackle. He holds an B.A. in Applied Mathematics from Dartmouth College where he currently serves on the board of trustees and was president of his fraternity, Phi Delta Alpha. Immelt also received an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. He has been with GE since 1982 and is on the board of two non-profit organizations, one of which is the Robin Hood Foundation, a charitable organization which attempts to alleviate problems caused by poverty in New York City. He served as Chairman of The Business Council in 2005 and He and his wife Andrea have one daughter and lives in New Canaan. Lastly, bring people with you. When I graduated from college, I knew that I could compete for myself.what I have learned over the last 25 years, is that teaching teams to compete is a lot more fun. My parents were great believers in education.my father used to say that a great education was societysequalizer,it could make a poor man rich. I would add to that.you cant be rich unless you give something back.i dont mean charity, although that is important.the best gift you can give is confidence? teaching people to compete on their own. Every day, people try to convince you that Americans cant compete.in fact, some of the people running for President believe that you need protection to save you from global competition.but I believe that embracing globalization is your greatest opportunity. We have a 100-year-old factory that makes locomotives inerie,pennsylvania.like many towns in the Northeast,Eriehas seen erosion in manufacturing jobs. Not at GE.We employ 4500 people, mainly production workers.these are great, high value jobs.our wages have paid for thousands to reach their dream of having a house or attaining a college education for themselves or their children. We could make these products anywhere.instead, we invested in technology, manufacturing practices and customer service.we have the worlds best products, that are now e x p o r t e d tomexico,brazil,chinaandindia. Winning is a team sport.we brought our team with us.they didnt graduate from a great school like Notre Dame.They depend on you to teach them to compete so that they can share the American Dream! So there you have it.live with passion.live with purpose.live for others.people are afraid.they need new leaders.they need the energy and optimism from you to triumph over the cynics.they need you to be Our Greatest Generation. I hope you had a great time at Notre Dame.But there are two parts to any college? the academics and the values.on the academic front, there are a lot of smart people in the world who never live their dreams.it is as important that you live the values of Notre Dame - strengthening lives for purpose, service, and leadership.by living these values, you honor your school. I was sad at my graduation.i knew I would miss my friends.i thought I would never have fun again.but let me tell you, there are some amazing days ahead! For the last 25 years, I have had a career that has been both interesting and fun. Today, I am the 9 th Chairman in the history of GE. I run a $170 billion company with 300,000 wonderful people.ge is a valuable company and a leader in life-changing technology.i work for investors, and I have a vast responsibility to perform for them. My life and career havent been perfect.but I have a passion for what I do; I am committed to drive change; and I put people first.i am an optimist, determined to put it on the line every day.through my efforts, I am trying to give my great GE team one thing:confidence in the future. I guarantee that every time you return to Notre Dame as alumni over the coming decades you will think of your parents.a great education is an essential foundation for your future.it is a gift from your parents to you.so before you leave here today, you might want to say thanks to your parents. And thank the professors and administrators and everyone who makes up the community here at Notre Dame.There is a reason why GE hires so many of you. A college graduation is not an ending, its a beginning.your life starts again today? and you have a slight advantage because of this great place.but dont waste it.be filled with confidence; be filled with compassion; be filled with courage.believe that you can do anything.you can do anything. And, if that is how you all feel? then you will do everything!you will be our Greatest Generation.Just remember:passion, purpose, team.you will fix the problems we leave behind. You have honored me greatly today.but I also have a gift for you.this fall, when the leaves turn and the golden helmets run onto this field and you are feeling nostalgic and you dont have a prayer in getting tickets to the game?guess whose network you can turn to?thats right?mine?nbc! Class of 2007:Thank you for letting me be a part of this day.

16 16 kv-t m- v- A-ssUz-kv- s^-_n - Fw B Uv Fw ^n\m jy k ho-kkv Ct m-gsø hne: 238 cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne: 269 cq] Xmgv hne: 120 cq] apj hne: 2 cq] em`-hoxw: 180 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: cq] (2013 am v 31) ]n C: (2013 sabv 23) hn]wn aqeyw: timsn cq] {]i-kvx-amb alo{µ {Kq n s alo{µ B Uv alo{µ ^n\m jy k ho-kkv c p ZiIw apºmwv {KmaoW taj-e-bn _m nwkv CXc tkh\w \evin-s m p {]h Ø\w XpS-ßn-b-Xv. {Koao-W, A [ \K-c-ßfnse km[m-c-w- msc kz w Imen \nev p-hm {]m]vx-cm- p-i-sb F Xns\m w _nkn-\kpw e y-an- mwv XpS- w. Ah m-h-iy-amb hy n- KX [\-Imcy tkh\w e`y-am- p-i-bmw vi-º\n snbvx-xv. henb ]eni hmßp t_vfuv Iº-\n-I-fn pw Ahsc c n pi-bm-bn-cp p e yw. C v Iº\n 25 e w D]-tbm- m- -fpff [\-Imcy tkh\ Iº-\n-bmbn amdnbn-cn- p- p. cmpy-søm- msi 657 imj- Ifpw tpmen- m-cp-ap-ff {]apj _m nwkv CXc Z\-Im-cy-ÿm-]-\-ambn Db n-cn- p- p. hml\ hmbv], `h-\- hm-bv, _nkn-\kv hmbv] C jp-d kv tkh\w F nh \evin hcp- p. CXn- \mbn Iº-\n-bpsS Iogn aq p k_vkn- Un-b-dn-Ifpw {]h Øn- p- p.-a-lo{µ C jp-d kv t{_mt gvkv enan- -Uv, alo{µ dqd luknwkv ^n\m kv, enan- -Uv, alo{µ _nkn-\km B Uv I kƒ v k ho-kkv enan- Uv XpSßn-b-h-bm-W-h. s]mxp-p-\-ß-fn \n pw Unt m-kn v kzoi-cn- p Iº-\n v td nwkv GP kn-bmb {Inkn-ens F^v {Sn nƒ F td nwkv D v am n-e-h-km-\n \memw Izm -dn Iº\n ani {]I-S-\-amWv ImgvN h -Xv. Iº-\n-bpsS apgp-h j A m-zm-b-øns aq n-sem ne-[niw \memw Izm -dn \n- mwv e`n- -Xv. \memw Izm -dn Iº\n 1110 timsn cq] hcp-am-\hpw timsn cq] A m-zmbhpw 5.93 cq] C ]n Fkpw t\sn-bn- p- v kmº-øni h j-øn Iº- \n-bpss samøw hcp-am\w timsn cq]bpw ( timsn cq]v) timsn cq] {]h Ø-\-em-`hpw ( timsn cq] ) timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw ( timsn cq] ) t\sn-bn- p- v timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[-\-øn C ]n Fkv cq]-bm-wv. ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hn C ]n Fkv cq]-bm-bncp- p. c p cq]-bmwv apj-hn-e. Iº\n 180 ix-am\w em`-hoxhpw {]Jym-]n- n- p v. Iº-\n-bpsS hcp-am-\w 34 ix-am- \hpw A m-zmbw 42 ix-am-\hpw hf t\sn. hbv]-bn 39 ix-am\w h [-\- bmwv t\sn-b-xv. s\ v kvs{]uv 4 ix-am- \-am-wv. {]h Ø-\-^ew h -Xn-s\-Øp- S v Hlcn hne-bnse sdkn-ã kv adnis v 52 BgvN-bnse ]pxnb Db-c- Øn Hmlcn hne-iƒ FØn-b-tijw t\cns Xncp-Ø-en-emWv. Iº-\n-bpsS Hml-cn-Iƒ IqSp-X ka-bhpw td n \oßp-i-bm-bn-cp- p. Iº-\n-bpsS am Pn sa -s - n- p- v. \memw Izm -dn {]h Ø-\-em-`am Pn ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnse ix-am-\-øn \n v ix-am-\- Øn-tebv v Db n- p- v. AtX-t]mse apgp-h j-øn CXv ix-am-\- Øn \n v ix-am-\-am-bn- p- v. s\ v t{]m^n v am Pn ix-am-\- Øn \n v ix-am-\-ambpw Db p. dnt Hm^v Ak v 4 ix-am-\-øn ÿncx t\sn-bn- p- v. F m s\ v F ]n F 0.7 ix-am-\-øn \n v t\cnb txmxn Db v 1 ix-am-\-am-bn. \S- p-h jw ani a kq {]h- Nn- -cn- p kmlvn-cy-øn hcpw Izm -dp-i-fn sa -s {]I-S\w Iº\n ImgvN hbv p-sa- mwv Icp-Xp- -Xv. {KmaoW taj-e-bn {SmIvS hnev]-\-bn hmbv] \evin hcp- p.sa -s a kq Hmt m hyh-km-b-øn\pw XpW-bm-Ipw. Hmt m hmbv]-bn Iº-\nbpsS km[yx h [n- n- p-i-bmwv CXv. Hmt m hmbv] taj-e-bn ASpØ A ph j- mevøv ix-am\w hf -bmwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Iº-\n-bpsS hmbv]-bn 31 ix-am-\-tømfw Hmt m bq n-en n hml- \-߃ m-wv. 13 ix-am\w hoxw {SmIvS Iº-\n-Iƒ pw. hmwn-py-hm-l-\-߃ p-am- Wv. 24 ix-am\w Imdp-Iƒ p-am-wv. Iº\n ASp-Ø-bnsS Stbm In tem-kvi-dp-ambn sss A]v D m- n-bn- p- v. ]pxnb _m nwkv ssek kv FSp- p- -Xn-s\- p-dn v Iº\n Kuc-h-]q hw Btem-Nn- p-i-bm-wv. dnk hv _m v ASp-Ø-bnsS ]pd-øn-d- nb ]pxnb _m nwkv am K-\n t±-i-߃ Iº\n ]Tn- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. Iº-\n-bpsS Hmlcn ] m-fn- Ø-Øn 38 ix-am-\-tømfw hntz-i-\n-t - ]-I-ÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS ssih-i-am-wv. C y _pƒkv dnb Ftà v Ct m-gsø hne: cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db hne:87 cq] Xmgv hne: 42 cq] apj hne: 2 cq] em`-hoxw: 180 ix-am\w C ]n Fkv: 3.74 cq] (2013 am v 31) ]n C: (2013 sabv 23) hn]wn aqeyw: 3456 timsn cq] Hm^o-kv hmwnpy kap- -b-߃, {]oanbw `h\ kap- -b-߃, sakm Su jn- p-iƒ, dos -bn kvt]k-kv, tlm, dntkm vkv XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS \n am-w-øn Dƒs - n-cn- p C y- _pƒkv dnb Ftà v C y-bnse G hpw henb dnb Ftà v Iº-\n-Ifn-sem- m-wv. Iº\n Ct mƒ 31 ] -Xn- Iƒ cmpy-øns hnhn[ `mk-ß-fn \S- n-em n hcn-i-bm-wv. GXm v Zie w NXp-c-{i-bSn hcp-an-xv. CXns aqeyw GXm v 260 timsn tumf-dm-wv. ASpØ c p h j-øn-\p-f-fn CXp ]q Øm-bm-Ipw. IqSmsX 2588 G -dn {]txyi kmº-øn-i-ta-j-ebpw hni-kn- n- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. Iºn\nbpsS ssihiw G ÿehp-ap- v. si n-s-øns cq]-i-ev]-\, em UvkvtI-]nw-Kv, F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv XpSßn-b-h-bn kztz-iøpw hntz-i-øp-ap- ff hnz-kv[-cp-ambn sss A]v D m- nbn- p- v. Iº-\n-bpsS 90 ix-am\w \n amw{]h Ø-\-ßfpw apwss_, U ln, snss F n-hn-s-ß-fn-em-wv. GXm v 4000 timsn cq]-bpss ÿew Kh-s v HmIvj hgn Iº\n kz am- n-bn- p- v. {]h Ø\w XpSßn \meph j- m-eøv 175 timsn tumf aqeyap-ff 33 e w NXp-c-{ibSn D]-tbm- m- ƒ v ssiam-dn-bn- p- v. Iº-\nbpsS Hml-cn-Iƒ apwss_, evivkw_ Kv, knwk- q FIvkvtN- p- I-fn enãv snbvxn- p- v. Iº-\n-bpsS \memw Izm -dnse {]I-S\w A{X sa -am-bn-cp- n-. A m-zmbw 7.3 ix-am\w CSn-thmsS timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. Db \nip-xn-bmwv apjy Imc- Ww. \nipxn _m[yx 76 e -Ø \n v 22 timsn cq]-bn-tebv v Db p. Cu Ime-b-fhn s\ v hcp-am\w 7 ix-am\w Ipd-thmsS 412 timsn cq]-bn-se-øn. F m {]h Ø-\- em`w 31 ix-am\w h [- \-tbmss 137 timsn cq]-bmbn Db n- p- v. AtX-kabw Iº-\n-bpsS C sh dn ap h jsø 930 timsn cq]- bn \n v 723 timsn cq]-bmbn Xmgv p. s\ v skbn kv 32 timsn cq]-bn \n v 77 timsn cq]-bmbn Db p am n-e-h-km-\n v h j-øn Iº\n timsn cq] s\ v hn p-hchpw timsn cq] A m-zm-bhpw t\sn-bn- p- v timsn cq] Hmlcn aqe-[-\-øn C ]n Fkv 3.74 cq]-bm- Wv. Iº-\n-bpsS [\-Imcy Btcm-Ky-sØ {]Xn-^-en- n- p su v CIzn n tdtjym 0.17 ix-am-\-øn \n v t\cnb txmxn Db v 0.18 ix-am-\-am-bn e 500 timsn cq] hn phv e y-an- Sp- p timsn cq] hcp-am- \hpw 8.8 cq] C ]n Fkpw {]Xo- n- p- p Ch bym-{iaw timsn cq]bpw 14.8 cq]bpw {]Xo- n- p- p. {]Xo- nx C ]n Fkn ]n C F pw 4.8- #p#w BWv. ]en-i-\n-c v Xmgp kml-n-cy- Ønepw kº-zvl-s\ sa -s -Sp Ahk-c-Ønepw dos -bn taj-e-bn 51 ixam\w t\-cn- p-ff hntz-i-\n-t ]w A\ph-Zn kml-n-cy-ønepw dnb Ftà v Bh-iy-߃ hcpw h j-ß-fn h [n- p-sa p IW- m- p- p. Ign GXm\pw h j-ß-fmbn Xf -bn-em-bncp taje Xncn- p-h-c-hns e -W߃ ImWn p XpS-ßn-bn- p- v. G{]n a[y-øn 50 cq]-bn-em-bncp Hml-cn-hne Ct mƒ 81 cq]-bntebv v Db n- p- v. t\csø 87 cq] hsc FØn-b-Xn-\p-ti-j-amWv 51 cq]-bntebv v Xmgv -Xv. Zo L-Im-e-Øn Hmlcn hne 120 cq]-bn-tebv v Db-cp-sa- mwv hne-bn-cp-ø-s -Sp- -Xv. Iº-\nbpsS ]pkvx-i-aqeyw cq]-bm-wv. hne ]pkvx-i-aqeyw A\p-]mXw 0.57 BWv. `mhn hf -bn-tebv v CXp hnc Nq p- p. {]txy-in pw Cu taje ]Xnsb Xncn- p-h-cp kml-cy- Ø.

17 17 ^ v A-ssUz-kv- s^-_n - F v Un F^v kn {]qu kv ^ v F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Xmgv F F hn cq] A BkvXn timsn cq] ( ) _ v am v kqnn-i {Inkn _ vam v Hml-cn-hn-]-Wn-bpsS IpXn- p-im-eøv ani dnt \evip-ibpw XI -Im-eØv Hcp ]cn[n hsc ]nsn p \nev pbpw icm-icn dnt \evip-hm {ian- p hbmwv ssl{_nuv CIzn n ^ p-ifv AYhm CIzn n Hdn-b Uv _me kvuv ^ p-iƒ. CØ-c-Øn ani v {]I-S\w ÿnc-ambn ImgvN-h p t]mcp ^ p-i-fn-sem v F v Un F^v kn ayqnz ^ v ]pd-øn-d- n-bn- p-ff F v Un F^v kn {]qu kv ^ v P\p-h-cn-bn Bcw-`n ] Xn ASpØ h jw {]h Ø-\-Øns c p ZiIw ]q Øn-bm- p-i-bm-wv. ]søm-ºxp h jw P\p-h-cn-bn ]q Øo-bm- n-bt mƒ h jw \nt -]-I\v \evinb dnt hm jn-im-sn-ÿm-\-øn ix-am- \-am-wv. CXv Btcbpw tamln- n p dnt BsW- -Xn kwi-b-an hsc Hcn- t]mepw _ v am ns ]pd-in t]mbn- n- mø ^ n\v 2007, 2008 h j-ß-fn Xnf-ßm-\m-bn-s - nepw A p-h j- m-eøv h j- m-eøv ix-am\w dnt \evin-bn- p- v. CIzn n am - nse CSnhpw a pw IW- nse-sp- p-tºmƒ CXv A{X tami-amb dn A. G hpw Db ]en-i-\n-c- n-t\- mƒ sa -s dnt BWn-Xv. Hcp h j- m-eøv ix-am-\w- dn-t t\sn-b-t mƒ Im -Kdn icmicn ix-am-\hpw _ vam v kqnni ix-am-\-hp-am-wv. aq p-h j- m-eøv 8.60 ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icmcn 7.40 ix-am-\w; _ vam v hcp-am\w 7.60 ix-am- \-hp-amwv). A p-h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icmcn 6.70 ix-am- \w; _ vam v hcp-am\w 4.58 ix-am-\w) ]Øp-h j- m-eøv 24.6 ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icmcn 19 ix-am-\w; _ vam v hcp-am\w ix-am\w) dnt \evinbn- p- v. F m Fkv sf ]n ASn-ÿm-\-Øn sndnb Ime-b-f-hn \evinb dnt A{X B-I j-i-a-. Zo L-Ime Fkv sf ]n dnt Wpw ^ v dnt -Wn-t\- mƒ Ipd-hm-Wv. F mev Im -Kdn icm-i-cn, _ vam v XpS-ßn-b-h-tb- mƒ sa -am-wv. ^ ns BkvXn hn\ymkw A\pk-cn v CIzn- n-bn amivknaw 75 ix-am\w hsc \nt ]w \S-Øpw. tijn 25 ix-am\w su v, Imjv, awn-am v D]-I-c-W-߃ XpS-ßn-b-h-bn \nt -]n- pw. CIzn- n-bnse \nt ]w ix-am-\-øn\n-s-bnepw su v D]-I-c-W-߃, ]W-hn-]Wn Dƒs -ss-bp-f-f- a v BkvXn-I-fn ix-am-\øn\n-s-bn-epambn \np-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. F nepw Hml-cnbn 75 ix-am-\-øn-\-spøv \nt ]w \ne-\n Øp- -XmWv km[m-c-w-bmbn ImWp- -Xv. Ct mƒ Hml-cn-bn ix-am\hpw su v D]-I-c-W-ß-fn ixam\hpw \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p ]IpXn apx CIzn- n-bn ]c-am-h[n \nt ]w \S-Øn-b-cn- p-i-bm-bn-cp p ^ v amt\-p {]im v Pbn hn]-wn-bn-ep- mb Xncn- -Sn-bn t]mepw CXn\v am w h-cp-øn-bn epw epw Cu \bw ani t\ -ap- m- p-hm klm-bn- p. ^ v Bcw-`n- -Xp-ap-X spbn CXns ^ v amt\-p-cm-wv. c p h jw apºp-hsc AºXp ix-am-\-øn-e-[niw anuv Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn-e-bn-cp- p-sh- n Ct mƒ Ah-bpsS ] v ix-am-\-ambn Ipd p. ]Icw em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-IfpsS ] v ix-am-\-am n. kvtamƒim]v Hml-cn-I-fnse \nt ]w 8.83 ix-am- \Øn \n v ix-am-\-ambn Db Øn. Ign _pƒ apt - -Øn anuvim]v Hml-cn-I-fnse apt w h t\- -amwv ^ n\v t\sn-s m-sp-ø-xv. A -co w amdn-b-t mƒ ^ v em Pv Im]v Hml-cn- Iƒ v ap Xq w \evin-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Db KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap-ff _nkn-\-kp-ifn \nt -]n- p- -Xn-s\m w \nt -]-ti-j-csø sshhn-[y-h-xv -cn p \n Øp-Ibpw snøp-v p. [\-Im-cy-tk-h\w (24.45 ix-am-\w),- F\ Pn (7.36 ix-am-\w), sl Øv sib (5.69 ix-am-\w), ssivt\m-fpn (5.04 ix-am-\w), Hmt m (4.64 ix-am-\w), k ho-kkv (4.48 ix-am-\w), F^v Fw kn Pn ( 4.21 ix-am-\w), ssivk-ss kv ( 3.94 ix-am-\w), sa kv( 3.54 ix-am-\w), -F Pn-\o-b-dnwKv (3.08 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv ap-jy-\nt -]-ta-j-e-iƒ. a v ^ p-iƒ dnb FtÃ- n h Xmev]cyw ImWn- -t mƒ ^ v AXns\ Xosc Dt]- n- p-i-bm-bn-cp p. hfsc sshhn-[y-h-xv -cn- - ^ ns \nt ]ti-j-cøn 89 Hml-cn-Ifpw 17 t_m p-i-fp-am-wp-f-f-xv. AXn-\m Xs Hcp Hml-cn-bnse \nt ]w km[m-cw KXn-bn 5 ix-am- -Øn\p Xmsg-bm-Wv. sf kn sf kn sf _m v ( 6.08 ix-am-\w), Fkv _n sf (5.73 ix-am-\w), C t^m-knkv (4.02 ix-am-\w), Sm tamt mgvkv Un hn B ( 2.91 ix-am-\w), t]pv C U-kv{Sokv (2.39 ix-am-\w), _m v Hm^v _tdm-u ( 2.37 ix-am-\w), C]vIm em_v (2.77 ix-am-\w), Hmbn C y ( 1.96 ix-am-\w)f nh-bmwv Hml-cn-ti-J-c-Ønse apjy\nt ]߃. ^ ns t_m ptij-c-øn 17 t_m p-i-fm-wp-f-f-xv. kpc- n-x-xz-ap-ff U_nƒ- -{S- nƒ F td nw-kp-ff t_m p-i-fn-em-wv ^ ns \nt -]w. Kh-s v skiyq-cn- n-iƒ, sf B F^v kn t_m v, F sf kn luknwkv t_m p-iƒ XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv t_m v tij-c-øn ap n \nev p- -Xv % Kh-s v skiyq-cn- n-ifn 4.40 ix-am\w \nt ]w \S-Øn-bn-cn- p- p. ^ ns\ Iptd- qsn A{K-kohv B p- -Xn-\mbn kvtamƒ Im n-ep-ff \nt ]w Db Øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv.c-txmss anuvim-]v, kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-I-fnse \nt ]w CIzn n \nt -]-Øns ]Ip-Xn-bn-te-sd-bm-bn. C y kº-zvl-s\ hf -bpss kqnn-\-iƒ ImWn p XpS-ßnb kml-n-cy-øn ASpØ c p h j- m-eøv ani {]I-S-\-Øn-tebv v ^ v \otß- -Xm-Wv. Npcp- -Øn Ipd dnkv- n sa s dnt B{K-ln- p- -h v tbmpn- -XmWv F v Un F^v kn {]qu kv. _n Fkv F 95 t{kmøv F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Db F F hn cq] 52 BgvN-bnse Xmgv F F hn cq] A BkvXn timsn cq] ( ) _ v am v kqnn-i {Inkn _ vam v k sse^v ayqnz ^ ns _n Fkv F 95 t{kmøv ^ v. AtX-t]mse Xs su nepw Imjv, Imjv D]-I-c-W-ß-fn F n-h-bnepw ]c-am-h[n 40 ix-am- \w \nt -]n- p-hm-\p-ff kzmx{ yw A\p-h-Zn- - p-ff ^ m-wn-xv. ]Xn-s\ v h jw ]q Ø-bm n ^ v tami-a- mø hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v. ayqnz ^ v ] -Xn-I-fnse G hpw ]g w sn ] -Xn-I-fn-sem- mb CXv ] Xn XpS-ßn-b- Xn ]n osv ix-am\w hm jni dnt \evin-bn- p- v.- su nepw CIzn- n-bn-ep-ambn `qcn-] w kabw \nt -]-sam-xp- p-i-bmwv ]Xnhv. F nepw h -t mgpw Imjv D]-I-c-W-ß-fnepw \nt ]w \S-Øm-dp- v. CIzn n \nt -]-Øn aƒ n Im]v kao-]-\-amwv ^ v kzoi-cn- n- p-f-f-xv. CIzn n \nt -]- Øn ]Ip-Xn-b-e-[n-Ihpw em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-I-fm-Wv. Zo L-Ime hf mkm-[y-xbp-ff Hml-cn-Iƒ sxc-s -SpØv aqe-[\ hf e y-am n \nt ]w \S-Øp- Ibpw ÿnc hcp-am-\-øn-\mbn ani v _me kv jo p-ff Iº-\n-I-fpsS Db td nwkpw Dff Izfn- n- IS- -{X-ßfpw t_m p-ifpw \nt -]-Øn-\mbn sxc-s -Sp- p-i-bmwv ]Xnhv. Ct mƒ BkvXn-bpsS ix-am\w Hml-cn-bnepw ix-am\w su nepw ix-am\w Imjv Imjv D]-I-c-W-ß-fnepw \nt -]n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. CIzn- nbn Xs ix-am-\hpw em Pv Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn-em-Wv. anuv Im]v Hml-cn-Ifn ix-am-\hpw kvtamƒ Im]v Hml-cn-I-fn 6.24 ix-am-\hpw \nt -]n- n-cn- p- p.hfsc kpohambn \nt -]-ti-jcw Agn p ]Wn-bp- -h-cmwv ^ v amt\- P am. hn]wn sa -s -Sp-sa p ImWp-tºmƒ Hml-cn v ap Xq w \evip- p. hn]-wn-bn Xncp-Ø-en-tebv v \oßp-tºmƒ su n-tebv v amdp- p. CØ-c-Øn amdn amdn \nt ]w am p- Xv sa -s dnt -Wn\v Imc-W-am-bn- p- v. ]Xn-s\ p h jsø Ncn-{X-Øn-\n-S-bn 14 {]mh-iyhpw Im -Kdn icm-i-cn-tb- mƒ sa -s {]I-S-\-amWv ^ v ImgvN h -Xv. Db-cp hn]-wnbpw XI - bnepw Cu t\ w t\sn-bn- p.v Hcp h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icmicn ix-am\w; _ vam v dnt ix-am\w; Fkv sf ]n dnt ix-am-\w) aq p-h j- m-eøv 8.65 ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn 7.40 ix-am\w; _ vam v dnt 7.60 ix-am\w; Fkv sf ]n dnt 7.74 ix-am-\w) A p - h j- m-eøv ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn 6.70 ix-am\w; _ vam v dnt 4.58 ix-am\w; ) ]Øp h j- m-eøv 8.65 ix-am-\hpw (Im -Kdn icm-icn 19 ix-am\w; _ vam v dnt ix-am\w; Fkv sf ]n dnt ix-am- \w) dnt t\sn-bn- p- v. hfsc sshhn-[y-am Hml-cn-ti-J-c-amWv ^ n-t -Xv. ^ ns Hml-cn-ti- J-c-Øn 59 Hml-cn-Ifpw 12 t_m p-i-fp-am-wp-f-f-xv. F v kn F ssiv ( 3.06 ixam-\w), sbkv _m v ( 2.98 ix-am-\w), sf kn sf kn sf _m v ( 2.98 ix-am-\w), F Sn ]n kn ( 2.94 ix-am-\w), sf Sn kn ( 2.51 ix-am-\w), F v Un F^v kn _m v ( 2.32 ix-am-\w), C t^m-knkv ( 2.24 ix-am-\w), F v Un F^v kn ix-am-\w) dne-b kv C U-kv{Sokv ( 2.62 ix-am-\w) XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv Hmlcn tij-c-øn ap \n-c-bn-ep-f-f-xv. Hcp Hml-cn-bn 5 ix-am-\-øn IqSp-X \nt ]w \S-Øm-dn-. G hpw IqSpX ap Xq w simsp-øn- p-ffxv [\-Im-cy-tk-h\Øn\m-Wv. \nt - ]-Øn ix-am\w Cu taj-e-bn-em-wv. F\ Pn ( 8.86 ix-am-\w), ssivt\m-fpn ix-am-\w), sl ØvsI-b ( 5.84 ix-am-\w), k ho-kkv ix-am-\w), Hmt m ( 4.56 ix-am-\w),) XpS-ßnb taj-e-i-fn-emwv \nt ]w. 9.38% sf Un _n sf t_m v ( 5.51 ix-am-\w), 9.75 % F sf kn luknwkv t_m v ( 4.33 ix-am-\w), XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv \nt ]w \S-Øn-bn- p-ff apjy-t_m- p-iƒ. XpS -bmbn Im -Kdn icm-i-cn-tb- mƒ sa -s dnt \evin-h-cp ^ m- Wn-Xv. ^ ns Zo L-Im-esØ \ne-\n-ev]p-xs CXp sxfn-bn- p- p. ^ ns FIvkvs] kv tdtjym 2.24 ix-am-\-am-wv. CXv F v Un F^v kn {]qu kp-ambn (1.82 ix-am-\w) Xmc-X-ay-s -Sp-Øp-tºmƒ hfsc Db Xe-Ønem-Wv. as m v ^ v amt\-p am-cpss IqsS- q-ss-bp-ff am w Bi- -bp-f-hm- p- - Xm-Wv. Ipd v dnkvin sa -s dnt \evip ssl{_ouv ] -Xn-bm-Wn-Xv.

18 18 kz Æ hne Ftßm v? kz Æ hne Ftßm v? Cu tnmzyw tnmzn- p- -h Bscms? temi-ønse sk {S _m am. ImcWw Ah-cpsS kº-øns 15 apx 20 ix-am\w hsc kz Æ-Øn-em-Wv. Atacn- -bpss s^u-d dnk hv am{xw 9000 S kz Æ- - n-iƒ "t^m v t\mivkv' F tkmuu tim -bn kq n- n-cn- p- p. CXns ]Øn-sem- p-t]mepw \ΩpsS ]mhw Zphvdn kp_-dm-hp-hns (C- y dnk hv _m v Kh W ) ti{µ _m n C. B.-_n.-sF-bpsS kz Æti-Jcw shdpw 560 S am{xw. AXns \mev]xv Cc n GXm v S kz Æw \ΩpsS a -am-cpss ssibnepw Igp-Ønepw Imenepw ]ns tzløv Fhn-sS-sb mw Xq n-bpw, si nbpw Xd pw sh mtam Ahn-sS-sbm-s bpw s] n-bn-epw tem -dn-epw XpWn-k- nbnepw Nmc-Ønepw clky Ad-I-fn-epambn sh n-cn- p- p. C m-cy-øn C y kv{xoisf IS-Øn-sh- n-øn-cn- p-i-bmwv No\- m-cn- Iƒ. ]Xn-aq pw ]mxn-b-s angn-i-fpap ssn\okv kpµ-cn-iƒ Iptd- m-eambn Ah-cpsS kºøpw kzmx-{ yhpw IqSp-hm XpS-ßn-b-t mƒ, kz Æm-`-c-Wß-fn-te v Xncn- p. C v temiøv G - hp-a-[niw kz Æw Cd- p-axn snøp- Xv ssn\-bm-wv. GXm v 1200 S. C ybp-tsxv 900 apx 1000 S hsc. Cu h jw P\p-h-cn am v Imew hne- Ip-d- -t mƒ Cu c p cmpy-ß-fn-tebpw Unam v 25 apx 30 ix-am\w hsc Db p. C y-bn am{x-a ssn\-bnepw kv{xoiƒ kz Æ- -S-I-fn-te v Iq w-iq- ambn HmSn-sb-Øn. AXn-t mgpw XpS psim n-cn- p- p. AXp-sIm v temi-ønse kz Æ-Øns 50 ix-am- \hpw ssiønep C y-bn-sebpw ssn\-bn-sebpw kv{xoiƒ tnmzn- p p; kz Æ-hne C\nbpw Ipd-bptam tn n? CXn-\p DØcw hfsc efn-xamb [\-im-kv{x-_m-e-]m-t-ß-fn-ep- v. Hcp km[m-cw Dev]- -Øns hne e`y-xsbbpw (k-ssπ) Bh-iy-sØbpw (Unam v) ASn-ÿm-\-a- n-bm-wv. temisø Ct m-gsø kz Æ-Øns Dev]m-Z\w 2700 SÆn-\-Sp-Øm-Wv hsc kuøv B{^n- -bm-bn-cp p G hpw henb Dev]m-ZI cmpyw ssn\ Dev]m-Z- \-Øns Imcy-Øn H m-a-xm-bn. djy, bpf-kv-f, Hmkvt{S-enb, s]dp F nhbpw KWy-amb txmxn kz Æw DXv v]m- Zn- n- p- p. BtKmf DXv]m-Z\Øns \men-sem v sndnb J\-I-fn-eq-sSbpw, sndp-ins DXv]m-Z-I-cn \n p-am-wv. Hcu kv kz Æw Dev]m-Zn- n- m Ct mƒ GI-tZiw 1200 tumf Bh-iyam-Wv. Ct mƒ kz Æ-hn-ebpw Cu \nehm-c-øn-em-wv. temisø Adn-b-s -Sp- Xpw e`m-i-c-hp-amb kz Æ J\n-Isf mw Xs Is -Øn- -gn- p. Chbn-se mw IqSn Ct m-gp tijcw 5 e w S kz Æ-am-Wv. CXn Imcyamb h \ D m-im t]mip- n-. At mƒ hne-bpss BZy-L-S-I-amb e`y- X-bn henb G - p-d- n kao] `mhnbn AXm-bXv A v- -]Øv h j-øn- \Iw D m-im t]mip- n-. hne-bnse ASpØ \n Æm-bI i n Bhiyw AYhm Unam v BWv. Hcp km[m-cw Dev]- -Øns Unam v D]-t`m- m-hns hcp-am\w AYhm C Iw IqSp-tºmƒ A[n-I-am-Ipw. D]-t`m- mhv IqSp-X A`n-Imayw F p Icp- Xp Dev]- -߃ {]txy-in- pw. Iºyq- dpw Imdpw Fb I- -jo-\-dpw, a v kpjku-icy Dev]- -߃ pw Unam v IqSp- [-\-im-kv-{xw- A-dn-bp-I- 49 tum.- ]n.-si.- G-{_-lmw Xv D]-t`m- m-hns hcp-am\w h n- p-tºm-gm-wv. \ΩpsS \m nse kv{xoisf kw_- n- n-s-tømfw kz Æw Cu Dev]- -ßfpsS ] n-i-bn H m-a-xm-wv. Aev]w hni- mepw HcpXcn kz Æw s]æns Cu s]m m-i v kmº-øn-i-hpw kmaqly-hpw kmwkvim-cn-i-hpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hpw ]mc-º-cym-[n-jvs-hp-amb ASn-ÿm\ Imc- W-ß-fp- v. AXv Ipd-bv mt\m C m-xm- mt\m Hcp kmº-øni hnz-kv -s bpw [\-a-{ n-bp-ssbpw {]kvxm-h-\-iƒt m \nb-a-\n Ωm-W-Ønt\m Ign-bn-. Npcp- -Øn s]m n\v kaw s]m p am{xw. AXmWv kz Æ- -S-I-fnse s] Iq- - Øns cl-kyw. C y-bnepw ssn\-bn-epw, a v Gjy cmpy-ß-fnepw kaq-l-øn F m hn`m-k-ønepw hcp-am\w Db psim- n-cn- p- p. Cu h n- p-h-cp {Ib-ti-jn-bn \s mcp ix-am\w kz Æ-Øn-te v Xncn-bpw. At mƒ Unam v h n- p-sim- n-cn- pw. e`yx ÿnc-ambncn p-ibpw Bhiyw h n- p- Ibpw snøp kml-n-cy-øn hne apifn-te- v. Cu [\-imkv{x _me-]mtw kz Æ-Øns ImcyØn sx m hgn-bn-. kz Æ-Øns hne ASp-Ø-Im-eØv Ipd-bp-I-bp- m-bn. Dul- - -h-s- m mcpw, sluvpv^- p-im-cpw, Dev]- ß-fn \nt -]n- p- -h-cpw, kz Æw AXns G hpw Db hne-bn-se-ønsb IW- p-iq- -en CXn \n v amdnb-xn-\m-em-wv. tumf i n t\sn-b-t mƒ Iptd \nt -]-I Atßm p Xncn- p. Cu hne-bn-snhv apx-em- p- Xv sk {S _m p- Im-cpw, \ΩpsS kv{xoi-fp-am-wv. Ah IqSp- X kz Æw hmßpw, AXm-bXv Unam v Iq pw. AX-\p-k-cn v e`yx AYhm ksπ Db-cp-I-bn-. AXm-bXv kz Æ-hne Xmtg- ; Zo L-Ime ASn-ÿm-\-Øn api-fnte- v. kz Ww Cd- p-axn 5.7% Ipd p BZy aq p-am-k- m-eøv C y Cd- p-axn snbvxxv 215 S kz Ww. CXv ap h j-antx Ime-b-f-hnse 228 SÆnt\- mƒ 5.7 ix-am\w Ipd-hm-Wv. F m Unam v SÆm-bn-cp p Cu Ime-b-fhn. AtX kabw Cd- p-axn snbvxp kz W-Øns aqeyw ap h j-antx Ime-bf-hnse timsn cq]-bn \n v timsn cq]-bmbn Db psh v thƒuv tkmƒuv Iu kn-ens dnt m n ]d-bp- p. B`c-W-߃ p-ff Unam v 15 ix-am\w h [-\-tbmss SÆm-bn. \nt ] Unam v 52 ix-am\w h [-\-tbmss 97 SÆnse-Øn. hne Ipd kml-n-cy-øn \S p Izm -dnepw ani Unam- Uv{]Xo- n- p p. ani dm_n hnfhv kz W Unam v Db Ønb-Xmbn Iu kn ]d-bp- p. Ct mƒ C y-bn S kz Ww B`-c-W-ambpw \nt -]-ambpw a p-ap- v. dnk hv _m ns ssih-i-ap-f-fxv 556 SÆm-Wv. BtKmf Xe-Øn 4000 SÆmWv Hcp h jsø Unam- v. F m DXv]m-Z\w 3000 S am{x-am-wv. Cu hyxymkw dossk- nƒuv kz Ww hgnbmwv \ni-øp- -Xv. a kq `mkyamiptam? P-11 hf bv v bym-k-abw e`n- p a kq AXn-{]-[m-\-am-Wv. Pn Un ]nbn 15 ix-am-\ta Im jn-i-ta-j-ebpss kw`m-h-\-bp-f-fp-sh- nepw. cmpysø Irjn-`q-an-bn 70 ix-am-\- tømfw a kq-wns\ B{i-bn- mwv Irjn snøp- -Xv. CXp-IqSn IW- n-se- Sp- p-tºmƒ a kqwn ]nghv cmpy- Øn\v kln- p-hm km[n- p-i-bn-. hnnm-cn- p- -Xn IqSp {]Xym-LmXw AXv kº-zvl-s-\-bnepw cmpysø P\- ß-fpsS Pohn-X-Øn-ep-ap- - pw. a kq- Wns Hfn- p-i-fn-b-\p-k-cn v C y Im jn-tim-xv]- -ß-fpsS s\ v Ib- p-a- Xn- mtcm Cd- p-a-xn- mtcm BIp ImgvN-bmWv ImWp- -Xv. XpS -bmb \mem-asø h jhpw a kq km[m-c-w-t]mse e`n- m C y temi-ønse G hpw henb ` y-[m\y DXv]m-Z-I-cmbn amdp-sa v hne-bn-cp-ø-s -Sp- p. G hpw IqSp-X ag apwss_-bn cmpyøv H Znhkw G hpw IqSp-X ag tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bXv C y-bpss _nkn-\kv Xe-ÿm-\-amb apwss_-bn-emwv Pqsse 26- -\v. A v apwss_- bn e`n- Xv 94.4 sk o-ao- ( 37.1 C v) ag-bmwv tcj-s -Sp-Øn-b-Xv. A v apwss_-\-kcw H -s - p. Iayq-Wn-t -j sse\p-iƒ ]q W-ambpw XI p. Fb t]m v AS- n- p. Bbn-c- -W- n-\m-fp-iƒ A v Hm^o-kp-I-fn-emWv cm{xn Ign- p-iq- n-b-xv. temi-øn H Znhkw e`n G hpw IqSnb agbpw CXm-Wv. CXn\p apºv C y-bn tcj-s -Sp-Ønb G hpw IqS-X H Znh-ksØ ag talm-e-b-bnse Nndm-]p- n-bn-em-wv Pqsse 12- -\v. A v tcj-s -Sp- Ønb ag sk o-ao- -dmwv ( 33 C v). ISpØ hcƒ Pn Un ]n hf bn 2 5 ix-am\w hsc CSn-hp- m- psa- mwv Zo L-Ime IW- p-isf hnivtf-jww snbvx hnz-kv[-cpss A`n- {]m-bw. DØ {]tz-iv, _olm, OØo-kvK- Uv, ] na _wkm XpS-ßnb taj-e-ifnse hb-ep-i-fn 42 ix-am-\ønepw a kq-wns\ B{i-bn- mwv Irjn-bn-d- p- -Xv. ag ]ng- m ChnsS Irjn-bp- m-hn-. Acn-bp-Xv]m-Z-\-Øns \s mcp ] v Cu taj-e-i-fn \n- m- Wv. am{x-hp-a Pq sk]v w-_ a kq \ m-ip Xp aqew aænse Cu w sa -s -Sp- Xv sa -s dm_n hnf-bv pw Imc-W-am-Ip- p. Im jn-i-ta-j-e-bnse hf cmpy-øns s]mxp-hmb kmº-øni hf Xzcn-X-s -Sp-Øp-sa p am{x-a ` y ]W-s -cp w Ipd-bv p-hm\pw klm-bn- pw. CXv arzp-hmb ]W-\bw kzoi-cn- p-hm dnk hv _m ns\ {]m]vxam- p- p. ani a kq Im jn-tim-xv]m- Z\w h [n- n- p-ibpw {Kmao-W-ta-J-e-bpsS hcp-am\w Iq p-ibpw snøpw. CXv I kyqa DXv]- -߃ apx Im hsc-bp-ff F m hymh-km-bn-tim-xv]- -߃ pw Unam v Db Øp- p. CXv hyh-km-b-ta-je-bn hf bv v Du Pw \evip- p. F^v Fw kn Pn, Hmt m, hfw XpS-ßn-b-ta-J-e- Iƒ ani t\ -ap- m- p- -Xm-bmWv ap Ime A\p-`-hw. Im jn-i-ta-j-e-bn hcp-am\w Db-cp- Xv kz W-Øn-\p-ff Unam v h [n- n- p- -Xm-bmWv ImWp- - Xv. ani a kq Im jn-tim-xv]m-z\w am{x-a-, dnk thm-b-dp-i-fnse shf-f-øns Afhv Db Øpw. AXv sshzypxn DXv]m-Z\w Db Øpw. {Ku v hm \nc v Db-cp- -Xp-aqew Im jn-tim-xv]m-z\w h [n- n- pw. am{x-hp-a IpSn-sh w e`y-am- p- -Xn-\p-ff snehpw Ipdbv p- p. Ipg W-dp-I-fn \n p sh -a-sn- p- -Xn-\p-ff Bhiyw Ipd-bp- -Xn-\m Uok Unam v Ipd-bv p- p.

19 19 C y v Bizmkambn {IqUv hne C -\m-h-iy-øn\v I\Ø Cd- p-a- Xnsb B{i-bn- p C ybv v {IqtUmbn hne-bnse CSnhv Bizkw \evip Imcy-am-Wv. CXv C y kº-zvl-s-\-bn t]mko- o-hmb am -߃ D m- pw Pqsse-bv p-tijapff G hpw Ipd hne-bn-se-øn-bn-cn- p- p. s{_ v {IqtUm-bn hne Unkw-_-dnse tumf-dn \n v 101 tumf-dnemwn-t mƒ. CtXmsS C y Hmbn _mkvi v hne Unkw-_-dnse 5954 cq]-bn \n v 5517 cq]-bmbn Xmgv p. {IqtUm-bn hne-bn-sn-hns t\ w G hpw IqSp-X e`n- p-i Gjy kº- ZvL-S-Iƒ mbn-cn- pw. CXnse G hpw henb KpW-t`m- mhv C y-bp-am-bn-cn- pw. C ybv p ]pdta ssn\, Xmbve Uv, knwk- q,-xm-bzm, tlmt mw-kv, ^ne-ss kv, Z nw simdnb XpS-ßnb cmpy-߃ pw KpWw e`n- pw. Cu cmpy-ß-fnse DW hv C y Ib- p-a-xn pw KpW-I-c-am-Ipw. {IqtUm-bn-en\v Fa PnwKv cmpy-ß-fpss kº-zvl-s-\-bn i -amb kzm[o-\-am- Wp-f-f-Xv. t\ -߃ Nn -d-b- aq m-ep-h j-ambn C y t\cn- psim- n-cn- p s]mxp-[-\-imcy kmº- ØnI {]iv\-ß-fpss cq X Ipd-bpsa p am{x-a-, XmWp-sIm- n-cn- p Pn Un ]n hf m- -W- p-iƒ v Hcp bp ts e`n p-ibpw snøpw. C y-bpss ASn-ÿm-\-[-\-Imcy LS-I-߃ sa -s - Spw. C y-bpss G hpw henb amt{im C -twm-aniv {]iv\-ß-fmb Cc- - -Ωn- Iƒ ([\-I-Ωnbpw Id v A u v IΩnbpw) kl-\o-b-amb \ne-bn-tebv v XmgvØn-s m p hcp-hm \n Wm-b-Iamb ] v {IqtUm-bn hne-bn-sn-hn-\p- v. GXm v timsn cq]-bmwv Ign kmº-øni h j-øn C \ k_vkn-un-bmbn \evin-b-xv. \S- ph jsø _P- n CXn-\mbn \o n h n- p-f-fxv timsn cq]-bm-wv. Uok hne amkw-txmdpw 50 ss]k h [n- n- p kml-n-cy-øn-emwv C \ k_vknun Ipd v _P- n hibn-cp-øn-bn- p-f-f-xv. [\-IΩn ix-am-\-am-wv. \S- p-h jw AXv 4.8 ixam-\-øn-te pw ix-am-\-ønte pw XmgvØn-s m- p-h-cp-hm e yan-sp- p. C -\-k-_vknun Ipd-bp- txmss [\-IΩn Ipd-bpw. Id v A u v IΩn s aq mw Izm -dn dn m Uv Xe-Øn FØn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. 6.7 ix-am-\-øn. CXv kl-\o-b-\n-e-bmb 2.5 ix-am-\-tøƒ hfsc Db \ne-bn-em-wv C y-bpss hym]m-c-iωn timsn tumf-dm-wv. Xte-h j-anxv timsn tumf-dm-bn-cp- p. Ib- p-axn Ipd- Xpw Cd- p-axn h [n- -Xp-amWv Imc-Ww. Cd- p-a-xn-bnse apjy hkvxp {IqtUm-bn-em- Wv. as m v kz W-hpw. C y Cd- p-a-xn-bpss ixam-\-tømfw {IqtUm-bn-em-Wv. AXm-bXv C y timsn tumf-dn-\pff Ib- p-axn hcp-am-\-øns ]Ip-Xn-bne-[n-I-am-Wn-Xv se Ib- p-axn hcpam\w timsn tumf-dm-wv). {IqtUmbn Cd- p-axn snbvxp. Xte-h jw Cd- p-axn snbvxxv timsn tumf-dn- \m-wv. {IqtUm-bn Cd- p-axn aqey- Øn 9.22 ix-am\w h [-\-bp- m-bn. Hmtcm h jhpw {IqtUm-bn Cd- p- axns ehv h [n- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. cmpy- Øns {IptUm-bn Bh-iy-Øn 80 ix-am-\hpw Cd- p-axn snøp- p-sh- - Xp-X-s -bmwv Imc-Ww. {IqtUm-bn hne-bn 10 tumf Ipd-bp-tºmƒ C ybpss Cd- p-axn _n n 900 timsn tumf Ipdhp hcp-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. CXp Id v IΩn Ipd-bv p-hm klm-bn- pw. {IqtUm-bn hnebpw kz Whnebpw Ct m-gsø \ne-hm-c-øn XpS m Id v A u v IΩn c ph j-øn-\p-f-fn 2.5 ix-am-\-øn-tebv v Xmgp-sa- mwv [\-a{ n ]n NnZw-_cw A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- -Xv. hym]c IΩn Ipdbp- Xv Id v A u v Ipd-bv pw. {IqtUm-bn-ens hne Ipd-bp- Xv ]W-s -cp- -Øns i nbpw Ipd-bv pw. aq p-h j-ambn C y-bn ]W-s -cp w Ak-l-\o-b-amb \ne-bn-em-wv. {IqtUmbn Cd- p-axn snøp- -Xn-eqsS ]Ws -cp w Cd- p-axn snøp-i-bm-sw- mwv A\-en-Ãp-Iƒ Nq n- m- p- -Xv. C -\- Øn\v \evip k_vknun Xs -bmwv Imc-Ww. IqSnb hnebv v {IqtUm-bn Cd- p-axn snbvxv ip o-i-cn v Ipd hnebv v D]-tbm- m-hn\v \evip-i. Cu hyxymkw JP-\m-hn \n v FSpØp \evip-i. Cßs\ k_vknun \eviphm s]mxp-hn-]-wn-bn \n v ]en-ibv v IS-sa-Sp- p-i... CXv C ysb [\-Im-cyambn own- n- p- p. ^etam ]W-s cp w IqSp- p, \t ]w Ipd-bp- p, cmpy- Øns kmº-øni hf Ipd-bp- p... {IqtUm-bn am{x-a, ` y-f-æ- I-fp-tSbpw cmpym- c hne-bn KWy-amb Ipdhv D m-bn- p- v. Cd- p-a-xn- m-cmb C ybv v CXpw ImXn\v Cºw ]I-cp hm Ø-I-fm-Wv. ]mw Hmbn, tkmbm- _o Hmbn XpS-ßn-b-hbv pw d_- dn\pw te- mƒ hne Ipd p \nev p-i-bm-wv. [\-I-Ωn, Id v A u v IΩn, ]W-s -cp w F nh Ipd-bp- -txmss cq]bpw i n t\spw. hntz-i-\n-t -]- I-sc C y-bn-tebv v BI jn- p-hm CXp klm-bn- pw. {IqtUm-bn hne-bn Ct m-gp- mb {IqtUm-bn-ens Ct m-gsø hne-øm-gvn-bn Kh-s ns [\-Imcy _m[y-x-bn timsn cq]-bpss ( Pn Un ]nbpss 0.5 ix-am-\- tøm-fw) Ipd-hp- m-ip-sa- mwv td nwkv GP knbmb {Inkn IW- m- p- -Xv. Cd- p-axn _n pw Ipd-bv pw. 10 ix-am\w CSnhv XpS pw \ne-\n- m C y Pn Un ]nbn 0.2 ix-am\w Db -bp- m-ip-sa- mwv BtKm-f-\n-t - ]-I-ÿm-]-\-amb s{iun v kpkn hnebn-cp-øp- -Xv. am{x-hp-a ]W-s -cp- - Øn 0.9 ix-am\w hsc CSn-hp-ap- mipw. C \ k_vknun simsp- p C ysb-t m-ep-ff Hcp cmpy-øns ASn-ÿm\ [\-Im-cy-\n-ebpw sa -s -Spw. AXm-bXv k_vknun _m[yx Ipd-bp-sa- w. {IqtUm-bn-ens Ct m-gsø hne- Øm-gvN-bn Kh-s ns [\-Imcy _m[y-x-bn timsn cq]-bpss ( Pn Un ]nbpss 0.5 ix-am-\-tøm-fw) Ipd-hp- m-ip-sa- mwv td nwkv GP knbmb {Inkn IW- m- p- -Xv. Cd- paxn _n pw Ipd-bv pw. Hmbn am - nwkv Iº-\n-I-fpsS A dn -hdn see 1.7 e w timsn cq]-bn \n v \S- p-hcvjw timsn cq]-bmbn Ipd-bp-Ibpw snøpw. CXn 45 ix-am- \hpw Uok hnev]-\-bn \n- p-f-f- XmWv. A dn -h-dn-bn Kh-s v \evti ] v CtXmsS timsn cq]-bmbn \S- p-h j-øn Ipd-bpw CXv timsn cq]-bm-bncp- p. Uok hne \nb-{ Ww Imcy-amb cmjv{sob FXn n- msx FSp-Øp-I-f-bphm-\p-ff ani Ah-k-c-am-Wn-sX v hnebn-cp-ø-s -Sp- p. {IqtUm-bn hne Ipd kml-n-cy-øn Uok hne en -dn\v Ct m-gsø hnebpw hn]wn hnebpw XΩn-ep-f-f-hy-Xymkw 6.42 cq]- bm-wv. L w L -am-bp-ff hne h [-\- bn-eqss CXp \ni-øm-sa- -tx-bp-f-fp. Uok hne \nb-{ Ww amdp- -txmss C y Hmbn Iº-\n-I-fpsS Hml-cn- Iƒ v {]nbw IqSpw. Kh-s n Hmlcn hnev]-\-bn-eqss \s mcp XpI Is -Øm km[n- pw. kº-zvl-s-\-bn DW hv D 0Ipw {IqtUm-bnent bpw a v Itam-Un- n-i-fp-tsbpw hne-bn-ep- mb CSnhv C y kº-zvl-s-\-bn ]pxnb Unam v ssk n-ƒ cq]-s -Sp-hm klm-b-i-c-am-sw v C y tim ]- td v temiw hne-bn-cp-øp- p. CtX hne \ne-\n-ev p-i-bm-sw- n cmpy-øn sc \nc-h[n kmº-øn-i [\-Im-cy-{]-iv\- ߃ v h jm-h-km-\-tømss ]cn-lmc-am-ip-sa v t{_m -tdpv ÿm]-\-amb B\µv dmyn ^n\m jy k ho-kkv A`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. Ipd C ]p v timãv aqew Iº-\n-I-fpsS A m-zm-b- Øn h [-\-bp- m-ip-sa pw B\µv dmyn hne-bn-cp-øp- p. Aep-an-\n-b-Øn 13 ix-am-\hpw IevI-cn-bn 8 ix-am-\hpw hne Ipd- n- p- v. Ão hne 4.5 ix-am\w Ipdhp ImWn- n- p- v Unkw-_dne-h-km-\n Izm -dn sshzyp-xn C -\-s -e-hp- Iƒ hn p-h-c-hns 3.5 ix-am-\-hpw {]h Ø-\-s -e-hns 5.2 ix-am-\-hp-ambn-cp- p. C -\-s -e-hn 10 ix-am\w CSn-hp- mbv {]Xn-Hm-lcn hcp-am-\- Øn 0.35 ix-am-\-øns h [-\-bp- m-ip-sa- mwv IW- m- p- -Xv. hne-bn-sn-hns adp-hiw {IqtUm-bn hnen-bn-sn-hn\v Hcp adph-i-ap- v. BtKmf kmº-øni hf bpss Xf -bpss kqn-\-bm-bn- mwv CXns\ ImWp- -Xv. kmº-øni hf bpss A`m-h-Øn Unam v Ipd-bp- -XmWv Imc-Ww. bp Fkv kmº-øni hf t\sp- p-s - nepw {]Xo- n- - Xn-t\- mƒ Ipd-hm-sW- Xpw {IqtUmbn hne-bn-sn-hns Imc-W-ß-fn-sem- m- Wv. BtKmf kmº-øni hf Ipd- m C y Dƒs -ss-bp-ff cmpy߃ v AXp tzmj-i-c-ambn amdpw. Ib- p-axn Ipd-bp-sa- -XmWv {]iv\w. C y Pn Un ]nbn 13.5 ix-am-\- tømfw kw`m-h\ snøp- Xv Ib- paxn taj-e-bm-wv. Bh-iy-Øn\v k]vssf Dff {IqtUm-bn hn]-wn-bn-emwv Ct mƒ temi-sa- mwv ]e A\-en-Ãp-Ifpw hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. CXv {IqUv hne 80 tumf-dn-se-øn- m AXn-i-bn-t s pw Ah Iq n-t p- p. Cdms BW-h-{]-iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lm-cam-bn- n-s - nepw kwl j-øn\v CS-thf-bp- m-bn- p-f-fxv {IqUn hne-bpss apt - sø _m[n- n- p- v. kwl jw i -am-ip-i-bm-sw- n {IqUv hnebpw Db-cpw GXm-bmepw C ybv v Bizm-k- Øns CS-th-f-bm-Wn-t mƒ. Cu \ne XpS m C y-bpss Xncn- p-h-chv {]Xo- n- p- -Xnepw thk-øn-em-ipw.

20 20 VOICE OF WEALTH June 2013 Registered No. KL/EKM/672/ Reg. No. KERBIL/ 2006/ RN Owned, Printed and Published by George Alexander Muthoot, G343, Panampilly Nagar, Kochi-36 and Printed at Cherrys Printers, for Viani Printers, Kochi. Editor In Charge: Joy Philip (Responsible for story selection)

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